Diabetes is most important cause for mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients: Systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractThe presence of SARS-CoV-2 was officially documented in Europe at the end of February 2020. Despite many observations, the real impact of COVID-19 in the European Union (EU), its underlying factors and their contribution to mortality and morbidity outcomes were never systematically investigated. The aim of the present work is to provide an overview and a meta-analysis of main predictors and of country differences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-associated mortality rate (MR) in hospitalized patients. Out of 3714 retrieved articles, 87 studies were considered, including 35,4...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - February 22, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular risk and testosterone – from subclinical atherosclerosis to lipoprotein function to heart failure
AbstractThe cardiovascular (CV) benefit and safety of treating low testosterone conditions is a matter of debate. Although testosterone deficiency has been linked to a rise in major adverse CV events, most of the studies on testosterone replacement therapy were not designed to assess CV risk and thus excluded men with advanced heart failure or recent history of myocardial infarction or stroke. Besides considering observational, interventional and prospective studies, this review article evaluates the impact of testosterone on atherosclerosis process, including lipoprotein functionality, progression of carotid intima media ...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - February 22, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Renal complications in patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism on conventional therapy: a systematic literature review
AbstractA systematic literature review was performed to summarize the frequency and nature of renal complications in patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism managed with conventional therapy. Methodology was consistent with the recommendations outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Peer-reviewed journal articles with specified medical subject heading terms were identified using the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Data were extracted from eligible articles based on prespecified parameters for clinical outcomes of renal calcifications and disease. Because of the...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - February 18, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

GH deficiency and insensitivity in children and adults
AbstractThis thematic review includes short reviews on GH deficiency and insensitivity in children and adults from basic science to clinical significance. (Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - February 10, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Management of hyponatraemia and hypernatraemia during the Covid-19 pandemic: a consensus statement of the Spanish Society for Endocrinology (Acqua Neuroendocrinology Group)
AbstractSARS-COV2 infection has swiftly become a pandemic disease of historic relevance and widely variable outcomes. This variable prognosis is related both to uneven damage, among others, to lungs, heart and kidneys, and to a multisystemic inflammatory reaction. All these factors are known to disrupt water balance and potentially induce hyponatraemia or hypernatraemia. Water balance disorders are known mortality and morbidity risk factors in several clinical scenarios and their proper management, though often complex and hazardous, can reduce mortality and length of hospitalization. Clinical uncertainty over COVID-19 out...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - February 5, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Paediatric Cushing ’s disease: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical management and outcome
AbstractCushing ’s disease (CD) is rare in paediatric practice but requires prompt investigation, diagnosis and therapy to prevent long-term complications. Key presenting features are a change in facial appearance, weight gain, growth failure, virilization, disturbed puberty and psychological disturbance. Close c onsultation with an adult endocrinology department is recommended regarding diagnosis and therapy. The incidence of CD, a form of ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome (CS), is equal to approximately 5% of that seen in adults. The majority of ACTH-secreting adenomas are monoclonal and sporadic, althou gh r...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - January 30, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effects of offloading devices on static and dynamic balance in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A systematic review
AbstractPatients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) usually have reduced somatosensory information and altered perception in feet and ankles. Somatosensory information acts as feedback for movement control and loss of somatosensation leads to altered plantar pressure patterns during gait and stance. Offloading devices are used to reduce peak plantar pressure and prevent diabetic foot ulcers. However, offloading devices can unfortunately have negative effects on static and dynamic balance. It is important to investigate these unwanted effects, since patient with DPN already are at high risk of falling and offloading ...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - January 16, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Intercellular and interorgan crosstalk through adipocyte extracellular vesicles
AbstractFunctional adipose tissue is essential for homeostatic maintenance of systemic metabolism. As such, adipose tissue dysfunction, like that seen in the obese state, directly contributes to system-wide pathological metabolism, leading to the development of type 2 diabetes and other obesity-associated comorbidities. In addition to the storage function of adipocytes, they also secrete numerous factors that robustly regulate metabolism-related pathways throughout the body. Many of these factors, in addition to other signaling proteins, RNA species and lipids, are found in extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from adipoc...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - January 14, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Update in carcinoid heart disease - the heart of the matter
AbstractCarcinoid heart disease (CHD) is a paraneoplastic cardiac manifestation occurring in patients with carcinoid syndrome (CS) and advanced neuroendocrine malignancy. In about 20 –40% of patients with CS, chronic exposure to tumor-released circulating vasoactive peptides typically results in right-sided valvular fibrosis leading to valve dysfunction and right heart failure. CHD remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The management of patients with CHD is c omplex, as both the systemic malignant disease and the heart involvement have to be addressed. Early diagnosis and timely surgical interventio...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - January 14, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diabetes mellitus induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors: type 1 diabetes variant or new clinical entity? Review of the literature
AbstractImmune Check-Point Inhibitors (CPIs) have improved long-term patients ’ outcomes in several advanced cancers. Diabetes mellitus induced by CPIs (CPI-DM) is considered the second most frequent endocrine CPIs’ side effects with a variable prevalence up to 2%. The aim of our study was to identify CPI-DM characteristics and differences from the classical form of diabe tes. Therefore, we conducted a structured Pubmed® search collecting publications dated from January 2015 to December 2019. A total of 642 citations were identified and 121 publications met our study criteria. We analyzed 200 case reports, ...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - January 6, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correction to: Endocrine and metabolic aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11154-020-09620-2 (Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - January 6, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Lean NAFLD: an underrecognized and challenging disorder in medicine
AbstractClassically, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) has been thought to be driven by excessive weight gain and obesity. The overall greater awareness of this disorder has led to its recognition in patients with normal body mass index (BMI). Ongoing research has helped to better understand potential causes of Lean NAFLD, the risks for more advanced disease, and potential therapies. Here we review the recent literature on prevalence, risk factors, severity of disease, and potential therapeutic interventions. (Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - January 3, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Polyphenols and their anti-obesity role mediated by the gut microbiota: a comprehensive review
AbstractObesity is a global public health problem that results in chronic pathologies such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. The treatment approach based on energy restriction and promotion of physical activity is ineffective in the long term. Due to the high prevalence of this pathology, complementary treatments such as brown adipose tissue activation (BAT) and white adipose tissue browning (WAT) have been proposed. Dietary polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites that can stimulate browning and thermogenesis of adipose tissue. They have also been shown to prevent body weight gain, and decrease systemic...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - January 2, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The endocannabinoid system in the adipose organ
AbstractThe endocannabinoid system is found in most, if not all, mammalian organs and is involved in a variety of physiological functions, ranging from the control of synaptic plasticity in the brain to the modulation of smooth muscle motility in the gastrointestinal tract. This signaling complex consists of G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands for those receptors (endocannabinoids) and enzymes/transporters responsible for the formation and deactivation of these ligands. There are two subtypes of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, and two major endocannabinoids, arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide)...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - January 2, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

How the love of muscle can break a heart: Impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, metabolic and cardiovascular health
AbstractIt is estimated 6.4% of males and 1.6% of females globally use anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), mostly for appearance and performance enhancing reasons. In combination with resistance exercise, AAS use increases muscle protein synthesis resulting in skeletal muscle hypertrophy and increased performance. Primarily through binding to the androgen receptor, AAS exert their hypertrophic effects via genomic, non-genomic and anti-catabolic mechanisms. However, chronic AAS use also has a detrimental effect on metabolism ultimately increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Much research has focused on AAS eff...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - December 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Insights from the clinical phenotype of subjects with Laron syndrome in Ecuador
AbstractThe Ecuadorian cohort of subjects with LS has taught us valuable lessons since the late 80 ’s. We have learned about migration of Sephardic Jews to our country, their isolation in remote hamlets and further inbreeding. These geographical, historical and social determinants induced dissemination of a growth hormone (GH) receptor mutation which widely occurred in those almost inaccessible villages. Consequently, the world’s largest Laron syndrome (LS) cohort emerged in Loja and El Oro, two of the southern provinces of Ecuador. We have been fortunate to study these patients since 1987. New clinical feature...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 12, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mouse models of growth hormone insensitivity
AbstractGrowth hormone (GH) induces pleiotropic effects on growth and metabolism via binding and subsequent activation of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) and its downstream signaling pathways. Growth hormone insensitivity (GHI) describes a group of disorders in which there is resistance to the action of GH and resultant insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) deficiency. GHI is commonly due to genetic disorders of the GH receptor causing GH receptor deficiency (e.g. Laron Syndrome (LS)), decreased activation of GHR, or defects in post-receptor signaling molecules. Genetically altered mouse lines have been invaluable to bett...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mouse models of growth hormone deficiency
AbstractNearly one century of research using growth hormone deficient (GHD) mouse lines has contributed greatly toward our knowledge of growth hormone (GH), a pituitary-derived hormone that binds and signals through the GH receptor and affects many metabolic processes throughout life. Although delayed sexual maturation, decreased fertility, reduced muscle mass, increased adiposity, small body size, and glucose intolerance appear to be among the negative characteristics of these GHD mouse lines, these mice still consistently outlive their normal sized littermates. Furthermore, the absence of GH action in these mouse lines l...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Genetic causes of growth hormone insensitivity beyond GHR
AbstractGrowth hormone insensitivity (GHI) syndrome, first described in 1966, is classically associated with monogenic defects in the GH receptor (GHR) gene which result in severe post-natal growth failure as consequences of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) deficiency. Over the years, recognition of other monogenic defects downstream of GHR has greatly expanded understanding of primary causes of GHI and growth retardation, with either IGF-I deficiency or IGF-I insensitivity as clinical outcomes. Mutations inIGF1 and signaling componentSTAT5B disrupt IGF-I production, while defects inIGFALS andPAPPA2, disrupt transport ...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Growth hormone deficiency and replacement in children
AbstractGrowth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a rare but treatable cause of short stature. The diagnosis requires a careful evaluation of clinical history, physical examination and appropriate interpretation of longitudinal growth, with specific features for each period of life. Other clinical findings, in addition to growth failure, may be present and can be related to the etiology and to associated hormone deficiencies. Despite more than 50  years since the first reports of provocative tests of growth hormone (GH) secretion for the diagnosis of GHD, the interpretation of the results remains a matter of debate. When GHD...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Role of vitamin D in diabetic retinopathy: Pathophysiological and clinical aspects
AbstractEpidemiological data predict a dramatic increase in the prevalence of diabetes and of diabetic retinopathy (DR) – the most common complication of diabetes-for which however we do not have so far effective tools for prevention and treatment. Since hypovitaminosis D is very frequent in patients with diabetes and vitamin D (VD) has vascular protective properties, several studies have addressed the association of VD deficiency with DR and its severity and progression, whereas the effects of VD supplementation on its natural history are largely unknown. Here we review the available evidence that supports the possi...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Individual sensitivity to growth hormone replacement in adults
AbstractThe metabolic actions of growth hormone (GH) last a lifetime and involve several physiological functions associated with the control of body composition, energy metabolism, water regulation, immune response, cardiovascular performance, physical and mental work. Adult patients with GH deficiency (GHD) present a constellation of clinical findings, which include increased total and visceral body fat, low bone and muscle mass, reduced muscle strength, impaired anaerobic physical capacity, unfavorable cardiovascular profile, and poor quality of life. Recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy has been proved to reverse or impr...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid excess and COVID-19 disease
AbstractThe pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is causing high and rapid morbidity and mortality. Immune system response plays a crucial role in controlling and resolving the viral infection. Exogenous or endogenous glucocorticoid excess is characterized by increased susceptibility to infections, due to impairment of the innate and adaptive immune system. In addition, diabetes, hypertension, obesity and thromboembolism are conditions overrepresented in patients with hypercortisolism. Thus patients with chronic glucocorticoid (GC) exc...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The continuum between GH deficiency and GH insensitivity in children
AbstractThe continuum of growth hormone (GH)-IGF-I axis defects extends from severe to mild GH deficiency, through short stature disorders of undefined aetiology, to GH insensitivity disorders which can also be mild or severe. This group of defects comprises a spectrum of endocrine, biochemical, phenotypic and genetic abnormalities. The extreme cases are generally easily diagnosed because they conform to well-studied phenotypes with recognised biochemical features. The milder cases of both GH deficiency and GH insensitivity are less well defined and also overlap with the group of short stature conditions, labelled as idiop...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Expected and paradoxical effects of obesity on cancer treatment response
AbstractObesity, whose prevalence is pandemic and continuing to increase, is a major preventable and modifiable risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, as well as for cancer. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have shown that obesity is a negative independent prognostic factor for several oncological outcomes, including overall and cancer-specific survival, for several site-specific cancers as well as for all cancers combined. Yet, a recently growing body of evidence suggests that sometimes overweight and obesity may associate with better outcomes, and that immunotherapy may show improved response among obe...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Overheating or overcooling: heat transfer in the spot to fight against the pandemic obesity
AbstractThe prevalence of obesity has nearly doubled worldwide over the past three and a half decades, reaching pandemic status. Obesity is associated with decreased life expectancy and with an increased risk of metabolic, cardiovascular, nervous system diseases. Hence, understanding the mechanisms involved in the onset and development of obesity is mandatory to promote planned health actions to revert this scenario. In this review, common aspects of cold exposure, a process of heat generation, and exercise, a process of heat dissipation, will be discussed as two opposite mechanisms of obesity, which can be oversimplified ...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Growth hormone and aging
AbstractGrowth hormone (GH) actions impact growth, metabolism, and body composition and have been associated with aging and longevity. Lack of GH results in slower growth, delayed maturation, and reduced body size and can lead to delayed aging, increased healthspan, and a remarkable extension of longevity. Adult body size, which is a GH-dependent trait, has a negative association with longevity in several mammalian species. Mechanistic links between GH and aging include evolutionarily conserved insulin/insulin-like growth factors and mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathways in accordance with long-suspected trade...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

PRRT: identikit of the perfect patient
In conclusion, the perfect patient, selected by68Ga-PET uptake, will likely have a relatively limited liver tumor burden, a ki67 index
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 24, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Laron syndrome – A historical perspective
AbstractLaron Syndrome (LS) [OMIm#262500], or primary GH insensitivity, was first described in 1966 in consanguineous Jewish families from Yemen. LS is characterized by a typical phenotype that includes dwarfism, obesity and hypogenitalism. The disease is caused by deletions or mutations of the GH-receptor gene, causing high serum GH and low IGF-I serum levels. We studied 75 patients from childhood to adult age. After early hypoglycemia due to the progressive obesity, patients tend to develop glucose intolerance and diabetes. The treatment is by recombinant IGF-I, which improves the height and restores some of the metaboli...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Current concepts of the diagnosis of adult growth hormone deficiency
AbstractIn adults, growth hormone (GH) deficiency is associated with increased visceral adiposity, decreased lean body mass, bone mineral density and exercise capacity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, increased cardiometabolic and fracture risk, and impaired quality of life. The aim of the present article is to review the diagnosis of GH deficiency in adults. To avoid overdiagnosis of GH deficiency, it is critical to evaluate only patients at risk for pituitary dysfunction, including those who have had sellar masses, pituitary surgery, radiation therapy, traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage or childhood onset ...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The ultrasound risk stratification systems for thyroid nodule have been evaluated against papillary carcinoma. A meta-analysis
AbstractThyroid imaging reporting and data systems (TIRADS) are used to stratify the malignancy risk of thyroid nodule by ultrasound (US) examination. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the pooled cancer prevalence and the relative prevalence of papillary, medullary, follicular thyroid cancer (PTC, MTC, and FTC) and other malignancies among nodules included in studies evaluating their performance. Four databases were searched until February 2020. Original articles with at least 1000 nodules, evaluating the performance of at least one TIRADS among AACE/ACE/AME, ACR-TIRADS, ATA, EU-TIRADS, or K-TIRADS, and reporting da...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Disruption of the GHRH receptor and its impact on children and adults: The Itabaianinha syndrome
AbstractSince 1994, we have been studying an extended kindred with 105 subjects (over 8 generations) residing in Itabaianinha County, in the Brazilian state of Sergipe, who have severe isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) due to a homozygous inactivating mutation (c.57  + 1G >  A) in the GH releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor (GHRHR) gene. Most of these individuals have never received GH replacement therapy. They have low GH, and very low and often undetectable levels of serum IGF-I. Their principal physical findings are proportionate short stature, doll facies, high-pitc hed-voice, central obesity, w...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

From microbiota toward gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: Are we on the highway to hell?
AbstractGut microbiota is represented by different microorganisms that colonize the intestinal tract, mostly the large intestine, such as bacteria, fungi, archaea and viruses. The gut microbial balance has a key role in several functions. It modulates the host ’s metabolism, maintains the gut barrier integrity, participates in the xenobiotics and drug metabolism, and acts as protection against gastro-intestinal pathogens through the host’s immune system modulation. The impaired gut microbiota, called dysbiosis, may be the result of an imbalance in thi s equilibrium and is linked with different diseases, includi...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A network analysis framework of genetic and nongenetic risks for type 2 diabetes
AbstractBoth genetic and nongenetic factors have been found to be associated with type 2 diabetes, however, the correlation between them is still unclear. In the present study, we aimed to fully decipher the nongenetic and genetic factor association network for type 2 diabetes. We identified risk factors for type 2 diabetes by systematically searching for related meta-analyses and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) database. Among a total of 27,822 studies screened, 202 articles were eligible, from which 174 nongenetic factors and 210 genetic factors associated with type 2 diabetes were identified. Then, we obtained 58...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Multidisciplinary management of acromegaly: A consensus
AbstractThe 13th Acromegaly Consensus Conference was held in November 2019 in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, and comprised acromegaly experts including endocrinologists and neurosurgeons who considered optimal approaches for multidisciplinary acromegaly management. Focused discussions reviewed techniques, results, and side effects of surgery, radiotherapy, and medical therapy, and how advances in technology and novel techniques have changed the way these modalities are used alone or in combination. Effects of treatment on patient outcomes were considered, along with strategies for optimizing and personalizing therapeutic approa...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal Axis in Glucolipid metabolic disorders
AbstractWith the change of life style, glucolipid metabolic disorders (GLMD) has become one of the major chronic disorders causing public health and clinical problems worldwide. Previous studies on GLMD pay more attention to peripheral tissues. In fact, the central nervous system (CNS) plays an important role in controlling the overall metabolic balance. With the development of technology and the in-depth understanding of the CNS, the relationship between neuro-endocrine-immunoregulatory (NEI) network and metabolism had been gradually illustrated. As the hub of NEI network, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is impo...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Therapeutic potential of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists to combat obesity, diabetes, and inflammation
AbstractThe cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex (CAIR) represents an important homeostatic regulatory mechanism for sensing and controlling the body ’s response to inflammatory stimuli. Vagovagal reflexes are an integral component of CAIR whose anti-inflammatory effects are mediated by acetylcholine (ACh) acting at α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR) located on cells of the immune system. Recently, it is appreciated that CAIR and α7nAChR also participate in the control of metabolic homeostasis. This has led to the understanding that defective vagovagal reflex circuitry underlying CAIR mi...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The role of the Mediterranean diet on weight loss and obesity-related diseases
AbstractPandemic obesity is a major public health problem because of its association with non-communicable diseases and all-cause mortality, which can be improved/delayed with weight loss. Thus, several scientific societies and governments have launched guidelines to reduce body weight and adiposity or, at least, to avoid weight gain. In spite of the abundant literature on the topic, there is still controversy on the relative roles of fat and carbohydrate in the diet on weight gain. Present recommendations to avoid weight gain and obesity are directed to reduce intake of total energy variably and of total fat to
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Dietary weight-loss interventions for the management of obesity in older adults
In conclusion, further research is needed to elucidate which interventions are effective in reducing obesity-related health risks in older adults without causing relevant harm in this vulnerable population. (Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Protein, amino acids and obesity treatment
AbstractDietary proteins have been used for years to treat obesity. Body weight loss is beneficial when it concerns fat mass, but loss of fat free mass – especially muscle might be detrimental. This occurs because protein breakdown predominates over synthesis, thus administering anabolic dietary compounds like proteins might counter fat free mass loss while allowing for fat mass loss.Indeed, varying the quantity of proteins will decrease muscle anabolic response and increase hyperphagia in rodents fed a low protein diet; but it will favor lean mass maintenance and promote satiety, in certain age groups of humans fed ...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correction to: Diet approach before and after bariatric surgery
The original version of this article unfortunately, has the incorrect title reported in the published paper. (Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Ketogenic diets as treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus
AbstractDuring the last decades, several interventions for the management of overweight and obesity have been proposed. Among diets, the first studies focused on the effect of water only and total fasting diets with or without proteins. Unfortunately, they were found to be associated with adverse events which lead to the abandon of these strategies. Interestingly, despite the radical approach, total fasting was effective and generally well tolerated. A strict connection between protein-calorie malnutrition and increased in morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients was found at that time. Then, the seminal works of B...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The right nutrition for the nutrition related diseases
(Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The right nutrition for the nutrition related disease
(Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Double burden of malnutrition in persons with obesity
AbstractA paradoxical double challenge has emerged in the last decades with respect to nutrition and nutrition-related clinical conditions. Hunger-related undernutrition continues to represent an unacceptable burden, although its prevalence has been encouragingly reduced worldwide. On the other hand, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, defined as fat excess accumulation with negative impact on individual health, has dramatically increased due to increasingly pervasive obesogenic lifestyle changes. Undernutrition and obesity may coexist in world regions, Countries and even smaller communities and households, being ref...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus: how one pandemic worsens the other
AbstractIn light of the most challenging public health crisis of modern history, COVID-19 mortality continues to rise at an alarming rate. Patients with co-morbidities such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus (DM) seem to be more prone to severe symptoms and appear to have a higher mortality rate. In this review, we elucidate suggested mechanisms underlying the increased susceptibility of patients with diabetes to infection with SARS-CoV-2 with a more severe COVID-19 disease. The worsened prognosis of COVID-19 patients with DM can be attributed to a facilitated viral uptake assisted by the host &...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The role of dietary protein in obesity
AbstractProtein-rich diets are surging in popularity for weight loss. An increase in diet-induced thermogenesis, better preservation of fat-free mass, and enhanced satiety with greater dietary protein intakes may lead to increased energy expenditure and decreased energy intake; and thus promote a more negative energy balance that facilitates weight loss. Results from large randomized trials and meta-analyses of many smaller trials indicate that high-protein diets typically induce significantly greater amounts of weight loss than conventional low-fat or high-carbohydrate diets during the early, rapid weight loss phase (3 &n...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - July 31, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diet approach before and after bariatric surgery
In conclusion, the nutritional management of the bariatric patients requires specific nutritional skills and the intervention of experienced nutritionists and dieticians. (Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - July 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Reviews in endocrine and metabolic disorders
In conclusion, the nutritional management of the bariatric patients requires specific nutritional skills and the intervention of experienced nutritionists and dieticians. (Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - July 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Melatonin, an ubiquitous metabolic regulator: functions, mechanisms and effects on circadian disruption and degenerative diseases
AbstractThe last four decades, we assist to an increasing scientific interest on melatonin, a circadian hormone, a metabolic regulator which influences not only plants ’ metabolism and their defense against pathogens but mostly the animals and humans’ metabolic pathways, their response to circadian disruption, stress and burnout syndrome. In humans, as a hormonal regulator, produced in the pineal grand as well in mitochondria, melatonin is involved in differen t, complex intracellular signaling pathways, with antioxidant and immune stimulating effects, proving to act as a circadian synchronizer, as a preventive...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - July 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research