Insights from the clinical phenotype of subjects with Laron syndrome in Ecuador
AbstractThe Ecuadorian cohort of subjects with LS has taught us valuable lessons since the late 80 ’s. We have learned about migration of Sephardic Jews to our country, their isolation in remote hamlets and further inbreeding. These geographical, historical and social determinants induced dissemination of a growth hormone (GH) receptor mutation which widely occurred in those almost inaccessible villages. Consequently, the world’s largest Laron syndrome (LS) cohort emerged in Loja and El Oro, two of the southern provinces of Ecuador. We have been fortunate to study these patients since 1987. New clinical feature...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 12, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mouse models of growth hormone insensitivity
AbstractGrowth hormone (GH) induces pleiotropic effects on growth and metabolism via binding and subsequent activation of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) and its downstream signaling pathways. Growth hormone insensitivity (GHI) describes a group of disorders in which there is resistance to the action of GH and resultant insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) deficiency. GHI is commonly due to genetic disorders of the GH receptor causing GH receptor deficiency (e.g. Laron Syndrome (LS)), decreased activation of GHR, or defects in post-receptor signaling molecules. Genetically altered mouse lines have been invaluable to bett...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mouse models of growth hormone deficiency
AbstractNearly one century of research using growth hormone deficient (GHD) mouse lines has contributed greatly toward our knowledge of growth hormone (GH), a pituitary-derived hormone that binds and signals through the GH receptor and affects many metabolic processes throughout life. Although delayed sexual maturation, decreased fertility, reduced muscle mass, increased adiposity, small body size, and glucose intolerance appear to be among the negative characteristics of these GHD mouse lines, these mice still consistently outlive their normal sized littermates. Furthermore, the absence of GH action in these mouse lines l...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Genetic causes of growth hormone insensitivity beyond GHR
AbstractGrowth hormone insensitivity (GHI) syndrome, first described in 1966, is classically associated with monogenic defects in the GH receptor (GHR) gene which result in severe post-natal growth failure as consequences of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) deficiency. Over the years, recognition of other monogenic defects downstream of GHR has greatly expanded understanding of primary causes of GHI and growth retardation, with either IGF-I deficiency or IGF-I insensitivity as clinical outcomes. Mutations inIGF1 and signaling componentSTAT5B disrupt IGF-I production, while defects inIGFALS andPAPPA2, disrupt transport ...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Growth hormone deficiency and replacement in children
AbstractGrowth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a rare but treatable cause of short stature. The diagnosis requires a careful evaluation of clinical history, physical examination and appropriate interpretation of longitudinal growth, with specific features for each period of life. Other clinical findings, in addition to growth failure, may be present and can be related to the etiology and to associated hormone deficiencies. Despite more than 50  years since the first reports of provocative tests of growth hormone (GH) secretion for the diagnosis of GHD, the interpretation of the results remains a matter of debate. When GHD...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Role of vitamin D in diabetic retinopathy: Pathophysiological and clinical aspects
AbstractEpidemiological data predict a dramatic increase in the prevalence of diabetes and of diabetic retinopathy (DR) – the most common complication of diabetes-for which however we do not have so far effective tools for prevention and treatment. Since hypovitaminosis D is very frequent in patients with diabetes and vitamin D (VD) has vascular protective properties, several studies have addressed the association of VD deficiency with DR and its severity and progression, whereas the effects of VD supplementation on its natural history are largely unknown. Here we review the available evidence that supports the possi...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Individual sensitivity to growth hormone replacement in adults
AbstractThe metabolic actions of growth hormone (GH) last a lifetime and involve several physiological functions associated with the control of body composition, energy metabolism, water regulation, immune response, cardiovascular performance, physical and mental work. Adult patients with GH deficiency (GHD) present a constellation of clinical findings, which include increased total and visceral body fat, low bone and muscle mass, reduced muscle strength, impaired anaerobic physical capacity, unfavorable cardiovascular profile, and poor quality of life. Recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy has been proved to reverse or impr...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid excess and COVID-19 disease
AbstractThe pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is causing high and rapid morbidity and mortality. Immune system response plays a crucial role in controlling and resolving the viral infection. Exogenous or endogenous glucocorticoid excess is characterized by increased susceptibility to infections, due to impairment of the innate and adaptive immune system. In addition, diabetes, hypertension, obesity and thromboembolism are conditions overrepresented in patients with hypercortisolism. Thus patients with chronic glucocorticoid (GC) exc...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The continuum between GH deficiency and GH insensitivity in children
AbstractThe continuum of growth hormone (GH)-IGF-I axis defects extends from severe to mild GH deficiency, through short stature disorders of undefined aetiology, to GH insensitivity disorders which can also be mild or severe. This group of defects comprises a spectrum of endocrine, biochemical, phenotypic and genetic abnormalities. The extreme cases are generally easily diagnosed because they conform to well-studied phenotypes with recognised biochemical features. The milder cases of both GH deficiency and GH insensitivity are less well defined and also overlap with the group of short stature conditions, labelled as idiop...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Expected and paradoxical effects of obesity on cancer treatment response
AbstractObesity, whose prevalence is pandemic and continuing to increase, is a major preventable and modifiable risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, as well as for cancer. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have shown that obesity is a negative independent prognostic factor for several oncological outcomes, including overall and cancer-specific survival, for several site-specific cancers as well as for all cancers combined. Yet, a recently growing body of evidence suggests that sometimes overweight and obesity may associate with better outcomes, and that immunotherapy may show improved response among obe...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Overheating or overcooling: heat transfer in the spot to fight against the pandemic obesity
AbstractThe prevalence of obesity has nearly doubled worldwide over the past three and a half decades, reaching pandemic status. Obesity is associated with decreased life expectancy and with an increased risk of metabolic, cardiovascular, nervous system diseases. Hence, understanding the mechanisms involved in the onset and development of obesity is mandatory to promote planned health actions to revert this scenario. In this review, common aspects of cold exposure, a process of heat generation, and exercise, a process of heat dissipation, will be discussed as two opposite mechanisms of obesity, which can be oversimplified ...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Growth hormone and aging
AbstractGrowth hormone (GH) actions impact growth, metabolism, and body composition and have been associated with aging and longevity. Lack of GH results in slower growth, delayed maturation, and reduced body size and can lead to delayed aging, increased healthspan, and a remarkable extension of longevity. Adult body size, which is a GH-dependent trait, has a negative association with longevity in several mammalian species. Mechanistic links between GH and aging include evolutionarily conserved insulin/insulin-like growth factors and mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathways in accordance with long-suspected trade...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

PRRT: identikit of the perfect patient
In conclusion, the perfect patient, selected by68Ga-PET uptake, will likely have a relatively limited liver tumor burden, a ki67 index
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 24, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Laron syndrome – A historical perspective
AbstractLaron Syndrome (LS) [OMIm#262500], or primary GH insensitivity, was first described in 1966 in consanguineous Jewish families from Yemen. LS is characterized by a typical phenotype that includes dwarfism, obesity and hypogenitalism. The disease is caused by deletions or mutations of the GH-receptor gene, causing high serum GH and low IGF-I serum levels. We studied 75 patients from childhood to adult age. After early hypoglycemia due to the progressive obesity, patients tend to develop glucose intolerance and diabetes. The treatment is by recombinant IGF-I, which improves the height and restores some of the metaboli...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Current concepts of the diagnosis of adult growth hormone deficiency
AbstractIn adults, growth hormone (GH) deficiency is associated with increased visceral adiposity, decreased lean body mass, bone mineral density and exercise capacity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, increased cardiometabolic and fracture risk, and impaired quality of life. The aim of the present article is to review the diagnosis of GH deficiency in adults. To avoid overdiagnosis of GH deficiency, it is critical to evaluate only patients at risk for pituitary dysfunction, including those who have had sellar masses, pituitary surgery, radiation therapy, traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage or childhood onset ...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The ultrasound risk stratification systems for thyroid nodule have been evaluated against papillary carcinoma. A meta-analysis
AbstractThyroid imaging reporting and data systems (TIRADS) are used to stratify the malignancy risk of thyroid nodule by ultrasound (US) examination. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the pooled cancer prevalence and the relative prevalence of papillary, medullary, follicular thyroid cancer (PTC, MTC, and FTC) and other malignancies among nodules included in studies evaluating their performance. Four databases were searched until February 2020. Original articles with at least 1000 nodules, evaluating the performance of at least one TIRADS among AACE/ACE/AME, ACR-TIRADS, ATA, EU-TIRADS, or K-TIRADS, and reporting da...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Disruption of the GHRH receptor and its impact on children and adults: The Itabaianinha syndrome
AbstractSince 1994, we have been studying an extended kindred with 105 subjects (over 8 generations) residing in Itabaianinha County, in the Brazilian state of Sergipe, who have severe isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) due to a homozygous inactivating mutation (c.57  + 1G >  A) in the GH releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor (GHRHR) gene. Most of these individuals have never received GH replacement therapy. They have low GH, and very low and often undetectable levels of serum IGF-I. Their principal physical findings are proportionate short stature, doll facies, high-pitc hed-voice, central obesity, w...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

From microbiota toward gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: Are we on the highway to hell?
AbstractGut microbiota is represented by different microorganisms that colonize the intestinal tract, mostly the large intestine, such as bacteria, fungi, archaea and viruses. The gut microbial balance has a key role in several functions. It modulates the host ’s metabolism, maintains the gut barrier integrity, participates in the xenobiotics and drug metabolism, and acts as protection against gastro-intestinal pathogens through the host’s immune system modulation. The impaired gut microbiota, called dysbiosis, may be the result of an imbalance in thi s equilibrium and is linked with different diseases, includi...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A network analysis framework of genetic and nongenetic risks for type 2 diabetes
AbstractBoth genetic and nongenetic factors have been found to be associated with type 2 diabetes, however, the correlation between them is still unclear. In the present study, we aimed to fully decipher the nongenetic and genetic factor association network for type 2 diabetes. We identified risk factors for type 2 diabetes by systematically searching for related meta-analyses and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) database. Among a total of 27,822 studies screened, 202 articles were eligible, from which 174 nongenetic factors and 210 genetic factors associated with type 2 diabetes were identified. Then, we obtained 58...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Multidisciplinary management of acromegaly: A consensus
AbstractThe 13th Acromegaly Consensus Conference was held in November 2019 in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, and comprised acromegaly experts including endocrinologists and neurosurgeons who considered optimal approaches for multidisciplinary acromegaly management. Focused discussions reviewed techniques, results, and side effects of surgery, radiotherapy, and medical therapy, and how advances in technology and novel techniques have changed the way these modalities are used alone or in combination. Effects of treatment on patient outcomes were considered, along with strategies for optimizing and personalizing therapeutic approa...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal Axis in Glucolipid metabolic disorders
AbstractWith the change of life style, glucolipid metabolic disorders (GLMD) has become one of the major chronic disorders causing public health and clinical problems worldwide. Previous studies on GLMD pay more attention to peripheral tissues. In fact, the central nervous system (CNS) plays an important role in controlling the overall metabolic balance. With the development of technology and the in-depth understanding of the CNS, the relationship between neuro-endocrine-immunoregulatory (NEI) network and metabolism had been gradually illustrated. As the hub of NEI network, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is impo...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - September 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Therapeutic potential of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists to combat obesity, diabetes, and inflammation
AbstractThe cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex (CAIR) represents an important homeostatic regulatory mechanism for sensing and controlling the body ’s response to inflammatory stimuli. Vagovagal reflexes are an integral component of CAIR whose anti-inflammatory effects are mediated by acetylcholine (ACh) acting at α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR) located on cells of the immune system. Recently, it is appreciated that CAIR and α7nAChR also participate in the control of metabolic homeostasis. This has led to the understanding that defective vagovagal reflex circuitry underlying CAIR mi...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The role of the Mediterranean diet on weight loss and obesity-related diseases
AbstractPandemic obesity is a major public health problem because of its association with non-communicable diseases and all-cause mortality, which can be improved/delayed with weight loss. Thus, several scientific societies and governments have launched guidelines to reduce body weight and adiposity or, at least, to avoid weight gain. In spite of the abundant literature on the topic, there is still controversy on the relative roles of fat and carbohydrate in the diet on weight gain. Present recommendations to avoid weight gain and obesity are directed to reduce intake of total energy variably and of total fat to
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Dietary weight-loss interventions for the management of obesity in older adults
In conclusion, further research is needed to elucidate which interventions are effective in reducing obesity-related health risks in older adults without causing relevant harm in this vulnerable population. (Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Protein, amino acids and obesity treatment
AbstractDietary proteins have been used for years to treat obesity. Body weight loss is beneficial when it concerns fat mass, but loss of fat free mass – especially muscle might be detrimental. This occurs because protein breakdown predominates over synthesis, thus administering anabolic dietary compounds like proteins might counter fat free mass loss while allowing for fat mass loss.Indeed, varying the quantity of proteins will decrease muscle anabolic response and increase hyperphagia in rodents fed a low protein diet; but it will favor lean mass maintenance and promote satiety, in certain age groups of humans fed ...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correction to: Diet approach before and after bariatric surgery
The original version of this article unfortunately, has the incorrect title reported in the published paper. (Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Ketogenic diets as treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus
AbstractDuring the last decades, several interventions for the management of overweight and obesity have been proposed. Among diets, the first studies focused on the effect of water only and total fasting diets with or without proteins. Unfortunately, they were found to be associated with adverse events which lead to the abandon of these strategies. Interestingly, despite the radical approach, total fasting was effective and generally well tolerated. A strict connection between protein-calorie malnutrition and increased in morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients was found at that time. Then, the seminal works of B...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The right nutrition for the nutrition related diseases
(Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The right nutrition for the nutrition related disease
(Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Double burden of malnutrition in persons with obesity
AbstractA paradoxical double challenge has emerged in the last decades with respect to nutrition and nutrition-related clinical conditions. Hunger-related undernutrition continues to represent an unacceptable burden, although its prevalence has been encouragingly reduced worldwide. On the other hand, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, defined as fat excess accumulation with negative impact on individual health, has dramatically increased due to increasingly pervasive obesogenic lifestyle changes. Undernutrition and obesity may coexist in world regions, Countries and even smaller communities and households, being ref...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus: how one pandemic worsens the other
AbstractIn light of the most challenging public health crisis of modern history, COVID-19 mortality continues to rise at an alarming rate. Patients with co-morbidities such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus (DM) seem to be more prone to severe symptoms and appear to have a higher mortality rate. In this review, we elucidate suggested mechanisms underlying the increased susceptibility of patients with diabetes to infection with SARS-CoV-2 with a more severe COVID-19 disease. The worsened prognosis of COVID-19 patients with DM can be attributed to a facilitated viral uptake assisted by the host &...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The role of dietary protein in obesity
AbstractProtein-rich diets are surging in popularity for weight loss. An increase in diet-induced thermogenesis, better preservation of fat-free mass, and enhanced satiety with greater dietary protein intakes may lead to increased energy expenditure and decreased energy intake; and thus promote a more negative energy balance that facilitates weight loss. Results from large randomized trials and meta-analyses of many smaller trials indicate that high-protein diets typically induce significantly greater amounts of weight loss than conventional low-fat or high-carbohydrate diets during the early, rapid weight loss phase (3 &n...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - July 31, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diet approach before and after bariatric surgery
In conclusion, the nutritional management of the bariatric patients requires specific nutritional skills and the intervention of experienced nutritionists and dieticians. (Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - July 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Reviews in endocrine and metabolic disorders
In conclusion, the nutritional management of the bariatric patients requires specific nutritional skills and the intervention of experienced nutritionists and dieticians. (Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - July 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Melatonin, an ubiquitous metabolic regulator: functions, mechanisms and effects on circadian disruption and degenerative diseases
AbstractThe last four decades, we assist to an increasing scientific interest on melatonin, a circadian hormone, a metabolic regulator which influences not only plants ’ metabolism and their defense against pathogens but mostly the animals and humans’ metabolic pathways, their response to circadian disruption, stress and burnout syndrome. In humans, as a hormonal regulator, produced in the pineal grand as well in mitochondria, melatonin is involved in differen t, complex intracellular signaling pathways, with antioxidant and immune stimulating effects, proving to act as a circadian synchronizer, as a preventive...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - July 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Microbiome response to diet: focus on obesity and related diseases
AbstractNumerous studies in humans and animal models describe disturbances of the gut microbial ecosystem associated with adiposity and hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome, including hepatic and cardiovascular diseases. The manipulation of the microbiome, which is largely influenced by the diet, appears as an innovative therapeutic tool to prevent or control obesity and related diseases. This review describes the impact of nutrients on the gut microbiota composition and/or function and when available, the consequences on host physiology. A special emphasis is made on the contribution of bacterial-derived metabolites in the...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - July 19, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Clinical manifestations and management of fatty acid oxidation disorders
AbstractFatty acid oxidation disorders (FAOD) are a group of rare, autosomal recessive, metabolic disorders caused by variants of the genes for the enzymes and proteins involved in the transport and metabolism of fatty acids in the mitochondria. Those affected by FAOD are unable to convert fatty acids into tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates such as acetyl-coenzyme A, resulting in decreased adenosine triphosphate and glucose for use as energy in a variety of high-energy –requiring organ systems. Signs and symptoms may manifest in infants but often also appear in adolescents or adults during times of increased meta...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - July 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Endocrine and metabolic aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic
AbstractCOVID-19 infection has tremendously impacted our daily clinical practice as well as our social living organization. Virtually all organs and biological systems suffer from this new coronavirus infection, either because the virus targets directly specific tissues or because of indirect effects. Endocrine diseases are not an exception and some of endocrine organs are at risk of direct or indirect lesion by COVID-19. Although there is still no evidence of higher predisposition to contract the infection in patients with diabetes and/or obesity, the coexistence of these conditions contributes to a worse prognosis becaus...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - July 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Ketotherapy as an epigenetic modifier in cancer
AbstractEpigenetic alterations in cancer play a variety of roles. Aberrant DNA methylation, as one of the epigenetic mechanisms, has been widely studied in both tumor and liquid biopsies and provide a useful bench mark for treatment response in cancer. Recently, several studies have reported an association between the type of diet and epigenetic modifications. Whereby there is a growing interest in finding the “anti-cancer diet formula”, if such a thing exists. In this sense, ketogenic diets (KD) have reported potentially beneficial effects, which were able to prevent malignancies and decrease tumor growth. Som...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - June 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Are aggressive pituitary tumors and carcinomas two sides of the same coin? Pathologists reply to clinician ’s questions
AbstractPituitary adenohypophyseal tumors are considered as benign and termed “adenomas”. However, many tumors are invasive and a proportion of these exhibit an “aggressive behavior” with premature death due to progressive growth. Only very rare (0.2%) tumors with metastases are considered malignant and termed “carcinomas”. Taking into account this variability in behavior and the oncological definition, pathologists have proposed changing the term adenoma to tumor. Here we explain why use the term tumor instead of adenoma and identify tumor characteristics, associated with a high risk fo...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - June 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Surgical treatment of aggressive pituitary adenomas and pituitary carcinomas
AbstractSurgery of aggressive pituitary adenomas and pituitary carcinomas is part of the interdisciplinary management of these difficult to treat tumors. Invasion, giant size and unusual, asymmetric extent of these tumors frequently require modifications or extensions of the standard approaches for transsphenoidal and transcranial surgery. Frequently, only debulking procedures can be performed. In aggressive and hormone secreting adenomas, the remission rates achieved by surgery alone are relatively poor and adjuvant medical treatments or irradiation are needed. Safe resection of as much tumor as possible and symptomatic c...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - June 3, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The use of Broca index to assess cut- off points for overweight in adults: A short review
AbstractThe Broca formula was developed in 1871 by Pierre Paul Broca (a French Army Doctor) to help establish ideal body weight or normal body weight. Initially, the Broca Index (BI) was used to work out the normal weight but was later expanded to ideal Body Weight. Ideal Body weight (kg)  = [Height (cm)-100]. The common methods used to explore the levels of adiposity include body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, skinfolds, bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Even though there have been several anth...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - June 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Theranostics in neuroendocrine tumors: an overview of current approaches and future challenges
AbstractNeuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) comprise a heterogeneous group of tumors, mainly localized in the gastrointestinal system. What characterizes NENs is the expression of hormone receptors on the tumor cell surface, making them accessible for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches (theranostics) using radiolabelled peptides. Somatostatin receptors subtype-two (SST2) play an important role in NENs since they are overexpressed and homogeneously distributed at the surface of the majority of NENs. Accordingly, targeting SST2 for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes has been established. Current research aims at upregulating...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - June 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The optimal numerosity of the referral population of pituitary tumors centers of excellence (PTCOE): A surgical perspective
AbstractSurgical experience is of paramount importance to reach therapeutic success and minimize operative complications. In the field of pituitary surgery, this led to the concept of Pituitary Center of Excellence (PTCOE) defined as a center where an interdisciplinary team works in collaboration and where surgeons can be trained appropriately to reach and keep excellence in daily practice. To review the literature to define the optimal referral population size to establish a PTCOE to optimize both training and specific field research. A review of the literature was performed about epidemiology. The time needed to observe ...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - June 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The journey in diagnosis and treatment, from pituitary adenoma to aggressive pituitary tumors
(Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - May 31, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Acromegaly, inflammation and cardiovascular disease: a review
AbstractAcromegaly is characterized by Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) excess. Uncontrolled acromegaly is associated with a strongly increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and numerous cardiovascular risk factors remain present after remission. GH and IGF-1 have numerous effects on the immune and cardiovascular system. Since endothelial damage and systemic inflammation are strongly linked to the development of CVD, and have been suggested to be present in both controlled as uncontrolled acromegaly, they may explain the presence of both micro- and macrovascular dysfunction in these pati...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - May 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Review of the veteran affairs diabetes trial: Lessons learned
AbstractDespite robust evidence linking long-term hyperglycemia with cardiovascular complications, several large randomized trials found only modest benefits from intensive compared to standard glucose control. Of these trials, the Veteran Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT), offers a unique long-term perspective in that there were analyses of outcomes at the end of the intervention trial, 5-years post-trial, and after 10-years post-trial. From the VADT and other large trials, we draw several valuable lessons that are relevant to the care of patients with type 2 diabetes. Intensive glucose control reduces development of nephropa...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - May 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Regulation of energy intake and mechanisms of metabolic adaptation or maladaptation after caloric restriction
AbstractDespite their critical role in susceptibility to metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, mechanisms regulating energy balance are extremely complex and far from being fully understood. Both central and peripheral feedback circuits are involved and, despite it was traditionally thought that the energy balance of an organism depends on the equality between calorie intake within the system and energy expenditure, the regulation of energy content in biological systems oversteps the classical physical laws of thermodynamics. The fine-tuned mechanism for body weight and energy storage regulation is aimed ...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - May 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Neuroimaging of aggressive pituitary tumors
AbstractAggresssive pituitary tumors are defined as radiologically invasive, exhibiting a rapid growth and a poor response to the medical and surgical treatment options. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is fundamental to assess tumor aggressiveness before surgical exploration. Distinction between cavernous sinus invasion and cavernous sinus compression is often challenging and cannot be solved always by using the Knosp criteria. Ideally, T2W images demonstrating the ruptured internal dural wall of cavernous sinus is the ultimate proof of cavernous sinus invasion. Subtle tumor volume increase in a short time can...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - May 24, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Acute assessment of subjective appetite and implicated hormones after a hypnosis-induced hallucinated meal: a randomized cross-over pilot trial
AbstractThe use of hypnosis can generate hallucinatory phenomena, which ranged from vivid/auditory imagery to fully developed “hallucinations” in selected people. The aim of this pilot trial was investigating the acute effects of a hypnosis-induced hallucinated breakfast (HB) compared to those of a real breakfast (RB) on subjective appetite and appetite-regulating hormones in highly hypnotizable individuals. Eight heal thy post-menopausal women were recruited to consume two meals: the HB and the RB in a randomized crossover design. Participants underwent appetite sensations measurements (before meal and each 30...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - May 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research