Confusion in the nomenclature of ketogenic diets blurs evidence
AbstractKetogenic diets have been proposed as a non-pharmacological strategy for the management of several chronic conditions. Their efficacy and safety have been evaluated in the field of neurology, oncology and endocrinology for disorders including cancer, dementia, drug-resistant epilepsy, migraines, obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The nutritional requirements of these subjects are expected to differ significantly. Indeed, although all ketogenic diets restrict carbohydrates, each intervention is characterized by a specific daily calorie intake, macronutrient composition and duration. How...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - February 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correction to: Effects of time-restricted feeding on body weight and metabolism. A systematic review and meta-analysis
The article “Effects of time-restricted feeding on body weight and metabolism. A systematic review and meta-analysis” written by Pellegrini Marianna, Cioffi Iolanda, Evangelista Andrea, Ponzo Valentina, Goitre Ilaria, Ciccone Giovannino, Ghigo Ezio, Bo Simona” was originally published with the surname and then first name of all authors. (Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - February 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Radiation techniques in aggressive pituitary tumours and carcinomas
AbstractDefining the role of radiation techniques in treatment of aggressive pituitary tumours and carcinomas is a difficult task: indeed, studies reported in the literature on this topic can probably be counted on the fingers of one hand. To try to better define these roles, it is thus necessary to extrapolate based on anti-secretory and anti-tumor efficacy reported in studies on non-selected pituitary tumours, regardless of their pathological status and intrinsic aggressiveness. Generally, radiation techniques are delivered as part of a multimodal treatment, usually with the primary aim of controlling tumor volume. Side-...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - February 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Associations between body mass index, waist circumference and erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and META-analysis
AbstractGrowing evidence reports that obesity might play a role in erectile dysfunction (ED), but limited knowledge is available. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of ED in overweight men and men with obesity.  We performed a systematic review up to 01/04/2019 to investigate the associations between obesity and ED. Applying a random-effect model, we calculated the prevalence of ED, the odds ratio (OR) for the presence of ED by Body Mass Index (BMI) categories and the mean differences between ED and cont rols in BMI and Waist Circumference (WC). Among 3409 studies, we included 45 articles with 42,...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - January 31, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Fertility issues in aggressive pituitary tumors
AbstractThe management of aggressive pituitary adenomas represents a special clinical challenge, and usually involves a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and pharmacological agents to control tumor growth and hormone abnormalities. Fertility is commonly affected in these patients due to compressive effects of the tumor, pituitary hormone dysfunction or as a result of the multiple therapies. The initial approach to restore fertility involves the reduction of tumor volume by the use of dopamine agonists in prolactinomas and by surgery in other pituitary adenomas. Somatostatin analogues are alternative options for GH, ACTH...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - January 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Dynamic changes of views on the brain changes of Cushing ’s syndrome using different computer-assisted tool
AbstractCushing ’s syndrome (CS) provides a unique model for assessing the neurotoxic effect of chronic hypercortisolism on human brains. With the ongoing development of different computer-assisted tools, four research stages emerged, each with its own pearls and pitfalls. This review summarizes current knowledge and describes the dynamic changes of views on the brain changes of CS, especially in the current era of the rapid development of artificial intelligence and big data. The adverse effects of GC on brain are proven to be on structural, functional and cellular levels at the same time. (Source: Reviews in Endocr...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - January 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A systematic review on the role of infrared thermography in the Brown adipose tissue assessment
Conclusion: Despite the large number of published methodologies, IRT is a promising method for detecting BAT activation. Current knowledge already allows a better understanding of thermography to improve and st andardize the technique. (Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - January 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The pathogenic role of the GIP/GIPR axis in human endocrine tumors: emerging clinical mechanisms beyond diabetes
AbstractThe glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone produced in the gastrointestinal tract in response to nutrients. GIP has a variety of effects on different systems, including the potentiation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells after food intake (i.e. incretin effect), which is probably the most important. GIP effects are mediated by the GIP receptor (GIPR), a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in several tissues, including islet β-cells, adipocytes, bone cells, and brain. As well as its involvement in metaboli c disorders (e.g. it contributes to the impaired postpr...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - January 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Aggressive pituitary tumors in the young and elderly
AbstractAggressive pituitary tumors (APTs) represent rare pituitary adenomas (PAs) with local invasion of surrounding tissues, increased risk for multiple recurrence, rapid tumor growth, or resistance to standard therapies. The most common APTs in children and adolescents are giant prolactinomas and somatotropinomas. Few cases of Crooke ’s cell adenomas, silent corticotroph adenomas and pituitary carcinomas have also been reported in the literature. Pediatric patients with APTs have higher risk of harboring germline genetic defects, most commonly in theMEN1 andAIP genes. Since certain genetic defects confer a mo...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - January 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Microbiota impacts on chronic inflammation and metabolic syndrome - related cognitive dysfunction
AbstractCognitive dysfunction, one of the major concerns of increased life expectancy, is prevalent in patients with metabolic disorders. Added to the inflammation in the context of aging (inflammaging), low-grade chronic inflammation (metaflammation) accompanies metabolic diseases. Peripheral and central inflammation underlie metabolic syndrome - related cognitive dysfunction. The gut microbiota is increasingly recognized to be linked to both inflammaging and metaflammation in parallel to the pathophysiology of obesity, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Microbiota composition, diversity and diverse metabolites h...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - December 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Consider the microbiome in the equation! They were here before us...and hosted us!
(Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - December 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Male and female sexual dysfunction in diabetic subjects: Focus on new antihyperglycemic drugs
AbstractThe association between diabetes mellitus (and its micro- and macro-vascular complications) and erectile dysfunction is widely known and the presence of hypogonadism may further complicate sexual dysfunction and quality of life, given the association between hypogonadism and reduced libido, ejaculatory disorders, and depressive symptoms. However, the recent introduction of novel antidiabetic agents with a wide range of mechanism of action may have a significant impact both on male and female sexuality directly (by inducing side effects as urinary tract infections) and indirectly (improving metabolic status and redu...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - December 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Gut microbiome and cardiometabolic risk
AbstractThe last decade has been characterized by an intense research on the composition of the gut microbiome and the links with human health. While previous work was focused on the effects of prebiotics and probiotics, nowadays several laboratories are describing the gut microbiome and its metabolic functions. Gut microbiome interaction with nutrients allows the gut microbiome to survive and at the same time determines the production of metabolites that are either adsorbed by intestinal cell in a mutual relationship or promote detrimental effect. Metabolomics, a new method to approach identification of biomarkers has bee...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - December 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Obesity and overweight decreases the effect of vitamin D supplementation in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
AbstractOverweight and obesity are associated with vitamin D deficiency (VitD), which are both important health problems. Reduced serum vitamin D levels has been registered in all phases of life and is commonly associated with the genesis of overweight and obesity. Thus, the objective of this review with meta-analysis was to investigate and evidence the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in vitamin D. Interventional studies were searched for in 5 databases, without restriction of publication date or language. The absolute mean difference was used as a summary measure of the selected studies. A total of 2370 studies were...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - December 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Clock control of mammalian reproductive cycles: Looking beyond the pre-ovulatory surge of gonadotropins
AbstractSeveral aspects of the physiology and behavior of organisms are expressed rhythmically with a 24-h periodicity and hence called circadian rhythms. Such rhythms are thought to be an adaptive response that allows to anticipate cyclic events in the environment. In mammals, the circadian system is a hierarchically organized net of endogenous oscillators driven by the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). This system is synchronized by the environment throughout afferent pathways and in turn it organizes the activity of tissues by means of humoral secretions and neuronal projections. It has been shown that reprodu...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - December 12, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Definition and diagnosis of aggressive pituitary tumors
AbstractPituitary adenomas are considered benign tumors, but approximately 10% of them can have an aggressive behavior and more rarely (0.2%) can present metastasis, being classified as pituitary carcinomas. Aggressive adenomas are generally large and invasive tumors that present unusually rapid growth and/or that grow irrespective of conventional treatment with surgery, medical therapy and radiotherapy. Nevertheless, large tumors, as well as invasive tumors are not always aggressive, with this definition being possible only after clinical follow-up of these tumors, with growth rate and response to therapies being key poin...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - December 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effects of time-restricted feeding on body weight and metabolism. A systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractRestriction in meal timing has emerged as a promising dietary approach for the management of obesity and dysmetabolic diseases. The present systematic review and meta-analysis summarized the most recent evidence on the effect of time-restricted feeding (TRF) on weight-loss and cardiometabolic variables in comparison with unrestricted-time regimens. Studies involving TRF regimen were systematically searched up to January 2019. Effect size was expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 11 studies, 5 randomized controlled trials and 6 observational, were included. All sel...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - December 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A clinical perspective of parathyroid hormone related hypercalcaemia
AbstractThere are many causes of hypercalcaemia including hyperparathyroidism, drugs, granulomatous disorders and malignancy. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) related hypercalcaemia is most commonly caused by primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and more rarely by familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH). Algorithms for diagnosis of PTH related hypercalcaemia require assessment of a 24-h urinary calcium and creatinine excretion to calculate calcium/creatinine clearance ratio and radiological investigations including ultrasound scan and99mTc-sestamibi-SPECT/CT. To illustrate investigations and management of parathyroid-related hy...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - December 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Endocrine disrupting chemicals: exposure, effects on human health, mechanism of action, models for testing and strategies for prevention
AbstractEndocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) are a global problem for environmental and human health. They are defined as “an exogenous chemical, or mixture of chemicals, that can interfere with any aspect of hormone action”. It is estimated that there are about 1000 chemicals with endocrine-acting properties. EDCs comprise pesticides, fungicides, industrial chemicals, plasticizers, nonylphenols, metals, pharmaceut ical agents and phytoestrogens. Human exposure to EDCs mainly occurs by ingestion and to some extent by inhalation and dermal uptake. Most EDCs are lipophilic and bioaccumulate in the adipose tissue...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - December 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The gut microbiota modulates both browning of white adipose tissue and the activity of brown adipose tissue
AbstractGiven the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances, novel therapeutic strategies are imperatively required. A plausible manner to increase energy expenditure is the enhancement of thermogenic pathways in white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). In the last 15  years, the identification of novel endogenous mechanisms to promote BAT activity or browning of WAT has pointed at gut microbiota as an important modulator of host metabolic homeostasis and energy balance. In this review, we focused on the relationship between gut microbiota composition and adipos e tissue therm...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - November 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Endocrine roles of vitamin K-dependent- osteocalcin in the relation between bone metabolism and metabolic disorders
AbstractObesity and diabetes are important metabolic diseases and a major public health problem among the world, they have serious health and economic complications. Overweight and obesity are increased risk for deficiency of vitamin particularly shortage of fat soluble-vitamins. Studies reported that vitamin K supplementation reduces oxidative stress and metabolic risk biomarkers for diabetes, as well as reduces progression of insulin resistance. Vitamin K-dependent-protein osteocalcin (bone derived hormone) plays crucial roles in energy metabolism. There is a clear association between circulating vitamin k and dependent-...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - November 25, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Ghrelin and liver disease
In conclusion, the information displayed in this review support that the ghrelin system could be an appealing strategy for the treatment of liver disease. (Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - November 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Oral microbiota-induced periodontitis: a new risk factor of metabolic diseases
AbstractIt has recently become evident that the periodontium (gingiva, desmodontal ligament, cementum and alveolar bone) and the associated microbiota play a pivotal role in regulating human health and diseases. The oral cavity is the second largest microbiota in the body with around 500 different bacterial species identified today. When disruption of oral cavity and dysbiosis occur, the proportion of strict anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria is then increased. Patients with periodontitis present 27 to 53% more risk to develop diabetes than the control population suggesting that periodontitis is an aggravating factor in the ...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - November 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Keto microbiota: A powerful contributor to host disease recovery
AbstractGut microbiota (GM) is a key contributor to host metabolism and physiology. Data generated on comparing diseased and healthy subjects have reported changes in the GM profile between both health states, suggesting certain bacterial composition could be involved in pathogenesis. Moreover, studies reported that reshaping of GM could contribute actively to disease recovery. Interestingly, ketogenic diets (KD) have emerged recently as new economic dietotherapeutic strategy to combat a myriad of diseases (refractory epilepsy, obesity, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases …). KD, understood in a broad sense, refers t...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - November 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Dietary lipids, gut microbiota and lipid metabolism
AbstractThe gut microbiota is a central regulator of host metabolism. The composition and function of the gut microbiota is dynamic and affected by diet properties such as the amount and composition of lipids. Hence, dietary lipids may influence host physiology through interaction with the gut microbiota. Lipids affect the gut microbiota both as substrates for bacterial metabolic processes, and by inhibiting bacterial growth by toxic influence. The gut microbiota has been shown to affect lipid metabolism and lipid levels in blood and tissues, both in mice and humans. Furthermore, diseases linked to dyslipidemia, such as no...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - November 9, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The gut microbiome and heart failure: A better gut for a better heart
AbstractDespite the development of new drugs and therapeutic strategies, mortality and morbidity related to heart failure (HF) remains high. It is also the leading cause of global mortality. Several concepts have been proposed to explore the underlying pathogenesis of HF, but there is still a strong need for more specific and complementary therapeutic options. In recent years, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that changes in the composition of gut microbiota, referred to as dysbiosis, might play a pivotal role in the development of several diseases, including HF. HF-associated decreased cardiac output, resulting in b...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - November 9, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of very low calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) in patients with overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractVery low calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) has been proposed as a promising option to achieve a significant weight loss in a short time period. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate its efficacy and safety in patients with overweight and obesity. Four databases were searched on May 2019. Studies reporting data on body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, HbA1c, lipids, and markers of liver and kidney function were selected. Discontinuation was also assessed. Twelve studies were included. VLCKD was associated with weight losses of −10.0&nbs...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - November 9, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The gut microbiota to the brain axis in the metabolic control
AbstractThe regulation of glycemia is under a tight neuronal detection of glucose levels performed by the gut-brain axis and an efficient efferent neuronal message sent to the peripheral organs, as the pancreas to induce insulin and inhibit glucagon secretions. The neuronal detection of glucose levels is performed by the autonomic nervous system including the enteric nervous system and the vagus nerve innervating the gastro-intestinal tractus, from the mouth to the anus. A dysregulation of this detection leads to the one of the most important current health issue around the world i.e. diabetes mellitus. Furthemore, the con...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Adiponectin and PPAR: a setup for intricate crosstalk between obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
AbstractAdiponectin, a soluble adipocytokine, plays an important role in the functioning of adipose tissue and in the regulation of inflammation, particularly hepatic inflammation. The adiponectin subsequently imparts a crucial role in metabolic and hepato-inflammatory diseases. The most recent evidences indicate that lipotoxicity-induced inflammation in the liver is associated with obesity-derived alterations and remolding in adipose tissue that culminates in most prevalent liver pathology named as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A comprehensive crosstalk of adiponectin and its cognate receptors, specifically a...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Vasopressin and Copeptin in health and disease
AbstractArginine Vasopressin (AVP) and copeptin derive from the same precursor molecule. Due to the equimolar secretion, copeptin responds as rapidly as AVP to osmotic, hemodynamic and unspecific stress-related stimuli and both peptides show a very strong correlation. The physiological functions of AVP are homeostasis of fluid balance, vascular tonus and regulation of the endocrine stress response. In contrast, the exact function of copeptin remains unknown. Since copeptin, in contrast to AVP, can easily be measured with a sandwich immunoassay, its main function so far that it indirectly indicates the amount of AVP in the ...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Gut microbiota-derived succinate: Friend or foe in human metabolic diseases?
AbstractThere is now a wealth of evidence showing that communication between microbiota and the host is critical to sustain the vital functions of the healthy host, and disruptions of this homeostatic coexistence are known to be associated with a range of diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Microbiota-derived metabolites act both as nutrients and as messenger molecules and can signal to distant organs in the body to shape host pathophysiology. In this review, we provide a new perspective on succinate as a gut microbiota-derived metabolite with a key role governing intestinal homeostasis and energy metabolism. T...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 25, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Vitamin D in physiological and pathological aging: Lesson from centenarians
AbstractVitamin D is a secosteroid hormone that exerts a pleiotropic action on a wide spectrum of tissues, apparatuses and systems. Thus, vitamin D has assumed an increasingly dominant role as a key determinant of biological mechanisms and specific clinical conditions. Older people frequently present vitamin D deficiency, a status potentially influencing several mechanisms responsible for different age-related diseases. Centenarians symbolize the ideal model for investigating the peculiar traits of longevity, as they have reached an age close to the estimated limit of the human lifespan. Interestingly, despite the profound...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 25, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Neuroendocrinological mechanisms underlying impulsive and compulsive behaviors in obesity: a narrative review of fMRI studies
Discussions of compulsivity within the context of obesity will be restricted to fMRI studies investigating habit formation and response flexibility under shifting contingencies. Further, we will highlight neuroimaging research demonstrating how alterations in neuroendocrine functioning are linked to excessive food intake and may serve as a driver of the impulsive and compulsive behaviors observed in obesity. Research on the associations between brain response with neuroendocrine factors, such as insulin, peptide YY (PYY), leptin, ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), will be reviewed. (Source: Reviews in Endocrine a...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 25, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Calcium citrate: from biochemistry and physiology to clinical applications
AbstractAdequate daily calcium intake should normally be achieved by dietary sources. Since low calcium diets are quite common in subjects that do not reach the recommended intake and particularly those at risk of fractures, calcium supplements may become necessary. Different forms of calcium salts are available, but products containing calcium citrate and calcium carbonate complexes are the most frequently used. Although only limited evidence on the efficacy and long-term safety of calcium citrate is available, these supplements may represent a valuable product for the management of different chronic pathological conditio...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diabetic lung disease: fact or fiction?
AbstractDiabetes mellitus is a chronic, progressive, incompletely understood metabolic disorder whose prevalence has been increasing steadily worldwide. Even though little attention has been paid to lung disorders in the context of diabetes, its prevalence has recently been challenged by newer studies of disease development. In this review, we summarize and discuss the role of diabetes mellitus involved in the progression of pulmonary diseases, with the main focus on pulmonary fibrosis, which represents a chronic and progressive disease with high mortality and limited therapeutic options. (Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - October 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Risk of vertebral fractures in hypoparathyroidism
AbstractParathyroid hormone (PTH) exerts both anabolic and catabolic actions on bone,depending on the duration and periodicity of exposure. Hypoparathyroidism is defined by inadequate production of PTH in the presence oflow serum calcium. In hypoparathyroidism it has been reported an increase in corticaland trabecular bone mass, but it is still unknown if these quantitative variations maybe accompanied by qualitative ones and increased bone strength. Despite the extensive data available on the effects of hypoparathyroidism on bone, itseffect on the hard end point in this area which is the risk of fractures still remainsunr...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - August 30, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Clinical applications of (epi)genetics in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: Moving towards liquid biopsies
In conclusion, molecular studies have suggested multiple potential biomarkers, but further validation is ongoing. (Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - July 31, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Current perspectives on the impact of clinical disease and biochemical control on comorbidities and quality of life in acromegaly
AbstractAcromegaly is a rare chronic, systemic disorder caused by excessive growth hormone (GH) secretion from a somatotroph pituitary adenoma. GH hypersecretion leads to overproduction of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which contributes to the somatic overgrowth, physical disfigurement, onset of multiple systemic comorbidities, reduced quality of life (QoL) and premature mortality of uncontrolled patients. Somatostatin receptor ligands, dopamine agonists and a GH receptor antagonist are currently available for medical therapy of acromegaly. The main aim of treatment is biochemical normalisation, defined as age-norm...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - July 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Genetics, adaptation to environmental changes and archaic admixture in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in Indigenous Australians
AbstractIndigenous Australians are particularly affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) due to both their genetic susceptibility and a range of environmental and lifestyle risk factors. Recent genetic studies link predisposition to some diseases, including T2D, to alleles acquired from archaic hominins, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans, which persist in the genomes of modern humans today. Indo-Pacific human populations, including Indigenous Australians, remain extremely underrepresented in genomic research with a paucity of data examining the impact of Denisovan or Neanderthal lineages on human phenotypes in Oceania....
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - July 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A step forward in our common endeavor
(Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - May 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Can blood glucose value really be referred to as a metabolic parameter?
AbstractIn clinical guidelines, near-normoglycaemia is recommended as the basic therapeutic target in diabetes mellitus. This proposal suggests that euglycaemia is associated with eumetabolism and that hyperglycaemia is an indicator of dysmetabolism. The authors analysed the relationship between short/long-term blood glucose values and cellular metabolism in various pathophysiological settings. The following types of dysmetabolism are suggested: “hyperglycaemic dysmetabolism based on insulin deficiency”, “hyperglycaemic dysmetabolism based on glucose toxicity”, “euglycaemic dysmetabolism&rdquo...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - May 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Structure and function of the exocrine pancreas in patients with type 1 diabetes
AbstractIn the last 10  years, several studies have shown that the pancreas of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and even of subjects at risk for T1D, was smaller than the pancreas from healthy subjects. This arose the question of the relationships between the endocrine and exocrine parts of the pancreas in T1D pathog enesis. Our review underlines that histological anomalies of the exocrine pancreas are common in patients with T1D: intralobular and interacinar fibrosis, acinar atrophy, fatty infiltration, leucocytic infiltration, and pancreatic arteriosclerosis are all frequent observations. Moreover, 25% to 75% of...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - May 11, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effect of resveratrol on metabolic syndrome components: A systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractWe summarized 16 controlled studies and evaluated the correlation of resveratrol supplementation with metabolic parameters such as the body weight, waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (sbp), HDL, total cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels. This meta-analysis was carried out to determine the association between the resveratrol intake with metabolic parameters in metabolic syndrome patients. PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane and Google Scholar were searched from inception to December 2018 using relevant keywords. All articles were independently reviewed by two authors using predetermined selection criter...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - May 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Prader- Willi syndrome: An uptodate on endocrine and metabolic complications
AbstractPrader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder characterized by short stature, low lean body mass, muscular hypotonia, mental retardation, behavioral abnormalities, dysmorphic features, and excessive appetite with progressive obesity. It is caused by lack of expression of genes on the paternally inherited chromosome 15q11.2-q13. This genetic disorder has an estimated prevalence that ranges between 1/10,000 –1/30,000. Hypothalamic dysfunction is a common finding in PWS and it has been implicated in several manifestations of this syndrome such as hyperphagia, temperature instability, high pain threshold, sle...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - May 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Prolactin and human weight disturbances: A puzzling and neglected association
AbstractWeight gain at the outset of prolactinomas in many women is well documented. Yet, this symptom is absent from the clinical descriptions of the disease in textbooks and reviews. This omission is almost certainly due to the absence of a physiological explanation for the phenomenon, as prolactin is not a recognized fat promoting hormone. In this review we present the clinical evidence for a relationship between prolactin and fat accumulation and address some possible mechanisms involved. We put forward the hypothesis that prolactin is a component of a neuroendocrine program – maternal subroutine – aimed at...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - May 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correction to: Therapeutic hypernatremia management during continuous renal replacement therapy with elevated intracranial pressures and respiratory failure
The authors would like to report an error in the formula describing the correction factor for the protein content in the serum/plasma. (Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - May 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correction to: Efficacy of radiofrequency ablation in autonomous functioning thyroid nodules. A systematic review and meta-analysis
The authors of this paper declare that their correct family and first names and their correct affiliations are shown in this correction paper. (Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders)
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - April 26, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Functions of stem cells of thyroid glands in health and disease
The objective of this review is to summarize the morphological characterization and the exp ression of stem cell genes/markers in the thyroid. Also, to highlight the mechanisms of tumor formation in thyroid via its stem cells. The most important thyroid stem cell’s markers are: stem cell antigen 1 (SCA-1), octamer-binding transcription 4 (OCT-4), p63, CD34+ CD45-, paired box gene 8 (PAX- 8), thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), thyroid transcription factor 2 (TTF-2), hematopoietically expressed homeobox protein HHEX, the transcription factor GATA-4, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-α (HNF-4-α) and homeobox ...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - April 25, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Nutritional and non-nutritional agents that stimulate white adipose tissue browning
AbstractObesity is a public health problem present in both developed and developing countries. The white adipose tissue (WAT) is the main deposit of lipids when there is an excess of energy. Its pathological growth is directly linked to the development of obesity and to a wide number of comorbidities, such as insulin-resistance, cardiovascular disease, among others. In this scenario, it becomes imperative to develop new approaches to the treatment and prevention of obesity and its comorbidities. It has been documented that the browning of WAT could be a suitable strategy to tackle the obesity epidemic that is developing wo...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - April 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Role of growth factors and cytokines in diabetic foot ulcer healing: A detailed review
AbstractThe aim of the review is to examine the role of growth factors and cytokines in the management of Diabetic Foot Ulcers, such as platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Insulin like growth factor (IGF). Taking this a step further, the role of Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF- β-1) and other growth factors have also been examined, with regard to the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. The roles of these above-mentioned growth cytokines have been analyzed by studying various scholastic articles. The...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - April 1, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research