Paediatric and adult bronchiectasis: Vaccination in prevention and management
ABSTRACTBronchiectasis has received increased attention recently, including an emphasis on preventing infective exacerbations that are associated with disease progression and lung function decline. While there are several bacteria and viruses associated with bronchiectasis, licensed vaccines are only currently available forStreptococcus pneumoniae,Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae protein D as a conjugate in a pneumococcal vaccine),Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bordetella pertussis and influenza virus. The evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of these vaccines in both preventing and managing bronchiectasis in chil...
Source: Respirology - November 26, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kerry ‐Ann F. O'Grady, Allan W. Cripps, Keith Grimwood Tags: Invited Review Series: Paediatric and Adult Bronchiectasis Source Type: research

Radiofrequency spectral analysis of EBUS for peripheral pulmonary lesions
ABSTRACTBackground and objectiveWe previously reported that histogram ‐based quantitative evaluation for endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) B‐mode images could differentiate between benign and malignant lesions. However, these images were generated from reconstructed raw radiofrequency (RF) signals and had some limitations. Currently, there are no reports on raw RF signal data to quantitatively differentiate ultrasound information for peripheral pulmonary lesions.MethodsWe prospectively hypothesized that RF spectral analysis from EBUS images could reveal sonographic features of peripheral pulmonary diseases. RF data ...
Source: Respirology - November 23, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kei Morikawa, Noriaki Kurimoto, Takeo Inoue, Teruomi Miyazawa, Masamichi Mineshita Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Non ‐invasive ventilation: Essential requirements and clinical skills for successful practice
This article addresses the different skills needed in a team to provide an effective NIV service. Some detail is given in each of the key areas but it is not comprehensive and should stimulate further learning (reading, attendance on courses, e‐learning, etc.), determined by the needs of the individual. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - November 23, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mark W. Elliott Tags: Invited Review Series: Non ‐invasive ventilation Source Type: research

Acute respiratory distress syndrome and the promise of driving pressure
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - November 22, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rebecca E. Sell, Atul Malhotra Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Has it peaked?
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - November 22, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Anne E. Holland Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Remarkable progress in cystic fibrosis —But why?
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - November 22, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Catherine Rang, John Wilson Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Effect of CPAP on airway reactivity and airway inflammation in children with moderate –severe asthma
ABSTRACTBackground and objectiveAsthma is characterized by airway hyperreactivity and airway inflammation. We previously demonstrated that adults with mild well ‐controlled asthma exhibited a marked decrease in airway reactivity (PC20 increased>2 ‐fold) after using nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for 1 week. If CPAP produces a similar suppression of airway reactivity in children with moderate–severe asthma, who require chronic use of corticosteroids, then this non‐pharmacological therapy might provide a beneficia l alternative or supplemental therapy in these subjects.MethodsChild...
Source: Respirology - November 16, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Eduardo Praca, Hasnaa Jalou, Nadia Krupp, Angela Delecaris, Joseph Hatch, James Slaven, Susan J. Gunst, Robert S. Tepper Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Issue Information
Respirology, Volume 23, Issue 12, Page 1079-1083, December 2018. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - November 15, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Lumpers versus splitters: What to do with suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - November 15, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Christopher J. Ryerson Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Repeated exposure to temperature variation exacerbates airway inflammation through TRPA1 in a mouse model of asthma
ConclusionRepeated exposure to temperature variation exacerbated experimental ‘asthma’ and TRPA1 mediated this temperature‐dependent inflammatory effect. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - November 15, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chenqiu Du, Jun Kang, Wei Yu, Mingqing Chen, Baizhan Li, Hong Liu, Han Wang Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Respiratory muscle weakness increases dead ‐space ventilation ratio aggravating ventilation–perfusion mismatch during exercise in patients with chronic heart failure
ConclusionRespiratory muscle weakness was associated with an increased dead ‐space ventilation ratio aggravating ventilation–perfusion mismatch during exercise in patients with CHF. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - November 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nobuaki Hamazaki, Takashi Masuda, Kentaro Kamiya, Ryota Matsuzawa, Kohei Nozaki, Emi Maekawa, Chiharu Noda, Minako Yamaoka ‐Tojo, Junya Ako Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Genetic risk factors for the development of pulmonary disease identified by genome ‐wide association
ABSTRACTChronic respiratory diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) combined affect over 500 million people worldwide. While environmental factors are important in disease progression, asthma and COPD have long been known to be heritable with genetic components playing an important role in the risk of developing disease. Identification of genetic variation contributing to disease progression is important for a number of reasons including identification of risk alleles, understanding underlying disease mechanisms and development of novel therapies. Genom...
Source: Respirology - November 13, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Robert Hall, Ian P. Hall, Ian Sayers Tags: Invited Review Series: Molecular Techniques for Respiratory Diseases Source Type: research

Spectrum of mutations of cystic fibrosis in the 22 Arab countries: A systematic review
This study aimed to reveal the spectrum ofCFTR gene mutations in Arab CF patients and their corresponding clinical phenotypes among the 22 Arab countries. We searched four literature databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science and Scopus) from their times of inception to January 2018. All possible search terms were used to encompass the different clinical phenotypes, disease incidences,CFTR mutations, ages and consanguinity rates of CF patients in the 22 Arab countries. Our search strategy identified 678 articles; of these, 72 were eligible for this systematic review. We retrieved data from 18 Arab countries; only 17...
Source: Respirology - November 12, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Duaa Al ‐Sadeq, Taghreed Abunada, Rajaa Dalloul, Sara Fahad, Sara Taleb, Kholoud Aljassim, Fatima Alzahra Al Hamed, Hatem Zayed Tags: Systematic Review Source Type: research

Measuring the effects of bronchial thermoplasty using oscillometry
ABSTRACTBackground and objectiveBronchial thermoplasty (BT) has been consistently shown to reduce symptoms, exacerbations and the need for reliever medication in patients with severe asthma. Paradoxically, no consistent improvement in spirometry has been demonstrated. It has been suggested that this is due to a reduction in peripheral resistance in small airways, not captured by spirometry. Therefore, in this study, we evaluate the response to BT using oscillometry.MethodsA total of 43 patients with severe asthma from two centres were evaluated at baseline, 6  weeks and 6 months post BT, using spirometry, ple...
Source: Respirology - November 12, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: David Langton, Alvin Ing, Joy Sha, Kim Bennetts, Nicole Hersch, McKinny Kwok, Virginia Plummer, Francis Thien, Claude Farah Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Respiratory adjuncts to NIV in neuromuscular disease
ABSTRACTMuscle weakness is an intrinsic feature of neuromuscular diseases (NMD). When the respiratory muscles are involved, the ability to take a deep breath is compromised, leading to reduced lung volumes and a restrictive ventilatory impairment. Inspiratory, expiratory and bulbar muscle weakness can also impair cough, which may impede secretion clearance. Non ‐invasive ventilation (NIV) is an established and indispensable therapy to manage hypoventilation and respiratory failure. The role of other therapies that support respiratory health is less clearly defined, and the evidence of efficacy is also harder to summarize...
Source: Respirology - November 8, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nicole Sheers, Mark E. Howard, David J. Berlowitz Tags: Invited Review Series: Non ‐invasive ventilation Source Type: research

In search of a good fit: CPAP therapy mask selection for obstructive sleep apnoea
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - November 8, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Peter A. Cistulli, Colin E. Sullivan Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Pulmonary arterial hypertension: In Asia, as elsewhere, still a lethal disease despite modern treatment
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - November 8, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Paul N. Reynolds Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Non ‐invasive ventilation or high‐flow oxygen therapy: When to choose one over the other?
ABSTRACTIt has been found that high ‐flow oxygen therapy (HFOT) can reduce mortality of patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) for de novo acute respiratory failure (ARF) as compared to non‐invasive ventilation (NIV). HFOT might therefore be considered as a first‐line strategy of oxygenation in these patients. The benefi cial effects of HFOT may be explained by its good tolerance and by physiological characteristics including delivery of high FiO2, positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) effect and continuous dead space washout contributing to decreased work of breathing. In contrast, NIV should be used cauti...
Source: Respirology - November 8, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jean ‐Pierre Frat, Rémi Coudroy, Arnaud W. Thille Tags: Invited Review Series: Non ‐invasive ventilation Source Type: research

Physical activity associates with disease characteristics of severe asthma, bronchiectasis and COPD
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - November 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Laura Cordova ‐Rivera, Peter G. Gibson, Paul A. Gardiner, Vanessa M. McDonald Source Type: research

Clinical utility of pulmonary function and blood biomarker measurements
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - October 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ross Vlahos Source Type: research

Applying new tools to control tuberculosis
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - October 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chi Chiu Leung, Cynthia B E Chee, Ying Zhang Source Type: research

A letter from ‘O Canada’
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - October 17, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Don D. Sin, R. Robert Schellenberg Source Type: research

Implications of the diagnostic criteria of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in clinical practice: Analysis from the Australian Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Registry
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - October 17, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Helen E. Jo, Ian Glaspole, Nicole Goh, Peter M.A. Hopkins, Yuben Moodley, Paul N. Reynolds, Sally Chapman, Eugene Haydn Walters, Christopher Zappala, Heather Allan, Sacha Macansh, Christopher Grainge, Gregory J. Keir, Andrew Hayen, Douglas H Source Type: research

Towards a refined definition of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - October 16, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jeffrey J. Swigris Source Type: research

Predicting response to bronchial thermoplasty in patients with severe uncontrolled asthma: An elusive goal
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - October 16, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chase S. Hall, Mario Castro Source Type: research

Predictive factors and prognostic effect of telomere shortening in pulmonary fibrosis
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - October 15, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lurdes Planas ‐Cerezales, Elena G. Arias‐Salgado, Ivette Buendia‐Roldán, Ana Montes‐Worboys, Cristina E. López, Vanesa Vicens Zygmunt, Patricio L. Hernaiz, Roger L. Sanuy, Virginia Leiro‐Fernandez, Eva B. Vilarnau, Ernest S. Llinás, Source Type: research

Issue Information
Respirology,Volume 23, Issue 11, Page 961-965, November 2018. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - October 15, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Double combination inhalers in COPD: How to get your head around this data
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - October 13, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dave Singh Source Type: research

Targeting reactive oxygen species for respiratory infection: Fact or fancy?
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - October 8, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Stavros Selemidis Source Type: research

Modelling COPD co ‐morbidities in preclinical models
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - October 4, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ross Vlahos, Steven Bozinovski Source Type: research

TGF ‐β: Master regulator of inflammation and fibrosis
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - October 4, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Alastair G. Stewart, Belinda Thomas, Jon Koff Source Type: research

A consensus opinion amongst stakeholders as to benefits of obstructive sleep apnoea treatment for cardiovascular health
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - October 4, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Shane A. Landry, Siobhan Banks, Peter A. Cistulli, Garun S. Hamilton, Laure H éraud, Kristina Kairaitis, Steven Lubke, Sutapa Mukherjee, Teanau Roebuck, Joesph Soda, Darren Umbers, Shantha M. W. Rajaratnam, Darren Mansfield Source Type: research

The contribution of respiratory microbiome analysis to a treatable traits model of care
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - October 3, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Steven L. Taylor, Hannah E. O'Farrell, Jodie L. Simpson, Ian A. Yang, Geraint B. Rogers Source Type: research

Understanding the patient's experience of care in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - October 3, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kimberley Burnett, Ian Glaspole, Anne E. Holland Source Type: research

Transcriptomics and single ‐cell RNA‐sequencing
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 28, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Daniel C. Chambers, Alan M. Carew, Samuel W. Lukowski, Joseph E. Powell Source Type: research

Emerging therapies in adult and paediatric bronchiectasis
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 22, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kate H. Regan , Adam T. Hill Source Type: research

High ‐pressure non‐invasive ventilation during exercise in COPD patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure: A randomized, controlled, cross‐over trial
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 22, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rainer Gloeckl , Vasileios Andrianopoulos , Antje Stegemann , Julian Oversohl , Tessa Schneeberger , Ursula Schoenheit ‐Kenn , Wolfgang Hitzl , Michael Dreher , A. Rembert Koczulla , Klaus Kenn Source Type: research

Issue Information
Respirology,Volume 23, Issue 10, Page 877-880, October 2018. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 20, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Melbourne epidemic thunderstorm asthma event 2016: Lessons learnt from the perfect storm
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Francis Thien MD, FRACP, FCCP Source Type: research

Triaging treatable traits in asthma
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Christina Baggott MBChB , Richard Beasley MBChB, DSc Source Type: research

Red blood cell transfusion in acute pulmonary embolism
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kailei Du MD , Ligang Bao MD , Yanfei Shen MD Source Type: research

Red blood cell transfusion in acute pulmonary embolism – Reply
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Christopher Wong MBBS , Leonard Kritharides PhD , Austin Chin Chwan Ng MMed Source Type: research

Annual decline in arterial blood oxygen predicts development of chronic respiratory failure in COPD with mild hypoxaemia: A 6 ‐year follow‐up study
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kiyoshi Uemasu , Susumu Sato , Shigeo Muro , Atsuyasu Sato , Naoya Tanabe , Koichi Hasegawa , Yoko Hamakawa , Tatsushi Mizutani , Yoshinori Fuseya , Kazuya Tanimura , Tamaki Takahashi , Toyohiro Hirai Source Type: research

Treatable traits can be identified in a severe asthma registry and predict future exacerbations
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Vanessa M. McDonald , Sarah A. Hiles , Krystelle Godbout , Erin S. Harvey , Guy B. Marks , Mark Hew , Matthew Peters , Philip G. Bardin , Paul N. Reynolds , John W. Upham , Melissa Baraket , Zaheerodin Bhikoo Source Type: research

Obstructive sleep apnoea and cholesterol: Independence in context
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 18, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Shane A. Landry PhD , Simon A. Joosten MBBS, BMedSc, PhD Source Type: research

Modification of the prolonged mechanical ventilation prognostic model score to predict short ‐term and 1‐year mortalities
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 17, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yu Rang Park , Ji Sung Lee , Hwa Jung Kim , Sang ‐Bum Hong , Chae‐Mann Lim , Younsuck Koh , Jin Won Huh Source Type: research

Insights into respiratory disease through bioinformatics
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 15, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bhavna Hurgobin , Emma de Jong , Anthony Bosco Source Type: research

Work environment risks for health care workers with cystic fibrosis
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Scott C. Bell , David Armstrong , Glenys Harrington , Luke Jardine , Rebekah Divakaran , Bebe Loff , Peter G. Middleton , Tim McDonald , Karen Rowland , Michael Wishart , Michelle E. Wood , Rhonda L. Stuart Source Type: research

High ‐intensity inspiratory muscle training in bronchiectasis: A randomized controlled trial
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 13, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ozge Ozalp , Deniz Inal ‐Ince , Aslihan Cakmak , Ebru Calik‐Kutukcu , Melda Saglam , Sema Savci , Naciye Vardar‐Yagli , Hülya Arikan , Jale Karakaya , Lütfi Coplu Source Type: research

Letter from Vietnam
Respirology, EarlyView. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 13, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Giap Van Vu MD, PhD Source Type: research