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The effects of exercise on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors as well as lung and hippocampus oxidative stress in ovalbumin-sensitized juvenile rats
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Amin Mokhtari-Zaer, Mahmoud Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady Allergic asthma during early life period has been reported to be associated with neurochemical and behavioral disorders, including anxiety and depression. We aimed to determine the effects of exercise on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors as well as lung and hippocampus oxidative stress in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized juvenile rats. Animals were divided into 4 groups including control (non-exercised and non-sensitized), Exe (exercise and non-s...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Loss of CDKL5 disrupts respiratory function in mice
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Kun-Ze Lee, Wenlin Liao Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) is an X-linked gene encoding a serine-threonine kinase that is highly expressed in the central nervous system. Mutations in CDKL5 cause neurological and psychiatric symptoms, including early-onset seizures, motor dysfunction, autistic features and sleep breathing abnormalities in patients. It remains to be addressed whether loss of CDKL5 causes respiratory dysfunction in mice. Here, we examined the respiratory pattern of male Cdkl5 −/y mice ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 6, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Breathing disturbances in a model of Rett syndrome: a potential involvement of the glycine receptor α3 subunit?
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Guillaume Mesuret, Julia Dannenberg, Mauricio Arnoldt, Anja-Annett Grützner, Marcus Niebert, Swen Hülsmann The glycine receptor α3 subunit is known to be a target for cAMP/PKA-mediated phosphorylation and regulation. Mice that lack this subunit are apparently normal but the 5-HT1A-receptor mediated modulation of respiratory network activity is disturbed. Since the intracellular cAMP-concentration is reduced in mice that lack the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) ge...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 6, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The Influence of 5-HT1A Receptors in the Dorsal Raph é Nucleus on Genioglossus Activity
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Ying Zou, Wei Wang, Hongyu Jin, Xinshi Nie, Jiahuan Xu, Ying Liu, Jian Kang Genioglossus activity maintains the patency of the upper airway. 5-HT neurons in the raphe nucleus regulate genioglossus activity. In order to study the influence of 5-HT1A receptors in dorsal raphé nucleus (DRN) on genioglossus EMG during normoxia, adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: the artificial cerebrospinal fluid group (ACSF group), the low-concentration of 5-HT1A receptors agonist 8-OH-DPAT gro...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 6, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Quasi-static pulmonary P –V curves of patients with ARDS, Part I: Characterization
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 248 Author(s): Mohsen Nabian, Uichiro Narusawa Quasi-static, pulmonary pressure–volume (P–V) curves are combined with a respiratory system model to analyze characteristics of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It is shown that there exist distinct differences between healthy- and injured-respiratory system in the order of magnitudes of parameters of their P–V model equation. Four stages of ARDS (Early ARDS, Deep knee, Advanced ARDS and Baby lung) are defined quantitatively in terms of these ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 6, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Microstructural cerebral lesions are associated with the severity of central sleep apnea with Cheyne-Stokes-respiration in heart failure and are modified by PAP-therapy
This study investigated the association of microstructural cerebral lesions with central sleep apnea with Cheyne-Stokes-respiration (CSA-CSR) in heart failure (HF) patients and the effect of positive airway pressure therapy (PAP) of CSA-CSR on these lesions. PAP-therapy was initiated in patients with HF with midrange and with reduced ejection fraction (NYHA≥II; left ventricular ejection fraction <50%) and proven CSA-CSR. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at 3T including diffusion tensor imaging were obtained before and after 4 months of PAP-therapy. Cerebral MRI scans revealed microstructural lesion...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 28, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Respiratory functional and motor control deficits in children with spinal cord injury
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 247 Author(s): Goutam Singh, Andrea L. Behrman, Sevda C. Aslan, Shelley Trimble, Alexander V. Ovechkin Children with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at high risk for developing complications due to respiratory motor control deficits. However, underlying mechanisms of these abnormalities with respect to age, development, and injury characteristics are unclear. To evaluate the effect of SCI and age on respiratory motor control in children with SCI, we compared pulmonary function and respiratory motor control outcome measures in healthy ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 28, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Exercise testing in patients with diaphragm paresis
Conclusions DP decreases aerobic capacity due to ventilatory limitation. Diaphragm function is correlated with exercise ventilation whereas overall inspiratory muscle function is correlated with both exercise capacity and ventilation suggesting the importance of the accessory inspiratory muscles during exercise for patients with DP. Further larger prospective studies are needed to confirm these results. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 28, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Respiratory muscle strength is decreased after maximal incremental exercise in trained runners and cyclists
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 248 Author(s): Ferid Oueslati, Ahmed Berriri, Jan Boone, Said Ahmaidi The respiratory muscle fatigue seems to be able to limit exercise performance and may influence the determination of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) or maximum aerobic work rate during maximal incremental test. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether maximal incremental exercise decreases respiratory muscle strength. We hypothesized that respiratory muscle strength (maximal pressure) will decrease after maximal incremental exercise to exhausti...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 28, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

K-complex morphological features in male obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome patients
This study characterized the differences in K-complex (KC) morphology features between obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patients and healthy controls and analyzed the effect of respiratory events on KC morphology. We enrolled 42 male subjects (21 OSAHS patients and 21 age-matched healthy controls) who underwent overnight polysomnography. KCs in stage N2 were manually identified. We found that KCs in healthy controls had larger negative and whole amplitudes, longer durations, and smoother positive waves than OSAHS patients but smaller positive amplitudes. Most features showed highly significant differences ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 10, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Hypoglossal motoneurons are endogenously activated by serotonin during the active period of circadian cycle
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Leszek Kubin, Graziella L. Mann In obstructive sleep apnea patients, contraction of lingual muscles protects the pharyngeal airway from collapse. Hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons innervate the muscles of the tongue and are themselves under wake-related excitatory drives, including that mediated by serotonin (5-HT). Estimates of endogenous 5-HT activation vary among different studies. We tested whether endogenous drive mediated by 5-HT is present in rat XII motoneurons when measured during the active period of th...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 10, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Numerical study of the airflow structures in an idealized mouth-throat under light and heavy breathing intensities using large eddy simulation
In conclusion, these airflow structures show distinct properties at light and heavy breathing conditions, particularly in the unsteady flow field. The study provides evidence about the physical processes leading to both enlarged mixing zones and recirculation zones. It is known that stronger secondary vortices, a stronger laryngeal jet and enlarged recirculation zones definitely increase the particle deposition in the upper airway. The present paper aims to uncover the physical properties of the airflow for different breathing conditions, and their detailed effect on particle deposition will be studied in future. (Source: ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Spinal activation of protein kinase C elicits phrenic motor facilitation
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Michael J. Devinney, Gordon S. Mitchell The protein kinase C family regulates many cellular functions, including multiple forms of neuroplasticity. The novel PKCθ and atypical PKCζ isoforms have been implicated in distinct forms of spinal, respiratory motor plasticity, including phrenic motor facilitation (pMF) following acute intermittent hypoxia or inactivity, respectively. Although these PKC isoforms are critical in regulating spinal motor plasticity, other isoforms may be important for phrenic ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 2, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The effects of truncal adiposity in forced spirometry: Sex differences
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 247 Author(s): Rafael Martin Holguera, Ana Isabel Turrion Nieves, Rosa Rodriguez Torres, María Concepción Alonso The aim of the current paper is to establish the influence of truncal fat accumulation on the spirometric results of a group of healthy individuals. A cross-sectional study of 305 healthy, non-smoking adult subjects (144 males, 161 females) was conducted. Forced spirometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to quantify body fat were performed. Partial correlation and multiple linear regression analyses we...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 2, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Dietary nitrate supplementation opposes the elevated diaphragm blood flow in chronic heart failure during submaximal exercise
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 247 Author(s): Joshua R. Smith, Scott K. Ferguson, K. Sue Hageman, Craig A. Harms, David C. Poole, Timothy I. Musch Chronic heart failure (CHF) results in a greater cost of breathing and necessitates an elevated diaphragm blood flow (BF). Dietary nitrate (NO3‾) supplementation lowers the cost of exercise. We hypothesized that dietary NO3‾ supplementation would attenuate the CHF-induced greater cost of breathing and thus the heightened diaphragm BF during exercise. CHF rats received either 5days of NO3‾-rich beetro...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 22, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Activation of respiratory muscles during respiratory muscle training
This study evaluated Inspiratory Pressure Threshold Loading (IPTL), Inspiratory Flow Resistive Loading (IFRL) and Voluntary Isocapnic Hyperpnea (VIH) with regard to electromyographic (EMG) activation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM), parasternal muscles (PARA) and the diaphragm (DIA) in randomized order. Surface EMG were analyzed at the end of each training session and normalized using the peak EMG recorded during maximum inspiratory maneuvers (Sniff nasal pressure: SnPna, maximal inspiratory mouth occlusion pressure: PImax). 41 healthy participants were included. Maximal activation was achieved for SCM by SnPna; th...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 18, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Aerosol furosemide for dyspnea: Controlled delivery does not improve effectiveness
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Capucine Morélot-Panzini, Carl R. O’Donnell, Robert W. Lansing, Richard M. Schwartzstein, Robert B. Banzett Aerosolized furosemide has been shown to relieve dyspnea; nevertheless, all published studies have shown great variability in response. This dyspnea relief is thought to result from the stimulation of slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors simulating larger tidal volume. We hypothesized that better control over aerosol administration would produce more consistent dyspnea relief; we use...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Oxygen Uptake Kinetics Following Six Weeks of Interval and Continuous Endurance Exercise Training − An explorative pilot study
Conclusions Discrepancies in the adaptations of the involved exercise induced physiological systems seem to be responsible for the observed significant alterations in maximal V’O2 after six weeks of the training intervention in contrast to no changes in the kinetics responses. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Spirometry Reference Values for an Andean High-Altitude Population
Conclusions These results establish spirometric-prediction equations for the population studied and further demonstrate: (1) a linear decline of FVC and FEV1 with age for both genders, (2) age and height satisfactorily predict both parameters, (3) supra-normal values for this population were found when compared to those predicted by lowland Caucasian equations. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 7, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Sensory-mechanical effects of a dual bronchodilator and its anticholinergic component in COPD
Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Denis E. O’Donnell, Amany F. Elbehairy, Azmy Faisal, J. Alberto Neder, Katherine A. Webb This randomized, double-blind, crossover study examined the physiological rationale for using a dual long-acting bronchodilator (umeclidinium/vilanterol (UME/VIL)) versus its muscarinic-antagonist component (UME) as treatment for dyspnea and exercise intolerance in moderate COPD. After each 4-week treatment period, subjects performed pulmonary function and symptom-limited constant-work rate cycling tests with diaphra...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 7, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Angiotensin 1-7 in the rostro-ventrolateral medulla increases blood pressure and splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity in anesthetized rats
Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Mark S. Bilodeau, J.C. Leiter Angiotensin 1-7 (ANG-(1-7)), a derivative of angiotensin I or II, is involved in the propagation of sympathetic output to the heart and vasculature, and the receptor for ANG-(1-7), the Mas receptor, is expressed on astrocytes in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). We recorded blood pressure (BP) and splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) before and after focal injection of ANG-(1-7) into the RVLM of rats. Unilateral injection of ANG-(1-7) into the RVLM, acting through ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 6, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Developing an exogenous pulmonary surfactant-glucocorticoids association: Effect of corticoid concentration on the biophysical properties of the surfactant
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 247 Author(s): Alejandra Cimato, Graciela Facorro, Margarita Martínez Sarrasague Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used to treat lung disease. GCs incorporated in an exogenous pulmonary surfactant (EPS) could be an alternative management to improve drug delivery avoiding side effects. In the development of these pharmaceutical products, it is important to know the maximum amount of GC that can be incorporated and if increasing quantities of GCs alter EPS biophysical properties. Formulations containing EPS and beclomethasone, budeson...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 1, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A new method for noninvasive measurement of pulmonary gas exchange using expired gas
Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): John B. West, G. Kim Prisk Measurement of the gas exchange efficiency of the lung is often required in the practice of pulmonary medicine and in other settings. The traditional standard is the values of the PO2, PCO2, and pH of arterial blood. However arterial puncture requires technical expertise, is invasive, uncomfortable for the patient, and expensive. Here we describe how the composition of expired gas can be used in conjunction with pulse oximetry to obtain useful measures of gas exchange efficiency. ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 29, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Developing an exogenous pulmonary surfactant -glucocorticoids association: effect of corticoid concentration on the biophysical properties of the surfactant.
Publication date: Available online 27 September 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Alejandra Cimato, Graciela Facorro, Margarita Martínez Sarrasague Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used to treat lung disease. GCs incorporated in an exogenous pulmonary surfactant (EPS) could be an alternative management to improve drug delivery avoiding side effects. In the development of these pharmaceutical products, it is important to know the maximum amount of GC that can be incorporated and if increasing quantities of GCs alter EPS biophysical properties. Formulations containing EPS and beclomethason...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 28, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Hypoxia induces the dysfunction of human endothelial colony-forming cells via HIF-1 α signaling
This study investigated the impact of hypoxia on human ECFCs function in vitro and the underlying mechanism. We found that hypoxia inhibited ECFCs proliferation, migration and angiogenesis. Compared with no treatment, the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in hypoxia-treated ECFCs was increased, with an up-regulation of p27 and a down-regulation of cyclin D1. The over-secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was detected, with the imbalanced expression of fetal liver kinase 1 (flk-1) and fms related tyrosine kinase 1 (flt-1). Hypoxia-induced changes in ECFCs could be reversed by HIF-1&...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 28, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Metformin influences on respiratory system in obese mice induced by postnatal overnutrition
In conclusion, metformińs beneficial effects on lung are questionable in the postnatal overnutrition model of obesity. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 28, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

T-cell profile and systemic cytokine levels in overweight-obese patients with moderate to very-severe COPD
This study aimed to evaluate the immune profile of lean and overweight-obese COPD patients. Forty patients with moderate to very severe COPD were divided into lean group (n=20; aged 62.00±8.91years; BMI 22.26±1.65kg/m2) or overweight-obese group (n=20; aged 65.40±6.69years; BMI 29.19±3.55kg/m2). The cytokine profile (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, INF-γ, and TNF-α) was evaluated through the Cytometric Bead Array technique, and the expression of CD4, CD8, CD25, CD45ra, CD45ro, CD69, CD195(CCr5) and HLA-DR were evaluated in CD3+ T-cells. Overweight-obese COPD group had lower levels of IL-2 (...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 28, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Links between lower urinary tract symptoms, intermittent hypoxia and diabetes: Causes or cures?
Publication date: Available online 17 September 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Lisa L. Abler, Chad M. Vezina Bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) manifest as urinary frequency, urgency, incontinence and incomplete bladder emptying. Existing treatments ameliorate but do not eliminate most symptoms, leading to financial and personal burdens attributable to sustained medical therapies that may last a lifetime. The purpose of this review is to highlight evidence of causal associations between LUTS and several common comorbidities, including intermittent hypoxia (IH) concomitant ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 19, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Selenium nanoparticles enhanced thermal tolerance and maintain cellular stress protection of Pangasius hypophthalmus reared under lead and high temperature
Publication date: Available online 17 September 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Neeraj Kumar, KK Krishnani, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Narendra Pratap Singh There is strong relation between nutrition and thermal tolerance of fish in terms of improved critical temperature minima (CTmin), lethal temperature minima (LTmin), critical temperature maxima (CTmax), and lethal temperature maxima (LTmax). Fishes act as quantifying indicators to the climate change due to their critical thermal limits in nature and ability to adjust thermal sensitivity to maintain their homeostasis. In the present study,...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 19, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of CPAP on Sleep Spindles In Patients with OSA
Conclusion Both spindle count and oxygen saturation were recorded to be significantly increased under CPAP titration while there was a significant decrease in apnea-hypopnea. We have shown that significant increase in number of spindles can be achieved with CPAP treatment, those to be decreased in patient with OSA. Number of spindles may play a role as an indicator of better outcome in OSA patients. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 19, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness on complexity of breathing pattern in rat
Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Mehdi Eslami-Behroozi, Mohammad Javan, Mohammad Reza Raoufy The complexity of respiratory dynamics is decreased, in association with disease severity, in patients with asthma. However, the pathophysiological basis of decreased complexity of breathing pattern in asthma is not clear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness induced by repeated bronchoconstriction (using methacholine) on breathing pattern in rats with or without allergen-induced sensitizatio...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 16, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

With age a lower individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher maximal heart rate
Discussion The presented findings indicate an independent association between the breathing reserve at maximal exercise and maximal heart rate, i.e. a low individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher age-related HRmax. A deeper understanding of this association has to be investigated in a more physiological scenario. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 14, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Bronchoprotective Effect of Deep Inspirations in Cough Variant Asthma: a Distinguishing Feature in the Spectrum of Airway Disease?
Conclusions DIs triggered bronchoconstriction in CA, bronchoprotection in CVA, and prevented gas trapping in COUGH. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 14, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Dysfunctional breathing is more frequent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than in asthma and in health
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 247 Author(s): Natalie Law, Laurence E. Ruane, Kathy Low, Kais Hamza, Philip G. Bardin Involuntary adaptations of breathing patterns to counter breathlessness may lead to dysfunctional breathing in obstructive lung diseases. However, no studies examining dysfunctional breathing in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have been reported. Patients with verified COPD (n=34), asthma (n=37) and a healthy control group (n=41) were recruited. All participants completed the Nijmegen questionnaire for dysfunctional breathing as well...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Sex differences in respiratory muscle activation patterns during high-intensity exercise in healthy humans
Publication date: Available online 7 September 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Reid A. Mitchell, Michele R. Schaeffer, Andrew H. Ramsook, Sabrina S. Wilkie, Jordan A. Guenette Although women experience greater ventilatory constraints and have a higher work of breathing during exercise, they are less susceptible to diaphragm fatigue compared to men. The mechanisms for diaphragmatic fatigue resistance in women is unknown but may be related to sex differences in respiratory muscle recruitment. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine if electromyography (EMG) of the diaphra...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Sex differences in the respiratory-sympathetic coupling in rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia
Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): George Miguel P.R. Souza, Mateus R. Amorim, Davi J.A. Moraes, Benedito H. Machado Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a complex disease in which humans face episodes of intermittent hypoxia and it affects men and women. Patients with OSA present hypertension and sympathetic overactivity among several other dysfunctions. Therefore, one important question remains: are the autonomic dysfunctions associated with OSA similar in male and female? This is an unresolved question since sex factors are overlooked in most ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Lung responses in murine models of experimental asthma: value of house dust mite over ovalbumin sensitization
In conclusion, we demonstrate that a purified natural allergen offers a more relevant murine model of human allergic asthma by expressing the key features of this chronic inflammatory disease both in the lung function and structure. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Heme oxygenase-1 participates in the resolution of seawater drowning-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome
In this study, gross and microscopic morphology of pulmonary tissue, computed tomography images and biochemical indexes were continuously observed from 15min to 15day after seawater drowning. The content and activity of HO-1 were determined by western-blot and spectrophotometric method, respectively. The morphological and biochemical indexes indicated that the seawater drowning could lead to the serious pulmonary hemorrhage and edema. However, 6h after drowning, these morphological and biochemical indexes gradually returned to basal level. Meanwhile, seawater drowning increased the HO-1 expression and activity while Zinc p...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

In cystic fibrosis, lung clearance index is sensitive to detecting abnormalities appearing at exercise in children with normal spirometry
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Riyadh Chelabi, Thibaud Soumagne, Alicia Guillien, Marc Puyraveau, Bruno Degano Symptom-limited incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed in school-age children with clinically stable cystic fibrosis (CF), all with normal spirometry. Physiological parameters were compared between patients with normal lung clearance index (LCI; n=6) and patients with elevated LCI (n=6). Dyspnoea ratings during exercise were similar in both groups. Although no patient had significant dynamic hyperinflation, end-e...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

“Spirometric” lung age reference equations: a narrative review
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Mouna Ben Khelifa, Halima Ben Salem, Raoudha Sfaxi, Souheil Chatti, Sonia Rouatbi, Helmi Ben Saad The aim of the present paper was to conduct a narrative review of the published norms of the “spirometric” lung-age (SLA). A literature search which covered the period 1970 to June 2017, was conducted using the Pubmed. The search strategy had used the following MeSH words: “Spirometry”[Majr]) AND “Aging”[Majr]. Six original studies have reported equations predicting SLA for ad...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 2, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Blood pressure response during normocapnic hyperpnoea is blunted in young women compared to men
Publication date: Available online 2 September 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Kaori Shimizu, Kanako Goto, Koji Ishida, Mitsuru Saito, Hiroshi Akima, Keisho Katayama We hypothesized that young women have a lower arterial blood pressure (BP) response to high inspiratory and expiratory muscle contractions with normocapnic hyperpnoea compared to age-matched men. To test this hypothesis, the cardiovascular response during voluntary normocapnic incremental hyperpnoea was evaluated in young women and compared to that of young men. An incremental respiratory endurance test (IRET) was performe...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 2, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

SiO2-induced release of sVEGFRs from pulmonary macrophages
Conclusion Our findings highlight the important role of sVEGFRs in both inflammation and fibrosis induced by SiO2, suggesting a possible mechanism for the fibrogenic effects observed in pulmonary diseases associated with fibrosis. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 31, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Role of cystathionine- γ-lyase in hypoxia-induced changes in TASK activity, intracellular [Ca2+] and ventilation in mice
Publication date: Available online 26 August 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Jiaju Wang, James O Hogan, Rui Wang, Carl White, Donghee Kim Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) is a multifunctional enzyme, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of its products. CSE and H2S have recently been proposed to be critical signaling molecules in hypoxia-induced excitation of carotid body (CB) glomus cells and the chemosensory response. Because the role of H2S in arterial chemoreception is still debated, we further examined the role of CSE by studying the effects of hypoxia on TASK K+ channel activity, c...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 27, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Aerosol furosemide for dyspnea: high-dose controlled delivery does not improve effectiveness
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Robert B. Banzett, Richard M. Schwartzstein, Robert W. Lansing, Carl R. O'Donnell Published studies have shown great variability in response when aerosolized furosemide has been tested as a palliative treatment for dyspnea. We hypothesized that a higher furosemide dose with controlled aerosol administration would produce consistent dyspnea relief. We optimized deposition by controlling inspiratory flow (300–500ml/s) and tidal volume (15% predicted vital capacity) while delivering 3.4micron aerosol from e...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 25, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Ventilatory response to carbon monoxide during exercise in hypoxia and hypercapnia
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): George H. Crocker, Jenny Kwon, Philip H. Kass, James H. Jones We tested if the addition of CO to inspired gases with different inspired O2 and CO2 fractions (F IO2 and F ICO2) stimulates ventilation at rest or during submaximal exercise. We measured minute ventilation (V E) in goats breathing combinations of F IO2 ranging from 0.21 to 0.06 and F ICO2 from 0 to 0.05, both with and without inspired CO resulting in carboxyhemoglobin fractions (F HbCO) of 0.02 (no CO added), 0.15, or 0.45. We did this while they s...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 24, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Sex-based differences in respiratory control: Progress in basic physiology and clinical research
Publication date: Available online 19 August 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Richard Kinkead, Evelyn Schlenker (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 19, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Intermittent hypoxia and cancer: undesirable bed partners?
Publication date: Available online 14 August 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Isaac Almendros, David Gozal The deleterious effects of intermittent hypoxia (IH) on cancer biology have been primarily evaluated in the context of the aberrant circulation observed in solid tumors which results in recurrent intra-tumoral episodic hypoxia. From those studies, IH has been linked to an accelerated tumor progression, metastasis and resistance to therapies. More recently, the role of IH in cancer has also been studied in the context of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), since IH is a hallmark characte...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 18, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Intermittent Hypoxia Training: Powerful, Non-Invasive Cerebroprotection Against Ethanol Withdrawal Excitotoxicity
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Marianna E. Jung, Robert T. Mallet Ethanol intoxication and withdrawal exact a devastating toll on the central nervous system. Abrupt ethanol withdrawal provokes massive release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, which over-activates its postsynaptic receptors, causing intense Ca2+ loading, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase activation and oxidative stress, culminating in ATP depletion, mitochondrial injury, amyloid β deposition and neuronal death. Collectively, these mechanisms produce neuro...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 17, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The physiology of submaximal exercise: the steady state concept
Publication date: Available online 15 August 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Guido Ferretti, Nazzareno Fagoni, Anna Taboni, Paolo Bruseghini, Giovanni Vinetti The steady state concept implies that the oxygen flow is invariant and equal at each level along the respiratory system. The same is the case with the carbon dioxide flow. This condition has several physiological consequences, which are analysed. First, we briefly discuss the mechanical efficiency of exercise and the energy cost of human locomotion, as well as the roles played by aerodynamic work and frictional work. Then we anal...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 17, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Phrenic long-term facilitation following intrapleural CTB-SAP-induced respiratory motor neuron death
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Nicole L. Nichols, Taylor A. Craig, Miles A. Tanner Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease leading to progressive motor neuron degeneration and death by ventilatory failure. In a rat model of ALS (SOD1G93A), phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) is enhanced greater than expected at disease end-stage but the mechanism is unknown. We suggest that one trigger for this enhancement is motor neuron death itself. Intrapleural injections of cholera toxin...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 17, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research