Examining work-to-rest ratios to optimize upper body sprint interval training
The objective was to compare the metabolic influence of varying work-to-rest ratios during upper body sprint interval training (SIT). Forty-two recreationally-trained men were randomized into a training group [10 s work - 2 min of rest (10:2) or 4 min of rest (10:4), or 30 s work - 4 min of rest (30:4)] or a control group (CON). Participants underwent six training sessions over two weeks. Assessments consisted of a graded exercise test [maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) and peak power output (PPO)], four constant-work rate trials [critical power, anaerobic working capacity, and elect...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 18, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Borderline pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic hypercapnia in chronic pulmonary disease
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Liu Zuoyou, Satomi Shiota, Yoshiteru Morio, Ai Sugiyama, Mitsuaki Sekiya, Shin-ichiro Iwakami, Hiroki Ienaga, Yoshinosuke Fukuchi, Kazuhisa TakahashAbstractPulmonary hypertension (PH) due to lung diseases is classified as group 3 by the Dana Point classification. Given the basic pathophysiological conditions of group 3 lung diseases and the previously well-known concept of hypercapnic pulmonary vasoconstriction, chronic hypercapnia besides alveolar hypoxia might be another causative factor to increase mean pulmonar...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 18, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Analysis of motor and respiratory function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Lívia Cocato Luiz, Fernando Augusto Lima Marson, Celize Cruz Bresciani Almeida, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera Toro, Anamarli Nucci, José Dirceu RibeiroAbstractIntroductionDuchenne muscular dystrophy(DMD) shows motor and respiratory impairment.Methods19 DMD patients(DMDG) (nine ambulatory and 10 non-ambulatory) were evaluated through motor function measure(MFM), 6-minute walk test(6MWT), respiratory muscle strength, cough peak flow, spirometry and volumetric capnography(VCap) tools. Control g...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 18, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion and unpleasantness of dyspnea in obese men
Publication date: Available online 15 January 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Vipa Bernhardt, Dharini M. Bhammar, Rubria Marines-Price, Tony G. BabbAbstractWe hypothesized that weight loss would ameliorate dyspnea on exertion (DOE) and feelings of unpleasantness related to the DOE in obese men.Eighteen men (34 ± 7yr, 35 ± 4 kg/m2 BMI, mean ± SD) participated in a 12-week weight loss program. Body composition, pulmonary function, cardiorespiratory measures, DOE, and unpleasantness (visual analog scale) were assessed before ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 16, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The effect of remote ischemic pre-conditioning on pulmonary vascular pressure and gas exchange in healthy humans during hypoxia
This study investigated whether rIPC alters the typical changes in pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary gas exchange associated with exercise in hypoxia. METHODS. 16 healthy adults were randomized to either rIPC treatment (n = 8) or control (n = 8). Afterward, subjects performed supine ergometry at constant load (30 watts, 40˜50 rpm) for 25 min during hypoxia (12.5% O2). Following a 90˜120 min rest, either rIPC or sham treatment was performed, which was then followed by post-assessment exercise. Throughout exercise, pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 16, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Sustained maximal inspiration has similar effects compared to incentive spirometers
ConclusionSMI exercise was equivalent to incentive spirometers and may be an interesting alternative for clinical use in cases in which it is not possible to acquire the devices. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 15, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Circulatory control of phrenic motor plasticity
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Raphael R. Perim, Gordon S. MitchellAbstractAcute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) elicits distinct mechanisms of phrenic motor plasticity initiated by brainstem neural network activation versus local (spinal) tissue hypoxia. With moderate AIH (mAIH), hypoxemia activates the carotid body chemoreceptors and (subsequently) brainstem neural networks associated with the peripheral chemoreflex, including medullary raphe serotonergic neurons. Serotonin release and receptor activation in the phrenic motor nucleus then elicits p...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 11, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Sensory consequences of critical inspiratory constraints during exercise in pulmonary arterial hypertension
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Rui Gustavo Dorneles, Franciele Plachi, Ricardo Gass, Vinicius Timm Toniazzo, Paulo Thome, Paulo R. Sanches, Marcelo B. Gazzana, J. Alberto Neder, Danilo C. BertonAbstractWe aimed to assess detailed ventilatory and sensory responses to exercise contrasting subjects with and without PAH.20 non-smoking patients with PAH (37.5 ± 12.1 ys; FEV1/FVC = 0.77 ± 0.04; mPAP by heart catheterization = 50.6 ± 18.1 mmHg) and 1...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 8, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: February 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 260Author(s): (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 8, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Compensatory Plasticity for Respiratory Motor Neuron Death
Publication date: Available online 6 January 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Yasin B. Seven, Gordon S. MitchellAbstractRespiratory motor neuron death arises from multiple neurodegenerative and traumatic neuromuscular disorders. Despite motor neuron death, compensatory mechanisms minimize its functional impact by harnessing intrinsic mechanisms of compensatory respiratory plasticity. However, the capacity for compensation eventually reaches limits and pathology ensues. Initially, challenges to the system such as increased metabolic demand reveal sub-clinical pathology. With greater motor neur...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 6, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

How to breathe? Respiratory mechanics and breathing pattern
Publication date: Available online 31 December 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Jacopo P. MortolaAbstractOn theoretical grounds any given level of pulmonary or alveolar ventilation can be obtained at various absolute lung volumes and through many combinations of tidal volume, breathing frequency and inspiratory and expiratory timing. However, inspection of specific cases of newborn and adult mammals at rest indicates that the breathing pattern reflects a principle of economy oriented toward minimal respiratory work. The mechanisms that permit optimization of respiratory cost are poorly unders...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 1, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cervical spinal contusion alters Na+-K+-2Cl- and K+-Cl- cation-chloride cotransporter expression in phrenic motor neurons
Publication date: Available online 24 December 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Latoya L. Allen, Yasin B. Seven, Tracy L. Baker, Gordon S. MitchellAbstractSpinal chloride-dependent synaptic inhibition is critical in regulating breathing and requires neuronal chloride gradients established by cation-chloride cotransporters Na+-K+-2Cl- (NKCC1) and K+-Cl- (KCC2). Spinal transection disrupts NKCC1/KCC2 balance, diminishing chloride gradients in neurons below injury, contributing to spasticity and chronic pain. It is not known if similar disruptions in NKCC1/KCC2 balance occur in respiratory motor...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 25, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Longitudinal changes in pulmonary function and respiratory impedance of rheumatoid arthritis
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Yoshitaka Isobe, Satoru Ito, Toshiaki Matsuda, Shingo Iwano, Akemi Uchida, Nobunori Takahashi, Toshihisa Kojima, Keiko Wakahara, Etsuro Yamaguchi, Yoshinori HasegawaAbstractThe aim of this study was to examine long-term changes in pulmonary function and respiratory impedance (Zrs) as assessed by forced oscillation technique (FOT) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related pulmonary disorders. Data of 42 RA patients who underwent pulmonary function tests and Zrs measurements at least twice at a>900-day interval were r...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 22, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Intercostal muscle oxygenation during expiratory load breathing at rest
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Quentin Bretonneau, Aurélien Pichon, Claire de BisschopAbstractBackgroundDuring acute bronchial obstruction, despite a higher work of breathing, blood supply and oxygen availability may be reduced in intercostal muscles because of mechanical constraints. This hypothesis was assessed in healthy subjects breathing with and without expiratory load (ETL).MethodsEleven men (24 ± 2 years) breathed at rest for 5 min in unloaded condition and for 20 min through a 20-cmH2O ETL. Tis...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 22, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The motor pattern of tracheobronchial cough is affected by inspiratory resistance and expiratory occlusion – the evidence for volume feedback during cough expiration
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Ivan Poliacek, Zuzana Kotmanova, Marcel Veternik, Teresa Pitts, Lukas Martvon, Jakub Misek, Jan Jakus, Michal SimeraAbstractThe role of pulmonary stretch receptor discharge and volume feedback in modulation of tracheobronchial cough is not fully understood. The current study investigates the effect of expiratory occlusion with or without preceding inspiratory resistance (delivery of tidal or cough volume by the ventilator lasting over the active cough expiratory period) on the cough motor pattern.Experiments on 9 ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 22, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Spectral analysis of peri-pharyngeal muscles’ EMG in patients with OSA and healthy subjects
ConclusionsThe pattern of decrease in ƒc is compatible with altered synchronization of SMUs during sleep. We speculate that these changes may contribute to the failure of dilator muscles to improve flow limitation during sleep in older subjects. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 21, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Standard and viscoelastic mechanical properties of respiratory system compartments in dogs: effect of volume, posture, and shape
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Edgardo D’Angelo, Edoardo Calderini, Mario Tavola, Matteo PecchiariAbstractIn 9 anesthetized, paralyzed dogs lung and chest-wall standard (viscous resistance, Rint, and quasi-static elastance, Est) and viscoelastic parameters (resistance, Rvel, and time constant, τvel) were measured in the supine posture before and after rib-cage block, after application of an expiratory threshold load, and after 75° head-up tilting before and after wide chest opening. Lung and chest-wall τvel were the same under...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Reproducibility of Diaphragmatic Thickness Measured by M-mode Ultrasonography in Healthy Volunteers
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Scarlata Simone, Mancini Damiana, Laudisio Alice, Antonelli Incalzi RaffaeleAbstractWe aimed at testing M-mode ultrasound diaphragmatic thickness reproducibility and its clinical correlates in healthy volunteers.Sixty-six consecutive healthy volunteers were considered eligible, and enrolled in the study. During a single visit, all participants received three M-mode and B-mode ultrasound evaluations of Diaphragmatic Thickness (DT). We then proceeded to calculate the thickness difference and assess the association o...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Spectral analysis of peri-pharyngeal muscles’ EMG in patients with OSA and healthy subject
ConclusionsThe pattern of decrease in ƒc is compatible with altered synchronization of SMUs during sleep. We speculate that these changes may contribute to the failure of dilator muscles to improve flow limitation during sleep in older subjects. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Antiasthmatic potential of Zizyphus jujuba Mill and Jujuboside B. – Possible role in the treatment of asthma
Publication date: February 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 260Author(s): Prafull Bandopant Ninave, Savita Dattatray PatilAbstractZizyphus jujuba Mill, a famous oriental traditional medicine, has been reported to exhibit diverse activities in biological systems including the respiratory system. However, a little information is available on its antiasthmatic activity. Jujuboside B (JB) is a natural saponin and one of the active constituent of fruits of Zizyphus jujuba. In the present investigation, JB was isolated from ethanolic extracts of fruits of Zizyphus jujuba (EZJF). EZJF and JB were then...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 12, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Antiasthmatic potential of Zizyphus jujuba Mill and Jujuboside B. - Possible role in the treatment of asthma
Publication date: Available online 3 December 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Prafull Bandopant Ninave, Savita Dattatray PatilAbstractZizyphus jujuba Mill, a famous oriental traditional medicine, has been reported to exhibit diverse activities in biological systems including the respiratory system. However, a little information is available on its antiasthmatic activity. Jujuboside B (JB) is a natural saponin and one of the active constituent of fruits of Zizyphus jujuba. In the present investigation, JB was isolated from ethanolic extracts of fruits of Zizyphus jujuba (EZJF). EZJF and JB we...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 4, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Forced oscillation technique in veterans with preserved spirometry and chronic respiratory symptoms
Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Ryan P. Butzko, Anays M. Sotolongo, Drew A. Helmer, Jacquelyn C. Klein-Adams, Omowunmi Y. Osinubi, Andrew R. Berman, Ronaldo Ortiz-Pacheco, Michael J. FalvoAbstractPurposeTo evaluate the utility of the forced oscillation technique (FOT) among military veterans with preserved spirometry and chronic unexplained respiratory symptoms.Methods178 veterans referred for evaluation of unexplained respiratory symptoms completed pulmonary function testing and FOT. Preserved spirometry was defined as FEV1/FVC, FEV1 and FVC &g...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The contribution of endogenous glutamatergic input in the ventral respiratory column to respiratory rhythm
Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Denise R. Cook-Snyder, Justin R. Miller, Angela A. Navarrete-Opazo, Jennifer J. Callison, Robin C. Peterson, Francis A. Hopp, Eckehard A.E. Stuth, Edward J. Zuperku, Astrid G. StuckeAbstractGlutamate is the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the ventral respiratory column; however, the contribution of glutamatergic excitation in the individual subregions to respiratory rhythm generation has not been fully delineated. In an adult, in vivo, decerebrate rabbit model during conditions of mild hyperoxic hyperca...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 29, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Impact of hypobaric flight simulation on walking distance and oxygenation in COPD patients
ConclusionsA 3-hour hypobaric flight simulation compromises exercise endurance by 35 m or 10%. Hypoxia was well tolerated and more liberal recommendations might by justifiable since hypoxemia appears to be unrelated to dyspnea perception.Graphical abstract (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 24, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: January 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 259Author(s): (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 24, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The effect of physical strain on breeders patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
ConclusionThe daily physical activity may have a protective role during the course of the disease in patients with OSAS. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 23, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Glutamate metabotropic receptors in the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area reduce the CO2 chemoreflex
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Laísa Taís Cabral Rodrigues, Eliandra Nunes da Silva, José de Anchieta C. Horta-Júnior, Luciane H. Gargaglioni, Mirela B. DiasAbstractIt has been shown that the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area (LH/PFA) exerts an important role on arousal-state variations of the central chemoreflex, but the mechanisms that underlie LH/PFA chemoreception are poorly understood. Here we asked whether glutamate inputs on metabotropic receptors in the LH/PFA modulate the hypercapnic ventilatory respons...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 22, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Dyspnea on Exertion Provokes Unpleasantness and Negative Emotions in Women with Obesity
We examined whether ratings of perceived breathlessness (RPB) during exercise were associated with ratings of unpleasantness and negative emotions (depression, anxiety, frustration, anger, and fear) in obese women.MethodsSeventy-four women (34 ± 7 yrs, 36 ± 4 kg/m2, 46 ± 5% body fat) performed 6 minutes of constant-load cycling (60 W); RPB (0-10 scale), and unpleasantness and negative emotions (visual analog scales, 10 cm) were assessed at the end.ResultsRPB were significantly correlated with unpleasantness and negative emotions (p 
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 22, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: December 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 258Author(s): (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 21, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Respiratory Muscle Oxygenation is not impacted by Hypoxia during Repeated-sprint Exercise
This study aimed to investigate whether exercise hyperpnoea contributes to an impairment of locomotor muscle oxygenation and performance during repeated-sprint exercise in normoxia and hypoxia. Subjects performed ten 10-s sprints, separated by 30 s of passive rest while breathing either a normoxic (21% O2) or hypoxic (15% O2) gas mixture. Muscle oxygenation of the vastus lateralis and intercostal muscles was examined with near-infrared spectroscopy. Sprint and recovery vastus lateralis deoxyhaemoglobin was elevated in hypoxia by 9.2% (90% confidence interval 0.2 to 18.0) and 14.1% (90% CL 4.9 to 23.3%) compared to n...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 17, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Increased tongue use enhances 5-HT2C receptor immunostaining in hypoglossal motor nucleus
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Rajat K. Das, Kate B. Herr, Anjum Parkar, Leszek KubinAbstractHypoglossal (XII) motoneurons are activated by type 2 receptors for serotonin (5-HT). This activation is especially strong during wakefulness which facilitates diverse motor functions of the tongue, including the maintenance of upper airway patency in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. We tested whether 5-HT2 receptor levels in the XII nucleus vary with intensity of tongue use. Three groups of rats were housed overnight under conditions of increasi...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 16, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Prophylactic effect and mechanism of p-coumaric acid against hypoxic cerebral edema in mice
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Yunhong Li, Jianxin Han, Yujing Zhang, Yufeng Chen, Ying ZhangAbstractOur previous study found that the anti-hypoxia effect of Tibetan turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) is directly related to its p-Coumaric acid (CA) and glucoside (p-Coumaric acid-beta-D-glucopyranoside, CAG) contents. The present study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of CA against hypoxic cerebral edema. Male mice were randomly divided into one normoxia group and three hypoxia groups, which were gavaged with sterilized water, CA, or de...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 15, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Combined effects of intermittent hyperoxia and intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia on respiratory control in neonatal rats
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Ryan W. Bavis, Alexandra H. Millström, Song M. Kim, Carolyn A. MacDonald, Caitlin A. O’Toole, Kendra Asklof, Amy B. McDonoughAbstractChronic exposure to intermittent hyperoxia causes abnormal carotid body development and attenuates the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) in neonatal rats. We hypothesized that concurrent exposure to intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia would influence this plasticity. Newborn rats were exposed to alternating bouts of hypercapnic hypoxia (10% O2/6% CO2) and hyperoxia (30-40% O...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Mice-to-men comparison of inhaled drug-aerosol deposition and clearance
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Arun V. Kolanjiyil, Clement Kleinstreuer, Nicole C. Kleinstreuer, Wellington Pham, Ruxana T. SadikotAbstractPart of the effective prediction of the pharmacokinetics of drugs (or toxic particles) requires extrapolation of experimental data sets from animal studies to humans. As the respiratory tracts of rodents and humans are anatomically very different, there is a need to study airflow and drug-aerosol deposition patterns in lung airways of these laboratory animals and compare them to those of human lungs. As a fi...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Heating-induced Contraction in Airways Smooth Muscle: A Possible Causative Factor of Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction
Publication date: Available online 6 November 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Seham MustafaAbstractAsthmatic patients often suffer from bronchoconstriction or asthma following breathing hot air or exposure to exercise due to raises the core body temperature. However, the direct effect of heating airways has not been studied yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of heating on tracheal and bronchiolar smooth muscles. Isolated ovine tracheal strips and bronchiolar segments preparations were suspended in organ baths containing Krebs’ solution for isometric tension recordi...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 7, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Characterizing Respiratory Capacity in Belugas (Delphinapterus leucas)
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Andreas Fahlman, Alexandra Epple, Daniel Garcia-Párraga, Todd Robeck, Martin Haulena, Marina Piscitelli-Doshkov, Micah BrodskyAbstractWe measured respiratory flow, breath duration, and calculated tidal volume (VT) in nine belugas (Delphinapterus leucas, mean measured body mass: 628 ± 151 kg, n = 5) housed in managed care facilities. Both spontaneous (resting at station) and trained maximal respirations (chuffs) were measured. The mean (±s.d.) inspiratory VT fo...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 3, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Probing the function of glycinergic neurons in the mouse respiratory network using optogenetics
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Michal G. Fortuna, Sebastian Kügler, Swen HülsmannAbstractGlycine is a primary inhibitory transmitter in the ventral medullary respiratory network, but the functional role of glycinergic neurons for breathing remains a matter of debate. We applied optogenetics to selectively modulate glycinergic neuron activity within regions of the rostral ventral respiratory column (VRC). Responses of the phrenic nerve activity to the light-driven stimulation were studied in the working heart-brainstem preparation from ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 3, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Influence of propofol on isolated neonatal rat carotid body glomus cell response to hypoxia and hypercapnia
Publication date: Available online 30 October 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Peadar B. O'Donohoe, Philip J. Turner, Nicky Huskens, Keith J. Buckler, Jaideep J. PanditAbstractIn humans the intravenous anaesthetic propofol depresses ventilatory responses to hypoxia and CO2. Animal studies suggest that this may in part be due to inhibition of synaptic transmission between chemoreceptor glomus cells of the carotid body and the afferent carotid sinus nerve. It is however unknown if propofol can also act directly on the glomus cell. Here we report that propofol can indeed inhibit intracellular Ca...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 31, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Dopamine ameliorates bronchoconstriction induced by histaminergic and cholinergic pathways in rabbits
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Gergely H. Fodor, Adam L. Balogh, Roberta Sudy, Orsolya Ivankovits-Kiss, Barna Babik, Ferenc PetakAbstractTo clarify the potential of dopamine to alter airway tone in the presence of different bronchoconstrictor stimuli, changes in airway function following dopamine administrations were characterized when the bronchial tone was elevated by stimulating the histaminic or cholinergic pathway. Airway resistance, tissue damping and tissue elastance were measured in anesthetized mechanically ventilated rabbits under base...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 25, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide: postnatal development in multiple brain stem respiratory-related nuclei in the rat
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Qiuli Liu, Margaret T.T. Wong-RileyAbstractThe pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) plays an important role in anterior pituitary hormone secretion, neurotransmission, and the control of breathing. Mice lacking PACAP die suddenly mainly in the 2nd postnatal week, coinciding temporally with a critical period of respiratory development uncovered by our laboratory in the rat. The goal of the current study was to test our hypothesis that PACAP expression is reduced during the critical period in no...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 23, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Vive la résistance! The Role of Inspiratory Resistance Breathing on Cerebral Blood Flow
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Caroline A. RickardsAbstractProlonging the therapeutic window for treatment is imperative for survival from a multitude of life-threatening events such as hemorrhage, cardiac arrest, and stroke. Inspiratory resistance breathing is a therapeutic approach that augments the reduction in intrathoracic and intracranial pressure during inspiration, facilitating improvements in vital organ perfusion under conditions of ischemia, such as blood loss and cardiac arrest. In this review a series of studies will be presented as...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 17, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of Pulmonary Flow Heterogeneity on Oxygen Transport Parameters in Exercise
Publication date: Available online 13 October 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Tuhin K. Roy, Timothy W. SecombAbstractUnder resting normoxic conditions, the healthy lung has ample oxygen uptake capacity relative to oxygen demand, but during exercise, increased oxygen demand and utilization become increasingly dependent on ventilation-perfusion matching. A mathematical model is used to investigate the effect of pulmonary flow heterogeneity, as characterized by the coefficient of variation (CV) of capillary blood flow, on pulmonary oxygen uptake in exercise. The model reveals that any level of ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 13, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pre-phrenic interneurons: characterization and role in phrenic pattern formation and respiratory recovery following spinal cord injury
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Michael George Zaki Ghali, Gavin Britz, Kun-Ze LeeAbstractThe phrenic motor system receives excitatory inspiratory bulbospinal drive from inspiratory pre-motor neurons in the rostral ventral respiratory group and descending inhibition from bulbospinal Bötzinger complex units in the brainstem. While phrenic motoneurons have been extensively studied, a thorough understanding of the role of pre-phrenic interneurons is only beginning to emerge. Pre-phrenic interneurons are located at upper cervical spinal cord lev...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 12, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

High-fat diet increases respiratory frequency and abdominal expiratory motor activity during hypercapnia
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Guilherme F. Speretta, Eduardo Lemes, Regina C. Vendramini, José V. Menani, Daniel B. Zoccal, Eduardo Colombari, Débora S.A. Colombari, Mirian BassiAbstractBreathing disorders are commonly observed in association with obesity. Here we tested whether high-fat diet (HFD) impairs the chemoreflex ventilatory response. Male Holtzman rats (300-320 g) were fed with standard chow diet (SD) or HFD for 12 weeks. Then, tidal volume (VT), respiratory frequency (fR) and pulmonary ventilation (VE) were determ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 9, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Noradrenergic modulation determines respiratory network activity during temperature changes in the in vitro brainstem of bullfrogs
Publication date: Available online 4 October 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Mauricio Vallejo, Joseph M. Santin, Lynn K. HartzlerAbstractAmong vertebrate ectotherms, air breathing frequency is generally constrained across warmer temperatures, but decreases during cooling. The brainstem mechanisms that give rise to this ventilatory strategy are unclear. Neuromodulation has recently been shown to stabilize motor circuit output across temperatures. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that an important neuromodulatory system in respiratory control network, norepinephrine, produces this pattern o...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 5, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Acute effects of hypertonic saline inhalation on nitric oxide pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy adults
Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): S. Karrasch, T. Radtke, M. Simon, A. Kronseder, H. Dressel, RA Jörres, U. OchmannAbstractWe investigated acute effects of inhalation of hypertonic saline solution (HSS) and oxygen (O2, control exposure) on pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO) and carbon monoxide (DLCO). In a randomized crossover study, 20 healthy, non-smoking subjects were allocated to short-term inhalation of HSS or O2. Spirometry [(forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] and combined s...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 5, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A simulation study of diffusion-convection interaction and its effect on multiple breath washout indices
Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Sylvia Verbanck, Manuel PaivaAbstractExperimental studies of peripheral ventilation heterogeneity via multiple breath washout derived index Sacin have shown its potential to pick up structural change in lung disease. Recent Sacin data suggest that even when intra-acinar structure is unaltered, the combination of convection, diffusion and number of acini fed by patent terminal bronchioles can modify Sacin. We show here how Sacin is affected by structural features such as the secondary alveolar septa, intra-acinar ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 5, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Intonation of Nrf2 and Hif1-α pathway by curcumin prophylaxis: A potential strategy to augment survival signaling under hypoxia
Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Titto Mathew, S.K.S. SaradaAbstractBackgroundPulmonary surfactant oxidation leads to alveolar collapse- a condition often noticed in high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). The present study was aimed to determine the effect of curcumin prophylaxis in augmenting the phase II antioxidant enzymes and surfactant proteins expression in enabling the pulmonary surfactant homeostasis under hypoxia.MethodsA549 cells were exposed to 3% hypoxia for different time durations (1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h). The Cells ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 5, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: November 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 257Author(s): (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 5, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Rapid respiratory transition at birth as evaluated by electrical activity of the diaphragm in very preterm infants supported by nasal CPAP
ConclusionEAdi was high right after birth. This indicates that preterm infants are capable of generating sufficient respiratory drive and diaphragm tone during expiration to establish and maintain functional residual capacity. Diaphragm activity decreased within the first 90 min, suggesting that early adaptation was accomplished by 90 min of age. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 5, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research