Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and olfactory perception: an OERP study
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Sara Invitto, Antonio Calcagnì, Giulia Piraino, Vincenzo Ciccarese, Michela Balconi, Marina De Tommaso, Domenico Maurizio ToraldoAbstractObstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSA) is characterized by snoring associated with repeated apnea and/or obstructive hypopnea. The nasal airways of OSA patients, measured via acoustic rhinometry, are significantly narrower than healthy subjects and this narrow nasal structure can reduce olfactory function. The relationship between nasal structure and olfactory function, assess...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Facts and challenges in respiratory neurobiology
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2015Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): T.E. Dick, M. Dutschmann, J.L. Feldman, A.Y. Fong, S. Hülsmann, K.M. Morris, J.M. Ramirez, J.C. Smith, The Respiratory Neurobiology ConsortiumAbstractRespiratory neurobiology has been a lead discipline in the field of neuroscience for almost a century. Despite this, research studies on the fundamental synaptic and cellular processes underlying the generation and modulation of breathing movements suffered a significant decline during the last decade.We still believe that respiratory neurobiology is one of the m...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Chronic intermittent hypoxia worsens bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in rats
Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Rudolf K. Braun, Oleg Broytman, Felix M. Braun, Jacqueline A. Brinkman, Andrew Clithero, Dhruvangkumar Modi, David F. Pegelow, Marlowe Eldridge, Mihaela TeodorescuAbstractObstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been linked to increased mortality in pulmonary fibrosis. Its key feature, chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), can lead to oxidative stress and inflammation, known to lead to fibrotic pathology in other organs. We tested the effects of CIH in an animal model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. Sprague Dawley rats we...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Daily acute intermittent hypoxia improves breathing function with acute and chronic spinal injury via distinct mechanisms
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): B.J. Dougherty, J. Terada, S.R. Springborn, S. Vinit, P.M. MacFarlane, G.S. MitchellAbstractDaily acute intermittent hypoxia (dAIH) elicits respiratory plasticity, enhancing respiratory motor output and restoring breathing capacity after incomplete cervical spinal injuries (cSCI). We hypothesized that dAIH-induced functional recovery of breathing capacity would occur after both acute (2 weeks) and chronic (8 weeks) cSCI, but through distinct cellular mechanisms. Specifically, we hypothesized that dAIH-induced breathing...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Circulating exosomes in obstructive sleep apnea as phenotypic biomarkers and mechanistic messengers of end-organ morbidity
Publication date: Available online 1 July 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, David GozalAbstractObstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the most severe form of sleep disordered breathing, is characterized by intermittent hypoxia during sleep (IH), sleep fragmentation, and episodic hypercapnia. OSA is associated with increased risk for morbidity and mortality affecting cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurocognitive systems, and more recently with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cancer-related deaths. Substantial variability in OSA outcomes suggests...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Ibuprofen does not reverse ventilatory acclimatization to chronic hypoxia
Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): D.J. De La Zerda, J.A. Stokes, J. Do, A. Go, Z. Fu, F.L. PowellAbstractVentilatory acclimatization to hypoxia involves an increase in the acute hypoxic ventilatory response that is blocked by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs administered during sustained hypoxia. We tested the hypothesis that inflammatory signals are necessary to sustain ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia once it is established. Adult, rats were acclimatized to normoxia or chronic hypoxia (CH, PiO2 = 70 Torr) for 11–12&nb...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Intermittent hypoxia training: Powerful, non-invasive cerebroprotection against ethanol withdrawal excitotoxicity
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Marianna E. Jung, Robert T. MalletAbstractEthanol intoxication and withdrawal exact a devastating toll on the central nervous system. Abrupt ethanol withdrawal provokes massive release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, which over-activates its postsynaptic receptors, causing intense Ca2+ loading, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase activation and oxidative stress, culminating in ATP depletion, mitochondrial injury, amyloid β deposition and neuronal death. Collectively, these mechanisms produce neur...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Intermittent hypoxia and cancer: Undesirable bed partners?
Publication date: Available online 14 August 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Isaac Almendros, David GozalAbstractThe deleterious effects of intermittent hypoxia (IH) on cancer biology have been primarily evaluated in the context of the aberrant circulation observed in solid tumors which results in recurrent intra-tumoral episodic hypoxia. From those studies, IH has been linked to an accelerated tumor progression, metastasis and resistance to therapies. More recently, the role of IH in cancer has also been studied in the context of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), since IH is a hallmark charact...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Phrenic long-term facilitation following intrapleural CTB-SAP-induced respiratory motor neuron death
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Nicole L. Nichols, Taylor A. Craig, Miles A. TannerAbstractAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease leading to progressive motor neuron degeneration and death by ventilatory failure. In a rat model of ALS (SOD1G93A), phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) is enhanced greater than expected at disease end-stage but the mechanism is unknown. We suggest that one trigger for this enhancement is motor neuron death itself. Intrapleural injections of cholera toxi...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Sex differences in the respiratory-sympathetic coupling in rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia
Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): George Miguel P.R. Souza, Mateus R. Amorim, Davi J.A. Moraes, Benedito H. MachadoAbstractObstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a complex disease in which humans face episodes of intermittent hypoxia and it affects men and women. Patients with OSA present hypertension and sympathetic overactivity among several other dysfunctions. Therefore, one important question remains: are the autonomic dysfunctions associated with OSA similar in male and female? This is an unresolved question since sex factors are overlooked in most...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Bronchoprotective effect of deep inspirations in cough variant asthma: A distinguishing feature in the spectrum of airway disease?
ConclusionsDIs triggered bronchoconstriction in CA, bronchoprotection in CVA, and prevented gas trapping in COUGH. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Links between lower urinary tract symptoms, intermittent hypoxia and diabetes: Causes or cures?
Publication date: Available online 17 September 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Lisa L. Abler, Chad M. VezinaAbstractBothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) manifest as urinary frequency, urgency, incontinence and incomplete bladder emptying. Existing treatments ameliorate but do not eliminate most symptoms, leading to financial and personal burdens attributable to sustained medical therapies that may last a lifetime. The purpose of this review is to highlight evidence of causal associations between LUTS and several common comorbidities, including intermittent hypoxia (IH) concomitant...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Intermittent but not sustained moderate hypoxia elicits long-term facilitation of hypoglossal motor output
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Julia E.R. Wilkerson, Michael Devinney, Gordon S. MitchellAbstractPhrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) is a form of serotonin-dependent respiratory motor plasticity induced by moderate acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH), but not by moderate acute sustained hypoxia (ASH) of similar cumulative duration. Thus, moderate AIH-induced pLTF is sensitive to the pattern of hypoxia. On the other hand, pLTF induced by severe AIH protocols is neither pattern sensitive nor serotonin dependent (it converts to an adenosine-dependen...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The impact of intermittent or sustained carbon dioxide on intermittent hypoxia initiated respiratory plasticity. What is the effect of these combined stimuli on apnea severity?
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Jason H. Mateika, Gino Panza, Raichel Alex, Mohamad El-ChamiAbstractThe following review explores the effect that intermittent or sustained hypercapnia coupled to intermittent hypoxia has on respiratory plasticity. The review explores published work which suggests that intermittent hypercapnia leads to long-term depression of respiration when administered in isolation and prevents the initiation of long-term facilitation when administered in combination with intermittent hypoxia. The review also explores the impact...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Spinal activation of protein kinase C elicits phrenic motor facilitation
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Michael J. Devinney, Gordon S. MitchellAbstractThe protein kinase C family regulates many cellular functions, including multiple forms of neuroplasticity. The novel PKCθ and atypical PKCζ isoforms have been implicated in distinct forms of spinal, respiratory motor plasticity, including phrenic motor facilitation (pMF) following acute intermittent hypoxia or inactivity, respectively. Although these PKC isoforms are critical in regulating spinal motor plasticity, other isoforms may be important for phrenic...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Gestational intermittent hypoxia increases susceptibility to neuroinflammation and alters respiratory motor control in neonatal rats
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Stephen M. Johnson, Karanbir S. Randhawa, Jenna J. Epstein, Ellen Gustafson, Austin D. Hocker, Adrianne G. Huxtable, Tracy L. Baker, Jyoti J. WattersAbstractSleep disordered breathing (SDB) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during pregnancy are growing health concerns because these conditions are associated with adverse outcomes for newborn infants. SDB/OSA during pregnancy exposes the mother and the fetus to intermittent hypoxia. Direct exposure of adults and neonates to IH causes neuroinflammation and neuronal a...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pharmacological modulation of hypoxia-induced respiratory neuroplasticity
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Sara Turner, Kristi A. Streeter, John Greer, Gordon S. Mitchell, David D. FullerAbstractHypoxia elicits complex cell signaling mechanisms in the respiratory control system that can produce long-lasting changes in respiratory motor output. In this article, we review experimental approaches used to elucidate signaling pathways associated with hypoxia, and summarize current hypotheses regarding the intracellular signaling pathways evoked by intermittent exposure to hypoxia. We review data showing that pharmacological...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cyclooxygenase enzyme activity does not impair respiratory motor plasticity after one night of intermittent hypoxia
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Adrianne G. Huxtable, Elizabeth Kopp, Brendan J. Dougherty, Jyoti J. Watters, Gordon S. MitchellAbstractAlthough inflammation is prevalent in many clinical disorders challenging breathing, we are only beginning to understand the impact of inflammation on neural mechanisms of respiratory control. We recently demonstrated one form of respiratory motor plasticity is extremely sensitive to even mild inflammation induced by a single night (8 h) of intermittent hypoxia (IH-1), mimicking aspects of obstructive sleep apn...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Contribution of relative leptin and adiponectin deficiencies in premature infants to chronic intermittent hypoxia: Exploring a new hypothesis
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Estelle B. Gauda, Zankhana MasterAbstractChronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) occurs frequently in premature infants who have apnea of prematurity. Immaturity of the respiratory network from low central respiratory drive and the greater contribution of the carotid body on baseline breathing leads to respiratory instability in premature infants presenting as apnea and periodic breathing. During the 2nd week after birth, the smallest and the youngest premature infants have increased frequency of apnea and periodic bre...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough in sarcoidosis patients
Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Eva Kovacova, Tomas Buday, Robert Vysehradsky, Jana PlevkovaAbstractSarcoidosis is a multi-system disease of unknown aetiology characterized by presence of non-caseating granulomatous inflammation. Cough is a common and significant symptom in sarcoidosis, reducing quality of life. Objective 24 h cough monitoring proved that sarcoidosis patients have significantly higher cough frequency compared to controls and their cough has diurnal variation, it is gender-specific and shows racial differences. It correlates with...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Sensitivity of airway cough-related afferents is influenced by female sex hormones
Publication date: Available online 8 January 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Natalia Kavalcikova-Bogdanova, Lea Kovacikova, Tomas Buday, Kamil Biringer, Jana Sivakova, Vladimir Calkovsky, Martina Antosova, Jana PlevkovaAbstractChronic hypersensitivity cough syndrome affects mainly postmenopausal women; however, the pathogenesis of cough hypersensitivity in this demographic is not entirely understood. The role of sex hormones in cough has never been studied in detail; however, sex hormones seem to play an important role in the lung health of women. Our study was aimed to analyse the effect of...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The double-sidedness of cough in the elderly
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Ha-Kyeong Won, Sol-Ji Yoon, Woo-Jung SongAbstractCough is a physiological reflex to protect airways against aspiration, but also it is one of the most frequent problems that lead patients to seek medical care. Chronic cough is more prevalent in the elderly than younger subjects, and more challenging to manage due to frequent comorbidities and possible side effects from drug treatment. Meanwhile, cough reflex does not decrease with natural aging but is often impaired by pathologic conditions like stroke. The impairm...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Inhibitors of phosphodiesterases in the treatment of cough
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Juraj Mokry, Anna Urbanova, Martin Kertys, Daniela MokraAbstractA group of 11 enzyme families of metalophosphohydrolases called phosphodiesterases (PDEs) is responsible for a hydrolysis of intracellular cAMP and cGMP. Xanthine derivatives (methylxanthines) inhibit PDEs without selective action on their single isoforms and lead to many pharmacological effects, e.g. bronchodilation, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects, and thus they can modulate the cough reflex. Contrary, selective PDE inhibitors have bee...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Inhibitory modulation of the cough reflex by acetylcholine in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii of the rabbit
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Elenia Cinelli, Ludovica Iovino, Fulvia Bongianni, Tito Pantaleo, Donatella MutoloAbstractA cholinergic system has been described in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). However, no information is available on the role played by acetylcholine (ACh) in the modulation of the cough reflex within the caudal NTS that has an important function in cough regulation. We addressed this issue making use of bilateral microinjections (30–50 nl) of 10 mM ACh combined with 5 mM physostigmine as well as of 10 mM meca...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The inflammatory molecule sphingosine-1-phosphate is not effective to evoke or sensitize cough in naïve guinea pigs
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Simona Svajdova, Lenka Mazurova, Mariana BrozmanovaAbstractSphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is an inflammatory mediator increased in the tissue in the number of inflammatory conditions. Preliminary data indicate that the vagal afferent neurons express several S1P receptors including S1PR2-3. We therefore evaluated the hypothesis that S1P induces cough and/or enhances the cough evoked by other tussive stimuli (TRPA1 and TRPV1 activators) in naïve guinea pigs.Inhalation of S1P in the concentrations of 0.1 mM and ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Hyperoxia-induced regulation of cough reflex and its effect after antioxidant supplementation
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Mariana Brozmanova, Jan HanacekAbstractHyperoxia-induced lung injury is well known in animal and human studies. The respiratory epithelium including sensory nerve endings is a major target for oxidative injury that manifested in lung function changes including cough. On the basis of available information we supposed that hyperoxia alone or in combination with primary lung tissue injury should have a damaging effect on lungs, including the airway nerve endings with the changes in the sensitivity of the central and ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Is cough important in acute exacerbations of COPD?
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Michael G. Crooks, Timothy Brown, Alyn H. MoriceAbstractChronic obstructive pulmonary disease is predicted to become the 4th leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. The natural history of the disease includes progressive symptoms punctuated by acute exacerbations during which symptoms rapidly deteriorate. The resulting disability places significant burden on health and social care systems. Cough is the second most common symptom reported by COPD patients, is a source of significant distress and is associated wit...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

GABA-ergic neurotransmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract modulates cough in the cat
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Z. Kotmanova, M. Simera, M. Veternik, L. Martvon, J. Misek, J. Jakus, T.Y. Shen, M.N. Musselwhite, T. Pitts, D.C. Bolser, I. PoliacekAbstractGABA, muscimol, and baclofen were microinjected into the rostral (rNTS) and caudal solitary tract nucleus (cNTS) in 24 anesthetized cats. Electromyograms (EMGs) of diaphragm (DIA) and abdominal muscles (ABD), blood pressure and esophageal pressure (EP) were recorded and analysed. Bilateral microinjections of 1 mM GABA (total 66 ± 4 nl), 1 mM baclofen (64 &p...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Modulation of defensive airway reflexes during continuous positive airway pressure in the rabbit
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Iulia Ioan, Bruno Demoulin, Anne-Laure Leblanc, Cyril Schweitzer, François Marchal, Laurent Foucaud, Silvia Demoulin-AlexikovaAbstractLung hyperinflation may alter the pattern of ventilatory reflexes in chronic respiratory disorders. The aim of the study was to test the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on ventilatory responses to mechanical stimulation of the trachea. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Muscle activation and sound during voluntary single coughs and cough peals in healthy volunteers: Insights into cough intensity
Publication date: Available online 27 February 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Kevin McGuinness, Katie Ward, Charles C. Reilly, Julie Morris, Jaclyn A. SmithAbstractVery few studies have addressed how coughing varies in intensity. We assessed the influence of cough effort and operating volume on the mechanics of coughing using respiratory muscle surface electromyography (EMG), oesophageal/gastric pressures and cough sounds recorded from 15 healthy subjects [8 female, median age 30 (IQR 30–50)years] performing 120 voluntary coughs from controlled operating volume/effort and three cough ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The effect of pH on citric acid cough challenge: A randomised control trial in chronic cough and healthy volunteers
Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Z.L. Rai, H.E. Fowles, C. Wright, Joseph Howard, A.H. MoriceAbstractIntroductionCitric acid has been used for over six decades to induce cough; however the mechanism of its pro-tussive effect is still not fully understood. We assessed the response to inhalation of citric acid at varying levels of acidity to determine if the pH of the solution plays a role in the induction of cough. Data was collected from both healthy volunteers and patients with chronic cough.Methods20 chronic cough patients and 20 healthy volunteers...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Metabonomic profiling of chronic intermittent hypoxia in a mouse model
In this study, the urinary metabonomic profile associated to intermittent hypoxia was evaluated in a mouse model.When exposed to intermittent hypoxia, animals showed a significant alteration in energy metabolism towards anaerobic pathways and signs of OS imbalance. A compensatory response was observed over time. Our data also indicates an excess production of vitamin B3, liver function modulations and a stimulation of creatine synthesis which could be used to evaluate the ChIH repercussions. As well, TMAO and allantoin could constitute interesting biomarker candidates, respectively in the context of cardiovascular risk and...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Non-pharmacological techniques for the extremes of the cough spectrum
Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Arietta SpinouAbstractCough can be viewed as a continuum where extremes represent disease phenotypes. Under this unified concept, non-pharmacological treatment for the extremes of the cough spectrum includes both cough augmentation and cough control techniques. Supporting the cough motor output and exercising the cognitive control on coughing are the main directions of these techniques. Cough augmentation can be provided to patients who present low ability to generate adequate peak cough flows, with the aim to develop...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough reflex sensitivity after exercise challenge testing in children with asthma
Publication date: Available online 13 March 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): P. Ferenc, J. Fabry, T. Zatko, P. Kunc, J. Sojak, M. Grendar, R. PecovaAbstractBronchial challenge tests are commonly used in clinical medicine and research. The aim of this study was to clarify changes of cough reflex sensitivity before and after exercise challenge testing in asthma children.42 asthmatic children were submitted to cough reflex sensitivity measurement – capsaicin aerosol in doubling concentrations (from 0.61 to 1250 micromol/l) was inhaled by a single breath method – before and after exer...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Novel computer algorithm for cough monitoring based on octonions
The objective assessment of cough frequency is essential for evaluation of cough and antitussive therapies. Nonetheless, available algorithms for automatic detection of cough sound have limited sensitivity and the analysis of cough sound often requires input from human observers. Therefore, an algorithm for the cough sound detection with high sensitivity would be very useful for development of automatic cough monitors. Here we present a novel algorithm for cough sounds classification based on 8-dimensional numbers octonions and compare it with the algorithm based on standard neural network. The performance was evaluated on...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough reflex sensitivity does not correlate with the esophageal sensitivity to acid in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease
Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Martin Duricek, Lenka Nosakova, Tomas Zatko, Renata Pecova, Rudolf Hyrdel, Peter BanovcinAbstractThe sensitization of cough reflex observed in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is attributed to activation of vagal C-fibers innervating the esophagus by acid, while the heartburn in GERD is mediated by esophageal acid sensitive C-fibers derived from (dorsal root ganglia) DRG. Here we explored the relationship between cough reflex sensitivity (CRS) and esophageal sensitivity to acid. We evaluated CRS t...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough and airway defence – Special issue of respiratory physiology and neurobiology
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Jana Plevkova, Jan Hanacek, Milos Tatar (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The effect of adenoidectomy on cough reflex sensitivity in atopic children
Publication date: Available online 23 April 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): J. Sojak, P. Durdik, T. Zatko, E.O. Mohamedova, M. Grendar, P. Ferenc, D. Kantarova, R. PecovaAbstractThe aim of this study was to determine whether cough sensitivity is changed after adenoidectomy in atopic children with chronic cough.21 Children having symptoms of chronic cough and adenoid hypertrophy verified by nasal fiberoptic endoscopy were submitted to cough sensitivity measurement before and after adenoidectomy. Their pulmonary function was within normal range. Concentrations of capsaicin causing two (C2) and...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Carotid body size measured by computed tomographic angiography in individuals born prematurely
ConclusionsCarotid body size, as measured using CTA, is not smaller in adults born prematurely or exposed to perinatal oxygen therapy when compared to sex, age, and BMI-matched controls. However, carotid body visualization was lower in juvenile premature patients. The decreased ability to visualize the carotid bodies in these individuals may be a result of their prematurity. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Adrenaline activation of the carotid body: Key to CO2 and pH homeostasis in hypoglycaemia and potential pathological implications in cardiovascular disease
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Andrew P. Holmes, Clare J. Ray, Emma L. Thompson, Ziyad Alshehri, Andrew M. Coney, Prem KumarAbstractVentilatory and neuroendocrine counter-regulatory responses during hypoglycaemia are essential in order to maintain glycolysis and prevent rises in PaCO2 leading to systemic acidosis. The mammalian carotid body has emerged as an important driver of hyperpnoea and glucoregulation in hypoglycaemia. However, the adequate stimulus for CB stimulation in hypoglycaemia has remained controversial for over a decade. The recent f...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Acute hypercapnia does not alter voluntary drive to the diaphragm in healthy humans
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Hsuan-Yu Wan, Jonathon L. Stickford, Koichi Kitano, Wesley J. Manz, David M. Koceja, Robert F. Chapman, Joel M. StagerAbstractAlthough systemic hypercapnia is a common outcome of pulmonary disease, the relationship between hypercapnia and voluntary diaphragmatic activation (VAdi) is unclear. To examine whether hypercapnia independent of ventilatory work contributes to reduced central motor drive to the diaphragm in healthy humans, 14 subjects spontaneously breathed room air (NN) or a hypercapnic gas mixture (HH; 7% CO2...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Short-term effects of non-invasive ventilation on cerebral blood flow and cognitive function in COPD
ConclusionNIV application for one hour reversibly reduced CBF in healthy controls and non-hypercapnic stable COPD patients, despite no significant reductions of the PaCO2 in the latter group. It was associated with minor cognitive improvements in the executive function in healthy volunteers, but not in COPD. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of intrathoracic pressure, inhalation time, and breath hold time on lung diffusing capacity
This study examined how changes in intrathoracic pressure, inhalation time, and breath hold time affect DLCO, DLNO, alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DmCO) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) at rest and during submaximal exercise. Thirteen healthy subjects (mean ± SD; age = 26 ± 3y) performed duplicate tests at rest and during submaximal exercise.DLCO and Vc were lower with a positive versus negative intrathoracic pressure during the breath hold at rest (DLCO: 22.2 ± 5.5 vs. 22.7 ± 5.5 ml/min/mmHg, p = 0.028; Vc: 46.5 ± 11.6 vs. 48.2 ±...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Respiratory muscular response to obstructive maneuvers in non-invasively ventilated healthy subjects
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Isabel Cristina Muñoz, Alher Mauricio Hernández, Yessika María Ortega, Miguel Ángel MañanasAbstractThe hypothesis of this study is that muscular activity measured through surface electromyography (sEMG) is useful to estimate the work of breathing (WOB) and respiratory mechanics. Thirty-two healthy volunteers were non-invasively ventilated, and an airflow resistor was attached to the airway circuit. sEMG signals from diaphragm, intercostal and sternocleidomastoid muscles were processed...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Quiet breathing in hindlimb casted mice
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Candace N. Receno, Katelynn E. Roffo, Marisa C. Mickey, Keith C. DeRuisseau, Lara R. DeRuisseauAbstractThe hindlimb casting model was developed to study skeletal muscle reloading following a period of unloading. It is unknown if ventilation parameters of mice are affected by the casting model. We tested the hypothesis that hindlimb casted mice have similar ventilatory patterns compared to mice with the casts removed. Male CD-1 mice underwent 14 days of hindlimb immobilization via plaster casting. Breathing parameters w...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The correlations between electroencephalogram frequency components and restoration of stable breathing from respiratory events in sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Shaoxiong Huang, Tingting Wang, Xiangmin Zhang, Chen-Wen Yen, Jiuxing Liang, Lingzi Zeng, Yuxi LuoAbstractThe purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which the Electroencephalogram (EEG) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) are involved in the progressive respiratory restoration process in patients with sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). Twenty-five SAHS patients were enrolled in the analysis. The respiratory events scored from polysomnography (PSG) recordings were divided into two groups as follows: the events fo...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-8 and eosinophil cationic protein as serum markers of glucocorticoid efficacy in the treatment of bronchial asthma
ConclusionThe key findings of this study collectively support a role for TNF-α, IL-8 and ECP in BA development, and TNF-α, IL-8 and ECP can be used as serum markers of glucocorticoid efficacy in BA. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Swallow-breathing coordination during incremental ascent to altitude
We examined the effect of incremental ascent (1,045 m, 3,440 m and 4,371 m) on swallow motor pattern and swallow-breathing coordination in seven healthy adults. Submental surface electromyograms (sEMG) and spirometry were used to evaluate swallow triggered by saliva and water infusion. Swallow-breathing phase preference was different between swallows initiated by saliva versus water. With ascent, saliva swallows changed to a dominate pattern of occurrence during the transition from inspiration to expiration. Additionally, water swallows demonstrated a significant decrease in submental sEMG duration and a shift in sub...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Retropalatal and retroglossal airway compliance in patients with obstructive sleep apnea
Publication date: Available online 18 June 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Melania Marques, Pedro R. Genta, Ali Azarbarzin, Scott A. Sands, Luigi Taranto-Montemurro, Ludovico Messineo, David P. White, Andrew WellmanAbstractObjectivesWe hypothesized that preferential retropalatal as compared to retroglossal collapse in patients with obstructive sleep apnea was due to a narrower retropalatal area and a higher retropalatal compliance. Patients with a greater retropalatal compliance would exhibit a recognizable increase in negative effort dependence (NED).MethodsFourteen patients underwent upper...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The parafacial respiratory group and the control of active expiration
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Annette Pisanski, Silvia PagliardiniAbstractBreathing at rest is typically characterized by three phases: active inspiration, post-inspiration (or stage 1 expiration), and passive expiration (or stage 2 expiration). Breathing during periods of increased respiratory demand, on the other hand, engages active expiration through recruitment of abdominal muscles in order to increase ventilation. It is currently hypothesized that different phases of the respiratory rhythm are driven by three coupled oscillators: the preB&ou...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research