Retropalatal and retroglossal airway compliance in patients with obstructive sleep apnea
Conclusions Retropalatal airway is narrower and more collapsible than retroglossal airway. Retropalatal compliance is reflected in the clinically-available NED value. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - June 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Swallow-breathing coordination during incremental ascent to altitude
We examined the effect of incremental ascent (1,045 m, 3,440 m and 4,371 m) on swallow motor pattern and swallow-breathing coordination in seven healthy adults. Submental surface electromyograms (sEMG) and spirometry were used to evaluate swallow triggered by saliva and water infusion. Swallow-breathing phase preference was different between swallows initiated by saliva versus water. With ascent, saliva swallows changed to a dominate pattern of occurrence during the transition from inspiration to expiration. Additionally, water swallows demonstrated a significant decrease in submental sEMG duration and a shift in sub...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - June 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Tumor necrosis factor- α, interleukin-8 and eosinophil cationic protein as serum markers of glucocorticoid efficacy in the treatment of bronchial asthma
Conclusion The key findings of this study collectively support a role for TNF-α, IL-8 and ECP in BA development, and TNF-α, IL-8 and ECP can be used as serum markers of glucocorticoid efficacy in BA. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - June 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The Correlations between Electroencephalogram Frequency Components and Restoration of Stable Breathing from Respiratory Events in Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Shaoxiong Huang, Tingting Wang, Xiangmin Zhang, Chen-Wen Yen, Jiuxing Liang, Lingzi Zeng, Yuxi Luo The purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which the Electroencephalogram (EEG) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) are involved in the progressive respiratory restoration process in patients with sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). Twenty-five SAHS patients were enrolled in the analysis. The respiratory events scored from polysomnography (PSG) recordings were divided into two groups as follows: the events fol...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - June 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Quiet Breathing in Hindlimb Casted Mice
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Candace N. Receno, Katelynn E. Roffo, Marisa C. Mickey, Keith C. DeRuisseau, Lara R. DeRuissea The hindlimb casting model was developed to study skeletal muscle reloading following a period of unloading. It is unknown if ventilation parameters of mice are affected by the casting model. We tested the hypothesis that hindlimb casted mice have similar ventilatory patterns compared to mice with the casts removed. Male CD-1 mice underwent 14 days of hindlimb immobilization via plaster casting. Breathing parameters wer...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - June 8, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Respiratory muscular response to obstructive maneuvers in non-invasively ventilated healthy subjects
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Isabel Cristina Muñoz, Alher Mauricio Hernández, Yessika María Ortega, Miguel Ángel Mañanas The hypothesis of this study is that muscular activity measured through surface electromyography (sEMG) is useful to estimate the work of breathing (WOB) and respiratory mechanics. Thirty-two healthy volunteers were non-invasively ventilated, and an airflow resistor was attached to the airway circuit. sEMG signals from diaphragm, intercostal and sternocleidomastoid muscles were processed ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - June 8, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of intrathoracic pressure, inhalation time, and breath hold time on lung diffusing capacity
This study examined how changes in intrathoracic pressure, inhalation time, and breath hold time affect DLCO, DLNO, alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DmCO) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) at rest and during submaximal exercise. Thirteen healthy subjects (mean ± SD; age = 26 ± 3y) performed duplicate tests at rest and during submaximal exercise. DLCO and Vc were lower with a positive versus negative intrathoracic pressure during the breath hold at rest (DLCO: 22.2 ± 5.5 vs. 22.7 ± 5.5 ml/min/mmHg, p = 0.028; Vc: 46.5 ± 11.6 vs. 48.2 ±...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - June 7, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Short-term effects of non-invasive ventilation on cerebral blood flow and cognitive function in COPD
Conclusion NIV application for one hour reversibly reduced CBF in healthy controls and non-hypercapnic stable COPD patients, despite no significant reductions of the PaCO2 in the latter group. It was associated with minor cognitive improvements in the executive function in healthy volunteers, but not in COPD. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - June 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Acute hypercapnia does not alter voluntary drive to the diaphragm in healthy humans
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Hsuan-Yu Wan, Jonathon L. Stickford, Koichi Kitano, Wesley J. Manz, David M. Koceja, Robert F. Chapman, Joel M. Stager Although systemic hypercapnia is a common outcome of pulmonary disease, the relationship between hypercapnia and voluntary diaphragmatic activation (VAdi) is unclear. To examine whether hypercapnia independent of ventilatory work contributes to reduced central motor drive to the diaphragm in healthy humans, 14 subjects spontaneously breathed room air (NN) or a hypercapnic gas mixture (HH; 7% CO2 ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - May 31, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Curcumin attenuates chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced brain injuries by inhibiting AQP4 and p38 MAPK pathway
Publication date: September 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 255 Author(s): Bo Wang, Wenyang Li, Hongyu Jin, Xinshi Nie, Hui Shen, Erran Li, Wei Wang Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is one of the main features of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which is also commonly associated with neurocognitive impairments. The present study aimed to elucidate the beneficial effect of curcumin on CIH-induced brain injuries. Male balb/c mice (6 ∼ 8 weeks) were exposed to normoxia or a pattern of CIH (8 h/day, cycles of 180 s each, hypoxia: 5% O2 for 50 s, reoxygenation: 21% O2 for 50 s)...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - May 29, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Adrenaline activation of the carotid body: key to CO2 and pH homeostasis in hypoglycaemia and potential pathological implications in cardiovascular disease
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Andrew P. Holmes, Clare J. Ray, Emma L. Thompson, Ziyad Alshehri, Andrew M. Coney, Prem Kumar Ventilatory and neuroendocrine counter-regulatory responses during hypoglycaemia are essential in order to maintain glycolysis and prevent rises in PaCO2 leading to systemic acidosis. The mammalian carotid body has emerged as an important driver of hyperpnoea and glucoregulation in hypoglycaemia. However, the adequate stimulus for CB stimulation in hypoglycaemia has remained controversial for over a decade. The recent fi...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - May 26, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Prolonged partial obstruction during sleep is a NREM phenomenon
Conclusion PPO evolved in NREM sleep and especially in N3 indicating that upper airway obstruction does not always ameliorate in deep sleep but changes the type. Even if PPO + OSA-patients had N3, their NREM sleep was lighter in three EEG locations. This might reflect impaired recovery function of sleep. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - May 25, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Carotid body size measured by computed tomographic angiography in individuals born prematurely
Conclusions Carotid body size, as measured using CTA, is not smaller in adults born prematurely or exposed to perinatal oxygen therapy when compared to sex, age, and BMI-matched controls. However, carotid body visualization was lower in juvenile premature patients. The decreased ability to visualize the carotid bodies in these individuals may be a result of their prematurity. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - May 25, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Variable ventilation decreases airway responsiveness and improves ventilation efficiency in a rat model of asthma
Publication date: Available online 15 May 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Fatemeh Ilka, Mohammad Javan, Mohammad Reza Raoufy The optimal ventilation strategy in patients receiving mechanical ventilation for severe asthma remains unclear. The effect of conventional ventilation (with constant tidal volume and respiratory rate) and variable ventilation (with the same average but variable tidal volume and respiratory rate) on peak airway pressure and airway exacerbation induced by increasing doses of methacholine was compared in a rat model of asthma. The respiratory rate and tidal volume ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - May 15, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Antioxidant treatment for impaired hypoxic ventilatory responses in experimental diabetes in the rat
In conclusion, mangiferin holds a therapeutic promise in breaking the mesh of chronic tissue hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative stress in diabetes by enhancing ventilation. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - May 8, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Linking lung function to structural damage of alveolar epithelium in ventilator-induced lung injury
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Katharine L. Hamlington, Bradford J. Smith, Celia M. Dunn, Chantel M. Charlebois, Gregory S. Roy, Jason H.T. Bates Understanding how the mechanisms of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), namely atelectrauma and volutrauma, contribute to the failure of the blood-gas barrier and subsequent intrusion of edematous fluid into the airspace is essential for the design of mechanical ventilation strategies that minimize VILI. We ventilated mice with different combinations of tidal volume and positive end-expiratory pres...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - May 6, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cardiovascular responses to dry apnoeas at exercise in air and in pure oxygen
Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Anna Taboni, Giovanni Vinetti, Paolo Bruseghini, Stefano Camelio, Matteo D’Elia, Christian Moia, Guido Ferretti, Nazzareno Fagoni If, as postulated, the end of the steady state phase (φ2) of cardiovascular responses to apnoea corresponds to the physiological breaking point, then we may hypothesize that φ2 should become visible if exercise apnoeas are performed in pure oxygen. We tested this hypothesis on 9 professional divers by means of continuous recording of blood pressure (BP), heart rate (f H), ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - May 4, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cerebral oxygen availability during exercise in COPD patients with cognitive impairment
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Vasileios Andrianopoulos, Ioannis Vogiatzis, Rainer Gloeckl, Robert Bals, Rembert A. Koczulla, Klaus Kenn Insufficient cerebral blood flow regulation to meet increasing metabolic demand during physical exertion could be associated with cognitive impairment. We compared cerebral oxygen availability during exercise in cognitively impaired (CI) to cognitively normal (CN) COPD patients. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - May 3, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Exercise Ventilatory Irregularity can be quantified by Approximate Entropy to detect Breathing Pattern Disorder
Conclusions Non-linear statistical interrogation of CPET-acquired ventilatory data has utility in the detection of BPD. A simple calculation of approximate entropy of ventilation, during an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test, provides a quantitative method to detect BPD. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - May 3, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Breath-stacking and incentive spirometry in parkinson ’s disease: randomized crossover clinical trial
Publication date: Available online 1 May 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Rhayssa Ribeiro, Daniella Brandão, Jéssica Noronha, Cibelle Lima, Guilherme Fregonezi, Vanessa Resqueti, Arméle Dornelas de Andrade Patients with Parkinson’s disease often exhibit respiratory disorders and there are no Respiratory Therapy protocols which are suggested as interventions in Parkinson’s patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Breathing-Stacking (BS) and incentive spirometer (IS) techniques in volume variations of the chest wall in patients with Pa...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - May 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Functional morphometry for the estimation of the alveolar surface area in prematurely-born infants
We report that SA is fivefold smaller in prematurely-born compared to term-born infants. We conclude that non-invasive measurements of VA/Q can be used for the functional estimation of SA which could, in turn, be used as a future outcome measure in respiratory studies of prematurely-born infants. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - April 30, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Methacholine induces extracellular matrix production by human airway smooth muscle cells through β-catenin signaling
This study attempted to investigate the role of methacholine in promoting ECM production by human ASMCs (HASMCs) and the underlying mechanism. We found that methacholine induced the expression of collagen I protein and multiple ECM genes. β-catenin signaling was activated in this process upon GSK3β phosphorylation, leading to upregulation of total and active β-catenin. Silencing β-catenin by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) or with the β-catenin inhibitor, PKF115-584, decreased collagen I expression. Conversely, overexpression of active β-catenin by adenoviruses carrying the S33Y-β-...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - April 30, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pressure support ventilation vs Continuous positive airway pressure for treating of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema: A pilot study
In conclusion, our data support only a slight advantage in favour to PSV versus CPAP. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - April 25, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The effect of adenoidectomy on cough reflex sensitivity in atopic children
Publication date: Available online 23 April 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): J. Sojak, P. Durdik, T. Zatko, E.O. Mohamedova, M. Grendar, P. Ferenc, D. Kantarova, R. Pecova The aim of this study was to determine whether cough sensitivity is changed after adenoidectomy in atopic children with chronic cough. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - April 24, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The many ways sputum flows – Dealing with high within-subject variability in cystic fibrosis sputum rheology
Publication date: Available online 21 April 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Thomas Radtke, Lukas Böni, Peter Bohnacker, Peter Fischer, Christian Benden, Holger Dressel We evaluated test-retest reliability of sputum viscoelastic properties in clinically stable patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Data from a prospective, randomized crossover study was used to determine within-subject variability of sputum viscoelasticity (G’, storage modulus and G”, loss modulus at 1 and 10 rad s−1) and solids content over three consecutive visits. Precision of sputum propertie...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - April 22, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Low Exertional Inspiratory Capacity is Not Related to Dynamic Inspiratory Muscle Weakness in Heart Failure
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Franciele Plachi, Fernanda Machado Balzan, Ricardo Gass, Rui Gustavo Dorneles, Reisi Zambiazi, Danton Pereira da Silva, Paulo R. Sanches, Nadine Oliveira Clausell, Danilo C. Berton Reduction in inspiratory capacity (IC) during exercise has been reported in chronic heart failure (CHF). Since inspiratory muscle dysfunction may be present to a variable degree, the assumption that IC reduction during exercise represents an increase in end-expiratory lung volume must be made with caution. This interpretation is flaw...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - April 17, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Evaluation of respiratory parameters in finswimmers regarding gender, swimming style and distance
Conclusion The data from the present study reveal that handgrip was associated with style, and hours per day spent at the gym were associated with distance. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - April 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough and Airway Defence – Special issue of Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Jana Plevkova, Jan Hanacek, Milos Tatar (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - April 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Differential responses of autonomic function in sea level residents, acclimatized lowlanders at & gt;3500  m and Himalayan high altitude natives at & gt;3500  m: A cross-sectional study
Publication date: Available online 9 April 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Priyanka Dhar, Vijay K. Sharma, Saroj K. Das, Kalpana Barhwal, Sunil K. Hota, Shashi B. Singh We studied the differential responses of autonomic function in sea level residents (SLR), acclimatized lowlanders (ALH) in high altitude (HA) and HA natives (HAN) at >3500 m. Out of 771 male volunteers included in this cross-sectional study, SLR, ALH and HAN groups were comprised of 351, 307 and 113 volunteers, respectively. Our results showed persistent sympathetic dominance with significantly reduced (p &am...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - April 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Modelling Nasal High Flow Therapy Effects on Upper Airway Resistance and Resistive Work of Breathing
Conclusion NHF raises expiratory resistance but it can reduce the work required to overcome upper airway resistance via a fall in inspiratory work of breathing, RR and minute volume. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - April 8, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Genetically determined enlargement of carotid body evaluated using computed angiotomography
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Przemysław Jaźwiec, Paweł Gać, Monika Chaszczewska-Markowska, Katarzyna Bogunia-Kubik, Grzegorz Mazur, Rafał Poręba It has recently been established that carotid bodies play a significant role in the regulation of activities of the cardiovascular system as well as in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension, heart failure and diabetes. Aim of study was to determinate the influence of polymorphisms within genes of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) on the volume of the carotid bodies (CB) in p...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - April 6, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Lung Pathologies analyzed with Multi-Frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography: Pilot Animal Study
Publication date: Available online 31 March 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Susana Aguiar Santos, Michael Czaplik, Jakob Orschulik, Nadine Hochhausen, Steffen Leonhardt In critically ill patients, correct diagnosis of lung disease is essential for successful therapy. Therefore, this study investigated whether new multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography (mfEIT) can detect, monitor and differentiate between pathologies associated with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). For this pilot study, 12 pigs were randomized into an ARDS (bronchoalveolar lavage) group (n=7) and...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - April 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Respiratory muscles stretching acutely increases expansion in hemiparetic chest wall
Publication date: Available online 30 March 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Catarina Rattes, Shirley Lima Campos, Caio Morais, Thiago Gonçalves, Larissa Bouwman Sayão, Valdecir Castor Galindo-Filho, Verônica Parreira, Andrea Aliverti, Armèle Dornelas de Andrade Individuals post-stroke may present restrictive ventilatory pattern generated from changes in the functionality of respiratory system due to muscle spasticity and contractures. Objective was to assess the acute effects after respiratory muscle stretching on the ventilatory pattern and volume distributi...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - March 31, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Novel computer algorithm for cough monitoring based on octonions
The objective assessment of cough frequency is essential for evaluation of cough and antitussive therapies. Nonetheless, available algorithms for automatic detection of cough sound have limited sensitivity and the analysis of cough sound often requires input from human observers. Therefore, an algorithm for the cough sound detection with high sensitivity would be very useful for development of automatic cough monitors. Here we present a novel algorithm for cough sounds classification based on 8-dimensional numbers octonions and compare it with the algorithm based on standard neural network. The performance was evaluated on...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - March 27, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough reflex sensitivity does not correlate with the esophageal sensitivity to acid in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Martin Duricek, Lenka Nosakova, Tomas Zatko, Renata Pecova, Rudolf Hyrdel, Peter Banovcin The sensitization of cough reflex observed in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is attributed to activation of vagal C-fibers innervating the esophagus by acid, while the heartburn in GERD is mediated by esophageal acid sensitive C-fibers derived from (dorsal root ganglia) DRG. Here we explored the relationship between cough reflex sensitivity (CRS) and esophageal sensitivity to acid. We evaluated CRS to...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - March 27, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Flow Limitation and Dysanapsis in Children and Adolescents with Exertional Dyspnea
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Paolo T. Pianosi The consequence of dysanapsis, quantitated by dysanapsis ratio (DR), on expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during exercise in pediatric subjects was examined. EFL occurred in 80 (56%) subjects from an enriched sample of children and adolescents tested during investigation of exertional dyspnea. DR was lower in subjects with vs without EFL during exercise: (0.055 ± 0.015 vs 0.067 ± 0.017, p < .001), and lower ratio correlated with greater extent of EFL (r = &minu...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - March 26, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Modulation –demodulation hypothesis of periodic breathing in human respiration
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volumes 252–253 Author(s): Tanmay Pal, Pranab Kumar Dutta, Srinivasu Maka Periodic breathing (PB) is a diseased condition of the cardiorespiratory system, and mathematically it is modelled as an oscillation. Modeling approaches replicate periodic oscillation in the minute ventilation due to a higher than normal gain of the feedback signals from the chemoreceptors coupled with a longer than normal latency in feedback, and do not consider the waxing–waning pattern of the oronasal airflow. In this work, a noted regulation model is e...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - March 26, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Acute bronchodilator therapy does not reduce wasted ventilation during exercise in COPD
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Amany F. Elbehairy, Katherine A. Webb, Pierantonio Laveneziana, Nicolle J. Domnik, J. Alberto Neder, Denis E. O’Donnell This randomized, double-blind, crossover study aimed to determine if acute treatment with inhaled bronchodilators, by improving regional lung hyperinflation and ventilation distribution, would reduce dead space-to-tidal volume ratio (VD/VT); thus contributing to improved exertional dyspnea in COPD. Twenty COPD patients (FEV1 = 50 ± 15%predicted;mean ± SD) perfor...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - March 23, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough reflex sensitivity after exercise challenge testing in children with asthma
Publication date: Available online 13 March 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): P. Ferenc, J. Fabry, T. Zatko, P. Kunc, J. Sojak, M. Grendar, R. Pecova Bronchial challenge tests are commonly used in clinical medicine and research. The aim of this study was to clarify changes of cough reflex sensitivity before and after exercise challenge testing in asthma children. 42 asthmatic children were submitted to cough reflex sensitivity measurement – capsaicin aerosol in doubling concentrations (from 0.61 to 1250 micromol/l) was inhaled by a single breath method – before and after exer...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - March 21, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Diaphragmatic shear modulus at various submaximal inspiratory mouth pressure levels
This study assessed the shear modulus of the diaphragm at various submaximal inspiratory mouth pressure levels by ultrasound shear wave elastography. In 14 healthy male subjects, diaphragmatic shear moduli were assessed at end expiration during resting breathing and at submaximal inspiratory tasks at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75% of the maximal inspiratory mouth pressure. The shear modulus increased along with mouth pressure, and the mouth-pressure–shear-modulus relationship fit the second-order polynomial regression equation (r2 = 0.99 ± 0.01; all subjects, r2 ≥ 0.95) better than it did the simple li...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - March 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Surfactant proteins changes after acute hemodynamic improvement in patients with advanced chronic heart failure treated with Levosimendan
In conclusion, acute lung fluid reduction is associated with SPs but not DLCO changes. SPs are fast responders to alveolar-capillary membrane condition changes. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - March 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough reflex sensitivity after exercise challenge testing in asthma children
Publication date: Available online 13 March 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): P. Ferenc, J. Fabry, T. Zatko, P. Kunc, J. Sojak, M. Grendar, R. Pecova The bronchial challenge tests are the most widely used. The aim of this study was to clarify changes of cough reflex sensitivity before and after exercise challenge testing in asthma children. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - March 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Hippocampal Modulation of Cardiorespiratory Function
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Itopa E. Ajayi, Alice E. McGovern, Alexandria K. Driessen, Nicole F. Kerr, Paul C. Mills, Stuart B. Mazzone Changes in cardiorespiratory control accompany the expression of complex emotions, indicative of limbic brain inputs onto bulbar autonomic pathways. Previous studies have focussed on the role of the prefrontal cortex in autonomic regulation. However, the role of the hippocampus, also important in limbic processing, has not been addressed in detail. Anaesthetised, instrumented rats were used to map the loc...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - March 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Assessment of ‘neural respiratory drive’ from the parasternal intercostal muscles
Publication date: Available online 12 March 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Anna L. Hudson, Jane E. Butler (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - March 12, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Non-pharmacological techniques for the extremes of the cough spectrum
Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Arietta Spinou Cough can be viewed as a continuum where extremes represent disease phenotypes. Under this unified concept, non-pharmacological treatment for the extremes of the cough spectrum includes both cough augmentation and cough control techniques. Supporting the cough motor output and exercising the cognitive control on coughing are the main directions of these techniques. Cough augmentation can be provided to patients who present low ability to generate adequate peak cough flows, with the aim to develop ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - March 9, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Capnographic Identification of End-Expiratory Flow Limitation
This study evaluated 6 healthy subjects exhaling from total lung capacity to residual volume at several set constant rates. We measured the volumes of flow limitation (VFL) and phase 5 (VP5) for CO2 and N2. A distinct phase 5 occurred shortly after eEFL for both gases. Increased expiratory flow rate resulted in parallel increases in VFL and VP5. The two quantities differed on average by the volume of dead space. These data suggest that phase 5 on capnography identifies eEFL with a small delay resulting from transit of expired gas through dead space. Following phase 5 by volumetric capnography could be useful for monitoring...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - March 8, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Modulation-Demodulation hypothesis of Periodic Breathing in Human Respiration
Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Tanmay Pal, Pranab Kumar Dutta, Srinivasu Maka Periodic Breathing (PB) is a diseased condition of the cardiorespiratory system, and mathematically it is modelled as an oscillation. Modeling approaches replicate periodic oscillation in the minute ventilation due to a higher than normal gain of the feedback signals from the chemoreceptors coupled with a longer than normal latency in feedback, and do not consider the waxing-waning pattern of the oronasal airflow. In this work, a noted regulation model is extended b...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - March 8, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The Effect of pH on Citric Acid Cough Challenge: A Randomised Control Trial in Chronic Cough and Healthy Volunteers
Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Z.L Rai, H.E. Fowles, C. Wright, H. Joseph, A.H. Morice Introduction Citric acid has been used for over six decades to induce cough; however the mechanism of its pro-tussive effect is still not fully understood. We assessed the response to inhalation of citric acid at varying levels of acidity to determine if the pH of the solution plays a role in the induction of cough. Data was collected from both healthy volunteers and patients with chronic cough. Methods 20 chronic cough patients and 20 healthy volunteers we...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - March 7, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Metabonomic profiling of chronic intermittent hypoxia in a mouse model
In this study, the urinary metabonomic profile associated to intermittent hypoxia was evaluated in a mouse model. When exposed to intermittent hypoxia, animals showed a significant alteration in energy metabolism towards anaerobic pathways and signs of OS imbalance. A compensatory response was observed over time. Our data also indicates an excess production of vitamin B3, liver function modulations and a stimulation of creatine synthesis which could be used to evaluate the ChIH repercussions. As well, TMAO and allantoin could constitute interesting biomarker candidates, respectively in the context of cardiovascular risk an...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - March 7, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Large eddy simulation of the flow pattern in an idealized mouth-throat under unsteady inspiration flow conditions
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Xinguang Cui, Eva Gutheil An excellent understanding of the airflow properties is critical to improve the drug delivery efficiency via the extrathoracic airway. The present numerical study focuses on the investigation the characteristics of important airflow structures such as the secondary vortices, the impinging jet and the recirculation zone under unsteady inspiration flow conditions in a circular idealized mouth-throat model using large eddy simulation (LES). Five inhalation cycles are simulated, the la...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - March 5, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research