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Analysis of respiratory movements in a mouse model of late Parkinson ’s disease submitted to stress
In this study, we examined respiratory movements by using cineradiography on a murine model of late/advanced PD. Under surgical anesthesia, C57BL/6J mice received an injection of either 6-OHDA or vehicle solution to the right striatum. Two weeks after surgery, the animals had their respiratory movements recorded by video X-ray without any restraint. During recordings the animals were submitted to a mild acute-stress challenge. Behavioral tests were performed to assess the severity of the 6-OHDA lesion. As a result, behavioral tests confirmed severe motor impairments in 6-OHDA mice as compared to controls. 6-OHDA mice showe...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 23, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Slow V ̇O2 kinetics in acute hypoxia are not related to a hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia
We examined whether slower pulmonary O2 uptake (V̇O2p) kinetics in hypoxia is a consequence of: a) hypoxia alone (lowered arterial O2 pressure), b) hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia (lowered arterial CO2 pressure), or c) a combination of both. Eleven participants performed 3-5 repetitions of step-changes in cycle ergometer power output from 20W to 80% lactate threshold in the following conditions: i) normoxia (CON; room air); ii) hypoxia (HX, inspired O2 = 12%; lowered end-tidal O2 pressure [PETO2] and end-tidal CO2 pressure [PETCO2]); iii) hyperventilation (HV; increased PETO2 and lowered PETCO2); and iv) normocapn...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 22, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

GABA-ergic neurotransmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract modulates cough in the cat
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Z. Kotmanova, M. Simera, M. Veternik, L. Martvon, J. Misek, J. Jakus, T.Y. Shen, M.N. Musselwhite, T. Pitts, D.C. Bolser, I. Poliacek GABA, muscimol, and baclofen were microinjected into the rostral (rNTS) and caudal solitary tract nucleus (cNTS) in 24 anesthetized cats. Electromyograms (EMGs) of diaphragm (DIA) and abdominal muscles (ABD), blood pressure and esophageal pressure (EP) were recorded and analysed. Bilateral microinjections of 1 mM GABA (total 66 ± 4 nl), 1 mM baclofen (64 &pl...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 21, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Modulation of defensive airway reflexes during continuous positive airway pressure in the rabbit
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Ioan Iulia, Demoulin Bruno, Leblanc Anne-Laure, Schweitzer Cyril, Marchal François, Foucaud Laurent, Demoulin-Alexikova Silvia Lung hyperinflation may alter the pattern of ventilatory reflexes in chronic respiratory disorders. The aim of the study was to test the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on ventilatory responses to mechanical stimulation of the trachea. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 21, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The inflammatory molecule sphingosine-1-phosphate is not effective to evoke or sensitize cough in na ïve guinea pigs
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Simona Svajdova, Lenka Mazurova, Mariana Brozmanova Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is an inflammatory mediator increased in the tissue in the number of inflammatory conditions. Preliminary data indicate that the vagal afferent neurons express several S1P receptors including S1PR2-3. We therefore evaluated the hypothesis that S1P induces cough and/or enhances the cough evoked by other tussive stimuli (TRPA1 and TRPV1 activators) in naïve guinea pigs. Inhalation of S1P in the concentrations of 0.1 mM and ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 16, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of hypercapnia on self-sustained muscle activity
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 250 Author(s): Kei Hatano, Kazuki Shirakawa, Noboru Usuda, Ryouta Matsuura, Yoshinori Ohtsuka, Takahiro Yunoki The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of hypercapnia on motor neuromuscular activity of the human triceps surae muscle. Nine subjects participated in trials in a normal breathing condition and a CO2 rebreathing condition. In both conditions, in order to provoke self-sustained muscle activity, percutaneous electrical train stimulation was applied to the tibial nerve while each subject lay on a bed. Self-sus...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 13, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

MicroRNA-874 inhibits TNF- α-induced remodeling in human fetal airway smooth muscle cells by targeting STAT3
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Meihua Sun, Yuanyuan Huang, Feng Li, Haibo Li, Bo Zhang, Lianhua Jin Pro-inflammatory cytokines-induced airway remodeling was a significant feature of asthma disease. The aim of the present study was to explore the functional significance of miR-874 in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-treated human fetal airway smooth muscle (fASM) cells. Here, we found that TNF-α treatment significantly down-regulated the expression of miR-874 in fASM cells. MiR-874 overexpression markedly inhibited cell viability ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 12, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Hyperoxia-induced regulation of cough reflex and its effect after antioxidant supplementation
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Mariana Brozmanova, Jan Hanacek Hyperoxia-induced lung injury is well known in animal and human studies. The respiratory epithelium including sensory nerve endings is a major target for oxidative injury that manifested in lung function changes including cough. On the basis of available information we supposed that hyperoxia alone or in combination with primary lung tissue injury should have a damaging effect on lungs, including the airway nerve endings with the changes in the sensitivity of the central and p...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Flow visualization through particle image velocimetry in realistic model of rhesus monkey ’s upper airway
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Ji-Woong Kim, Nguyen Lu Phuong, Shin-ichiro Aramaki, Kazuhide Ito Studies concerning inhalation toxicology and respiratory drug-delivery systems require biological testing involving experiments performed on animals. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is an effective in vitro technique that reveals detailed inhalation flow patterns, thereby assisting analyses of inhalation exposure to various substances. A realistic model of a rhesus-monkey upper airway was developed to investigate flow patterns in its oral and...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of tiotropium on spontaneous expiratory flow –volume curves during exercise in GOLD 1-2 COPD
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Janos Porszasz, Nicolò Carraro, Robert Cao, Ashwani Gore, Shuyi Ma, Thomas Jiang, François Maltais, Gary T. Ferguson, Denis E. O’Donnell, Asif Shaikh, Harry B. Rossiter, Richard Casaburi This substudy of a large, randomized, controlled trial (NCT01072396) examined tiotropium (18 μg qd) effects on dynamic hyperinflation during constant work rate treadmill exercise. Areas-under-the-spontaneous expiratory flow-volume (SEFV)-curves were compared in 20 COPD patients and 16 age-matched unt...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Nasal High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation Inhibits Gastroesophageal Reflux in the Neonatal Period
In conclusion, similarly to nasal CPAP and intermittent positive pressure ventilation, nHFOV inhibits GERs in newborn lambs. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Is cough important in acute exacerbations of COPD?
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Michael G. Crooks, Timothy Brown, Alyn H. Morice Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is predicted to become the 4th leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. The natural history of the disease includes progressive symptoms punctuated by acute exacerbations during which symptoms rapidly deteriorate. The resulting disability places significant burden on health and social care systems. Cough is the second most common symptom reported by COPD patients, is a source of significant distress and is associated with...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Diving into the mammalian swamp of respiratory rhythm generation with the bullfrog” [Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 224 (2016) 37–51]
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Mufaddal I. Baghdadwala, Maryana Duchcherer, William M. Trask, Paul A. Gray, Richard J.A. Wilson (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 9, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Expression of the transcription factor FOXP2 in brainstem respiratory circuits of adult rat is restricted to upper-airway pre-motor areas
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 250 Author(s): Davor Stanić, Rishi R. Dhingra, Mathias Dutschmann Expression of the transcription factor FOXP2 is linked to brain circuits that control motor function and speech. Investigation of FOXP2 protein expression in respiratory areas of the ponto-medullary brainstem of adult rat revealed distinct rostro-caudal expression gradients. A high density of FOXP2 immunoreactive nuclei was observed within the rostral pontine Kölliker-Fuse nucleus, compared to low densities in caudal pontine and rostral medullary respiratory nucl...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 4, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation in a Pre-Clinical Anesthetized Rabbit Model Relevant to OSA
Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Girriso F. Benderro, Jenniffer Gamble, Matthew A. Schiefer, Jonathan Z. Baskin, Yeritza Hernandez, Kingman P. Strohl We tested the functional effects of hypoglossal (CNXII) stimulation in the anesthetized rabbit before and after injections of saline into the tongue base to obstruct the airway. Data (n = 6) show little or no effect of CN XII trunk stimulation; however, medial branch stimulation (20–100 Hz; 50–500 μs pulse width, and incremental increases from 10 μA) reduced upper ai...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Influence of high-intensity interval training on ventilatory efficiency in trained athletes
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Eduardo Salazar-Martínez, Alfredo Santalla, José Naranjo Orellana, Jochen Strobl, Martin Burtscher, Verena Menz The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 3 weeks high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on ventilatory efficiency (V E/VCO2 slope) in endurance athletes. Sixteen male well-trained (67.72 ml kg min−1) athletes participated in this study. Each participant performed an incremental exercise test with gas analysis (i.e. V E, VO2) and a 400 m running field test ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 31, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Inhibitory modulation of the cough reflex by acetylcholine in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii of the rabbit
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Elenia Cinelli, Ludovica Iovino, Fulvia Bongianni, Tito Pantaleo, Donatella Mutolo A cholinergic system has been described in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). However, no information is available on the role played by acetylcholine (ACh) in the modulation of the cough reflex within the caudal NTS that has an important function in cough regulation. We addressed this issue making use of bilateral microinjections (30–50 nl) of 10 mM ACh combined with 5 mM physostigmine as well as of 10 mM mecamyl...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 31, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Excess Ventilation in COPD: Implications for Dyspnoea and Tolerance to Interval Exercise
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Daniela M. Bravo, Ana Cristina Gimenes, Beatriz C. Amorim, Maria Clara Alencar, Danilo Berton, Denis E. O’Donnell, Luiz E. Nery, J. Alberto Neder Interval exercise delays critical mechanical-ventilatory constraints with positive consequences on dyspnea and exercise tolerance in COPD. We hypothesized that those advantages of interval exercise would be partially off-set in patients showing excessive ventilation (V̇E) to metabolic demand (V̇CO2). Sixteen men (FEV1 = 42.3 ± 8.9%) performed,...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 31, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Gas exchanges in children with cystic fibrosis or primary ciliary dyskinesia: A retrospective study
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Marilyn Fuger, Camille Aupiais, Guillaume Thouvenin, Jessica Taytard, Aline Tamalet, Estelle Escudier, Priscilla Boizeau, Harriet Corvol, Nicole Beydon Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and cystic fibrosis (CF) both entail bronchiectasis and pulmonary impairment as measured using spirometry, during childhood. We aimed at looking whether blood gas exchanges progressed differently between CF and PCD children in a retrospective study of repeated measurements. Comparisons between groups (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 31, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The double-sidedness of cough in the elderly
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Ha-Kyeong Won, Sol-Ji Yoon, Woo-Jung Song Cough is a physiological reflex to protect airways against aspiration, but also it is one of the most frequent problems that lead patients to seek medical care. Chronic cough is more prevalent in the elderly than younger subjects, and more challenging to manage due to frequent comorbidities and possible side effects from drug treatment. Meanwhile, cough reflex does not decrease with natural aging but is often impaired by pathologic conditions like stroke. The impairme...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 12, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Inhibitors of phosphodiesterases in the treatment of cough
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Juraj Mokry, Anna Urbanova, Martin Kertys, Daniela Mokra A group of 11 enzyme families of metalophosphohydrolases called phosphodiesterases (PDEs) is responsible for a hydrolysis of intracellular cAMP and cGMP. Xanthine derivatives (methylxanthines) inhibit PDEs without selective action on their single isoforms and lead to many pharmacological effects, e.g. bronchodilation, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects, and thus they can modulate the cough reflex. Contrary, selective PDE inhibitors have been...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 12, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A Pilot Study on the Biomechanical Assessment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Pre and Post Bariatric Surgery
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Ahmed M. Al-Jumaily, Sherif Ashaat, Bryn Martin, Rachael Pohle-Krauza, Matthew Krauza, Adrian Dan, John Zografakis Obesity is a major risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea patients. In obese patients the severity of this risk can be reduced by bariatric surgery. This pilot study investigates the perioperative effects of bariatric surgery on obstructive sleep apnea and on the physical and biomechanical characteristics of the upper airway. Polysomnography and computer tomography data for 10 morbid obese patie...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 12, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The effect of continuous positive airway pressure on spectral encephalogram characteristics in stroke patients with obstructive sleep apnea
Conclusion Contrary to expectations CPAP treatment of OSA did not significantly decrease alpha and delta oscillations in stroke subjects. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Sensitivity of airway cough-related afferents is influenced by female sex hormones
Publication date: Available online 8 January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Natalia Kavalcikova-Bogdanova, Lea Kovacikova, Tomas Buday, Kamil Biringer, Jana Sivakova, Vladimir Calkovsky, Martina Antosova, Jana Plevkova Chronic hypersensitivity cough syndrome affects mainly postmenopausal women; however, the pathogenesis of cough hypersensitivity in this demographic is not entirely understood. The role of sex hormones in cough has never been studied in detail; however, sex hormones seem to play an important role in the lung health of women. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 9, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Study of the Upper Airway of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patient using Fluid Structure Interaction
Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Yang Liu, Jennifer Mitchell, Yitung Chen, Woosoon Yim, Wenxiao Chu, Robert C. Wang Up to 14% of the U.S. population is estimated to have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), while the outcomes of the treatments have variable results. In the current study, a three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction modeling was applied to simulate the upper airway to identify the precise location, severity, and characteristic of airway collapse. This was accomplished using Simpleware® and ANSYS® software applied to a 3-D...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 7, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The effect of metabolic alkalosis on the ventilatory response in healthy subjects
Conclusion This study demonstrates that in healthy subjects metabolic alkalosis decreases the neural respiratory drive and minute ventilation, as a response to inspiratory CO2. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 5, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough in sarcoidosis patients
Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Eva Kovacova, Tomas Buday, Robert Vysehradsky, Jana Plevkova Sarcoidosis is a multi-system disease of unknown aetiology characterized by presence of non-caseating granulomatous inflammation.Cough is a common and significant symptom in sarcoidosis, reducing quality of life.Objective 24 h cough monitoring proved that sarcoidosis patients have significantly higher cough frequency compared to controls and their cough has diurnal variation, it is gender-specific and shows racial differences. It correlates with th...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 5, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Structure of vagal afferent nerve terminal fibers in the mouse trachea
Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Michal Hennel, Jana Harsanyiova, Fei Ru, Tomas Zatko, Mariana Brozmanova, Alzbeta Trancikova, Milos Tatar, Marian Kollarik The structure of primary afferent nerve terminals profoundly influences their function. While the complex vagal airway nerve terminals (stretch receptors, cough receptors and neuroepithelial bodies) were thoroughly characterized, much less is known about the structure of airway nerves that do not form distinct complex terminals (often termed free nerve fibers). We selectively induced expre...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 4, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Neurophysiological study on the effect of various short durations of deep breathing: a randomized controlled trial
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Kok Suen Cheng, Ray P.S. Han, Poh Foong Lee The study aims to study the effects of short duration deep breathing on the EEG power with topography based on parallel group randomized controlled trial design which was lacking in prior reports. 50 participants were split into 4 groups: control (CONT), deep breathing (DB) for 5 (DB5), 7 (DB7), and 9 (DB9) minutes. EEG recordings were obtained during baseline, deep breathing session, after deep breathing, and a follow-up session after 7 days of consecutive pract...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 31, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Glycopyrronium bromide inhibits lung inflammation and small airway remodeling induced by subchronic cigarette smoke exposure in mice
In conclusion, NVA237 exerted a potent suppressive effect on lung inflammation and small airway remodeling induced by subchronic CS exposure. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 29, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Ventilator-derived dynamic respiratory system compliance: comparison with static compliance in children
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Anu K Kaskinen, Turkka Kirjavainen, Paula Rautiainen, Laura Martelius, Sture Andersson, Olli M Pitkänen Measurement of dynamic lung compliance during breathing requires measurement of esophageal pressure, whereas static respiratory system compliance (Crs) method requires several airway occlusions. Despite their precision these compliance methods are cumbersome and not suitable for evaluation of pulmonary system in intensive care. The current ventilators display dynamic Crs, which, however, is seldom uti...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 28, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Voluntary breath-holding duration in healthy subjects with obesity: role of peripheral chemosensitivity to carbon dioxide
Conclusions The sensitivity of peripheral chemoreflex to CO2 was preserved in healthy men with obesity. The higher sensitivity of peripheral chemoreflex to CO2 and higher WHR were associated with a decrease in the duration of voluntary apnea in subjects with obesity. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 16, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of normobaric hypoxia on upper body critical power and anaerobic working capacity
Discussion Moderate normobaric hypoxia appears to reduce CP in the upper body but has a variable effect on AWC. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 14, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Contribution of relative leptin and adiponectin deficiencies in premature infants to chronic intermittent hypoxia: exploring a new hypothesis
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Estelle B. Gauda, Zankhana Master Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) occurs frequently in premature infants who have apnea of prematurity. Immaturity of the respiratory network from low central respiratory drive and the greater contribution of the carotid body on baseline breathing leads to respiratory instability in premature infants presenting as apnea and periodic breathing. During the 2nd week after birth, the smallest and the youngest premature infants have increased frequency of apnea and periodic brea...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 14, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cyclooxygenase enzyme activity does not impair respiratory motor plasticity after one night of intermittent hypoxia
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Adrianne G. Huxtable, Elizabeth Kopp, Brendan J. Doughtery, Jyoti J. Watters, Gordon S. Mitchell Although inflammation is prevalent in many clinical disorders challenging breathing, we are only beginning to understand the impact of inflammation on neural mechanisms of respiratory control. We recently demonstrated one form of respiratory motor plasticity is extremely sensitive to even mild inflammation induced by a single night (8hours) of intermittent hypoxia (IH-1), mimicking aspects of obstructive sleep apn...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 10, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The effects of exercise on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors as well as lung and hippocampus oxidative stress in ovalbumin-sensitized juvenile rats
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Amin Mokhtari-Zaer, Mahmoud Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady Allergic asthma during early life period has been reported to be associated with neurochemical and behavioral disorders, including anxiety and depression. We aimed to determine the effects of exercise on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors as well as lung and hippocampus oxidative stress in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized juvenile rats. Animals were divided into 4 groups including control (non-exercised and non-sensitized), Exe (exercise and non-s...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Loss of CDKL5 disrupts respiratory function in mice
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Kun-Ze Lee, Wenlin Liao Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) is an X-linked gene encoding a serine-threonine kinase that is highly expressed in the central nervous system. Mutations in CDKL5 cause neurological and psychiatric symptoms, including early-onset seizures, motor dysfunction, autistic features and sleep breathing abnormalities in patients. It remains to be addressed whether loss of CDKL5 causes respiratory dysfunction in mice. Here, we examined the respiratory pattern of male Cdkl5 −/y mice ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 6, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Breathing disturbances in a model of Rett syndrome: a potential involvement of the glycine receptor α3 subunit?
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Guillaume Mesuret, Julia Dannenberg, Mauricio Arnoldt, Anja-Annett Grützner, Marcus Niebert, Swen Hülsmann The glycine receptor α3 subunit is known to be a target for cAMP/PKA-mediated phosphorylation and regulation. Mice that lack this subunit are apparently normal but the 5-HT1A-receptor mediated modulation of respiratory network activity is disturbed. Since the intracellular cAMP-concentration is reduced in mice that lack the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) ge...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 6, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The Influence of 5-HT1A Receptors in the Dorsal Raph é Nucleus on Genioglossus Activity
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Ying Zou, Wei Wang, Hongyu Jin, Xinshi Nie, Jiahuan Xu, Ying Liu, Jian Kang Genioglossus activity maintains the patency of the upper airway. 5-HT neurons in the raphe nucleus regulate genioglossus activity. In order to study the influence of 5-HT1A receptors in dorsal raphé nucleus (DRN) on genioglossus EMG during normoxia, adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: the artificial cerebrospinal fluid group (ACSF group), the low-concentration of 5-HT1A receptors agonist 8-OH-DPAT gro...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 6, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Quasi-static pulmonary P –V curves of patients with ARDS, Part I: Characterization
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 248 Author(s): Mohsen Nabian, Uichiro Narusawa Quasi-static, pulmonary pressure–volume (P–V) curves are combined with a respiratory system model to analyze characteristics of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It is shown that there exist distinct differences between healthy- and injured-respiratory system in the order of magnitudes of parameters of their P–V model equation. Four stages of ARDS (Early ARDS, Deep knee, Advanced ARDS and Baby lung) are defined quantitatively in terms of these ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 6, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Microstructural cerebral lesions are associated with the severity of central sleep apnea with Cheyne-Stokes-respiration in heart failure and are modified by PAP-therapy
This study investigated the association of microstructural cerebral lesions with central sleep apnea with Cheyne-Stokes-respiration (CSA-CSR) in heart failure (HF) patients and the effect of positive airway pressure therapy (PAP) of CSA-CSR on these lesions. PAP-therapy was initiated in patients with HF with midrange and with reduced ejection fraction (NYHA≥II; left ventricular ejection fraction <50%) and proven CSA-CSR. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at 3T including diffusion tensor imaging were obtained before and after 4 months of PAP-therapy. Cerebral MRI scans revealed microstructural lesion...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 28, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Respiratory functional and motor control deficits in children with spinal cord injury
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 247 Author(s): Goutam Singh, Andrea L. Behrman, Sevda C. Aslan, Shelley Trimble, Alexander V. Ovechkin Children with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at high risk for developing complications due to respiratory motor control deficits. However, underlying mechanisms of these abnormalities with respect to age, development, and injury characteristics are unclear. To evaluate the effect of SCI and age on respiratory motor control in children with SCI, we compared pulmonary function and respiratory motor control outcome measures in healthy ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 28, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Exercise testing in patients with diaphragm paresis
Conclusions DP decreases aerobic capacity due to ventilatory limitation. Diaphragm function is correlated with exercise ventilation whereas overall inspiratory muscle function is correlated with both exercise capacity and ventilation suggesting the importance of the accessory inspiratory muscles during exercise for patients with DP. Further larger prospective studies are needed to confirm these results. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 28, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Respiratory muscle strength is decreased after maximal incremental exercise in trained runners and cyclists
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 248 Author(s): Ferid Oueslati, Ahmed Berriri, Jan Boone, Said Ahmaidi The respiratory muscle fatigue seems to be able to limit exercise performance and may influence the determination of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) or maximum aerobic work rate during maximal incremental test. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether maximal incremental exercise decreases respiratory muscle strength. We hypothesized that respiratory muscle strength (maximal pressure) will decrease after maximal incremental exercise to exhausti...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 28, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

K-complex morphological features in male obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome patients
This study characterized the differences in K-complex (KC) morphology features between obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patients and healthy controls and analyzed the effect of respiratory events on KC morphology. We enrolled 42 male subjects (21 OSAHS patients and 21 age-matched healthy controls) who underwent overnight polysomnography. KCs in stage N2 were manually identified. We found that KCs in healthy controls had larger negative and whole amplitudes, longer durations, and smoother positive waves than OSAHS patients but smaller positive amplitudes. Most features showed highly significant differences ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 10, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Hypoglossal motoneurons are endogenously activated by serotonin during the active period of circadian cycle
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Leszek Kubin, Graziella L. Mann In obstructive sleep apnea patients, contraction of lingual muscles protects the pharyngeal airway from collapse. Hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons innervate the muscles of the tongue and are themselves under wake-related excitatory drives, including that mediated by serotonin (5-HT). Estimates of endogenous 5-HT activation vary among different studies. We tested whether endogenous drive mediated by 5-HT is present in rat XII motoneurons when measured during the active period of th...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 10, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Numerical study of the airflow structures in an idealized mouth-throat under light and heavy breathing intensities using large eddy simulation
In conclusion, these airflow structures show distinct properties at light and heavy breathing conditions, particularly in the unsteady flow field. The study provides evidence about the physical processes leading to both enlarged mixing zones and recirculation zones. It is known that stronger secondary vortices, a stronger laryngeal jet and enlarged recirculation zones definitely increase the particle deposition in the upper airway. The present paper aims to uncover the physical properties of the airflow for different breathing conditions, and their detailed effect on particle deposition will be studied in future. (Source: ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Spinal activation of protein kinase C elicits phrenic motor facilitation
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Michael J. Devinney, Gordon S. Mitchell The protein kinase C family regulates many cellular functions, including multiple forms of neuroplasticity. The novel PKCθ and atypical PKCζ isoforms have been implicated in distinct forms of spinal, respiratory motor plasticity, including phrenic motor facilitation (pMF) following acute intermittent hypoxia or inactivity, respectively. Although these PKC isoforms are critical in regulating spinal motor plasticity, other isoforms may be important for phrenic ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 2, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The effects of truncal adiposity in forced spirometry: Sex differences
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 247 Author(s): Rafael Martin Holguera, Ana Isabel Turrion Nieves, Rosa Rodriguez Torres, María Concepción Alonso The aim of the current paper is to establish the influence of truncal fat accumulation on the spirometric results of a group of healthy individuals. A cross-sectional study of 305 healthy, non-smoking adult subjects (144 males, 161 females) was conducted. Forced spirometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to quantify body fat were performed. Partial correlation and multiple linear regression analyses we...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 2, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Dietary nitrate supplementation opposes the elevated diaphragm blood flow in chronic heart failure during submaximal exercise
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 247 Author(s): Joshua R. Smith, Scott K. Ferguson, K. Sue Hageman, Craig A. Harms, David C. Poole, Timothy I. Musch Chronic heart failure (CHF) results in a greater cost of breathing and necessitates an elevated diaphragm blood flow (BF). Dietary nitrate (NO3‾) supplementation lowers the cost of exercise. We hypothesized that dietary NO3‾ supplementation would attenuate the CHF-induced greater cost of breathing and thus the heightened diaphragm BF during exercise. CHF rats received either 5days of NO3‾-rich beetro...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 22, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research