Editorial Board
Publication date: April 2020Source: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 275Author(s): (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 27, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Review Article (RESPNB_2019_334-R3) What Are Appropriate Values of Relative Krogh Diffusion Constant of NO against CO and of Theta-NO in Alveolar Septa?
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Kazuhiro Yamaguchi, Takao Tsuji, Kazutetsu Aoshiba, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Shinji AbeAbstractObjectivesTo propose new physical constants for NO and CO (Krogh diffusion constant ratio (KDNO/CO) and specific blood conductance for NO (θNO)) for calculating DMCO and Vc, according to Roughton-Forster’s equation (J. Appl. Physiol. 11: 290-302, 1957) from simultaneous DLNO and DLCO measurements.Results and conclusions(1) The Graham’s law is unacceptable for determining KDNO/CO because CO does not fulfil all...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 15, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Development of ventilatory chemoreflexes in Coturnix quail chicks
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Monata J. Song, Ashley E. Pratt, Ryan W. BavisAbstractCompared to mammals, little is known about the development of the respiratory control system in birds. In the present study, ventilation and metabolism were measured in Coturnix quail chicks exposed to room air, hypoxia (11% O2), and hypercapnia (4% CO2) at 0-1, 3-4, and 6-7 days posthatching (dph). Mass-specific ventilation and metabolic rate tended to increase between 0-1 and 3-4 dph and then decrease again between 3-4 and 6-7 dph. The magnitude of the hypoxi...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 15, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Adenosine in the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area does not participate on the CO2 chemoreflex
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2020Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Laísa Taís Cabral Rodrigues, Bruno Salata, José de Anchieta C. Horta-Júnior, Luciane H. Gargaglioni, Mirela B. DiasAbstractThe Lateral Hypothalamus/Perifornical Area (LH/PFA) has been shown to be involved with the hypercapnic ventilatory response, in a state-dependent manner. We have demonstrated that purinergic signaling through ATP in the LH/PFA has an excitatory effect in ventilatory response to CO2 in awake rats in the dark phase of the diurnal cycle, but it is unknown whether the A...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Eccentric versus conventional cycle training to improve muscle strength in advanced COPD: A randomized clinical trial
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2020Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Jean Bourbeau, Riany De Sousa Sena, Tanja Taivassalo, Ruddy Richard, Dennis Jensen, Jacinthe Baril, Danielle Soares Rocha Vieira, Hélène PerraultAbstractObjectivesTo compare eccentric (ECC) and conventional concentric (CON) cycle training on quadriceps muscle strength in advanced COPD. Secondary objective was to assess functional capacity.MethodsA parallel-group, assessor-blind, randomized trial was conducted. Severe COPD patients were randomized to either an ECC (n = 13) or CON (n&thins...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Activation of the expiratory muscles via lower thoracic high frequency spinal cord stimulation in awake animals
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Anthony F. DiMarco, Krzysztof E. KowalskiAbstractLower thoracic spinal cord stimulation is an effective method of restoring an effective cough in participants with complete spinal cord injury. The high voltage requirements however significantly limits this application in subjects with intact lower chest wall sensation. In anesthetized animals, we have shown that the expiratory muscles can also be effectively activated with low stimulus currents (1 mA) but with high stimulus frequencies (HF-SCS -500 Hz...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 9, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pulmonary stretch receptor activity during partial liquid ventilation with different pressure waveforms
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2020Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Esther Rieger-Fackeldey, Anders Jonzon, Andreas Schulze, Gunnar Sedin, Richard SindelarAbstractBackgroundThe aim of the present study was to investigate pulmonary stretch receptor activity (PSR) under different peak inspiratory pressures (PIPs) and inspiratory pressure waveforms during partial liquid (PLV) and gas ventilation (GV).MethodsPSR instantaneous impulse frequency (PSRfimp) was recorded from single fibers in the vagal nerve during PLV and GV in young cats. PIPs were set at 1.2/1.8/2.2/2.7 kPa, and s...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 8, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cordyceps polysaccharide ameliorates airway inflammation in an ovalbumin-induced mouse model of asthma via TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway
In this study, we established a mouse model of asthma using ovalbumin (OVA) challenge and evaluated the potential regulatory effect of CPS (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) on asthmatic mice. These results showed that the asthmatic mice treated with CPS suppressed the secretion of eotaxin, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-γ in the blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and decreased serum IgE levels compared to the vehicle-treated mice. CPS also alleviated inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia, and the increases of inflammatory cells in the mouse model of asthma. In addition, OVA-induced AHR was inhi...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 8, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Endogenous glutamatergic inputs to the Parabrachial Nucleus/ Kölliker-Fuse Complex determine respiratory rate
This study used an adult, in vivo, decerebrate rabbit model to delineate the contribution of each site to inspiratory and expiratory duration through sequential block of glutamatergic excitation with the receptor antagonists 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX) and d(–)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5). Glutamatergic disfacilitation caused large increases in inspiratory and expiratory duration and minor decrease in peak phrenic activity (PPA). Hypoxia only partially reversed respiratory rate depression but PPA was increased to>200% of control. The contribution of PBN activi...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 8, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Modeling rapidly adapting pulmonary stretch receptor activity to step-wise and constant pressure inflation of the lungs
Publication date: Available online 6 February 2020Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Dale R. BergrenAbstractRapidly-adapting pulmonary stretch receptors (RAPSRs) provide the central nervous system with information regarding the rate of lung inflation, lung compliance and the sensation of dyspnea. Other than satisfying parameters of an adaptation index to constant pressure lung inflation for identification, no mathematical model has been ascribed to the stimulus-response relationship of lung volume-pressure to RAPSR activity. Herein, linear, power, polynomial and non-linear (four parameters logistic...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 8, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: March 2020Source: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 274Author(s): (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 2, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Ventilatory and carotid body responses to acute hypoxia in rats exposed to chronic hypoxia during the first and second postnatal weeks
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Ryan W. Bavis, Monata J. Song, Julia P. Smachlo, Alexander Hulse, Holli R. Kenison, Jose N. Peralta, Jennifer T. Place, Sam Triebwasser, Sarah E. Warden, Amy B. McDonoughAbstractChronic hypoxia (CH) during postnatal development causes a blunted hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) in neonatal mammals. The magnitude of the HVR generally increases with age, so CH could blunt the HVR by delaying this process. Accordingly, we predicted that CH would have different effects on the respiratory control of neonatal rats if in...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 30, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Blocking TG2 attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice through inhibiting EMT
ConclusionBlocking TG2 reduces bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice via inhibiting EMT (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 30, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of Inflammation on the Developing Respiratory System: Focus on Hypoglossal (XII) Neuron Morphology, Brainstem Neurochemistry, and Control of Breathing
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Paul Allen Williams, Christopher G. WilsonAbstractBreathing is fundamental to life and any adverse change in respiratory function can endanger the health of an organism or even be fatal. Perinatal inflammation is known to adversely affect breathing in preterm babies, but lung infection/inflammation impacts all stages of life from birth to death. Little is known about the role of inflammation in respiratory control, neuronal morphology, or neural function during development. Animal models of inflammation can provide...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 18, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Kölliker-Fuse/Parabrachial complex mu opioid receptors contribute to fentanyl-induced apnea and respiratory rate depression
Publication date: Available online 15 January 2020Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Sandy E. Saunders, Erica S. LevittAbstractOverdoses caused by the opioid agonist fentanyl have increased exponentially in recent years. Identifying mechanisms to counter progression to fatal respiratory apnea during opioid overdose is desirable, but difficult to study in vivo. The pontine Kölliker-Fuse/Parabrachial complex (KF/PB) provides respiratory drive and contains opioid-sensitive neurons. The contribution of the KF/PB complex to fentanyl-induced apnea was investigated using the in situ arterially perfus...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 15, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Blood pressure and limb blood flow responses during hyperpnoea are not affected by menstrual cycle phase in young women
Publication date: Available online 13 January 2020Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Kaori Shimizu, Kana Shiozawa, Koji Ishida, Mitsuru Saito, Sahiro Mizuno, Hiroshi Akima, Keisho KatayamaAbstractThe purpose of this study was to clarify whether the menstrual cycle affects the cardiovascular and limb blood flow responses during hyperpnoea. Fifteen young female subjects participated. An incremental respiratory endurance test was performed at the early follicular (EF) and midluteal phases (ML). Target minute ventilation was initially set at 30% of maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV12) and was increase...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 14, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Respiratory reactance in forced oscillation technique reflects disease stage and predicts lung physiology deterioration in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
ConclusionThe Xrs components of FOT, especially in the inspiratory phase, reflected restrictive ventilatory impairment and disease severity in patients with IPF. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 11, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Is Ammonia Excretion Affected by Gill Ventilation in the Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss?
Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Junho Eom, Sandra Fehsenfeld, Chris M. WoodAbstractAmmonia (NH3 + NH4+) is the major nitrogenous waste in teleost fish. NH3 is also the third respiratory gas, playing a role in ventilatory control. However it is also highly toxic. Normally, ammonia excretion through the gills occurs at about the same rate as its metabolic production, but the branchial transport mechanisms have long been controversial. An influential review in this journal has claimed that ammonia excretion in fish is probably limited by diffusion r...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 11, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Respiratory Pump Contributions in Cerebrovascular and Postural Control Responses during Orthostatic Stress in Older Women
Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Gabriel Dias Rodrigues, Jonas Lírio Gurgel, Iuri dos Santos Galdino, Antonio Claudio Lucas da Nóbrega, Pedro Paulo da Silva SoaresAbstractThe acute inspiratory resistive load (IRL) may increase the respiratory pump contributes to hemodynamic responses during orthostatic stress. However, IRL effects on cerebrovascular and postural control interplay is unknown. Fourteen older women (65 ± 4 years) performed two orthostatic tests with spontaneous breathing through acute experimental (&...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 9, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of 100 % oxygen during exercise in patients with interstitial lung disease
ConclusionExercise-induced increases in VE and VCO2 were prevented by breathing pure oxygen during CPET, demonstrating both decreased ventilatory drive and more efficient exercise at achieved workloads. Hyperoxia could enhance the ability of patients with ILD to train at higher workloads, resulting in more effective rehabilitation. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 9, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Maternal Cigarette Smoke Exposure Disturbs Glutamate/GABA Balance in pFRG of Neonatal Rats
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Yating Fu, Fang Lei, Ji Wang, Wen Wang, Yu ZhengAbstractWe previously found that maternal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure resulted in impairment of central chemoreception and oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction of parafacial respiratory group (pFRG, a critical site for mammalian central chemoreception) in neonatal rats. The present work was carried out to identify if maternal CS exposure could disturb the glutamate (GLU)-ergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic balance in pFRG of neonatal rats. We f...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The effect of menstrual cycle on maximal breath-hold time
This study investigated the effect of menstrual cycle phase on breath-hold time (BHT). Twelve healthy females, aged 18-30 yrs, with regular menstrual cycles, without breath-hold (BH) experience, performed a BH protocol which included eight repeated maximal efforts with face immersion in cool water separated by 2-min intervals in two different phases of menstrual cycle; early follicular (EF) phase and midluteal (ML) phase. Respiratory, cardiovascular and hematological responses were studied before, during and after BH efforts. Maximal BHT was significantly higher during ML (115.59 ± 13.95 sec) co...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Is there a common drive for buccal movements associated with buccal and lung ‘breath’ in Lithobates catesbeianus?
Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Brigitte Quenet, Ginette Horcholle-Bossavit, Stéphanie Fournier, Tara Adele Janes, Richard KinkeadAbstractIn amphibians, there is some evidence that (1) anatomically separate brainstem respiratory oscillators are involved in rhythm generation, one for the buccal rhythm and another for the lung rhythm and (2) they become functionally coupled during metamorphosis. The present analysis, performed on neurograms recorded using brainstem preparations from Lithobates catesbeianus, aims to investigate the temporal or...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The development of various forms of lung injury with increasing tidal volume in normal rats
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Edgardo D'Angelo, Antonia Koutsoukou, Patrizia Della Valle, Guendalina Gentile, Matteo PecchiariAbstractSixty-three, open-chest normal rats were subjected to mechanical ventilation (MV) with tidal volumes (VT) ranging from 7.5 to 39.5ml⋅ kg-1 and PEEP 2.3cmH2O. Arterial blood gasses and pressure, and lung mechanics were measured during baseline ventilation (VT = 7.5ml⋅ kg-1) before and after test ventilation, when cytokine, von Willebrand factor (vWF), and albumin concentration ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 5, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of 100% oxygen during exercise in patients with interstitial lung disease
ConclusionExercise-induced increases in VE and VCO2 were prevented by breathing pure oxygen during CPET, demonstrating both decreased ventilatory drive and more efficient exercise at achieved workloads. Hyperoxia could enhance the ability of patients with ILD to train at higher workloads, resulting in more effective rehabilitation. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - January 5, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Regeneration of the gill filaments and replacement of serotonergic neuroepithelial cells in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)
We report regeneration of gill filaments and respiratory lamellae in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Gill filaments retained a constitutive population of mitotic cells identified by the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Within 24 h of resection, a new mass of PCNA-positive cells appeared at the filament tip. At 40 days post-resection, approximately half of resected tissue was replaced; and at 160 days post-resection, regeneration was nearly complete. Chemoreceptive neuroepithelial cells, identified by serotonin immunohistochemistry, were present in regenerates and established innervation by nerve fibres. Use...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 31, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Impact of inflammation on developing respiratory control networks: rhythm generation, chemoreception and plasticity
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Sarah A. Beyeler, Matthew R. Hodges, Adrianne G. HuxtableAbstractThe respiratory control network in the central nervous system undergoes critical developmental events early in life to ensure adequate breathing at birth. There are at least three “critical windows” in development of respiratory control networks: 1) in utero, 2) newborn (postnatal day 0-4 in rodents), and 3) neonatal (P10-13 in rodents, 2-4 months in humans). During these critical windows, developmental processes required for normal matur...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 31, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Iloprost inhibits acute allergic nasal inflammation by GATA3 -ILC2 pathway in mice
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Jianguo Liu, Xunshuo Jiang, Lihua Li, Hongbing Liu, Xiana Zhang, Ke Liu, Chunping YangAbstractBackgroundAcute allergic nasal inflammation is very common in the clinical allergic diseases, Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) has been found to effective in combating inflammation. Iloprost, as an analog of PGI2, whose role and mechanisms in the acute allergic nasal inflammation remains unclear. It’s necessary to elucidate the efficacy and potential mechanism of Iloprost in acute allergic nasal inflammation.Methods36 female...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 31, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The assessment of the peak of reflex cough in subjects with Acquired Brain Injury and tracheostomy and healthy controls
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Claudia Enrichi, Cristiano Zanetti, Caterina Gregorio, Isabella Koch, Agostino Vio, Katie Palmer, Francesca Meneghello, Francesco Piccione, Irene BattelAbstractIntroductionThere is no standard procedure to evaluated the peak of reflex cough flow (PCF-reflex) in the literature, which is important assessment in subjects with acquired brain injury and tracheostomy cannula. The present study aims to investigate the PCF of the reflex cough in a broad sample of healthy controls and, furthermore, the presence and the str...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 31, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Multidimensional Aspects of Dyspnea in Obese Patients Referred for Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Bryce N. Balmain, Kyle Weinstein, Vipa Bernhardt, Rubria Marines-Price, Andrew R. Tomlinson, Tony G. BabbABSTRACTWe investigated the contributions of obesity on multidimensional aspects of dyspnea on exertion (DOE) in patients referred for clinical cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Ratings of perceived breathlessness (RPB, Borg scale 0-10) were collected in obese (BMI ≥ 30; n = 47) and nonobese (BMI ≤ 25; n = 27) patients during two (one lower: &...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 30, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

All roads lead to inflammation: Is maternal immune activation a common culprit behind environmental factors impacting offspring neural control of breathing?
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Andrew O. Knutson, Jyoti J. WattersAbstractDespite numerous studies investigating how prenatal exposures impact the developing brain, there remains very little known about how these in utero exposures impact the life-sustaining function of breathing. While some exposures such as alcohol and drugs of abuse are well-known to alter respiratory function, few studies have evaluated other common maternal environmental stimuli, such as maternal infection, inhalation of diesel exhaust particles prevalent in urban areas, o...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 24, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Arterial blood gas analysis utility in predicting lung injury in blunt chest trauma
Conclusionour study demonstrates that the combination of different arterial blood gas analysis variables may be a fast approach for identifying patients with lung injury in the setting of blunt chest trauma in the Emergency Department. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Relationship between the activity of the genioglossus, other peri-pharyngeal muscles and flow mechanics during wakefulness and sleep in patients with OSA and healthy subjects
ConclusionsWe conclude that sleep-induced reduction in AD response to airway obstruction cannot completely explain the failure of upper airway dilators to maintain pharyngeal patency. We speculate that reduction in dilator muscle efficacy may be due to the alterations in motor units recruitment patterns during sleep. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The Use of Cognitive Mobile Games to Assess the Interaction of Cognitive Function and Breath-Hold
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): O. Van Hove, A. Van Muylem, V. Andrianopoulos, D. Leduc, V. Feipel, G. Deboeck, B. BonnechèreAbstractThe relationship between cognitive function and breath-holding time is in need of further investigation. We aim to determine whether cognitive mobile games (CMG) are sensitive enough to assess the link between cognition and breath-holding time in non-trained subjects. Thirty-one healthy subjects participated in this study. A set of 3 short CMG: Must Sort (response control), Rush Back (attention, working memor...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 6, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Vagotomy influences the lung response to adrenergic agonists and muscarinic antagonists
In conclusion, the vagus nerve modulates the lung function in response to bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation, as well as lung architecture of mice. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 5, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Acute moderate-intensity exercise improves 24-h sleep deprivation-induced cognitive decline and cerebral oxygenation: A near-infrared spectroscopy study
Publication date: Available online 3 December 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Sho Kojima, Tomoya Abe, Shinichiro Morishita, Yuta Inagaki, Weixiang Qin, Kazuki Hotta, Atsuhiro TsubakiAbstractWe evaluated the effects of moderate-intensity exercise in improving the decline in cognitive performance induced by a 24-h period of acute sleep deprivation (SD). We hypothesized that the positive effect of exercise is mediated by increased oxygenation (measured using near-infrared spectroscopy) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Cognitive performance was measured using the reaction time and ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 4, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Nocturnal bilevel positive airway pressure for the treatment of asthma
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Robert L. Owens, Lisa M. Campana, Alison M. Foster, Ashley M. Schomer, Elliot Israel, Atul MalhotraAbstractNocturnal worsening of asthma may be due to reduced lung volumes and fewer sigh breaths, which have been shown to increase airway resistance and bronchoreactivity. We hypothesized that mimicking deep inspiration using nocturnal mechanical support would improve symptoms in patients with asthma.Subjects with asthma underwent usual care and bilevel positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy for 4 weeks, separated by ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - December 3, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Sources of variability in expiratory flow profiles during sleep in healthy young children
Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Anton Hult, Romana Gjergja Juraški, Javier Gracia-Tabuenca, Markku Partinen, Davor Plavec, Ville-Pekka SeppäAbstractStandard lung function tests are not feasible in young children, but recent studies show that the variability of expiratory tidal breathing flow-volume (TBFV) curves during sleep is a potential indirect marker of lower airway obstruction. However, the neurophysiological sources of the TBFV variability in normal subjects has not been established.We investigated sleep stages and body positi...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 30, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Curcumin prophylaxis refurbishes alveolar epithelial barrier integrity and alveolar fluid clearance under hypoxia
Publication date: Available online 25 November 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Titto M, Ankit T, Saumya B, Gausal AK, Sarada SKSAbstractWe have studied the prophylactic efficacy of curcumin to ameliorate the impairment of tight junction protein integrity and fluid clearance in lungs of rats under hypoxia. A549 cells wereexposed to 3% O2 for 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h and rats were exposed to 7620 m for 6 h. NF-κB, Hif-1α and their related genes, tight junction protein (TJ) (ZO-1, JAM-C, claudin-4 and claudin-5, claud...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 26, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Respiratory muscle activity in voluntary breathing tracking tasks: implications for the assessment of respiratory motor control
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Anna L. Hudson, Lee D. Walsh, Simon C. Gandevia, Jane E. ButlerAbstractHow the involuntary (bulbospinal) and voluntary (corticospinal) pathways interact in respiratory muscle control is not established. To determine the role of excitatory corticobulbar pathways in humans, studies typically compare electromyographic activity (EMG) or evoked responses in respiratory muscles during hypercapnic and voluntary tasks. Although ventilation is matched between tasks by having participants track signals of ventilation, these...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 22, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Reflex swallowing elicited by electrical stimulation in obstructive sleep apnea patients: a preliminary study
This study tested whether electrical stimulation of the pharyngeal mucosa is able to induce reliably the swallowing reflex in awake and asleep obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients, and whether the induced reflexes affect the sleep variables. In addition, the latency, occurrence, and morphology of swallows were evaluated. Eight patients received an esophageal catheter that was used on three consecutive nights for electrical stimulation and manometric recordings. The electrical stimulation proved itself safe, but its efficiency in inducing swallows sank from 80.0% in awake to 37.4% in sleeping subjects and was lowest in th...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 19, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Respiratory resetting elicited by single pulse spinal stimulation
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Michael D Sunshine, Comron N Ganji, David D Fuller, Chet T MoritzAbstractIntraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) can effectively activate spinal motor circuits, but the impact on the endogenous respiratory pattern has not been systematically evaluated. Here we delivered ISMS in spontaneously breathing adult rats while simultaneously recording diaphragm and external intercostal electromyography activity. ISMS pulses were delivered from C2–T1 along two rostrocaudal tracts located 0.5 or 1 mm lateral to midl...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 16, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Premature birth, homeostatic plasticity and respiratory consequences of inflammation
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Estelle B. Gauda, Gabrielle L. McLemoreABSTRACTInfants who are born premature can have persistent apnea beyond term gestation, reemergence of apnea associated with inflammation during infancy, increased risk of sudden unexplained death, and sleep disorder breathing during infancy and childhood. The autonomic nervous system, particularly the central neural networks that control breathing and peripheral and central chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors that modulate the activity of the central respiratory network, are...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 14, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting autophagy through PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in mice
ConclusionCFTR could inhibit cell autophagy by enhancing PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, thereby playing a protective role in LPS-induced ALI in mice. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 13, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Nasal saline irrigation – A review of current anatomical, clinical and computational modelling approaches
Publication date: February 2020Source: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 273Author(s): Hana Salati, Jim Bartley, David E. WhiteAbstractNasal saline irrigation is frequently utilised in allergic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis management, and after nasal and sinus surgery. Anatomical modelling, clinical and computational studies guide treatment optimisation. This review offers a comprehensive summary of the modelling methodologies used in previous nasal irrigation studies by undertaking a systematic analysis of anatomical, clinical and computational investigations that assessed nasal saline irrigation using Medl...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 9, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of Tidal Volume on Gas Exchange During Rescue Ventilation
Publication date: Available online 7 November 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): John R. Fitz-ClarkeAbstractTidal volume VT required for mouth-to-mouth (MTM) and bag-valve-mask (BVM) rescue ventilation remains debatable owing to differences in physiology and end-point objectives. Analysis of gas transport may clarify minimum necessary VT and its determinants. Alveolar and arterial O2 and CO2 responses to MTM and air BVM ventilation for VT between 0.4 and 1.2 liters were computed using a model of gas exchange that incorporates inspired gas concentrations, airway dead space, cardiac output, pulmo...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 9, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Nasal saline irrigation — A review of current anatomical, clinical and computational modelling approaches
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Hana Salati, Jim Bartley, David E. WhiteAbstractNasal saline irrigation is frequently utilised in allergic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis management, and after nasal and sinus surgery. Anatomical modelling, clinical and computational studies guide treatment optimisation.This review offers a comprehensive summary of the modelling methodologies used in previous nasal irrigation studies by undertaking a systematic analysis of anatomical, clinical and computational investigations that assessed nasal saline irrigation usin...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 2, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Efficacy of Quercetin as a potent sensitizer of β2-AR in combating the impairment of fluid clearance in lungs of rats under hypoxia
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Ankit Tripathi, Manoj Kumar, Punit Kaur, Bhuvnesh Kumar, Sarada S.K. SagiAbstractBackgroundHypoxia reportedly increases free radical generation in the body, causing oxidative stress and inhibiting β2-AR signaling. The present study correlates the prophylactic potential of quercetin and salbutamol in ameliorating fluid clearing capacity of lungs by re-sensitizing β2-AR signaling under hypoxia.MethodsMale SD rats supplemented orally with quercetin (50 mg/Kg BW), and salbutamol (2 mg/Kg BW) wer...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 2, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Elevated level of Galectin-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
ConclusionGalectin-1 was confirmed a protein of interest in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Its BAL concentrations were higher in IPF patients than in controls and correlated with disease severity. Galectin-1 was suggested to have a role in the pathogenesis of IPF, principally through the ERK/MAPK pathway and the inhibition of galectin-1 is a potential therapeutic target worthy of research. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - November 2, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cardiorespiratory and thermal responses to hypercapnia in chickens exposed to CO2 during embryonic development
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Aline C.G. Rocha, Lívia P. Espinha, Kassia M. Santos, Ayla R. Almeida, Marcos Macari, Kênia C. Bícego, Luciane H. Gargaglioni, Glauber S.F. da SilvaAbstractThe concentration of CO2 in the environment surrounding the embryo impacts development and may also influence the cardiorespiratory responses after hatching. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the cardiorespiratory and thermal responses to hypercapnia in chicks that were exposed to CO2 during embryonic development, i.e., incubation. Embryos were...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - October 23, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research