AMPK breathing and oxygen supply
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): A. Mark EvansAbstractRegulation of breathing is critical to our capacity to accommodate deficits in oxygen availability and demand during, for example, sleep and ascent to altitude. Key to this are two reflex responses, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), which aids ventilation-perfusion matching at the lungs, and the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) which accelerates ventilation. In 2004 I proposed that HPV might be mediated by the AMP-activated protein kinase, which governs cell autonomous metabolic hom...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 20, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The magnitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia of a large mammal (the horse) is like that of humans
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Giuseppe Piccione, Elisabetta Giudice, Claudia Giannetto, Jacopo P. MortolaAbstractHeart rate (FH) accelerates in inspiration and decelerates in expiration, a phenomenon known as Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA). Although the presence of RSA has been documented in many species, how its magnitude compares among species is unknown. We asked whether the magnitude of RSA in a large mammal, the horse, differed from that of previously measured humans. From electrocardiogram and pneumography, the peaks and troughs of ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Respiratory muscle activation patterns during maximum airway pressure efforts are different in women and men
In this study, we addressed whether respiratory multi-muscle activation patterns during PImax and PEmax efforts are different between healthy women and men. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), PImax, PEmax, and surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity recorded from respiratory muscles during these maximum airway pressure efforts were obtained in 13 women and 11 men. Percent predicted values of FVC and FEV1 were not significantly different in these two groups (women vs. men: 112 ± 14 vs. 105 ± 15%, p = 0.29; and 92 ± 12 vs. 93 ± 13, p...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 16, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Interval between simulated deep inspirations on the dynamics of airway smooth muscle contraction in guinea pig bronchi
In this study, the effect of changing the interval between DIs on the dynamics of ASM was examined in vitro. Isolated bronchi derived from guinea pigs were held isotonically and stimulated to both contract and relax, in a randomized order, in response to 10-5 M of methacholine and 10-6 M of isoproterenol, respectively. Interference to ASM was inflicted after 2, 5, 10 and 30 minutes in a randomized order, by imposing a stretch that simulated a DI. The shortening before the stretch, the stiffness before and during the stretch, the post-stretch elongation of ASM and the ensuing re-shortening were measured. These experi...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 13, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Acute, Chronic, and Combined Pulmonary Responses to Swimming in Competitive Swimmers
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Ömer Faruk Yilmaz, Mustafa ÖzdalABSTRACTThe combined effects of swimming on the inspiratory muscles and pulmonary functions are not well known. The aim of the present study was to determine the acute, chronic, and combined effects of swimming on the pulmonary functions and respiratory muscles of competitive swimmers. Thirty males (15 in the experimental group [EG] and 15 in the control group [CG]) participated in this study. The EG subjects participated in an 8-week swim training program and performed 1...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 13, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Glottic patency during noninvasive ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Vincent Jounieaux, Daniel O. Rodenstein (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 8, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pulmonary Effects of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in a Porcine Model of Ventilation-induced Lung Injury
CONCLUSIONSːOLV results in alveolar injury, possibly enhanced by RIP. On the other hand, RIP attenuates the immunological response and decreased alveolar leukocyte recruitment in a porcine model of OLV. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of two different ventilation strategies on Respiratory mechanics during Robotic-gynecological surgery
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Giorgia Spinazzola, Giuliano Ferrone, Flora Cipriani, Cosimo Tommaso Caputo, Marco Rossi, Giorgio ContiAbstractIt is unknown which is the best ventilatory approach in patients scheduled for gynecological robotic surgery in Deep Trendelenburg position in terms of respiratory mechanics. 40 patients were enrolled: 20 patients received a standard ventilation and 20 patients received a protective ventilation. Gas exchanges, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamic parameters were recorded. No significant differences were fo...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Integration of hindbrain and carotid body mechanisms that control the autonomic response to cardiorespiratory and glucoprivic insults
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Zohra M. Kakall, E. Myfanwy Cohen, Melissa M.J. Farnham, Seung Jae Kim, Polina E. Nedoboy, Paul M. PilowskyAbstractAutonomic reflex responses are critical in restoring changes to circulatory factors reduced beyond the domain of homeostasis. Intermittent hypoxia triggers repeated activation of chemoreflexes, resulting in baroreflex dysfunction and widespread changes in cellular and neuronal activity regulated by sensory/motor pathways. Hypoglycaemia initiates a rapid neurally-mediated counter-regulatory response. Thi...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 31, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Taravana, vestibular decompression illness, and autochthonous distal arterial bubbles
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Ran ArieliAbstractDecompression bubbles can develop only from pre-existing gas micronuclei. These are the nanobubbles which appear on active hydrophobic spots (AHS) found on the luminal aspect of all blood vessels. Following decompression, with the propagation of blood along the arterial tree, diffusion parameters cause increased transfer of nitrogen from the tissue into the artery, and more so if perfusion is low. Taravana is a neurological form of decompression illness (DCI) prevalent in repeated breath-hold divin...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 31, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Acute oxygen sensing—Role of metabolic specifications in peripheral chemoreceptor cells
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Lin Gao, Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, José López-BarneoAbstractAcute oxygen sensing is essential for humans under hypoxic environments or pathologic conditions. This is achieved by the carotid body (CB), the key arterial chemoreceptor, along with other peripheral chemoreceptor organs, such as the adrenal medulla (AM). Although it is widely accepted that inhibition of K+ channels in the plasma membrane of CB cells during acute hypoxia results in the activation of cardiorespiratory reflexes, the molecul...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 31, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Alveolar liquid clearance in lung injury: Evaluation of the impairment of the β2-adrenergic agonist response in an ischemia-reperfusion lung injury model
The objective of this study was to determine if downregulation of the β2-AR could explain the lack of response to β2-agonists in this lung injury model. In an in vivo canine model of lung transplantation, we observed no change in β2-AR concentration or affinity in the injured transplanted lungs compared to the native lungs. Furthermore, we could not enhance ALC in transplanted lungs with dcAMP + aminophylline, a treatment that bypasses the β2-adrenergic receptor and is known to stimulate ALC in normal lungs. However, transplantation decreased αENaC expression in the lungs by 50%. We ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 31, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pressure support ventilation vs Continuous positive airway pressure for treating of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Comment
Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Killen Harold Briones Claudett, Michelle Grunauer (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 28, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: October 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 256Author(s): (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 23, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Evidence AGAINST A subcortical gate preventing conscious detection of respiratory load stimuli
Publication date: Available online 18 August 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Warren R. Ruehland, Peter D. Rochford, John Trinder, Jo Spong, Fergal J. O’DonoghueAbstractRespiratory related evoked potentials (RREP) were used to examine respiratory stimulus gating. RREPs produced by consciously detected vs. undetected loads, near the detection threshold, were compared. Participants (n = 17) were instrumented with EEG and a nasal mask connected to a loading manifold, which presented a range of mid-inspiratory resistive loads, plus a control, in a random block design. Particip...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 18, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of age on the presence of comet tails at high altitude
In conclusion, EVLW formation may be more common in older adults trekking at high altitude. However, the presence of EVLW in older adults was subclinical. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 12, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Reply to: Assessment of ‘neural respiratory drive’ from the parasternal intercostal muscles
Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Andrew H. Ramsook, Reid A. Mitchell, Jordan A. Guenette (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 7, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

H2S mediates carotid body response to hypoxia but not anoxia
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Ying-Jie Peng, Vladislav V. Makarenko, Anna Gridina, Irina Chupikova, Xiuli Zhang, Ganesh K. Kumar, Aaron P. Fox, Nanduri R. PrabhakarAbstractThe role of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) derived H2S in the hypoxic and anoxic responses of the carotid body (CB) were examined. Experiments were performed on Sprague-Dawley rats, wild type and CSE knockout mice on C57BL/6 J background. Hypoxia (pO2 = 37 ± 3 mmHg) increased the CB sensory nerve activity and elevated H2S leve...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 5, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia – testing the method of choice for evaluation of cardiovagal regulation
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Michal Mestanik, Andrea Mestanikova, Peter Langer, Marian Grendar, Alexander Jurko, Nikola Sekaninova, Nadezda Visnovcova, Ingrid TonhajzerovaAbstractRespiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is an index of cardiovagal regulation, emotional and cognitive processing. RSA is quantified using heart rate variability (HRV) spectral analysis at respiratory-linked high-frequency band (HF-HRV) using Fast Fourier transformation (FFT) or autoregressive (AR) method, both requiring resampling of recordings - a potential source of error...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 5, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Medium term effects of physical conditioning on breath-hold diving performance
Publication date: Available online 3 August 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): F.A. Fernandez, R. Martin-Martin, I. García-Camacha, D. Juarez, P. Fidel, J.M. González-RavéAbstractThe current study aimed to analyze the effects of physical conditioning inclusion on apnea performance after a 22-week structured apnea training program. Twenty-nine male breath-hold divers participated and were allocated into: (1) cross-training in apnea and physical activity (CT; n = 10); (2) apnea training only (AT; n = 10); and control group (CG; n = 9)...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - August 4, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Microglial modulators reduce respiratory rhythm long-term facilitation in vitro
Publication date: Available online 31 July 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Camacho-Hernández Neira Polet, Lorea-Hernández Jonathan Julio, Fernando Peña-OrtegaAbstractInflammation inhibits the expression of some, but not all forms of respiratory motor plasticity. For example, systemic application of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibits the phrenic long-term facilitation induced by moderate-intermittent hypoxia in vivo. There are multiple pro-inflammatory processes triggered by the systemic application of LPS, including neuroinflammation in the CNS. Considering that microglia...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 31, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pulmonary rehabilitation and BDNF levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a pilot study
ConclusionExercise acutely reduced BDNF levels, an effect that was nullified by the overall intervention. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 29, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Modeling Hypoglossal Motoneurons in the Developing Rat
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Paul Allen Williams, Clarissa Dalton, Christopher G. WilsonAbstractWe hypothesize that developmental changes in motoneuron volume or surface area in the hypoglossal motor nucleus (XII) can alter the biophysical properties that contribute to motor output. We used the Golgi-Cox technique to stain developing hypoglossal motoneurons (XII MNs) at three postnatal ages (P3, 10, & 17). We removed Sprague-Dawley rat pup brains, processed, sectioned, stained, imaged, and performed 3D reconstructions to quantify the morphome...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 27, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Preliminary findings: effect of age on the presence of comet tails at high altitude
In conclusion, EVLW formation may be more common in older adults trekking at high altitude. However, the presence of EVLW in older adults was subclinical. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 27, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Relating exercise-induced desaturation and gas-exchange in pulmonary artery hypertension
Publication date: Available online 23 July 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Bryce N. Balmain, Helen Seale, Julie Harris, Kathleen Hall, Aaron C.W. Lin, Surendran Sabapathy, Norman R. MorrisAbstractWe measured pulmonary gas exchange during six minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with idiopathic (IPAH) and congenital heart disease-related pulmonary hypertension (CHDPH), and determined the relationship between the degree of desaturation and changes in minute ventilation to carbon dioxide production V˙EV˙CO2 and end-tidal partial pressure for carbon dioxide (PetCO2) in both groups. Fifty-two pa...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 24, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Correlation of surface respiratory electromyography with esophageal diaphragm electromyography
Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Lin Lin, Lili Guan, Weiliang Wu, Rongchang ChenAbstractObjectivesTo assess the correlation between surface respiratory electromyography(sEMG) and esophageal diaphragm electromyography(EMGdi) at different levels of neural respiratory drive (NRD).DesignRandomised parallel design controlled trial.SettingThe First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University.Participants15 healthy subjects and 1 severe to very severe stable COPD patients were studied.Interventions15 healthy subjects performed incremental inspirator...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 21, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The role of the hypothalamus in modulation of respiration
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Isato Fukushi, Shigefumi Yokota, Yasumasa OkadaAbstractThe hypothalamus is a higher center of the autonomic nervous system and maintains essential body homeostasis including respiration. The paraventricular nucleus, perifornical area, dorsomedial hypothalamus, and lateral and posterior hypothalamus are the primary nuclei of the hypothalamus critically involved in respiratory control. These hypothalamic nuclei are interconnected with respiratory nuclei located in the midbrain, pons, medulla and spinal cord. We provide ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cigarette smoke exposure effects on the brainstem expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and on cardiac, respiratory and sleep physiologies
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Arunnjah Vivekanandarajah, Karen A. Waters, Rita MachaalaniAbstractCigarette smoking during pregnancy is the largest modifiable risk factor for adverse outcomes in the infant. Investigations have focused on the psychoactive component of cigarettes, nicotine. One proposed mechanism leading to adverse effects is the interaction between nicotine and its nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Much data has been generated over the past three decades on the effects of cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) on the expression of...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Astrocyte networks modulate respiration – sniffing glue
Publication date: Available online 30 June 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): David Forsberg, Eric HerleniusAbstractThe role of astrocytes in the modulation of breathing has emerged. Within the two major respiratory control centers, the inspiration generating preBötzinger Complex and the chemosensitive parafacial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus, rhythmically active astrocytes have been discovered. These are connected in glial subnetworks that intermingle with the neuronal network. Furthermore, astrocytes modify overall respiratory network behavior through gliotransmitter release, ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 18, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Respiratory fluctuations in pupil diameter are not maintained during cognitive tasks
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Nozomu H. Nakamura, Masaki Fukunaga, Yoshitaka OkuABSTRACTPupil diameter fluctuation throughout the respiratory cycle is autonomically controlled in the resting state, as pupils dilate during inspiration and constrict during expiration. Furthermore, pupil size is differentially modulated by cognitive states between task engagement and disengagement. To determine whether respiratory-dependent fluctuations in pupil size are maintained during a cognitive task, we employed healthy human subjects performing a delayed match...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 18, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Glottic patency during noninvasive ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
ConclusionsThe present study showed that glottis patency during inspiration in patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD is not affected by mode (PSV or NAVA) or level of assist (5 or 15 cmH2O) during NIV. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 18, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and olfactory perception: an OERP study
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2018Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Sara Invitto, Antonio Calcagnì, Giulia Piraino, Vincenzo Ciccarese, Michela Balconi, Marina De Tommaso, Domenico Maurizio ToraldoAbstractObstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSA) is characterized by snoring associated with repeated apnea and/or obstructive hypopnea. The nasal airways of OSA patients, measured via acoustic rhinometry, are significantly narrower than healthy subjects and this narrow nasal structure can reduce olfactory function. The relationship between nasal structure and olfactory function, assess...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Facts and challenges in respiratory neurobiology
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2015Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): T.E. Dick, M. Dutschmann, J.L. Feldman, A.Y. Fong, S. Hülsmann, K.M. Morris, J.M. Ramirez, J.C. Smith, The Respiratory Neurobiology ConsortiumAbstractRespiratory neurobiology has been a lead discipline in the field of neuroscience for almost a century. Despite this, research studies on the fundamental synaptic and cellular processes underlying the generation and modulation of breathing movements suffered a significant decline during the last decade.We still believe that respiratory neurobiology is one of the m...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Chronic intermittent hypoxia worsens bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in rats
Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Rudolf K. Braun, Oleg Broytman, Felix M. Braun, Jacqueline A. Brinkman, Andrew Clithero, Dhruvangkumar Modi, David F. Pegelow, Marlowe Eldridge, Mihaela TeodorescuAbstractObstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been linked to increased mortality in pulmonary fibrosis. Its key feature, chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), can lead to oxidative stress and inflammation, known to lead to fibrotic pathology in other organs. We tested the effects of CIH in an animal model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. Sprague Dawley rats we...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Daily acute intermittent hypoxia improves breathing function with acute and chronic spinal injury via distinct mechanisms
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): B.J. Dougherty, J. Terada, S.R. Springborn, S. Vinit, P.M. MacFarlane, G.S. MitchellAbstractDaily acute intermittent hypoxia (dAIH) elicits respiratory plasticity, enhancing respiratory motor output and restoring breathing capacity after incomplete cervical spinal injuries (cSCI). We hypothesized that dAIH-induced functional recovery of breathing capacity would occur after both acute (2 weeks) and chronic (8 weeks) cSCI, but through distinct cellular mechanisms. Specifically, we hypothesized that dAIH-induced breathing...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Circulating exosomes in obstructive sleep apnea as phenotypic biomarkers and mechanistic messengers of end-organ morbidity
Publication date: Available online 1 July 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, David GozalAbstractObstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the most severe form of sleep disordered breathing, is characterized by intermittent hypoxia during sleep (IH), sleep fragmentation, and episodic hypercapnia. OSA is associated with increased risk for morbidity and mortality affecting cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurocognitive systems, and more recently with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cancer-related deaths. Substantial variability in OSA outcomes suggests...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Ibuprofen does not reverse ventilatory acclimatization to chronic hypoxia
Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): D.J. De La Zerda, J.A. Stokes, J. Do, A. Go, Z. Fu, F.L. PowellAbstractVentilatory acclimatization to hypoxia involves an increase in the acute hypoxic ventilatory response that is blocked by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs administered during sustained hypoxia. We tested the hypothesis that inflammatory signals are necessary to sustain ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia once it is established. Adult, rats were acclimatized to normoxia or chronic hypoxia (CH, PiO2 = 70 Torr) for 11–12&nb...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Intermittent hypoxia training: Powerful, non-invasive cerebroprotection against ethanol withdrawal excitotoxicity
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Marianna E. Jung, Robert T. MalletAbstractEthanol intoxication and withdrawal exact a devastating toll on the central nervous system. Abrupt ethanol withdrawal provokes massive release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, which over-activates its postsynaptic receptors, causing intense Ca2+ loading, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase activation and oxidative stress, culminating in ATP depletion, mitochondrial injury, amyloid β deposition and neuronal death. Collectively, these mechanisms produce neur...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Intermittent hypoxia and cancer: Undesirable bed partners?
Publication date: Available online 14 August 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Isaac Almendros, David GozalAbstractThe deleterious effects of intermittent hypoxia (IH) on cancer biology have been primarily evaluated in the context of the aberrant circulation observed in solid tumors which results in recurrent intra-tumoral episodic hypoxia. From those studies, IH has been linked to an accelerated tumor progression, metastasis and resistance to therapies. More recently, the role of IH in cancer has also been studied in the context of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), since IH is a hallmark charact...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Phrenic long-term facilitation following intrapleural CTB-SAP-induced respiratory motor neuron death
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Nicole L. Nichols, Taylor A. Craig, Miles A. TannerAbstractAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease leading to progressive motor neuron degeneration and death by ventilatory failure. In a rat model of ALS (SOD1G93A), phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) is enhanced greater than expected at disease end-stage but the mechanism is unknown. We suggest that one trigger for this enhancement is motor neuron death itself. Intrapleural injections of cholera toxi...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Sex differences in the respiratory-sympathetic coupling in rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia
Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): George Miguel P.R. Souza, Mateus R. Amorim, Davi J.A. Moraes, Benedito H. MachadoAbstractObstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a complex disease in which humans face episodes of intermittent hypoxia and it affects men and women. Patients with OSA present hypertension and sympathetic overactivity among several other dysfunctions. Therefore, one important question remains: are the autonomic dysfunctions associated with OSA similar in male and female? This is an unresolved question since sex factors are overlooked in most...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Bronchoprotective effect of deep inspirations in cough variant asthma: A distinguishing feature in the spectrum of airway disease?
ConclusionsDIs triggered bronchoconstriction in CA, bronchoprotection in CVA, and prevented gas trapping in COUGH. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Links between lower urinary tract symptoms, intermittent hypoxia and diabetes: Causes or cures?
Publication date: Available online 17 September 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Lisa L. Abler, Chad M. VezinaAbstractBothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) manifest as urinary frequency, urgency, incontinence and incomplete bladder emptying. Existing treatments ameliorate but do not eliminate most symptoms, leading to financial and personal burdens attributable to sustained medical therapies that may last a lifetime. The purpose of this review is to highlight evidence of causal associations between LUTS and several common comorbidities, including intermittent hypoxia (IH) concomitant...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Intermittent but not sustained moderate hypoxia elicits long-term facilitation of hypoglossal motor output
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Julia E.R. Wilkerson, Michael Devinney, Gordon S. MitchellAbstractPhrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) is a form of serotonin-dependent respiratory motor plasticity induced by moderate acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH), but not by moderate acute sustained hypoxia (ASH) of similar cumulative duration. Thus, moderate AIH-induced pLTF is sensitive to the pattern of hypoxia. On the other hand, pLTF induced by severe AIH protocols is neither pattern sensitive nor serotonin dependent (it converts to an adenosine-dependen...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The impact of intermittent or sustained carbon dioxide on intermittent hypoxia initiated respiratory plasticity. What is the effect of these combined stimuli on apnea severity?
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Jason H. Mateika, Gino Panza, Raichel Alex, Mohamad El-ChamiAbstractThe following review explores the effect that intermittent or sustained hypercapnia coupled to intermittent hypoxia has on respiratory plasticity. The review explores published work which suggests that intermittent hypercapnia leads to long-term depression of respiration when administered in isolation and prevents the initiation of long-term facilitation when administered in combination with intermittent hypoxia. The review also explores the impact...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Spinal activation of protein kinase C elicits phrenic motor facilitation
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Michael J. Devinney, Gordon S. MitchellAbstractThe protein kinase C family regulates many cellular functions, including multiple forms of neuroplasticity. The novel PKCθ and atypical PKCζ isoforms have been implicated in distinct forms of spinal, respiratory motor plasticity, including phrenic motor facilitation (pMF) following acute intermittent hypoxia or inactivity, respectively. Although these PKC isoforms are critical in regulating spinal motor plasticity, other isoforms may be important for phrenic...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Gestational intermittent hypoxia increases susceptibility to neuroinflammation and alters respiratory motor control in neonatal rats
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Stephen M. Johnson, Karanbir S. Randhawa, Jenna J. Epstein, Ellen Gustafson, Austin D. Hocker, Adrianne G. Huxtable, Tracy L. Baker, Jyoti J. WattersAbstractSleep disordered breathing (SDB) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during pregnancy are growing health concerns because these conditions are associated with adverse outcomes for newborn infants. SDB/OSA during pregnancy exposes the mother and the fetus to intermittent hypoxia. Direct exposure of adults and neonates to IH causes neuroinflammation and neuronal a...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pharmacological modulation of hypoxia-induced respiratory neuroplasticity
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Sara Turner, Kristi A. Streeter, John Greer, Gordon S. Mitchell, David D. FullerAbstractHypoxia elicits complex cell signaling mechanisms in the respiratory control system that can produce long-lasting changes in respiratory motor output. In this article, we review experimental approaches used to elucidate signaling pathways associated with hypoxia, and summarize current hypotheses regarding the intracellular signaling pathways evoked by intermittent exposure to hypoxia. We review data showing that pharmacological...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cyclooxygenase enzyme activity does not impair respiratory motor plasticity after one night of intermittent hypoxia
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Adrianne G. Huxtable, Elizabeth Kopp, Brendan J. Dougherty, Jyoti J. Watters, Gordon S. MitchellAbstractAlthough inflammation is prevalent in many clinical disorders challenging breathing, we are only beginning to understand the impact of inflammation on neural mechanisms of respiratory control. We recently demonstrated one form of respiratory motor plasticity is extremely sensitive to even mild inflammation induced by a single night (8 h) of intermittent hypoxia (IH-1), mimicking aspects of obstructive sleep apn...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Contribution of relative leptin and adiponectin deficiencies in premature infants to chronic intermittent hypoxia: Exploring a new hypothesis
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2017Source: Respiratory Physiology & NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Estelle B. Gauda, Zankhana MasterAbstractChronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) occurs frequently in premature infants who have apnea of prematurity. Immaturity of the respiratory network from low central respiratory drive and the greater contribution of the carotid body on baseline breathing leads to respiratory instability in premature infants presenting as apnea and periodic breathing. During the 2nd week after birth, the smallest and the youngest premature infants have increased frequency of apnea and periodic bre...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research