A rare case of CMV pneumonia in HIV-infection
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Kai Chin Poh, Shuwei ZhengAbstractCytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is a rare opportunistic infection in the setting of HIV-infection. Establishing the diagnosis of CMV pneumonia in HIV-infection can be very challenging. Co-infections by multiple opportunistic pathogens is common and a high degree of clinical vigilance to evaluate for multiple infections, including CMV pneumonia should be maintained. As there can be a great degree of overlap in clinical and radiological features amongst different opportunistic infections, mi...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - October 17, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Reversible bilateral phrenic nerve paralysis
We present a patient with apparent rapid onset bilateral phrenic nerve paralysis whose primary symptom was severe positional (supine) dyspnea with profound supine oxygen desaturation. Nerve conduction study abnormalities of the phrenic nerves and some left brachial plexus nerves suggested a diagnosis of ALS. He was treated with supportive night time ventilatory assistance (BiPAP) and over 4 years his condition recovered essentially completely. In retrospect the most likely diagnosis was a rare brachial plexopathy referred to as neuralgic amyotrophy. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - October 17, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Severe acute respiratory failure due to Sai-rei-to-induced lung injury successfully treated by multi-modal therapy including immunosuppressive therapy, plasma exchange, and intravenous immunoglobulin: A case report
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Midori Yamada, Kei Nakashima, Hiroyuki Ito, Masahiro AoshimaAbstractCorticosteroid therapy may not be enough to control pneumonitis in some cases of severe drug-induced lung injury (DLI); however, an advanced treatment strategy for such cases is lacking. Here, we report the case of an 88-year-old man who presented with severe DLI, caused by Sai-rei-to. The patient visited our hospital complaining of progressive dyspnea. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest demonstrated bilateral patchy ground-glass opacities an...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - October 17, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Two cases of primary human parechovirus pneumonia in adults
We present two cases that HPeV was detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for respiratory viruses using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and diagnosed as pneumonia caused by HPeV. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - October 17, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A case of axillary lymphadenitis caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare in an immunocompetent patient
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Junko Itano, Kadoaki Ohashi, Satoru Senoo, Naohiro Oda, Kazuya Nishii, Akihiko Taniguchi, Nobuaki Miyahara, Yoshinobu Maeda, Katsuyuki KiuraAbstractAxillary lymphadenitis caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria is rare and has been reported in immunocompromised hosts. Herein, we report the case of a 67-year-old man without immunodeficiency who developed right axillary lymphadenitis caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare and showed a small nodular shadow in the left pulmonary apex. Biopsy of the right axillary lymph node rev...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - October 15, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

An unusual case of massive hemoptysis due to Bacillus cereus necrotizing pneumonia
We describe a case of a 59-year-old male with esophageal adenocarcinoma undergoing chemotherapy presenting with a right upper lobe necrotizing pneumonia secondary to B. cereus with consequent massive hemoptysis. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - October 15, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Argon gas knife combined with cryotherapy for amyloidosis leading to severe airway stenosis
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Chunli Che, Fushi Dong, Xue Wu, Wei Wang, Lixue JiangAbstractObjectiveThis case report shows that bronchoscopy is an important method to treat severe airway stenosis caused by bronchial amyloidosis. Bronchoscopic forceps were used to incise the intra-tracheal lump repeatedly. The incision was frozen with a cryosurgery probe, argon knife was used to stop the bleeding until the airway lumen stenosis was reduced to approximately 40%, after which, it continued to enter the lumen. We used bronchoscopic biopsy forceps to repeate...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - October 15, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: Experience in 13 patients
We report 13 cases (11 males/2 females) of SPM. The average age was 31 ± 0.85 years. The most common precipitating factor was asthma attack. The onset symptoms were mainly chest pain (11 cases). Synchronous pneumothorax was found in 5 cases and it was bilateral in 2 patients. The evolution was marked by the spontaneous resorption. SMP is an underrecognized cause of chest pain in young adults. Chest radiography is usually sufficient for the diagnosis, and further diagnostic procedures are generally not necessary. The prognosis is often favorable. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - October 15, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Multivitamin pill aspiration leading to hemorrhagic bronchial necrosis
This article highlights the serious but reversible effects of multivitamin pill aspiration into the lungs. If diagnosed early and treated promptly the harmful effects of the pill constituents on the lungs and airways can be attenuated. An early bronchoscopy and a high index of suspicion is required in order not to miss these events. We have described a case of multivitamin pill aspiration in a young healthy male and the good response to early intervention. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - October 15, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Intestinal tuberculosis: Case series of three patients
DiscussionIntestinal TB most commonly affected region is the ileocaecal, accounts for 64% of the incidence of gastrointestinal TB. The main reasons for the predilection of ileocaecal region are due to relatively longer faecal static, the abundant of lymphoid tissue, a neutral pH environment and absorptive transport mechanisms that allow swallowed mycobacterium to be absorbed. Intestinal TB may pose similar symptoms as those found in pulmonary TB, yet patients most commonly presenting with abdominal pain. Bacteriological signs and histopathological findings are gold standard for ITB diagnosis. Therapy for ITB includes pharm...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - October 15, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Drastically progressive lung cavity lesion caused by Actinomyces odontolyticus in a patient undergoing chemoradiotherapy: A case report and literature review
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Takeshi Matsumoto, Yusuke Kusakabe, Masamitsu Enomoto, Naoki Yamamoto, Kensaku Aihara, Shinpachi Yamaoka, Michiaki MishimaAbstractPulmonary actinomycosis reportedly forms 15% of all cases of actinomycosis, and pulmonary Actinomyces odontolyticus is particularly rare. A 60-year-old man with a hoarse voice was referred to our hospital. Lung squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed at the clinical tumor-node-metastasis stage of cT2N2M0, and concurrent chemoradiotherapy was initiated. Further, a small cavity was also detected in ...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - October 15, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Catamenial pneumothorax in a 14-year-old female: A case report and literature review
ConclusionAlthough rare in younger patients, catamenial pneumothorax should be considered as a cause for recurrent pnueumothoraces in any post-pubertal female. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - October 14, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Bronchopulmonary lophomoniasis: A rare cause of pneumonia in an immunosuppressed host
We reported a case of bronchopulmonary lophomoniasis in a Malaysian female with systemic lupus erythromatosus. She presented with productive cough, shortness of breath and high-grade fever for 2 weeks. Physical examination revealed bronchial sound and crackles over the left lung with, reduced expansion and dull percussion in lower left lobe. Chest radiography showed consolidation of the left lung. Routine laboratory tests revealed general low cell count. Blood and sputum culture were negative. Bronchoalveolar lavage stain and culture for bacterial and fungal were negative. Bronchoalveolar lavage for Lophomonas blattarum wa...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - October 12, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A rare case of congenital chylothorax in a Palestinian neonate
Conclusion: A female newborn diagnosed with right-sided pleural effusion by antenatal scan was confirmed to have congenital chylothorax postnataly. The infant responded to IV octreotide and MCT based formula feeding. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - October 11, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Positional cyanosis reveals platypnea-orthodeoxia-syndrome
Publication date: Available online 3 October 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Colin M. Kenny, Caroline E. Murphy, Lindsay Clough, Deptmer Ashley, Emilio FentanesAbstractPlatypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome is a rare cause of dyspnea, which presents upon standing and resolves when supine. Etiology is multifactorial with a functional component and an anatomical shunt. The most commonly reported shunt is an atrial septal defect, however a shunt can occur in advanced hepatic or pulmonary disease. Treatment is dependent on the type and location of the shunt. In atrial septal defects percutaneous repair is prefe...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - October 4, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Exacerbation of eosinophilic COPD and pneumonia in post-treatment pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patient: A case report
Publication date: Available online 27 September 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Daniel Maranatha, Nur Nubli Julian ParadeAbstractEosinophilic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a COPD phenotype with several clinical characteristics such as eosinophilic airway inflammation, more common in men and less severe COPD. Eosinophilic COPD has more exacerbations but responds well to corticosteroids and bronchodilators. We hereby report the case of a patient who came to us with shortness of breath, fever, wheezing and a cough with yellow phlegm. He had a history of smoking 4.5 pack-year and two e...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - September 28, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Improvement of pulmonary arterial compliance by pulmonary vasodilator in pulmonary hypertension from combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema
We report a case of a 71-year-old male with PH from CPFE, who improved pulmonary arterial compliance (PAC) and exercise capacity in response to pulmonary vasodilator. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - September 28, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Congenital idiopathic chylothorax: Case report from neonatal ICU, Palestine
Conclusion: A female newborn diagnosed with right-sided pleural effusion by antenatal scan was confirmed to have congenital chylothorax postnataly. The infant responded to IV octreotide and MCT based formula feeding. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - September 27, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Diffuse alveolar damage and e-cigarettes: Case report and review of literature
We describe a case of a 47-year-old woman who was diagnosed with histologically confirmed diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). She had no significant medical history and she had been smoking e-cigarettes for 3 years prior to presentation. This case report describes the potential association between e-cigarettes and diffuse alveolar damage while making reference to relevant associated studies. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - September 25, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Long-term spontaneous remission with active surveillance in IgG4-related pleuritis: A case report and literature review
Publication date: Available online 24 September 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Go Makimoto, Kadoaki Ohashi, Kohei Taniguchi, Junichi Soh, Akihiko Taniguchi, Nobuaki Miyahara, Shinichi Toyooka, Tadashi Yoshino, Maeda Yoshinobu, Katsuyuki KiuraAbstractPleural effusion is a relatively rare feature of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Here, we report a case of a 72-year-old woman who presented with pleural effusion. Although the pleural adenosine deaminase level was increased, surgical biopsy of the pleura and left inguinal lymph node indicated that the effusion was due to IgG4-RD. Active surveillance wa...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - September 24, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Reconstruction of tracheocutaneous fistula with a rhomboid flap
We report on the use of a rhomboid flap for partial closure of a tracheal stoma. The rhomboid flap is a local flap that is frequently used by plastic surgeons because of its broad applications and not being very invasive. This is a low invasive and simple technique for partial closure of an excessively enlarged stoma. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - September 17, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A severe pleural complication associated with granulomatosis with polyangiitis
In this report we discuss and highlight the rare pleural complications associated with GPA, and alert clinicians to monitor for these important complications even after disease-modifying treatment is initiated. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - September 16, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Infective endocarditis presenting as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage: A case report
Publication date: Available online 9 September 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Mitsunori Morita, Hiromi TomiokaAbstractAn 80-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of fever, bloody sputum and exertional dyspnea of 3 days. Laboratory tests showed anemia and increase of the C-reactive protein level. A chest computed tomography scan revealed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities. Bronchoalveolar lavage confirmed the clinical diagnosis of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH). After methylprednisolone pulse therapy, Enterococcus faecalis was detected in the blood cultures. A diagnosis of infec...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - September 10, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A case of pulmonary actinomycosis presented with endobronchial involvement
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Petros Oikonomidis, Fotios Fousekis, Panagiotis Kotsaftis, Ioannis Pilios, Dionysios Dimas, Georgios GiannoulisAbstractPulmonary actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease, which is characterized by a wide range of symptoms and no specific imaging findings and may be confused with neoplasia, tuberculosis or pneumonia. Endobronchial involvement of actinomycosis may be caused by aspiration of foreign bodies or broncholithiasis and may bronchoscopically masquerade as malignancy. A case of 68-year-old man is reported, who prese...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - August 30, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical ACO phenotypes: Description of a heterogeneous entity
ConclusionsBy providing evidences for clusters within ACO, our study confirms its heterogeneity, allowing the identification of 4 phenotypes. Further prospective studies are mandatory to confirm these data, to determine both specific management requirements and prognostic value. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - August 28, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Use of point-of-care ultrasound to assess esophageal insufflation during bag mask ventilation: A case report
Publication date: Available online 26 August 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Paola L. Baskin, Bruce J. KimuraAbstractBag-valve-mask ventilation is a basic airway management technique often used in patients with acute respiratory failure. Although highly effective in providing oxygenation and ventilation, this technique has been associated with gastric regurgitation and tracheal aspiration. In this case, the esophagus visualized with bedside ultrasonography during bag-mask ventilation of an unresponsive and critically ill patient. Images were obtained both with and without cricoid pressure. Additiona...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - August 27, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Anti-interleukin-5 therapy (mepolizumab) in life-threatening asthma attack: A case-based discussion
We report about a case of a compassionate off-label use of the anti-interleukin-5-agent mepolizumab in a ventilated patient with life-threatening asthma attack in eosinophilic asthma. The patient suffered from severe eosinophilic asthma and was transmitted to our hospital with an asthma attack and a life-threatening respiratory state under ventilation. Since high dose steroids had not yielded a sufficient respiratory improvement mepolizumab was administered subcutaneously. After administration of mepolizumab respiratory state and ventilation parameter improved significantly. Two days after administration the patient was we...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - August 23, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Massive calcification of giant left atrium in a rheumatic mitral stenosis patient: A case report
We present a case of Giant left atrium with massive calcification in a female patient who had a history of rheumatic heart disease, severe mitral stenosis, permanent atrial fibrillation, and cerebral infarctions. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - August 22, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Individualized physical training in the therapy of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia – A case report
ConclusionsOur data provides reasoning to stress the implementation of structured physical training to enhance physical performance also in the management of PCD. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - August 17, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Spontaneous breathing during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment of sickle cell disease acute chest syndrome
We describe the management of ACS with VV-ECMO using two different approaches, namely with and without mechanical ventilation. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - August 14, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Severe tracheal stenosis after first administration of pembrolizumab rescued by Dumon Y-stent in a lung cancer patient
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Daisuke Himeji, Gen-ichi Tanaka, Chikara Fukuyama, Atsushi Yamanaka, Ritsuya Shiiba, Sayaka Moriguchi, Kousuke MarutsukaAbstractA 70-year-old woman diagnosed with advanced, non-resectable programmed cell death ligand 1-positive-non-small-cell lung carcinoma was treated with pembrolizumab as first-line therapy. Soon after therapy initiation, she presented with severe dyspnea, and chest computed tomography revealed a soft tissue mass in the lower trachea of the right main bronchus. During bronchoscopy, she became severely hyp...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - August 14, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Life-threatening hemoptysis following mitral valvuloplasty for rheumatic mitral stenosis
ConclusionLife-threatening hemoptysis is a medical emergency requiring rapid source identification and treatment of the underlying etiology. A high degree of suspicion should be maintained for recurrence of mitral valve stenosis in patients presenting with life-threatening hemoptysis and risk factors of rheumatic heart disease, regardless of previous surgical management or unilateral chest x-ray signs. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - August 14, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A case report of phenytoin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia
We report a case of phenytoin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia that resolved after medication withdrawal. Considering drug toxicity as a possible etiology of eosinophilic pneumonia is important to allow for the prompt removal of the causative agent, which can result in clinical cure. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - August 13, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Serial transarterial embolization for the management of unresectable malignant pulmonary Hemangiopericytoma: A case report and review of the literature
Publication date: Available online 3 August 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Zahia EsberAbstractHemangiopericytomas (HPC) are perivascular neoplasms that are rarely encountered as primary lung malignancy. Surgical resection remains the mainstay therapy of HPC. A 37-year old African American female initially presented with fatigue, chest pain and palpitations. Chest radiography showed a well-circumscribed large heterogeneous vascular mass of the right hemithorax. She underwent a CT-guided biopsy of the thoracic mass and was diagnosed with low-grade pulmonary hemangiopericytoma. High tumor vascularity ...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - August 4, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Argon plasma coagulation for management of hemoptysis in endobronchial metastasis from soft-tissue sarcoma
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Jose N. Sancho-Chust, Enrique Cases Viedma, Raquel Martinez Tomas, Eusebi Chiner VivesAbstractHemoptysis is a manifestation of a wide variety of diseases. Endobronchial metastases from nonpulmonary neoplasms are unusual. Among these causes, soft-tissue sarcoma is also discretely rare and scarcely documented. Argon plasma coagulation is a useful tool for the interventional pulmonologist that can allow control of bleeding from these lesions. Here we report a case of hemoptysis from an endobronchial metastasis of soft-tissue sa...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - August 3, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum secondary to dental treatment in a young man
Publication date: Available online 31 July 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Mona Vahidi Rad, Eliza Kwok Ying Chan, Iqbal Hussein AhmedAbstractThe occurrence of cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum is very rare but can be potentially life-threatening.These complications can happen during or after bronchoscopic or dental procedures, esophageal rupture or perforation, infections involving the head and neck and alveolar rupture in the setting of an inciting event such as asthma. The symptoms can appear promptly after the inciting event, but can also be delayed or do not reach maxima...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - August 1, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Bronchoscopic balloon dilatation combined with laser cauterization of high and long segmental tracheal stenosis secondary to endobronchial tuberculosis: A case report
ConclusionsOur study shows that balloon dilatation combined with laser cauterization can be easily repeated and may be effective for treatment of patients with bronchotracheal stenosis, wherein radical treatment cannot be performed. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - July 31, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Trajectory of lung function to pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis late after haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation
We report the case of an adult woman undergoing allogeneic HSCT for Hodgkin's lymphoma. Pulmonary function tests evolved from normal, before transplantation, to a restrictive pattern with normal residual volume 3 months after transplantation, then to an obstructive pattern consistent with bronchiolitis obliterans 18 months after transplantation, and finally to a severe mixed pattern with preserved residual volume. Computed tomography showed the distinctive features of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis, confirmed by histology of specimen from apical resection after pneumothorax. This case report suggests that pleuroparenchym...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - July 28, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Gardnerella vaginalis causing pulmonary infection in a young adult: A novel case
Publication date: Available online 25 July 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Julie Bittar, Joshua GazzettaAbstractGardnerella vaginalis is an anaerobic, gram-variable bacterium primarily found in vaginal microflora of women. Previous reports of G. vaginalis cultured in men are few and have primarily been limited to the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract.2−4 Few reports of G. vaginalis causing severe infections have been reported in the literature, including septicemia7 and two cases of perinephric abscess.8,9 There has been one previously reported case of G. vaginalis causing pulmonary com...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - July 25, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Smoking-related diffuse cystic lung disease
We describe a case of a woman with a spontaneous pneumothorax and diffuse cystic lung disease due to smoking. The presence of diffuse cystic changes in a woman is suggestive of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM); however, her vascular endothelial growth factor-D was normal and surgical lung biopsy and pathology had notable absence of LAM cells and presence of intra-alveolar pigment laden macrophages and intraluminal mucostasis. Smoking-related diffuse cystic lung disease can mimic LAM and is a novel entity with only four other cases reported. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - July 23, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pulmonic valve infective endocarditis from staph lugdunensis
Publication date: Available online 22 July 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Syed Iftikhar, Vinh Luu, Teddy Truc, Amin Sabet, Javad Savoj, Mimi BiswasAbstractPulmonic valve endocarditis is an extremely rare entity. Only 1.1% of all cases of all infective endocarditis affect the pulmonic valve. Furthermore, it is even more uncommon for such a disease process to occur in a young and healthy individual without risk factors. It takes a unique case of circumstances to have pulmonic valve infective endocarditis to occur. Staph lugdunensis is one uncommonly isolated organism that has the ability to cause inf...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - July 23, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A strange case of dyspnoea
We report the case of a 45-year-old white man who was referred to our clinic for acute dyspnoea preceded by severe neck and right shoulder pain. Corticosteroid therapy ameliorated the clinical picture, but without a complete recovery. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - July 23, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Acute vasodilator testing: An opportunity to advance the precision care of pulmonary hypertension
Publication date: Available online 21 July 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Meghan M. Cirulis, Lynda O. Jorgensen, Ronald W. DayAbstractThe pulmonary arterial pressure of a child with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension immediately normalized while breathing nitric oxide during heart catheterization at 8 years of age. Her acute pulmonary vascular response to nitric oxide has persisted throughout her life. Her acute response to other medications has been similar to her long-term response to medications in the same class. Acute vasodilator testing with inhaled nitric oxide and other medications may ...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - July 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Primary rhinovirus pneumonia in which bronchoalveolar lavage fluid yielded human rhinovirus
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Takashi Ishiguro, Yuki Yoshida, Yasuhito Kobayashi, Yoshihiko Shimizu, Noboru TakayanagiAbstractA 27-year-old man presented to our hospital with symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection. This patient showed imaging findings of diffuse bronchiolitis, ground-glass opacities, and consolidations. Antibiotics were not effective, and we performed bronchoalveolar lavage, in which only human rhinovirus infection was detected by multiplex PCR testing. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - July 19, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Jennifer M. Sunny, Bobak J. Akhavan, Ala-Eddin S. Sagar, Pushan P. Jani (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - July 18, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Vascular anomaly: Cause of infant respiratory distress and dysphagia
Publication date: Available online 16 July 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Aisha Baig, Christopher Fortner, Marcus Rivera, Jill Merrow, Saurabh Gupta, Erica Sher, Anthony MortellitiAbstractAberrant right subclavian artery with a left aortic arch is rare, but it is the most common congenital aortic arch anomaly. It can present as an incidental finding later in life or be symptomatic at a young age. Here, we describe a case of an aberrant right subclavian artery discovered in a 4 month old with respiratory distress and feeding difficulties. She underwent an extensive aerodigestive evaluation including...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - July 17, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

An exceptional case of giant cell interstitial pneumonia with multi-organ involvement and review of the literature
Publication date: Available online 15 July 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Yanqiu Wei, Peng Chen, Huihui Yue, Gaohong Sheng, Jiaojiao Chu, Hui-Lan ZhangAbstractGiant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) is an exceedingly rare lung disease, usually due to occupational exposure to hard-metal compounds (tungsten, carbide, cobalt). Diagnosis of GIP is mainly based on the presence of multinucleated giant cell (MNGC) in alveolar spaces by histologic examination. Here, we present a case of GIP with multi-organ involvement. A 63-year-old man was diagnosed with tuberculosis firstly, but conventional treatment d...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - July 16, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Marked deterioration in rheumatoid arthritis associated bronchiectasis following treatment with Rituximab
We report a 67 year old lady with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and mild bronchiectasis (BE) whose treatment was escalated to Rituximab. Nine months after commencing Rituximab her lung sepsis worsened dramatically with repeated hospitalization, new sputum isolation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and marked radiological deterioration in BE. She was found to have a low serum IgG and IgM levels almost certainly as a complication of Rituximab. Immunoglobulin replacement therapy was instituted and her clinical status has slowly improved. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - July 12, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Sarcoidosis in a patient clinically diagnosed with silicosis; is silica associated sarcoidosis a new phenotype?
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): E.D. Beijer, Dr B. Meek, H. Kromhout, H.W. van Es, C.A. Seldenrijk, M. Drent, J.M. Rooijackers, M. VeltkampAbstractA diagnosis of silicosis is made on the basis of exposure and typical radiological findings, according to the ILO's International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis. Radiological patterns of silicosis can, however, resemble sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis is a multi-systemic disorder of unknown etiology, although a role for initiating inorganic triggers such as metals or silica has been suggested. In this c...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - July 12, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Eosinophils depletion therapy for severe asthma management following favorable response to mepolizumab
We described three severe asthmatics whose asthma symptoms were rapidly improved by benralizumab following favorable response to mepolizumab. Benralizumab-induced eosinophil depletion contributed to clinical improvement of severe asthma after mepolizumab-induced eosinophil reduction; thus, prior favorable responses to mepolizumab may predict benralizumab efficacy. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - July 10, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research