Reporting of test comparisons in diagnostic accuracy studies: a literature review
Research Synthesis Methods, Accepted Article. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - November 20, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Yasaman Vali, Bada Yang, Maria Olsen, Mariska M. G. Leeflang, Patrick M. M. Bossuyt Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Meta ‐analyzing count events over varying durations using the piecewise Poisson model: The case for poststroke seizures
In this study, we exploit the convolution property of the Poisson distr ibution to develop a likelihood for observed cumulative counts over varying follow‐up periods, where different Poisson distributions are used to represent the data generating processes for the latent counts in pre‐defined successive intervals of follow‐up. We illustrate this approach using an example of poststroke seizures, a case in which risk may change over time, and mimic its survival duration with time‐varying hazard. Data were extracted from observational studies (1997‐2016) reporting poststroke seizures over a maximum of 10 year...
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - November 15, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Wei ‐Jhih Wang, Beth Devine, Aasthaa Bansal, H. Steve White, Anirban Basu Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
No abstract is available for this article. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - November 14, 2020 Category: Chemistry Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Investigating and dealing with publication bias and other reporting biases in meta ‐analyses of health research: a review
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - November 9, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Matthew J. Page, Jonathan A. C. Sterne, Julian P. T. Higgins, Matthias Egger Tags: Review Source Type: research

Network meta ‐analysis results against a fictional treatment of average performance: Treatment effects and ranking metric
ConclusionsA forest plot with NMA relative treatment effects using “deviation from means” coding could complement presentation of NMA results in large networks and in absence of an obvious reference treatment. PreTA is a viable alternative to existing probabilistic ranking metrics that naturally incorporates uncertainty. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - November 9, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Dimitris Mavridis, Virginia Chiocchia, Theodoros Papakonstantinou, Toshi A. Furukawa, Georgia Salanti Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Investigating and dealing with publication bias and other reporting biases in meta ‐analyses of health research: a review
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - November 9, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Matthew J. Page, Jonathan A. C. Sterne, Julian P. T. Higgins, Matthias Egger Tags: Review Source Type: research

Using Monte Carlo Experiments To Select Meta ‐Analytic Estimators
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - November 4, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Sanghyun Hong, W. Robert Reed Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Meta ‐Analyzing Count Events over Varying Durations Using the Piecewise Poisson Model:The Case for Post Stroke Seizures
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - November 1, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Wei ‐Jhih Wang, Beth Devine, Aasthaa Bansal, H. Steve White, Anirban Basu Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Alternative weighting schemes when performing matching ‐adjusted indirect comparisons
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - November 1, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Dan Jackson, Kirsty Rhodes, Mario Ouwens Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Meta ‐Analyzing Count Events over Varying Durations Using the Piecewise Poisson Model:The Case for Post Stroke Seizures
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - November 1, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Wei ‐Jhih Wang, Beth Devine, Aasthaa Bansal, H. Steve White, Anirban Basu Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Alternative weighting schemes when performing matching ‐adjusted indirect comparisons
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - November 1, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Dan Jackson, Kirsty Rhodes, Mario Ouwens Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Estimating Publication Bias in Meta ‐Analyses of Peer‐Reviewed Studies: A Meta‐Meta‐Analysis Across Disciplines and Journal Tiers
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - October 27, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Maya B. Mathur, Tyler J. VanderWeele Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A “Rapid Best‐Fit” model for framework synthesis: Using research objectives to structure analysis within a rapid review of qualitative evidence
This article discusses a “Rapid Best‐Fit” approach to conducting Framework Synthesis within an 6‐week rapid systematic review of qualitative evidence. In the absence of a suitable theoretical model to inform the synthesis, we drew upon our research objectives to structure a framework, and to identify the studies which contained the most relevant data. Themes from these studies were used to revise the initial framework before inductive thematic synthe sis finalized theme content. This “Rapid Best‐Fit” approach yielded results aligned with the needs of the commissioners of the review and is a us...
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - October 20, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Liz Shaw, Michael Nunns, Simon Briscoe, Rob Anderson, Jo Thompson Coon Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Network meta ‐analysis results against a fictional treatment of average performance: treatment effects and ranking metric
ConclusionsA forest plot with NMA relative treatment effects using ‘deviation from means’ coding could complement presentation of NMA results in large networks and in absence of an obvious reference treatment. PreTA is a viable alternative to existing probabilistic ranking metrics that naturally incorporates uncertainty.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - October 17, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Dimitris Mavridis, Virginia Chiocchia, Theodoros Papakonstantinou, Toshi A Furukawa, Georgia Salanti Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Commentary to Gusenbauer and Haddaway 2020: Evaluating retrieval qualities of Google Scholar and PubMed
We read with considerable interest the study by Gusenbauer and Haddaway (Gusenbauer and Haddaway, 2020, Research Synthesis Methods, doi:10.1002/jrsm.1378) comparing the systematic search qualities of 28 search systems, including Google Scholar (GS) and PubMed. Google Scholar and PubMed are the two most popular free academic search tools in biology and chemistry, with GS being the number one search tool in the world. Those academics using GS as their principal system for literature searches may be unaware of research which enumerates five critical features for scientific literature tools that greatly influenced Gusenbauer's...
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - October 8, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: D. V. Klopfenstein, Will Dampier Tags: COMMENTARY Source Type: research

What every Researcher should know about Searching – Clarified Concepts, Search Advice, and an Agenda to improve Finding in Academia
We researchers have taken searching for information for granted for far too long. The COVID ‐19 pandemic shows us the boundaries of academic searching capabilities, both in terms of our know‐how and of the systems we have. With hundreds of studies published daily on COVID‐19, for example, we struggle to find, stay up‐to‐date, and synthesize information—all hampering evidence‐ informed decision making. This COVID‐19information crisis is indicative of the broader problem of information overloaded academic research. To improve our finding capabilities, we urgently need to improve how we search and the syst...
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - October 8, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Michael Gusenbauer, Neal R. Haddaway Tags: COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Commentary to Gusenbauer and Haddaway 2020: Evaluating retrieval qualities of Google Scholar and PubMed
We read with considerable interest the study by Gusenbauer and Haddaway (Gusenbauer and Haddaway, 2020, Research Synthesis Methods, doi:10.1002/jrsm.1378) comparing the systematic search qualities of 28 search systems, including Google Scholar (GS) and PubMed. Google Scholar and PubMed are the two most popular free academic search tools in biology and chemistry, with GS being the number one search tool in the world. Those academics using GS as their principal system for literature searches may be unaware of research which enumerates five critical features for scientific literature tools that greatly influenced Gusenbauer's...
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - October 8, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: D. V. Klopfenstein, Will Dampier Tags: COMMENTARY Source Type: research

What every Researcher should know about Searching – Clarified Concepts, Search Advice, and an Agenda to improve Finding in Academia
We researchers have taken searching for information for granted for far too long. The COVID ‐19 pandemic shows us the boundaries of academic searching capabilities, both in terms of our know‐how and of the systems we have. With hundreds of studies published daily on COVID‐19, for example, we struggle to find, stay up‐to‐date, and synthesize information—all hampering evidence‐ informed decision making. This COVID‐19information crisis is indicative of the broader problem of information overloaded academic research. To improve our finding capabilities, we urgently need to improve how we search and the syst...
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - October 8, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Michael Gusenbauer, Neal R. Haddaway Tags: COMMENTARY Source Type: research

A ’Rapid Best‐Fit’ model for framework synthesis: using research objectives to structure analysis within a rapid review of qualitative evidence
This article discusses a ‘Rapid Best‐Fit’ approach to conducting Framework Synthesis within an six‐week rapid systematic review of qualitative evidence. In the absence of a suitable theoretical model to inform the synthesis, we drew upon our research objectives to structure a framework, and to identify the studies w hich contained the most relevant data. Themes from these studies were used to revise the initial framework before inductive thematic synthesis finalised theme content. This ‘Rapid Best‐Fit’ approach yielded results aligned with the needs of the commissioners of the review and is a ...
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - October 1, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Liz Shaw, Michael Nunns, Simon Briscoe, Rob Anderson, Jo Thompson Coon Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Zero ‐cell corrections in random‐effects meta‐analyses
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 29, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Frank Weber, Guido Knapp, Katja Ickstadt, G ünther Kundt, Änne Glass Tags: BRIEF METHOD NOTE Source Type: research

Assessing context suitability (generalizability, external validity, applicability or transferability) of findings in evidence syntheses in healthcare —An integrative review of methodological guidance
ConclusionSome heterogeneity seems to be justified because of the need to tailor the assessment to different settings and medical areas. However, most differences were inexplicable. More harmonization is desirable and appears possible. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 29, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Alina Weise, Roland B üchter, Dawid Pieper, Tim Mathes Tags: Review Source Type: research

Zero ‐cell corrections in random‐effects meta‐analyses
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 28, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Frank Weber, Guido Knapp, Katja Ickstadt, G ünther Kundt, Änne Glass Tags: BRIEF METHOD NOTE Source Type: research

Assessing context suitability (generalizability, external validity, applicability or transferability) of findings in evidence syntheses in healthcare —An integrative review of methodological guidance
ConclusionSome heterogeneity seems to be justified because of the need to tailor the assessment to different settings and medical areas. However, most differences were inexplicable. More harmonization is desirable and appears possible. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 28, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Alina Weise, Roland B üchter, Dawid Pieper, Tim Mathes Tags: Review Source Type: research

Lost in reviews: Looking for the involvement of stakeholders, patients, public and other non ‐researcher contributors in realist reviews
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 27, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: R Abrams, S Park, G Wong, J Rastogi, A ‐M Boylan, S Tierney, M Petrova, S Dawson, N. Roberts Tags: Review Source Type: research

Improving the precision of search strategies for guideline surveillance
ConclusionsCombining focused subject headings and frequency operators is a viable option for improving the precision of surveillance searches without compromising recall and without impacting the surveillance decision.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 27, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Monica Casey, Michael Raynor, Catherine Jacob, Stephen Sharp, Emma McFarlane Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Lost in reviews: Looking for the involvement of stakeholders, patients, public and other non ‐researcher contributors in realist reviews
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 27, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: R Abrams, S Park, G Wong, J Rastogi, A ‐M Boylan, S Tierney, M Petrova, S Dawson, N. Roberts Tags: Review Source Type: research

Improving the precision of search strategies for guideline surveillance
ConclusionsCombining focused subject headings and frequency operators is a viable option for improving the precision of surveillance searches without compromising recall and without impacting the surveillance decision.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 27, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Monica Casey, Michael Raynor, Catherine Jacob, Stephen Sharp, Emma McFarlane Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The effect direction plot revisited: application of the 2019 Cochrane Handbook guidance on alternative synthesis methods
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 25, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Michele Hilton Boon, Hilary Thomson Tags: SPECIAL ISSUE PAPER Source Type: research

Response to: Goldberg et al “Who are the researchers? Where are the librarians?”
Research Synthesis Methods, EarlyView. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 22, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Andrew Booth, Chris Cooper, Ruth Garside, Nicky Britten Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

On the moments of Cochran's Q statistic under the null hypothesis, with application to the meta ‐analysis of risk difference
Research Synthesis Methods, EarlyView. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 20, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Elena Kulinskaya, Michael B. Dollinger, Kirsten Bj ørkestøl Tags: ERRATUM Source Type: research

A historical review of publication bias
Publication bias is a well ‐known threat to the validity of meta‐analyses and, more broadly, the reproducibility of scientific findings. When policies and recommendations are predicated on an incomplete evidence base, it undermines the goals of evidence‐based decision‐making. Great strides have been made in the last 5 0 years to understand and address this problem, including calls for mandatory trial registration and the development of statistical methods to detect and correct for publication bias. We offer an historical account of seminal contributions by the evidence synthesis community, with an emphasis o...
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 16, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Arielle Marks ‐Anglin, Yong Chen Tags: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

Degree irregularity and rank probability bias in network meta ‐analysis
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 15, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Annabel L. Davies, Tobias Galla Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

How to decide whether a systematic review is stable and not in need of updating: Analysis of Cochrane reviews
ConclusionsCochrane reviews would benefit from more transparency and consistency in publicly available justifications for stabilizing reviews. Further work in this field will help make decisions about the futility of further research and deciding on enough evidence in the field of research synthesis. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 14, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Andrija Babi ć, Tina Poklepovi Pericic, Dawid Pieper, Livia Puljak Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Assessing Context Suitability (Generalisability, External Validity, Applicability or Transferability) of Findings in Evidence Syntheses in Healthcare – An Integrative Review of Methodological Guidance
ConclusionSome heterogeneity seems to be justified because of the need to tailor the assessment to different settings and medical areas. However, most differences were inexplicable. More harmonization is desirable and appears possible.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 12, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Alina Weise, Roland B üchter, Dawid Pieper, Tim Mathes Tags: Review Source Type: research

Outlier detection and influence diagnostics in network meta ‐analysis
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 12, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Hisashi Noma, Masahiko Gosho, Ryota Ishii, Koji Oba, Toshi A. Furukawa Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

An empirical comparison of three methods for multiple cutoff diagnostic test meta ‐analysis of the Patient Health Questionnaire‐9 (PHQ‐9) depression screening tool using published data vs individual level data
Selective cutoff reporting in primary diagnostic accuracy studies with continuous or ordinal data may result in biased estimates when meta ‐analyzing studies. Collecting individual participant data (IPD) and estimating accuracy across all relevant cutoffs for all studies can overcome such bias but is labour intensive. We meta‐analyzed the diagnostic accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire‐9 (PHQ‐9) depression screening too l. We compared results for two statistical methods proposed by Steinhauser and by Jones to account for missing cutoffs, with results from a series of bivariate random effects models (BRM) es...
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 12, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Andrea Benedetti, Brooke Levis, Gerta R ücker, Hayley E. Jones, Martin Schumacher, John P. A. Ioannidis, Brett Thombs, the DEPRESsion Screening Data (DEPRESSD) Collaboration Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A comparison of meta ‐methods for synthesizing indirect effects
Synthesizing findings about the indirect (mediated) effect plays an important role in determining the mechanism through which variables affect one another. This simulation study compared six methods for synthesizing indirect effects: correlation ‐based MASEM, parameter‐based MASEM, marginal likelihood synthesis, an adjustment to marginal likelihood synthesis, and univariate, and two‐parameter sequential Bayesian methods. This paper provides an empirical example and code for using all methods compared in the simulation study. The metho ds were compared on (relative) bias, precision, and RMSE of the point estimates and...
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 12, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Camiel H. J. Zundert, Milica Mio čević Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Assessing Context Suitability (Generalisability, External Validity, Applicability or Transferability) of Findings in Evidence Syntheses in Healthcare – An Integrative Review of Methodological Guidance
ConclusionSome heterogeneity seems to be justified because of the need to tailor the assessment to different settings and medical areas. However, most differences were inexplicable. More harmonization is desirable and appears possible.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 12, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Alina Weise, Roland B üchter, Dawid Pieper, Tim Mathes Tags: Review Source Type: research

Outlier detection and influence diagnostics in network meta ‐analysis
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Research Synthesis Methods)
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 12, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Hisashi Noma, Masahiko Gosho, Ryota Ishii, Koji Oba, Toshi A. Furukawa Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

An empirical comparison of three methods for multiple cutoff diagnostic test meta ‐analysis of the Patient Health Questionnaire‐9 (PHQ‐9) depression screening tool using published data vs individual level data
Selective cutoff reporting in primary diagnostic accuracy studies with continuous or ordinal data may result in biased estimates when meta ‐analyzing studies. Collecting individual participant data (IPD) and estimating accuracy across all relevant cutoffs for all studies can overcome such bias but is labour intensive. We meta‐analyzed the diagnostic accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire‐9 (PHQ‐9) depression screening too l. We compared results for two statistical methods proposed by Steinhauser and by Jones to account for missing cutoffs, with results from a series of bivariate random effects models (BRM) es...
Source: Research Synthesis Methods - September 12, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Andrea Benedetti, Brooke Levis, Gerta R ücker, Hayley E. Jones, Martin Schumacher, John P. A. Ioannidis, Brett Thombs, the DEPRESsion Screening Data (DEPRESSD) Collaboration Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research