Volatile organic compounds produced by Aureobasidium pullulans induce electrolyte loss and oxidative stress in Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Sashika M. Yalage Don, Leigh M. Schmidtke, Joanna M. Gambetta, Christopher C. Steel (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - October 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Signalling mechanisms involved in stress response to antifungal drugs
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Ján Víglaš, Petra Olejníková (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - October 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Identification of a gene encoding a novel thiosulfate:quinone oxidoreductase in marine Acidithiobacillus sp. strain SH
Publication date: Available online 5 October 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Tadayoshi Kanao, Sultana Sharmin, Mirai Tokuhisa, Maho Otsuki, Kazuo Kamimura (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - October 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparative proteomics reveals essential mechanisms for osmotolerance in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus
Publication date: Available online 6 October 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Mariana Leandro, Leandro Andrade, Luciano Vespoli, Julia Moreira, Vivian Pimentel, Fabiano Soares, Lucas Passamani, Vanildo Silveira, Gonçalo de Souza Filho (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - October 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Microbial community composition in iron deposits and manganese crusts formed in riverine environments around the Aso area in Japan
Publication date: Available online 24 September 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Shin-ichi Hirano, Yuki Ito, Shiro Tanaka, Toru Nagaoka, Takahiro Oyama (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - September 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Cross-correlating analyses of mineral-associated microorganisms in an unsaturated packed bed flow-through column test; cell number, activity and EPS
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Didi X. Makaula, Robert J. Huddy, Marijke A. Fagan-Endres, Susan T.L. Harrison (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - September 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Isolation, characterization, and efficacy of bacteriophages isolated against Citrobacter spp. an in vivo approach in a zebrafish model (Danio rerio)
Publication date: Available online 10 September 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Madhav Madurantakam Royam, Ramesh Nachimuthu (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - September 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Isolation, characterization, and efficacy of bacteriophages isolated against Citrobacter spp. An in vivo approach in a zebrafish model (Danio rerio)
Publication date: Available online 10 September 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Madhav Madurantakam Royam, Ramesh Nachimuthu (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - September 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effect of Inoculum History, Growth Substrates and Yeast Extract Addition on Inhibition of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans by NaCl
Publication date: Available online 8 September 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Dieu Huynh, Stefan R. Kaschabek, Michael Schlömann (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - September 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Biofilm formation by ST17 and ST19 strains of Streptococcus agalactiae
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Inês Silvestre, Maria José Borrego, Luísa Jordão (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - September 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

An effective culturomics approach to study the gut microbiota of mammals
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): André C. Pereira, Mónica V. Cunha (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - September 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Bioleaching of pyritic coal wastes: bioprospecting and efficiency of selected consortia
Publication date: Available online 3 September 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Catherine Joulian, Viviana Fonti, Simon Chapron, Christopher G. Bryan, Anne-Gwenaelle Guezennec (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - September 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

First insights to the microbial communities in the plant process water of the multi-metal Kevitsa mine
Publication date: Available online 13 August 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Malin Bomberg, Hanna Miettinen, Benjamin Musuku, Päivi Kinnunen (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - August 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Isolation and characterization of a novel acidophilic zero-valent sulfur- and ferric iron-respiring Firmicute
Publication date: Available online 14 August 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Roseanne Holanda, D. Barrie Johnson (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - August 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Thiol-specific Oxidant Diamide Downregulates whiA Gene of Corynebacterium glutamicum, thereby Suppressing Cell Division and Metabolism
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Haeri Jeong, Jae-Hyun Lee, Younhee Kim, Heung-Shick Lee (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - August 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Combined antimicrobial use of Essential Oils and bacteriocin bacLP17 as seafood biopreservative to control Listeria monocytogenes both in planktonic and in sessile forms
Publication date: Available online 25 July 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Ramona Iseppi, Stefania Camellini, Carla Sabia, Patrizia Messi (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - July 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Study of the relationship between extracellular superoxide and glutathione production in batch cultures of Escherichia coli
Publication date: Available online 25 July 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Galina V. Smirnova, Aleksey V. Tyulenev, Nadezda G. Muzyka, Oleg N. Oktyabrsky (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - July 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Editorial board
Publication date: July–September 2020Source: Research in Microbiology, Volume 171, Issues 5–6Author(s): (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - July 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A transcriptional regulator, IscR, of Burkholderia multivorans acts as both repressor and activator for transcription of iron-sulfur cluster-biosynthetic isc operon
Publication date: Available online 3 July 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Shouta Nonoyama, Kouhei Kishida, Keiichiro Sakai, Yuji Nagata, Yoshiyuki Ohtsubo, Masataka Tsuda (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - July 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Formation and use of biogenic jarosite carrier for high-rate iron oxidising biofilms
Publication date: Available online 3 July 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Sarita Ahoranta, Hanna Hulkkonen, Turkka Salminen, Pirjo Kuula, Jaakko A. Puhakka, Aino-Maija Lakaniemi (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - July 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Function analysis of RNase E in the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120
Publication date: Available online 23 June 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Huaduo Yan, Yarui Cheng, Li Wang, Wenli Chen (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - June 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Quorum sensing: Its role in microbial social networking
Publication date: Available online 24 June 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Angkita Sharma, Pooja Singh, Bidyut Kr Sarmah, Shoma Paul Nandi (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - June 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effect of bile on growth and biofilm formation of Non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars isolated from seafood and poultry
Publication date: Available online 20 June 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Akshatha Kotian, Vankadari Aditya, Kadeeja Jazeela, Iddya Karunasagar, Indrani Karunasagar, Vijaya Kumar Deekshit (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - June 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Auxin biosynthesis in the phytopathogenic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans is associated with enhanced transcription of indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase LmIPDC2 and tryptophan aminotransferase LmTAM1
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Hana Leontovyčová, Lucie Trdá, Petre Ivanov Dobrev, Vladimír Šašek, Elise Gay, Marie-Helene Balesdent, Lenka Burketová (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - June 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Editorial board
Publication date: April–June 2020Source: Research in Microbiology, Volume 171, Issues 3–4Author(s): (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Efficient method for targeted gene disruption by homologous recombination in Mycobacterium avium subspecie paratuberculosis
Publication date: Available online 10 April 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Maria Natalia Alonso, Wladimir Malaga, Michael Mc Neil, Mary Jackson, Maria Isabel Romano, Christophe Guilhot, María Paz Santangelo (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - April 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antimicrobial peptides against drug resistant Mycobacterium abscessus
Publication date: Available online 18 March 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Joas L. da Silva, Shashank Gupta, Kenneth N. Olivier, Adrian M. Zelazny (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - March 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Editorial board
Publication date: March 2020Source: Research in Microbiology, Volume 171, Issue 2Author(s): (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - March 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Corynebacterium rouxii sp. nov., a novel member of the diphtheriae species complex
Publication date: Available online 28 February 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Edgar Badell, Mélanie Hennart, Carla Rodrigues, Virginie Passet, Melody Dazas, Leonardo Panunzi, Valérie Bouchez, Annick Carmi-Leroy, Julie Toubiana, Sylvain Brisse (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - February 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Phenotypic comparison and DNA sequencing analysis of a wild-type and a pediocin-resistant mutant of Listeria ivanovii
Publication date: Available online 28 February 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Shanna Liu, Yongjun Liu, Timo M. Takala, Pingping Zhang, Suhua Wang (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - February 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Dividing subpopulation of Escherichia coli in stationary phase
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Arvi Jõers, Eliis Liske, Tanel TensonAbstractThe bacterial growth cycle contains different phases: after the growth substrate is exhausted or the toxic waste products accumulate the growth stops. In this non-growing culture the number of colony forming bacteria remains constant or starts to decrease. It has been shown that during prolonged incubation there is constant growth and death of bacteria and certain mutant populations take over the culture. Here we show that the dynamic cell division and death balance can be obtain...
Source: Research in Microbiology - February 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Amino acids are key substrates to Escherichia coli BW25113 for achieving high specific growth rate
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Andres Maser, Karl Peebo, Raivo Vilu, Ranno NahkuAbstractStudying substrate consumption in nutrient-rich conditions is challenging because often the growth medium includes undefined components like yeast extract or peptone. For clear and consistent results, it is necessary to use defined medium, where substrate utilization can be followed. In the present work, Escherichia coli BW25113 batch growth in a medium supplemented with 20 proteinogenic amino acids and glucose was studied. Focus was on the quantitative differences in substr...
Source: Research in Microbiology - February 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Polyamine depletion has global effects on stress and virulence gene expression and affects HilA translation in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Priscila R. Guerra, Gang Liu, Sebastien Lemire, Arkadiusz Nawrockic, Egle Kudirkiene, Jakob Møller-Jensen, John E. Olsen, Lotte JelsbakAbstractPolyamines are small cationic amines required for modulating multiple cell process, including cell growth and DNA and RNA stability. In Salmonella polyamines are primarily synthesized from L-arginine or L-ornithine. Based on a previous study, which demonstrated that polyamines affect the expression of virulence gene in S. Typhimurium, we investigated the role of polyamines in the glob...
Source: Research in Microbiology - January 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Copper limiting threshold in the terrestrial ammonia oxidizing archaeon Nitrososphaera viennensis
This study explored the physiological response of the AOA soil isolate, Nitrososphaera viennensis (EN76T) to Cu-limiting conditions in order to approach its limiting threshold under laboratory conditions. The chelator TETA (1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N, N’, N’’, N’’’-tetraaceticacid hydrochloride hydrate) with selective affinity for Cu2+ was used to lower bioavailable Cu2+ in culture experiments as predicted by thermodynamic speciation calculations. Results show that N. viennensis is Cu-limited at concentrations ≤10-15 mol L-1 free Cu2+ compared to standard conditions (10-12 mo...
Source: Research in Microbiology - January 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Editorial board
Publication date: January–February 2020Source: Research in Microbiology, Volume 171, Issue 1Author(s): (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - January 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Biodiversity and richness shifts of mucosa-associated gut microbiota with progression of colorectal cancer
Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Hong-Wei Pan, Lu-Tao Du, Wei Li, Yong-Mei Yang, Yi Zhang, Chuan-Xin WangAbstractThe host-associated gut microbiota is considered critical for the occurrence and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, systematic evaluations of the changes in the biodiversity and richness of mucosa-associated gut microbiota with the development of CRC have been limited. Twenty-three paired samples from colorectal tumor sites and the surrounding non-tumor tissues were collected from stage I to IV CRC patients. The microbial compositions of t...
Source: Research in Microbiology - January 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Escherichia coli O-antigen Capsule (Group 4) is Essential for Serum Resistance
Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Dvora Biran, Ilan Rosenshine, Eliora Z. RonAbstractMany septicemic E. coli strains produce polysaccharide capsules, which are important for survival in serum. Here we show that a septicemic E. coli strain of serotype O78 produce an O-antigen capsule (group 4 capsule) and we show that this capsule is essential for serum survival. (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - January 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Distribution of carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with blaADC-30 and induction of ADC-30 in response to beta-lactam antibiotics
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Birson Ingti, Supriya Upadhyay, Monalisha Hazarika, Annie Bakorlin Khyriem, Deepjyoti Paul, Prithwis Bhattacharya, S.R. Joshi, Debajyoti Bora, Debadatta Dhar (Chanda), Amitabha BhattacharjeeAbstractA wide range of intrinsic Acinetobacter-derived cephalosporinases (ADC) along with other carbapenemases has now been detected in Acinetobacter baumannii leaving clinicians with few treatment options. The present study reports the spread of ADC-30 co-producing KPC-2 along with other β-lactamases among carbapenem resistant A. baumanni...
Source: Research in Microbiology - January 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Microorganisms and metals: a love-hate relationship?
Publication date: Available online 4 December 2019Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Philippe Bertin (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - December 27, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Editorial board
Publication date: November–December 2019Source: Research in Microbiology, Volume 170, Issue 8Author(s): (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - December 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Microorganisms and metals: a love-hate relationship ?
Publication date: Available online 4 December 2019Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Philippe Bertin (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - December 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antioxidative system of Deinococcus radiodurans
Publication date: Available online 19 November 2019Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Hui-zhou Qi, Wu-zhou Wangi, Jun-yan He, Yun Ma, Fang-zhu Xiao, Shu-ya HeAbstractDeinococcus radiodurans is famous for its extreme resistance to various stresses such as ionizing radiation (IR), desiccation and oxidative stress. The underlying mechanism of exceptional resistance of this robust bacterium still remained unclear. However, the antioxidative system of D. radiodurans has been considered to be the determinant factor for its unparalleled resistance and protects the proteome during stress, then the DNA repair system and met...
Source: Research in Microbiology - November 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Original sequence divergence among Pseudomonas putida CadRs drive specificity
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Julien Cayron, Géraldine Effantin, Elsa Prudent, Agnès RodrigueSummaryBacteria, especially those living in soils, are in constant contact with metals. Transition metals like Fe or Zn, are required for proper growth. Some other metals like Cd or Hg are only toxic. Several systems exist to detoxify cells when these metals are present in concentrations harmful to biological systems. The expression of these systems is under control of specialized regulatory proteins able to detect metals and to regulate cognate detoxifyi...
Source: Research in Microbiology - November 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Between Computational Predictions and High-Throughput Transcriptional Profiling: in Depth Expression Analysis of the OppB Trans-Membrane Subunit of E. coli OppABCDF Oligopeptide Transporter
Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Irina S. Masulis, Natalia A. Sukharycheva, Sergey S. Kiselev, Zaira Sh. Andreeva, Olga N. OzolineAbstractBacterial oligopeptide transporters encoded by arrays of opp genes are implicated in a wide variety of physiological functions including nutrient acquisition, cell-to-cell communication, host-pathogen interaction. Combining the five opp genes in one oppABCDF operon of E. coli assumes unified principle of their transcriptional regulation, which should provide a comparable amounts of translated products. This, however, contradicts...
Source: Research in Microbiology - November 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Bacterial ABC transporters of iron containing compounds
Publication date: Available online 1 November 2019Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Philippe DelepelaireAbstractIron acquisition is an essential aspect of cell physiology for most bacteria. Although much is known about how bacteria initially recognize the various iron sources they can encounter, whether siderophore, heme, host iron/heme binding proteins, much less is known about how the iron containing compounds (Fe2+, Fe3+, Fe3+-siderophore complex or heme) are transported across the cytoplasmic membrane. This last transport step is powered by specific ABC (ATP-Binding-Cassette) transporters, made up of a substra...
Source: Research in Microbiology - November 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Contrasting Arsenic biogeochemical cycling in two Moroccan alkaline pit lakes
Publication date: Available online 1 November 2019Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Marina Héry, Angélique Desoeuvre, El Mehdi Benyassine, Odile Bruneel, Sophie Delpoux, Eléonore Resongles, Abdelilah Dekayir, Corinne CasiotAbstractPit lakes resulting from the flooding of abandoned mines represent a valuable freshwater reserve. However, water contamination by toxic elements, including arsenic, compromises their use for freshwater supply. For a better management of these reserves, our aim was to gain insight into arsenic cycling in two Moroccan alkaline pit lakes. We first showed that dimethylar...
Source: Research in Microbiology - November 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Type VI secretion system is not required for virulence on rice but for inter-bacterial competition in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola
In this study, we identified two phylogenetically distinct T6SS clusters, T6SS1 and T6SS2, in a newly sequenced Chinese strain GX01 of Xanthomonas oryzea pv. oryzicola (Xoc) which causes bacterial leaf streak (BLS) of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Mutational assays demonstrated that T6SS1 and T6SS2 are not required for the virulence of Xoc GX01 on rice. Nevertheless, we found that T6SS2, but not T6SS1, played an important role in bacterial killing. Transcription and secretion analysis revealed that hcp2 gene is actively expressed and that Hcp2 protein is secreted via T6SS. Moreover, several candidate T6SS effectors were predicte...
Source: Research in Microbiology - October 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

ABC Systems: structural and functional variations on a common theme
Publication date: Available online 25 October 2019Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Grégory Boel, Cédric Orelle, Jean-Michel Jault, Elie Dassa (Source: Research in Microbiology)
Source: Research in Microbiology - October 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Type III effectors xopN and avrBS2 contribute to the virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola strain GX01
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2019Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Zhou-Xiang Liao, Jian-Yuan Li, Xiu-Yu Mo, Zhe Ni, Wei Jiang, Yong-Qiang He, Sheng HuangAbstractXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) depends on its type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate type III secreted effectors (T3SEs), including transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) and non-transcription activator-like effectors (non-TALEs), into host cells. T3SEs can promote the colonization of Xoc and contribute to virulence by manipulating host cell physiology. We annotated 25 genes encoding non-TALEs in Xoc strain GX01, ...
Source: Research in Microbiology - October 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genome insights of mercury methylation among Desulfovibrio and Pseudodesulfovibrio strains
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2019Source: Research in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Marisol Goni-Urriza, Christophe Klopp, Magali Ranchou-Peyruse, Anthony Ranchou-Peyruse, Mathilde Monperrus, Bahia Khalfaoui-Hassani, Rémy GuyoneaudAbstractMercury methylation converts inorganic mercury into the toxic methylmercury, and the consequences of this transformation are worrisome for human health and the environment. This process is performed by anaerobic microorganisms, such as several strains related to Pseudodesulfovibrio and Desulfovibrio genera. In order to provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of ...
Source: Research in Microbiology - October 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research