Roles of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like factor in the ovulation process
AbstractLuteinizing hormone (LH) surge stimulates preovulatory follicles to induce the ovulation process, including oocyte maturation, cumulus expansion, and granulosa cell luteinization. The matured oocytes surrounded by an expanded cumulus cell layer are released from follicles to the oviduct. However, LH receptors are dominantly expressed in granulosa cells, but less in cumulus cells and are not expressed in oocytes, indicating that the secondary factors expressed and secreted from LH-stimulated granulosa cells are required for the induction of the ovulation process. Prostaglandin and progesterone are well-known factors...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - October 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Clinical management of endometriosis-associated infertility
AbstractEndometriosis is a common chronic benign disease that affects reproductive age women and causes chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Despite its prevalence, the exact mechanisms of the pathogenesis of endometriosis-associated infertility are unknown, and precise standards of management have not yet been established. Medical and surgical treatments for endometriosis have different effects on the chance of conception, either spontaneously or via assisted reproductive technologies (ART). In this manuscript, we review the literature from years 1979 to 2015 to report on the proposed mechanism of endometriosis-associated...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - October 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Fertility preservation through gonadal cryopreservation
AbstractFertility preservation is an area of immense interest in today's society. The most effective and established means of fertility preservation is cryopreservation of gametes (sperm and oocytes) and embryos. Gonadal cryopreservation is yet another means for fertility preservation, especially if the gonadal function is threatened by premature menopause, gonadotoxic cancer treatment, surgical castration, or diseases. It can also aid in the preservation of germplasm of animals that die before attaining sexual maturity. This is especially of significance for valuable, rare, and endangered animals whose population is affec...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - October 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Predicting suitable timing for artificial reproductive technology treatment in aged infertile women
AbstractIt has been widely accepted that the age of women plays a fundamental role in fecundity, and age-related fertility decline has one of the most significant and detrimental effects on the success rate of infertility treatment. Therefore, treatment cycles of non-in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment for infertile women of advanced aged have been limited due to their lack of efficacy, and they are often optimized, compared to IVF/ICSI treatment. Recent trends in infertility treatment apparently indicate that IVF/ICSI treatment, including egg donation, is frequently offered t...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - October 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Vitrification of embryos and oocytes for fertility preservation in cancer patients
AbstractAs survival rates and the life expectancy of those with malignancy have increased, more women in their reproductive years are referred for fertility preservation. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can severely affect ovarian function, and the effect is irreversible. Therefore, it is optimal to attempt fertility preservation before chemotherapy and radiotherapy are initiated. Oocyte and embryo cryopreservation is the most common option for fertility preservation in women. Several reports have proven that embryo and oocyte cryopreservation can achieve a successful pregnancy. This review discusses the impact of chemothera...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - October 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

A case of gradually manifesting McCune –Albright syndrome with a 10-year follow-up
AbstractMcCune –Albright syndrome (MAS) is characterized by fibrous dysplasia (FD) of bone, café-au-lait skin pigmentation, and precocious puberty. Here we report a case of a 12-year-old girl with MAS presenting sexual precocity as initial signs, followed by FD of bone with her growth. She was referred to our h ospital because of breast budding and abnormal genital bleeding at the age of 2.8 years. On physical examination, her height and weight were greater than two standard deviations of the mean ranges. Hormonal analysis revealed an elevated serum estradiol and suppressed luteinizing hormone and follicl...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - October 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Uterine anatomy and function on cine magnetic resonance imaging
AbstractThe female reproductive organ undergoes dynamic morphological changes under the influence of hormonal stimuli, and particularly those mediated by estrogen and progesterone. The uterus changes both its morphological appearance and its functional movements in function of these influences. Functionally, the uterus is known to exert two kinds of inherent contractility: sustained uterine contractions and uterine peristalsis. The former is focal and consists of the sporadic bulging of the myometrium, while the latter is rhythmic and manifests itself as the subtle stripping movement in the subendometrial myometrium. The m...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - October 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Acknowledgments
(Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology)
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - October 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Anti-M üllerian hormone as a marker of ovarian reserve: What have we learned, and what should we know?
AbstractOvarian reserve reflects the quality and quantity of available oocytes. This reserve has become indispensable for the better understanding of reproductive potential. Measurement of the serum anti-M üllerian hormone (AMH) level allows quantitative evaluation of ovarian reserve. It has been applied to a wide range of clinical conditions, and it is well established that the measurement of serum AMH levels is more useful than qualitative evaluation based on the menstrual cycle. AMH levels are mon itored during infertility treatments; in patients undergoing medically assisted reproductive technology; and in the dia...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - July 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Observation of human embryonic behavior in vitro by high-resolution time-lapse cinematography
AbstractAssisted reproductive technology (ART) has yielded vast amounts of information and knowledge on human embryonic development in vitro; however, still images provide limited data on dynamic changes in the developing embryos. Using our high-resolution time-lapse cinematography (hR-TLC) system, we were able to describe normal human embryonic development continuously from the fertilization process to the hatched blastocyst stage in detail. Our hR-TLC observation also showed the embryonic abnormality of a third polar body (PB)-like substance likely containing a small pronucleus being extruded and resulting in single-pron...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - July 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Management of non-obstructive azoospermia
AbstractNon-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is defined as no sperm in the ejaculate due to failure of spermatogenesis and is the most severe form of male infertility. The etiology of NOA is either intrinsic testicular impairment or inadequate gonadotropin production. Chromosomal or genetic abnormalities should be evaluated because there is a relatively high incidence compared with the normal population. Although rare, NOA due to inadequate gonadotropin production is a condition in which fertility can be improved by medical treatment. In contrast, there is no treatment that can restore spermatogenesis in the majority of NOA p...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - July 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Age-associated events in bovine oocytes and possible countermeasures
AbstractMaternal aging profoundly affects oocyte quality. This has become common knowledge in industrialized countries and extensive studies addressing the causes and possible countermeasures against age-associated deterioration of oocytes suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a causal factor in infertility. However, almost all studies addressing age-associated events in oocytes have used mice as an animal model, and the reproductive life of mice is very short, making it difficult to study the gradual decline in fertility observed in humans. In the present review, age-associated changes in the quality and quantity of b...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - July 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection into oocytes matured in vitro and early embryonic development in the owl monkey ( Aotus lemurinus )
ConclusionsAlthough we successfully produced owl monkey embryos after ICSI, the embryos did not develop to the blastocyst stage. Many parameters need to be studied further, including superovulation, selection of culture media, and selection of good quality sperm in order to achieve successful ICSI in the owl monkey. (Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology)
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - July 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Twin pregnancy in a 51-year-old woman who underwent autologous cryopreservation at the age of 36  years: case report
We report a case of a successful dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy achieved using autologous fertilized cryopreserved oocytes in a climacteric woman. A 51-year-old woman became pregnant using autologous fertilized oocytes that had been frozen for 15  years. On her first visit, multiple leiomyoma of the uterus and gestational diabetes mellitus were diagnosed, and proteinuria began to appear at 30 weeks. In spite of our concerns these complications did not exacerbate and the clinical course for both mother and neonates was favorable. This is th e first report of a live twin birth achieved using autologous cryop...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - July 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

The development of surgical sperm extraction and new challenges to improve the outcome
AbstractSurgical sperm extraction with intracytoplasmic sperm injection has become widespread worldwide and is regarded as the sole option for patients with azoospermia. However, the sperm retrieval rate remains unsatisfactorily low, particularly for men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). Therefore, the technical challenges associated with improving the sperm retrieval rate for men with NOA are being addressed. The most successful method developed to date is microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE), which is rapidly becoming recognized as a useful technique due to its relatively high sperm retrieval ra...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - July 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Testicular function among testicular cancer survivors treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy
AbstractPurposeThe aim of our study was to identify the clinical predictors of spermatogenesis recovery in testicular cancer (TC) patients after chemotherapy and to determine the recuperation period for spermatogenesis.MethodsPatients treated for TC from January 1982 to November 2001 at Chiba University Hospital were retrospectively assessed. Thirty-five patients who met the following criteria were examined —(i) underwent both high orchiectomy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy; (ii) had semen analyses and hormonal measurements; and (iii) were alive with no evidence of disease. Clinical variables associated with normal...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - July 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Anti-M üllerian hormone as a marker of ovarian reserve: What have we learned, and what should we know?
Abstract Ovarian reserve reflects the quality and quantity of available oocytes. This reserve has become indispensable for the better understanding of reproductive potential. Measurement of the serum anti-M üllerian hormone (AMH) level allows quantitative evaluation of ovarian reserve. It has been applied to a wide range of clinical conditions, and it is well established that the measurement of serum AMH levels is more useful than qualitative evaluation based on the menstrual cycle. AMH levels are mon itored during infertility treatments; in patients undergoing medically assisted reproductive technology; and in the d...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - June 30, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Twin pregnancy in a 51-year-old woman who underwent autologous cryopreservation at the age of 36  years: case report
We report a case of a successful dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy achieved using autologous fertilized cryopreserved oocytes in a climacteric woman. A 51-year-old woman became pregnant using autologous fertilized oocytes that had been frozen for 15  years. On her first visit, multiple leiomyoma of the uterus and gestational diabetes mellitus were diagnosed, and proteinuria began to appear at 30 weeks. In spite of our concerns these complications did not exacerbate and the clinical course for both mother and neonates was favorable. This is th e first report of a live twin birth achieved using autologous cryop...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - June 30, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

A case of gradually manifesting McCune –Albright syndrome with a 10-year follow-up
Abstract McCune –Albright syndrome (MAS) is characterized by fibrous dysplasia (FD) of bone, café-au-lait skin pigmentation, and precocious puberty. Here we report a case of a 12-year-old girl with MAS presenting sexual precocity as initial signs, followed by FD of bone with her growth. She was referred to our h ospital because of breast budding and abnormal genital bleeding at the age of 2.8 years. On physical examination, her height and weight were greater than two standard deviations of the mean ranges. Hormonal analysis revealed an elevated serum estradiol and suppressed luteinizing hormone and folli...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - April 14, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

A case of gradually manifesting McCune–Albright syndrome with a 10-year follow-up
Abstract McCune–Albright syndrome (MAS) is characterized by fibrous dysplasia (FD) of bone, café-au-lait skin pigmentation, and precocious puberty. Here we report a case of a 12-year-old girl with MAS presenting sexual precocity as initial signs, followed by FD of bone with her growth. She was referred to our hospital because of breast budding and abnormal genital bleeding at the age of 2.8 years. On physical examination, her height and weight were greater than two standard deviations of the mean ranges. Hormonal analysis revealed an elevated serum estradiol and suppressed luteinizing hormone and...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - April 14, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

The impact of elevated thyroid stimulating hormone on female subfertility
ConclusionsWe found an association between elevated TSH and the decreased rate of clinical pregnancy. This might be related to an ovulatory disorder and pathophysiology of unexplained infertility. These results may reinforce the usefulness of TSH screening in infertility population. (Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology)
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

An evaluation of the Gifu Model in a trial for a new regional oncofertility network in Japan, focusing on its necessity and effects
ConclusionsThe GPOFS as the first regional oncofertility network in Japan has just started and may be working to help both AYA cancer patients and their oncologists. The nationwide establishment of the regional oncofertility network model could help both AYA cancer patients and oncologists. (Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology)
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Epigenetics of sex determination in mammals
AbstractEpigenetics is the study of changes in gene function that cannot be explained by changes in DNA sequence. A mammalian body contains more than two hundred types of cells. Since all of them are derived from a single fertilized egg, their genotypes are identical. However, the gene expression patterns are different between the cell types, indicating that each cell type has unique own “epigenotype”. Epigenetic gene regulation mechanisms essentially contribute to various processes of mammalian development. The essence of epigenetic regulation is the structural change of chromatin to modulate gene activity in ...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Announcement
(Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology)
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Predicting suitable timing for artificial reproductive technology treatment in aged infertile women
Abstract It has been widely accepted that the age of women plays a fundamental role in fecundity, and age-related fertility decline has one of the most significant and detrimental effects on the success rate of infertility treatment. Therefore, treatment cycles of non-in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment for infertile women of advanced aged have been limited due to their lack of efficacy, and they are often optimized, compared to IVF/ICSI treatment. Recent trends in infertility treatment apparently indicate that IVF/ICSI treatment, including egg donation, is frequently...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - March 28, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Fertility preservation through gonadal cryopreservation
Abstract Fertility preservation is an area of immense interest in today's society. The most effective and established means of fertility preservation is cryopreservation of gametes (sperm and oocytes) and embryos. Gonadal cryopreservation is yet another means for fertility preservation, especially if the gonadal function is threatened by premature menopause, gonadotoxic cancer treatment, surgical castration, or diseases. It can also aid in the preservation of germplasm of animals that die before attaining sexual maturity. This is especially of significance for valuable, rare, and endangered animals whose populatio...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - March 11, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Vitrification of embryos and oocytes for fertility preservation in cancer patients
Abstract As survival rates and the life expectancy of those with malignancy have increased, more women in their reproductive years are referred for fertility preservation. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can severely affect ovarian function, and the effect is irreversible. Therefore, it is optimal to attempt fertility preservation before chemotherapy and radiotherapy are initiated. Oocyte and embryo cryopreservation is the most common option for fertility preservation in women. Several reports have proven that embryo and oocyte cryopreservation can achieve a successful pregnancy. This review discusses the impact of ...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - February 29, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Clinical management of endometriosis-associated infertility
Abstract Endometriosis is a common chronic benign disease that affects reproductive age women and causes chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Despite its prevalence, the exact mechanisms of the pathogenesis of endometriosis-associated infertility are unknown, and precise standards of management have not yet been established. Medical and surgical treatments for endometriosis have different effects on the chance of conception, either spontaneously or via assisted reproductive technologies (ART). In this manuscript, we review the literature from years 1979 to 2015 to report on the proposed mechanism of endometriosis-...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - February 17, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Announcement
(Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology)
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - February 17, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Roles of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like factor in the ovulation process
Abstract Luteinizing hormone (LH) surge stimulates preovulatory follicles to induce the ovulation process, including oocyte maturation, cumulus expansion, and granulosa cell luteinization. The matured oocytes surrounded by an expanded cumulus cell layer are released from follicles to the oviduct. However, LH receptors are dominantly expressed in granulosa cells, but less in cumulus cells and are not expressed in oocytes, indicating that the secondary factors expressed and secreted from LH-stimulated granulosa cells are required for the induction of the ovulation process. Prostaglandin and progesterone are well-kno...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - February 15, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Uterine anatomy and function on cine magnetic resonance imaging
Abstract The female reproductive organ undergoes dynamic morphological changes under the influence of hormonal stimuli, and particularly those mediated by estrogen and progesterone. The uterus changes both its morphological appearance and its functional movements in function of these influences. Functionally, the uterus is known to exert two kinds of inherent contractility: sustained uterine contractions and uterine peristalsis. The former is focal and consists of the sporadic bulging of the myometrium, while the latter is rhythmic and manifests itself as the subtle stripping movement in the subendometrial myometr...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - February 13, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Management of non-obstructive azoospermia
Abstract Non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is defined as no sperm in the ejaculate due to failure of spermatogenesis and is the most severe form of male infertility. The etiology of NOA is either intrinsic testicular impairment or inadequate gonadotropin production. Chromosomal or genetic abnormalities should be evaluated because there is a relatively high incidence compared with the normal population. Although rare, NOA due to inadequate gonadotropin production is a condition in which fertility can be improved by medical treatment. In contrast, there is no treatment that can restore spermatogenesis in the majorit...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - January 18, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Age-associated events in bovine oocytes and possible countermeasures
Abstract Maternal aging profoundly affects oocyte quality. This has become common knowledge in industrialized countries and extensive studies addressing the causes and possible countermeasures against age-associated deterioration of oocytes suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a causal factor in infertility. However, almost all studies addressing age-associated events in oocytes have used mice as an animal model, and the reproductive life of mice is very short, making it difficult to study the gradual decline in fertility observed in humans. In the present review, age-associated changes in the quality and qua...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - January 8, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Observation of human embryonic behavior in vitro by high-resolution time-lapse cinematography
Abstract Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has yielded vast amounts of information and knowledge on human embryonic development in vitro; however, still images provide limited data on dynamic changes in the developing embryos. Using our high-resolution time-lapse cinematography (hR-TLC) system, we were able to describe normal human embryonic development continuously from the fertilization process to the hatched blastocyst stage in detail. Our hR-TLC observation also showed the embryonic abnormality of a third polar body (PB)-like substance likely containing a small pronucleus being extruded and resulting in s...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - January 5, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Twin pregnancy in a 51-year-old woman who underwent autologous cryopreservation at the age of 36 years: case report
We report a case of a successful dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy achieved using autologous fertilized cryopreserved oocytes in a climacteric woman. A 51-year-old woman became pregnant using autologous fertilized oocytes that had been frozen for 15 years. On her first visit, multiple leiomyoma of the uterus and gestational diabetes mellitus were diagnosed, and proteinuria began to appear at 30 weeks. In spite of our concerns these complications did not exacerbate and the clinical course for both mother and neonates was favorable. This is the first report of a live twin birth achieved using autologous cryopre...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - January 5, 2016 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Testicular function among testicular cancer survivors treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy
Abstract Purpose The aim of our study was to identify the clinical predictors of spermatogenesis recovery in testicular cancer (TC) patients after chemotherapy and to determine the recuperation period for spermatogenesis. Methods Patients treated for TC from January 1982 to November 2001 at Chiba University Hospital were retrospectively assessed. Thirty-five patients who met the following criteria were examined—(i) underwent both high orchiectomy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy; (ii) had semen analyses and hormonal measurements; and (iii) were...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - December 31, 2015 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection into oocytes matured in vitro and early embryonic development in the owl monkey ( Aotus lemurinus )
Conclusions Although we successfully produced owl monkey embryos after ICSI, the embryos did not develop to the blastocyst stage. Many parameters need to be studied further, including superovulation, selection of culture media, and selection of good quality sperm in order to achieve successful ICSI in the owl monkey. (Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology)
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - December 16, 2015 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

The development of surgical sperm extraction and new challenges to improve the outcome
Abstract Surgical sperm extraction with intracytoplasmic sperm injection has become widespread worldwide and is regarded as the sole option for patients with azoospermia. However, the sperm retrieval rate remains unsatisfactorily low, particularly for men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). Therefore, the technical challenges associated with improving the sperm retrieval rate for men with NOA are being addressed. The most successful method developed to date is microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE), which is rapidly becoming recognized as a useful technique due to its relatively high sperm re...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - November 27, 2015 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Anti-Müllerian hormone as a marker of ovarian reserve: What have we learned, and what should we know?
Abstract Ovarian reserve reflects the quality and quantity of available oocytes. This reserve has become indispensable for the better understanding of reproductive potential. Measurement of the serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level allows quantitative evaluation of ovarian reserve. It has been applied to a wide range of clinical conditions, and it is well established that the measurement of serum AMH levels is more useful than qualitative evaluation based on the menstrual cycle. AMH levels are monitored during infertility treatments; in patients undergoing medically assisted reproductive technology; and in...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - November 23, 2015 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis: an update on current technologies and ethical considerations
Abstract The aim of reproductive medicine is to support the birth of healthy children. Advances in assisted reproductive technologies and genetic analysis have led to the introduction of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for embryos. Indications for PGD have been a major topic in the fields of ethics and law. Concerns vary by nation, religion, population, and segment, and the continued rapid development of new technologies. In contrast to the ethical augment, technology has been developing at an excessively rapid speed. The most significant recent technological development provides the ability to perform...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - November 14, 2015 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Update of Wnt signaling in implantation and decidualization
Abstract Embryonic development into an implantation-competent blastocyst, synchronized uterine transformation into a receptive stage, and an intimate cross-talk between the activated blastocyst and the receptive uterus are essential for successful implantation, and therefore for subsequent pregnancy outcome. Evidence accumulating during recent years has underlined the importance of the Wnt signaling pathway in mammalian implantation and decidualization. Herein, this review focuses on the current state of knowledge regarding Wnt signaling in multiple implantation and decidualization events: pre-implantation embryo ...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - November 9, 2015 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Sperm dysfunction and ciliopathy
Abstract Sperm motility is driven by motile cytoskeletal elements in the tail, called axonemes. The structure of axonemes consists of 9 + 2 microtubules, molecular motors (dyneins), and their regulatory structures. Axonemes are well conserved in motile cilia and flagella through eukaryotic evolution. Deficiency in the axonemal structure causes defects in sperm motility, and often leads to male infertility. It has been known since the 1970s that, in some cases, male infertility is linked with other symptoms or diseases such as Kartagener syndrome. Given that these links are mostly caused by deficiencies i...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - October 14, 2015 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Epigenetics of sex determination in mammals
Abstract Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene function that cannot be explained by changes in DNA sequence. A mammalian body contains more than two hundred types of cells. Since all of them are derived from a single fertilized egg, their genotypes are identical. However, the gene expression patterns are different between the cell types, indicating that each cell type has unique own “epigenotype”. Epigenetic gene regulation mechanisms essentially contribute to various processes of mammalian development. The essence of epigenetic regulation is the structural change of chromatin to modulate gene ac...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - September 22, 2015 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Molecular and cellular events involved in the completion of blastocyst implantation
Abstract Blastocyst implantation is an interactive process between the embryo and the uterus. The synchronization of embryonic development with uterine differentiation to a receptive state is essential for a successful pregnancy. The period of uterine receptivity for implantation is limited. Although implantation involves the interaction of numerous signaling molecules, our understanding of the hierarchical mechanisms that coordinate with the embryo–uterine dialogue is not yet sufficient to prevent infertility caused by implantation failure. This review highlights our knowledge on uterine receptivity and hor...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - August 14, 2015 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

The impact of elevated thyroid stimulating hormone on female subfertility
Conclusions We found an association between elevated TSH and the decreased rate of clinical pregnancy. This might be related to an ovulatory disorder and pathophysiology of unexplained infertility. These results may reinforce the usefulness of TSH screening in infertility population. (Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology)
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - August 12, 2015 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

The effects of platelet lysate on maturation, fertilization and embryo development of NMRI mouse oocytes at germinal vesicle stage
In this study, the maturation medium was enriched by platelet lysate (PL), then maturation and subsequent developments were monitored. Methods Oocytes at germinal vesicle stage with cumulus cells (cumulus–oocyte complex) and without cumulus cells (denuded oocytes) were obtained from mature female mice. The maturation medium was enriched by 5 and 10 % PL and 5 % PL + 5 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) as experimental groups; the control groups’ media consisted of 5 and 10 % FBS. After 18 h, the matured oocytes were collected and, after fertiliz...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - August 7, 2015 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

An evaluation of the Gifu Model in a trial for a new regional oncofertility network in Japan, focusing on its necessity and effects
Conclusions The GPOFS as the first regional oncofertility network in Japan has just started and may be working to help both AYA cancer patients and their oncologists. The nationwide establishment of the regional oncofertility network model could help both AYA cancer patients and oncologists. (Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology)
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - August 7, 2015 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Cryopreservation of testis tissues and in vitro spermatogenesis
Abstract Cancer treatments, either chemo- or radiotherapy, may cause severe damage to gonads which could lead to the infertility of patients. In post-pubertal male patients, semen cryopreservation is recommended to preserve the potential to have their own biological children in the future; however, it is not applicable to prepubertals. The preservation of testis tissue which contains spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) but not sperm would be an alternative measure. The tissues or SSCs have to be transplanted back into patients to obtain sperm; however, this procedure remains experimental, invasive, and is accompa...
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - August 5, 2015 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Successful pregnancy by vitrified–warmed embryo transfer for a woman with Kallmann syndrome
Conclusion This is the first report of a healthy delivery after vitrified–warmed embryo transfer for a woman with Kallmann syndrome. Our experience suggests that ICSI and vitrified–warmed embryo transfer are effective for women with Kallmann syndrome. (Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology)
Source: Reproductive Medicine and Biology - July 22, 2015 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research