Ivabradine and AF: Coincidence, Correlation or a New Treatment?
Ivabradine is a pure heart rate-lowering agent best characterised by its negative chronotropic effect on the sinoatrial node.1 Its unique mechanism selectively blocks the pacemaker funny (If) channels, which are responsible for spontaneous depolarisation in the sinoatrial node that regulates heart rate during sinus rhythm (Figure 1).2 Since 1980, it has been well established that controlling the h (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Arrhythmias from the Right Ventricular Moderator Band: Diagnosis and Management
Ventricular arrhythmias are designated idiopathic when demonstrable structural heart disease, significant coronary disease including coronary spasm or genetic arrhythmia syndromes are absent.1 These arrhythmias may be benign but are also a recognised cause of sudden cardiac death. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Non-invasive Stereotactic Radioablation: A New Option for the Treatment of Ventricular Arrhythmias
Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a life-threatening sequela found in patients with cardiomyopathy. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Challenges Associated with Interpreting Mechanisms of AF
Determining optimal treatment strategies for complex arrhythmogenesis in AF is confounded by the lack of consensus on the mechanisms causing AF. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

High-power, Short-duration Radiofrequency Ablation for the Treatment of AF
AF is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and radio ­frequency is the dominant energy source used for atrial ablation. Owing to an ageing population and the increasing burden of cardiovascular disease, the prevalence of AF, particularly in developed countries, is increasing.1,2 With increasing prevalence comes additional financial burden.3 It is paramount that AF therapy is effective in reducing morbidity and improving quality of life. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Multimodality Imaging to Guide Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation in Patients with Non-ischaemic Cardiomyopathy
Catheter ablation has been increasingly used as a treatment for refractory ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy (NICM). (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Idiopathic Left Ventricular Tachycardia Originating in the Left Posterior Fascicle
Ventricular tachycardia (VT) originating from the Purkinje system is the most common type of idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia (ILVT), especially among young Asians.1,2 It usually has a benign course. Research over the past two decades has deepened our understanding of the anatomy of the Purkinje system and the mechanisms of ILVT. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Unmasking Adenosine: The Purinergic Signalling Molecule Critical to Arrhythmia Pathophysiology and Management
The use of adenosine in cardiology is ubiquitous. From arrhythmia to coronary intervention to cardiac imaging, adenosine is an essential part of everyday practice because of its widespread effects on electrophysiology and the coronary vasculature. Electrophysiologists will be most familiar with adenosine for its use in terminating supraventricular tachycardias (SVTs) that are dependent on the atrioventricular node (AVN) and in unmasking underlying rhythms. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Corrigendum to: Preventive Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation in Patients with Ischaemic Cardiomyopathy: Meta-analysis of Randomised Trials
In the article by Tilz et al. entitled “Preventive Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation in Patients With Ischaemic Cardiomyopathy: Meta-analysis of Randomised Trials” (Arrhythmia& Electrophysiology Review 2019;8(3):173 –9.https://doi.org/10.15420/aer.2019.31.3), the following correction should be made: (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Evolution of the Editorial Board Underpins a Commitment to Change and Innovation
“It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is most adaptable to change.” (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Corrigendum to: Value of MitraClip in Reducing Functional Mitral Regurgitation
In the article by Elbey et al. entitled “Value of MitraClip in Reducing Functional Mitral Regurgitation” (US Cardiology Review 2019;13(1):30 –4.https://doi.org/10.15420/usc.2018.19.1), the following correction should be made for the second author:“Luis Augusto Palma Dalan” should be “Luis Augusto Palma Dallan”.The authors apologise for this error. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Strategies to Reduce Radiation Exposure in Electrophysiology and Interventional Cardiology
Ionizing radiation is a workplace hazard that goes undetected. In the cardiac catheterization laboratory, where various interventional and electrophysiological procedures are done, physicians and other staff are exposed to ionizing radiation daily. The amount of radiation exposure in the catheterization laboratory is exponentially more compared to other departments using X-ray and fluoroscopy, which increases even more in complex cases. Staff are at a higher lifetime risk of various medical conditions, ranging from cataracts to malignancies. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence in Cardiac Imaging
Numerous advances in cardiovascular imaging technology paralleled by the simultaneous growth in wearable technology, mobile health devices, and electronic medical record integration have encouraged increasingly complex and large multi-dimensional data acquisition.1 The influx of data with each scan is exponentially rising in all cardiovascular imaging modalities and will exceed the capabilities of current statistical software.2 (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Major Cardiovascular Advances: Highlights from the 2019 American College of Cardiology Annual Scientific Session
WRAP-IT (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Single-Ventricle Physiology
As we approach 50 years since the original publication describing the Fontan procedure for palliation of single-ventricle congenital heart disease, we review the basics of Fontan circulation, and the current literature concerning long-term complications. Surgical interventions have allowed children with former lethal defects to survive into adulthood and we recognize that this has led to a new cohort. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Between a Rock and a Hard Place: How to Use Antithrombotics in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become the preferred method for management of severe aortic stenosis in patients who are at high and intermediate surgical risk. Short-term data have been presented from two studies comparing TAVR versus surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in low surgical risk patients. The Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves 3 (PARTNER 3) trial compared TAVR using a balloon expandable valve with standard SAVR. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, stroke, or re-hospitalization at 1 year post-procedure. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Effect of the Extent of Cardiac Damage on Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Outcome: A New Aortic Stenosis Staging System
Degenerative calcific aortic stenosis (AS) is one of the most common valvular heart diseases, affecting>3% of those aged>65 years in the West.1 As a result of an aging population, the prevalence of AS is expected to increase. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

In Memoriam – Wim van der Giessen
In the early night of 6 June 2011, less than two weeks after having been confronted with the news of a severe illness, Wim van der Giessen passed away. Wim (1954) studied medicine at the Erasmus University of Rotterdam and started his career in research as a medical student at the section of Experimental Cardiology. He finalised his training in cardiology in 1987 and was appointed as staff member in the section of experimental cardiology. Here, we built a team in experimental interventional cardiology. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - January 17, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Authors' Reply: Hybrid Approach for Atrial Fibrillation Ablation: the Jury is Still Out
Dear Sir,We thank Drs Giannopoulos and Deftereos for showing interest in our work.1 They wonder whether a true difference might exist between hybrid and epicardial ablation alone that may have been masked by our combining the results from retrospective observational studies with those from randomised trials. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - January 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Authors' Reply: Unravelling the Mysteries of the Human AV Node
Dear Sir,Thank you for the opportunity to address the reader ’s very important question regarding the roles of various connexin isoforms in the complex function of the human AV node.1 These isoforms can serve as a rate-dependent AV conduction axis during normal sinus rhythm or a lifesaving filter of high-frequency excitation produced by atrial tachyarrhythmias or as a backup junctional pacemaker. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - January 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Novel Aspects of Classification, Prognosis and Therapy in Takotsubo Syndrome
Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a transient form of acute heart failure that mimics an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), with comparable acute adverse outcome.1 Many hypotheses have been formulated, but the pathophysiology of TTS is still not fully understood. Recently, it was demonstrated that specific alterations in neurological response and sympathetic activation after emotional stimuli are present in TTS patients. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - December 18, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Troponins, Acute Coronary Syndrome and Renal Disease: From Acute Kidney Injury Through End-stage Kidney Disease
The development of increasingly sensitive and specific serum cardiac biomarkers has led a revolution in the diagnosis and management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, although the troponins now in use are considered highly sensitive cardiac biomarkers in the general population, the interpretation of troponins in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) has long caused diagnostic uncertainty. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - December 18, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Corrigendum to: Sodium –glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in Heart Failure: Potential Mechanisms of Action, Adverse Effects and Future Developments
In the article by Juan Tamargo entitled Sodium –glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in Heart Failure: Potential Mechanisms of Action, Adverse Effects and Future Developments (European Cardiology Review 2019;14(1):23 –32.https://doi.org/10.15420/ecr.2018.34.2), the following correction should be made: (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - December 18, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Personalised Approaches to Improving the Effect of Anti-platelet Agents: Where Do We Stand?
Clopidogrel is the most widely prescribed P2Y12 inhibitor in the world despite the development of newer and more potent agents.1,2 Clopidogrel is administered as a pro-drug and needs to be metabolised by the cytochrome P450 enzymes (particularly by CYP2C19) in order to have biological activity.3 (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - December 18, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Corrigendum to: Sodium –glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in Heart Failure: Potential Mechanisms of Action, Adverse Effects and Future Developments
In the article by Juan Tamargo entitled Sodium –glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in Heart Failure: Potential Mechanisms of Action, Adverse Effects and Future Developments (European Cardiology Review 2019;14(1):23 –32.https://doi.org/10.15420/ecr.2018.34.2), the following correction should be made: (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - December 18, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Predictors of Recurrence of AF in Patients After Radiofrequency Ablation
AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia in clinical routine, and is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications, dementia and mortality.1 Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) in patients with symptomatic AF has become a well-established treatment option.2,3 High acute success rates are achievable, but durable efficacy of previously successful PVIs for AF still remains a challenge, and finding the predictors of AF recurrence is of major importance. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - December 17, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Meditation and Cardiovascular Health: What is the Link?
Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While traditional treatment protocols follow physical or pharmaceutical interventions, the mental approach of meditation has been used for centuries to induce beneficial changes to the patients ’ cardiovascular risk profile. However, scientific refurbishment of this technique has in the past raised questions of legitimation. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - December 17, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Electronic Cigarettes and Cardiovascular Risk: Science, Policy and the Cost of Certainty
It often takes time to accumulate enough evidence to deem causal hypotheses plausible truths. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - December 17, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Deciphering the Riddles in Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease
Dietary Patterns (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - December 17, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Behavioural Interventions to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk: Where Do We Stand?
Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of death worldwide.1 Age, sex and genetic factors have a major impact on CV risk. The importance of behavioural factors, such as tobacco and alcohol use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet and obesity, is often neglected, although the implementation of lifestyle changes may be a cost-effective strategy for the prevention of CV diseases, also from a population-wide perspective.2 (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - December 17, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Rotational Atherectomy: A Contemporary Appraisal
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the most commonly used revascularisation modality for obstructive coronary artery disease.1 Despite significant advances in PCI over the past 40 years, severe coronary calcification remains a challenge for successful PCI.2,3 Up to 20% of patients undergoing PCI are estimated to have moderate to severe coronary calcification.4,5 (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Rotational Atherectomy: A Contemporary Appraisal
(Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

The Coronary Intravascular Lithotripsy System
The amount of coronary artery calcification increases with age and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities.1,2 Up to 20% of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures are challenged by severe calcifications, and coronary calcifications have been shown to be an independent predictor of PCI failure and future adverse cardiac events.3,4 Lesion calcification increases procedural complexity and time. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

The Coronary Intravascular Lithotripsy System
(Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research