In Memoriam – Wim van der Giessen
In the early night of 6 June 2011, less than two weeks after having been confronted with the news of a severe illness, Wim van der Giessen passed away. Wim (1954) studied medicine at the Erasmus University of Rotterdam and started his career in research as a medical student at the section of Experimental Cardiology. He finalised his training in cardiology in 1987 and was appointed as staff member in the section of experimental cardiology. Here, we built a team in experimental interventional cardiology. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - January 17, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Authors' Reply: Hybrid Approach for Atrial Fibrillation Ablation: the Jury is Still Out
Dear Sir,We thank Drs Giannopoulos and Deftereos for showing interest in our work.1 They wonder whether a true difference might exist between hybrid and epicardial ablation alone that may have been masked by our combining the results from retrospective observational studies with those from randomised trials. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - January 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Authors' Reply: Unravelling the Mysteries of the Human AV Node
Dear Sir,Thank you for the opportunity to address the reader ’s very important question regarding the roles of various connexin isoforms in the complex function of the human AV node.1 These isoforms can serve as a rate-dependent AV conduction axis during normal sinus rhythm or a lifesaving filter of high-frequency excitation produced by atrial tachyarrhythmias or as a backup junctional pacemaker. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - January 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Novel Aspects of Classification, Prognosis and Therapy in Takotsubo Syndrome
Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a transient form of acute heart failure that mimics an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), with comparable acute adverse outcome.1 Many hypotheses have been formulated, but the pathophysiology of TTS is still not fully understood. Recently, it was demonstrated that specific alterations in neurological response and sympathetic activation after emotional stimuli are present in TTS patients. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - December 18, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Troponins, Acute Coronary Syndrome and Renal Disease: From Acute Kidney Injury Through End-stage Kidney Disease
The development of increasingly sensitive and specific serum cardiac biomarkers has led a revolution in the diagnosis and management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, although the troponins now in use are considered highly sensitive cardiac biomarkers in the general population, the interpretation of troponins in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) has long caused diagnostic uncertainty. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - December 18, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Corrigendum to: Sodium –glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in Heart Failure: Potential Mechanisms of Action, Adverse Effects and Future Developments
In the article by Juan Tamargo entitled Sodium –glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in Heart Failure: Potential Mechanisms of Action, Adverse Effects and Future Developments (European Cardiology Review 2019;14(1):23 –32.https://doi.org/10.15420/ecr.2018.34.2), the following correction should be made: (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - December 18, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Personalised Approaches to Improving the Effect of Anti-platelet Agents: Where Do We Stand?
Clopidogrel is the most widely prescribed P2Y12 inhibitor in the world despite the development of newer and more potent agents.1,2 Clopidogrel is administered as a pro-drug and needs to be metabolised by the cytochrome P450 enzymes (particularly by CYP2C19) in order to have biological activity.3 (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - December 18, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Predictors of Recurrence of AF in Patients After Radiofrequency Ablation
AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia in clinical routine, and is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications, dementia and mortality.1 Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) in patients with symptomatic AF has become a well-established treatment option.2,3 High acute success rates are achievable, but durable efficacy of previously successful PVIs for AF still remains a challenge, and finding the predictors of AF recurrence is of major importance. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - December 17, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Meditation and Cardiovascular Health: What is the Link?
Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While traditional treatment protocols follow physical or pharmaceutical interventions, the mental approach of meditation has been used for centuries to induce beneficial changes to the patients ’ cardiovascular risk profile. However, scientific refurbishment of this technique has in the past raised questions of legitimation. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - December 17, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Electronic Cigarettes and Cardiovascular Risk: Science, Policy and the Cost of Certainty
It often takes time to accumulate enough evidence to deem causal hypotheses plausible truths. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - December 17, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Deciphering the Riddles in Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease
Dietary Patterns (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - December 17, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Behavioural Interventions to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk: Where Do We Stand?
Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of death worldwide.1 Age, sex and genetic factors have a major impact on CV risk. The importance of behavioural factors, such as tobacco and alcohol use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet and obesity, is often neglected, although the implementation of lifestyle changes may be a cost-effective strategy for the prevention of CV diseases, also from a population-wide perspective.2 (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - December 17, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Rotational Atherectomy: A Contemporary Appraisal
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the most commonly used revascularisation modality for obstructive coronary artery disease.1 Despite significant advances in PCI over the past 40 years, severe coronary calcification remains a challenge for successful PCI.2,3 Up to 20% of patients undergoing PCI are estimated to have moderate to severe coronary calcification.4,5 (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Rotational Atherectomy: A Contemporary Appraisal
(Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

The Coronary Intravascular Lithotripsy System
The amount of coronary artery calcification increases with age and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities.1,2 Up to 20% of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures are challenged by severe calcifications, and coronary calcifications have been shown to be an independent predictor of PCI failure and future adverse cardiac events.3,4 Lesion calcification increases procedural complexity and time. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

The Coronary Intravascular Lithotripsy System
(Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Lesion Preparation with Orbital Atherectomy
(Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

The Value of Intracoronary Imaging and Coronary Physiology When Treating Calcified Lesions
Heavily calcified coronary artery lesions hinder device delivery and limit stent expansion, which is the most relevant predictor of stent failure. This may result in low procedural success and poor clinical outcomes. Coronary angiography has a limited ability to detect calcifications when planning an optimal percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) strategy. Intracoronary imaging can provide useful insights for precise lesion assessment including a detailed analysis of the axial, circumferential and longitudinal distribution of calcium. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

The Value of Intracoronary Imaging and Coronary Physiology When Treating Calcified Lesions
(Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Contemporary Approach to Heavily Calcified Coronary Lesions
(Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Coronary Calcified Lesions: Introduction to the Focused Issue
(Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Bioprosthetic Aortic Valve Fracture During Valve-in-valve Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation
(Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Multivalvular Disease: Percutaneous Management in 2019 and Beyond
Patients with multivalvular disease (MVD) can present with a variety of valve pathologies and combinations, often requiring a complex treatment strategy. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Multivalvular Disease: Percutaneous Management in 2019 and Beyond
(Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Drug-coated Balloons for Small Coronary Vessel Interventions: A Literature Review
(Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Contemporary Management of Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest in the Cardiac Catheterisation Laboratory: Current Status and Future Directions
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is defined as the sudden absence of cardiac mechanical contractility with loss of signs of circulation that occurs within a community setting.1 OHCA affects more than half a million patients globally per year and is one the leading causes of death in developing countries.2 In the US, OHCA affects 350,000 patients per year and is the third leading cause of death.3 –6 In the UK, the Ambulance Associatio (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Contemporary Management of Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest in the Cardiac Catheterisation Laboratory: Current Status and Future Directions
(Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Red Cell Distribution Width as a Biomarker for Heart Failure: Still Not Ready for Prime-Time
Dear Editor, (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 4, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Sodium –Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors and Heart Failure Prevention in Type 2 Diabetes
In 2008, the European Medicines Agency and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued industry guidance stating that all future novel glucose-lowering agent trials must undergo routine cardiovascular risk evaluation either before approval or as a post-marketing commitment.1 This mandated that all cardiovascular endpoint committees prospectively adjudicate all major adverse cardiovascular events, including cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI and stroke, occurring across Phase II and III diabetes trials. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 4, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Inotropes in Acute Heart Failure: From Guidelines to Practical Use: Therapeutic Options and Clinical Practice
Acute heart failure (AHF) is defined as the sudden presentation or sudden aggravation of signs and symptoms of heart failure, often requiring hospitalisation.1 It is a life-threatening condition, with in-hospital mortality ranging from 22% to 37% in severe cases of cardiogenic shock.2 –4Inotropes have been used in the management of patients with AHF for decades, especially for patients with systolic dysfunction – heart failure with reduced ejection fraction – due to their enhancing (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - November 4, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Left Main Coronary Artery Interventions
Historical Perspective and Early Experience (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - October 3, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Increasing and Evolving Role of Smart Devices in Modern Medicine
Today is an age of rapid digital integration. A decade ago, technological advancement was represented by a bulky desktop computer. With the constant evolution of microprocessors and sophistication of programming, the capacity of the mainframe has been surpassed and miniaturised, so that the pinnacle of technology and innovation is quite literally in the palm of our hands. This opens a world of possibilities, because technology is more advanced, affordable and accessible than ever before. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Sex and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: Impact of Female Sex on Clinical Outcomes
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is included in guidelines for the treatment of severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) in patients with intermediate to high risk for standard surgical therapy.1 The gender-related difference in the pathophysiology of heart disease (and consequently in its clinical course and treatment) has already been identified as an issue in interventional cardiology.2 Women are commonly underrepresented in coronary trials, but they constitute near (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - September 30, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Why is Iron Deficiency Recognised as an Important Comorbidity in Heart Failure?
Iron is an essential trace element that is present in a number of molecular systems, and it is increasingly recognised as an important cofactor for a variety of cell systems.1 It has been acknowledged that iron plays an important role in oxygen transport, as well as in cell growth and proliferation. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - September 18, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Left Ventricular Assist Device Support Complicates the Exercise Physiology of Oxygen Transport and Uptake in Heart Failure
The maximal exercise oxygen uptake (VO2 max) response physiologically reflects the clinical status of patients with low-output left heart failure (HF). (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - September 18, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

State of the Art Structural Interventions in Heart Failure
Heart failure (HF) is a major national and international pandemic with a prevalence of more than 5.8 million in the US and over 26 million worldwide. It is the leading cause of hospitalisation and healthcare costs in the US and it accounts for more than 1 million hospitalisations annually. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - September 16, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Hyperkalemia and Renin –Angiotensin–Aldosterone System Inhibitors Dose Therapy in Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction
Heart failure (HF) affects 1 –2% of the population in developed countries and absorbs a significant amount of human and economic resources.1,2 HF is a complex syndrome characterised by a spectrum of symptoms and phenotypes: HF with preserved ejection fraction, HF with mid-range ejection fraction and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).3 Differentiating patients according to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is relevant as these syndromes have distinct patterns of under (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - September 16, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Red Cell Volume Distribution Width as Another Biomarker
To the Editor,We congratulate Nadar and Shaikh for their excellent review of the use of biomarkers in heart failure (HF), as well as the new biomarkers currently under investigation.1 (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - September 16, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Right Ventricular Failure: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment
In 1616, Sir William Harvey was the first person to describe the importance of right ventricular function.1 However, the right ventricle (RV) has received little attention in the past, with cardiology dealing mostly with the diseases of the left ventricle (LV) and their potential treatment. Since the early 1950s, however, the prognostic significance of RV function has been recognised in several conditions, primarily those involving the LV (e.g. chronic LV failure), the lungs and their vascular bed (e.g. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - September 16, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Featuring: Josep Brugada
During the 1980s and early 1990s, if you wanted to know more about my career – or the careers of my older brother, Pedro, and my younger brother, Ramon – all you had to do was ask our father. In fact, you probably didn’t need to ask. He kept dozens of scrapbooks, each overflowing with every titbit of news published by or about any of the three of us. And he made it a p oint to regularly regale friends and acquaintances with tales of his three cardiologist sons who – in his estimation – were clearly the most amazing sons any father had ever had. (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - September 16, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research

Current Controversies and Challenges in Brugada Syndrome
Brugada syndrome was first described in 1993 in a case series of eight patients with recurrent polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) and stereotypical electrographic characteristics in the context of a structurally normal heart.1 Since then, the syndrome has been extensively studied and recognised worldwide as a major cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in otherwise healthy patients.2 Recent data support the premise that Brugada syndrome is the most common single underlying aeti (Source: Radcliffe Cardiology)
Source: Radcliffe Cardiology - September 16, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: mehul Source Type: research