The burden of obesity in asthma and COPD: Role of adiponectin
Publication date: Available online 20 January 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Andrea Bianco, Ersilia Nigro, Maria Ludovica Monaco, Maria Gabriella Matera, Olga Scudiero, Gennaro Mazzarella, Aurora Daniele The influence of obesity on development, severity and prognosis of both asthma and COPD is attracting growing interest. The impact of obesity on the respiratory system ranges from structural modifications (decline of total lung capacity) to humoral alterations. Adipose tissue strongly contributes to the establishment of an inflammatory state being an important source of adipokines. Am...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 21, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Using pharmacokinetic modelling to improve prescribing practices of intravenous aminophylline in childhood asthma exacerbations
Conclusion PBPK software modelling correlates well with clinical data. Current aminophylline iv loading dosage recommendations achieve levels <10 mg/l in 70% of children. Routine TDM may need altering as low risk of toxicity (>20 mg/l). (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 18, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

IL-4R suppresses airway inflammation in bronchial asthma by inhibiting the IL-4/STAT6 pathway
Conclusion Our results demonstrate that IL-4R can suppress airway inflammation in bronchial asthma by inhibited the IL-4/STAT6 pathway, which may provide a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of bronchial asthma. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 17, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Beta-2-adrenoreceptor polymorphism at position 16 determines the clinical severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Justyna Emeryk-Maksymiuk, Andrzej Emeryk, Paweł Krawczyk, Kamila Wojas-Krawczyk, Janusz Milanowski The Arg/Arg homozygosity at codon 16 of the beta-2-adrenoreceptor (ADRB2) gene has been thought to predispose asthma patients to a poorer therapeutic response to beta-2-mimetics, or to worse control of the disease. In contrast, the results of the studies analysing the effect of ADRB2 polymorphisms on the response to beta-2-adrenoreceptor agonists in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are spar...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 17, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Tofacitinib ameliorates inflammation in a rat model of airway neutrophilia induced by inhaled LPS
Conclusions and implications In summary, this study shows that JAK inhibition ameliorates inhaled LPS-induced airway inflammation in rats, suggesting that at least JAK/STAT3 signalling is involved in the establishment of the pulmonary neutrophilia induced by LPS. JAKs inhibitors should be further investigated as a potential therapy for respiratory inflammatory diseases. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 11, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Which treatment for obstructive airway disease: The inhaled bronchodilators
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Fabio Perrotta, Filomena Mazzeo, Francesco Saverio Cerqua (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 10, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Acute cardiovascular safety of two formulations of beclometasone dipropionate/formoterol fumarate in COPD patients: A single-dose, randomised, placebo-controlled crossover study
Conclusions Overall, this study provides reassurance over the cardiovascular safety of extrafine BDP/FF, both in a DPI and a pMDI formulation. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 6, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

MiR-23b controls TGF- β1 induced airway smooth muscle cell proliferation via direct targeting of Smad3
Conclusions MiR-23b may function as an inhibitor of asthma airway remodeling by suppressing ASMCs proliferation via direct targeting of Smad3. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 4, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of tiotropium administered by Respimat ® in asthma patients: Analysis of pooled data from phase II and III clinical trials
This report presents a combined analysis of tiotropium plasma and urine pharmacokinetics at steady state from 8 Phase II/III clinical trials in asthma and delineates the effects of patient characteristics on systemic exposure based on the parameters fe0-24,ss (fraction of dose excreted unchanged in urine over 24 h post-dose at steady-state) and dose-normalized AUCtau,ss and Cmax,ss. Pharmacokinetics were also compared between asthma and COPD, incorporating data from 3 COPD Phase II/III clinical trials. Tiotropium pharmacokinetics in asthma were dose-proportional up to 5 μg dosed once daily. The following facto...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 28, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Diagnostic and prognostic challenges in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A patient's “Q and A” approach
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 42 Author(s): Argyris Tzouvelekis, Vasilios Tzilas, Spyridon Papiris, Vassilis Aidinis, Demosthenes Bouros Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, debilitating disease of unknown etiology that leads to death nearly half of the patients within 3–3.5 years. The past 15 years, the scientific community has made tremendous progress towards standardized diagnostic and prognostic algorithms that led to the generation of the 2011 ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT guidelines. The latest guidelines provided us with fundamental d...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 19, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Diagnostic and prognostic challenges in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis A patient “Q and A” approach
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Argyris Tzouvelekis, Vasilios Tzilas, Spyridon Papiris, Vassilis Aidinis, Demosthenes Bouros Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, debilitating disease of unknown etiology that leads to death nearly half of the patients within 3–3.5 years. The past 15 years, the scientific community has made tremendous progress towards standardized diagnostic and prognostic algorithms that led to the generation of the 2011 ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT guidelines. The latest guidelines provided us with fund...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Fast onset of action of glycopyrronium compared with tiotropium in patients with moderate to severe COPD — A randomised, multicentre, crossover trial
Conclusions Glycopyrronium was superior to tiotropium in terms of early bronchodilation. Although both glycopyrronium and tiotropium showed similar improvements in static lung volume parameters, glycopyrronium reduced specific airway resistance faster than tiotropium, which could in part explain the earlier FEV1 response seen with glycopyrronium. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01922271. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 10, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of tiotropium on lung function in current smokers and never smokers with bronchial asthma
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Makoto Yoshida, Yasuko Kaneko, Akiko Ishimatsu, Masashi Komori, Tomoaki Iwanaga, Hiromasa Inoue The effects of tiotropium, an inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist, on lung function were investigated in current smokers and nonsmokers with asthma treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and other asthma controllers: inhaled long-acting β2 agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and/or theophylline. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of an inhaled single dose of tiotropium in...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 22, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A systematic review with meta-analysis of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol combination for the treatment of stable COPD
Conclusions FF/VI combination was associated with a decrease of the rate of COPD exacerbations, without affecting mortality or cardiovascular outcomes in patients with moderate to severe stable COPD. Also, the use of FF was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 16, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Biochemical and functional characterization of glycosaminoglycans released from degranulating rat peritoneal mast cells: Insights into the physiological role of endogenous heparin
In conclusion, we have shown that rat peritoneal mast cells contain a mixture of GAGs that possess anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 3, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The soluble guanylyl cyclase activator BAY 60-2770 inhibits murine allergic airways inflammation and human eosinophil chemotaxis
Conclusions BAY 60-2770 reduces airway eosinophilic inflammation and rescue the sGC levels. In human eosinophils under oxidized conditions, BAY 60-2770 elevates the cGMP levels causing cell chemotaxis inhibition. BAY 60-2770 may reveal a novel therapeutic target for asthma treatment. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 3, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Impact of statins on ALI/ARDS: A meta-analysis
Conclusion The results did not show that statins had effects on mortality and ventilator-free days among ALI/ARDS patients. However, this meta-analysis is limited by the number of RCTs included. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of tiotropium on mucus hypersecretion and airway clearance in patients with COPD
Conclusions Tiotropium decreases symptoms associated with sputum in COPD patients, an effect that may be related to the inhibition of airway mucus hypersecretion and improvement of airway mucociliary clearance. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Nefopam, a non-opioid analgesic, does not alleviate experimental work/effort dyspnoea in healthy humans: A randomised controlled trial
Conclusions In this study, nefopam did not exhibit any effects on dyspnoea. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Targeted drug delivery to emphysematous lungs: Inhibition of MMPs by doxycycline loaded nanoparticles
Publication date: August 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 39 Author(s): Vaideesh Parasaram, Nasim Nosoudi, Renee J. LeClair, Andrew Binks, Naren VyavahareGraphical abstract (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The oral CRTh2 antagonist QAW039 (fevipiprant): A phase II study in uncontrolled allergic asthma
Conclusions In the general study population, no improvement in lung function was observed with QAW039. However, a subgroup analysis revealed that patients with greater severity of airflow limitation (FEV1 < 70%) had improved lung function and asthma control when treated with QAW039. QAW039 also demonstrated a favorable safety profile. Trials registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01253603. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Onset of action of budesonide/formoterol Spiromax ® compared with budesonide/formoterol Turbuhaler® in patients with COPD
Publication date: August 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 39 Author(s): Mario Cazzola, Josuel Ora, Alessanda Di Paolo, Ermanno Puxeddu, Luigino Calzetta, Paola Rogliani Budesonide/formoterol (BF) is available in two delivery systems, the dry powder inhaler (DPI) Turbuhaler and a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) for use in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Spiromax DPI was recently developed as an alternative to Turbuhaler DPI. In the present study, we examined whether there is a difference in the onset of bronchodilatation between BF 320/9 &m...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Aminophylline increases respiratory muscle activity during hypercapnia in humans” [Pulm. Pharmacol. Ther. (2015) 96–101]
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Masanori Yokoba, Tsuyoshi Ichikawa, Akira Takakura, Naohito Ishii, Yoshifumi Kurosaki, Yuya Yamada, Tomoaki Tsukushi, Noriyuki Masuda, Paul A. Easton, Masato Katagiri (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Evaluation of adiponectin profile in Italian patients affected by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
In conclusion, our results strongly suggest a role for Acrp30 oligomerization in OSAS; in fact, the down-regulation of Acpr30 and its HMW oligomers seems to be correlated to illness status independently of concomitant presence of obesity. In addition, this reduction is mainly due to the high-weight oligomers of Acrp30 suggesting a functional role of this adipokine in OSAS. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pirfenidone, nintedanib and N-acetylcysteine for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusions The rank of effectiveness emerging from this meta-analysis represents an indirect indicator of potential differences between currently approved doses of pirfenidone and nintedanib. Direct comparisons are necessary to assess this matter, and well designed bench-to-bedside studies would permit to understand the potential of combined, sequential, or adjunctive treatment regimens in which perhaps NAC may have a role for specific clusters of IPF patients. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Antitussive effect of carcainium chloride in patients with chronic cough and idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: A pilot study
Conclusion The results of this exploratory study indicate that nebulised VRP700 improved cough and quality of life in hospitalised IIP patients with no significant side effects. A larger trial is warranted to assess these promising results. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Efficacy of tranexamic acid in haemoptysis: A randomized, controlled pilot study
Conclusion TA decreases severity of haemoptysis and can be used as a bridging therapy in acute haemoptysis before definitive intervention can be under taken. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Preclinical comprehensive physicochemical and pharmacokinetic profiling of novel nitroimidazole derivative IIIM-019 – A potential oral treatment for tuberculosis
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 40 Author(s): Gurleen Kour, Anil Kumar, Parvinder Pal Singh, Sumit Sharma, Asha Bhagat, Ram A. Vishwakarma, Zabeer Ahmed New compounds against tuberculosis are urgently needed to combat the crisis of drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB). We have identified a nitrodihydroimidazooxazole analog, IIIM-019 as a new anti-tubercular agent with a MIC of 0.23 μM against H37Rv. Physicochemical properties, in-vitro pharmacokinetics and in-vivo multiple-doses pharmacokinetics were studied for the compound. In silico physicochemical par...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Transitioning from parenteral to inhaled prostacyclin therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension
Conclusion Transitioning patients from parenteral to inhaled prostacyclin therapy can be safely accomplished in specialized centers over a 48–72 h period. Patient preference was overwhelming the most prevalent reason for transition. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on airway epithelial cells' tight junction
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 40 Author(s): Maliheh Ghadiri, Mariam Mamlouk, Patrick Spicer, Wolfgang Jarolimek, Georges E.R. Grau, Paul M. Young, Daniela Traini (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The effects of inhaled respiratory drugs on the risk of stroke: A nested case-control study
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 40 Author(s): Chang-Hoon Lee, Seongmi Choi, Eun Jin Jang, Dong-Wook Kim, Ho Il Yoon, Yun Jung Kim, Jimin Kim, Jae-Joon Yim, Deog Kyeom Kim Although there have been concerns that inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonists increase the risk of stroke, controversies exist. We investigated whether respiratory drugs including long-acting muscarinic antagonists are associated with the risk of stroke. A nested case-control study using the nationwide insurance claims database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (Seoul, Re...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A novel inhaled phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor (CHF6001) reduces the allergen challenge response in asthmatic patients
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 40 Author(s): D. Singh, B. Leaker, M. Boyce, M.A. Nandeuil, S. Collarini, F. Mariotti, D. Santoro, P.J. Barnes CHF6001 is an inhaled phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor in development for the treatment of obstructive lung diseases. The efficacy and safety of CHF6001 were investigated in a double blind, placebo controlled, 3-way cross-over study using the allergen challenge model. Thirty-six atopic asthmatics who were not taking inhaled corticosteroids and who demonstrated a late asthmatic response (LAR) to inhaled allergen at scre...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Short-term versus longer duration of glucocorticoid therapy for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Conclusion These data show that short-term glucocorticoid is as effective as and possibly safer than longer duration. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Molecularly targeted therapies for asthma: Current development, challenges and potential clinical translation
This article reviews the latest understanding of underlying molecular aetiology of asthma towards design and development of better antiasthma drugs. New drug candidates with their putative targets that have shown promising results in the preclinical and/or clinical trials are summarised. Examples of these interventions include restoration of Th1/Th2 balance by the use of newly developed immunomodulators such as toll-like receptor-9 activators (CYT003-QbG10 and QAX-935). Clinical trials revealed the safety and effectiveness of chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) antagonists such as OC...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of budesonide in asthma
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 40 Author(s): Girolamo Pelaia, Alessandro Vatrella, Maria Teresa Busceti, Francesco Fabiano, Rosa Terracciano, Maria Gabriella Matera, Rosario Maselli Inhaled glucocorticoids are the mainstay of asthma treatment. Indeed, such therapeutic agents effectively interfere with many pathogenic circuits underpinning asthma. Among these drugs, during the last decades budesonide has been probably the most used molecule in both experimental studies and clinical practice. Therefore, a large body of evidence clearly shows that budesonide, eithe...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Erdosteine reduces the exercise-induced oxidative stress in patients with severe COPD: Results of a placebo-controlled trial
Conclusions Data from the present study are suggesting that ER is effective in reducing the release of inflammatory mediators due to the exercise-induced oxidative stress in severe COPD patients. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The effects of a CXCR1/CXCR2 antagonist on neutrophil migration in mild atopic asthmatic subjects
Conclusions The results from this study demonstrate that oral administration of the dual CXCR1/CXCR2 antagonist SCH 527123 reduces neutrophil levels in the circulation and airways through inhibition of migration. There were no toxic effects of SCH 527123 on granulocytic progenitor cells in the bone marrow. Teaser Antagonism of CXCR2 with oral SCH 527123 treatment reduces the number of neutrophils in peripheral blood and airways through inhibition of cell migration in response to CXC chemokines such as IL-8. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Involvement of the TRPV1 receptor in plasma extravasation in airways of rats treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
In conclusion, our study identified that captopril treatment promoted sensitisation of TRPV1, via B2 receptor activation, inducing plasma extravasation in the airways of mechanically ventilated rats. The present findings add a new view about the role of TRPV1 in the plasma extravasation induced by captopril and could to contribute to the elucidation of mechanisms by which ACEI induces adverse effects on airways. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Assessment of the efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol delivered as a combination dry powder via a capsule-based inhaler and a multi-dose inhaler in patients with asthma
Conclusion This study demonstrated the clinical non-inferiority of FSC 50/250 μg when administered using Rotacaps/Rotahaler compared with administration using Diskus in patients with asthma, and suggests there is no difference in the risk:benefit profile between the two FSC inhalers. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Eucalyptol attenuates cigarette smoke-induced acute lung inflammation and oxidative stress in the mouse
This study aimed to test the efficacy of eucalyptol against short-term CS exposure in mice. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 12 cigarettes per day for 5 days (CS group). The control group was exposed to sham smoking. Three groups of mice exposed to CS were treated to different concentrations of eucalyptol (1, 3, 10 mg/mL) via inhalation (15 min/daily) for 5 days (CS + 1 mg, CS+3 mg and CS+10 mg groups). CS group and control one were sham treated by using vehicle. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of eucalyptol were assessed 24 h after the last CS exposure by determining cell ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Role of endogenous hydrogen sulfide in nerve-evoked relaxation of pig terminal bronchioles
This study investigates the role of endogenous H2S in nerve-evoked relaxation of pig terminal bronchioles with 260 μm medium internal lumen diameter. High expression of the H2S synthesis enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in the bronchiolar muscle layer and strong CSE-immunoreactivity within nerve fibers distributed along smooth muscle bundles were observed. Further, endogenous H2S generated in bronchiolar membranes was reduced by CSE inhibition. In contrast, cystathionine β-synthase expression, another H2S synthesis enzyme, however was not consistently detected in the bronchiolar smooth muscle layer. El...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Inundation of asthma target research: Untangling asthma riddles
Publication date: December 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 41 Author(s): Jatinder Singh, Ramanpreet Shah, Dhandeep Singh Asthma is an inveterate inflammatory disorder, delineated by the airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and airway wall remodeling. Although, asthma is a vague term, and is recognized as heterogenous entity encompassing different phenotypes. Targeting single mediator or receptor did not prove much clinical significant, as asthma is complex disease involving myriad inflammatory mediators. Asthma may probably involve a large number of different types of ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Evaluating the role of leukotriene-modifying drugs in asthma management: Are their benefits ‘losing in translation’?
Publication date: December 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 41 Author(s): Kanchan Pyasi, Ellen Tufvesson, Subhabrata Moitra Leukotrienes (LTs) initiate a cascade of reactions that cause bronchoconstriction and inflammation in asthma. LT-modifying drugs have been proved very effective to reduce inflammation and associated exacerbation however despite some illustrious clinical trials the usage of these drugs remains overlooked because the evidence to support their utility in asthma management has been mixed and varied between studies. Although, there are plenty of evidences which suggest tha...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Lack of efficacy of nebulized magnesium sulfate in treating adult asthma: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Conclusions Evidence to date suggests that nebulized MgSO4 has no role in the management of adult patients with acute or stable asthma. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

RIP140 down-regulation alleviates acute lung injury via the inhibition of LPS-induced PPAR γ promoter methylation
In this study, we examined RIP140 and PPARγ protein expression in RAW 264.7 cells and lung tissue following LPS-induced ALI. RIP140 shRNA adenoviral knockdown significantly elevated PPARγ expression, inhibited TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production in vivo and in vitro. Conversely, treatment with a PPARγ antagonist (GW9662) reversed these outcomes. Furthermore, co-IP showed that endogenous and exogenous RIP140 interacted with DNMT3b in RAW 264.7 cells. Bisulfite conversion, pyrosequencing and activity assays demonstrated that PPARγ promoter methylation levels were increased...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 18, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

In  vitro aerodynamic characterization of the dose emitted during nebulization of tobramycin high strength solution by novel and jet nebulizer delivery systems
Conclusions The HSTS can be nebulized by all tested nebulisers but the high frequency NE-U22 Omron® and Aeroneb Go® are more efficient. When the HSTS compared to TOBI®, the respirable inhaled dose was increased to more than 73%. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 18, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Global research trends in the medical therapy of pulmonary arterial hypertension 2000 –2014
Conclusions This first bibliometric study in the field of pulmonary arterial hypertension shows that a significant amount of scientific research was performed within the last 14 years mainly in North America, Asia and Europe. As current trends in this field of research we identified combination therapies and Asian countries being a new hatchery for emerging experimental and clinical studies. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 18, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors suppresses the ROS-induced hypersensitivity of rat vagal lung C-fiber afferents
Conclusions Our results suggest that activation of CB1 receptors may suppress the ROS-mediated VLCF hypersensitivity through a mechanism that is at least partly distinct from the function of TRPA1 and P2X receptors. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 18, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A mucoactive drug carbocisteine ameliorates steroid resistance in rat COPD model
Publication date: Available online 18 June 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Yun Song, Ping Yu, Juan-Juan Lu, Hao-Zhong Lu, Liang Zhu, Zhi-Hua Yu, Hong-Zhuan Chen, Yong-Yao Cui Steroid insensitivity has been commonly found in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, which is mediated by the reduction of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2. Here we aimed to establish a steroid resistant model on experimental COPD rats and evaluate the effect of carbocisteine (S-CMC), a mucoactive drug. Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) caused marked pathological features of COPD which are i...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 18, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist epigenetically modulates cytokine expression and maturation of human myeloid dendritic cells
Conclusion Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist alters the function of human mDCs by epigenetically modulating cytokine expression, suppressing costimulatory molecules expression and inhibiting the ability to initiate Th1/Th2 responses. The effects of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist on human mDCs can be an important mechanism in treating asthma. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research