Effects of β-blockers on house dust mite-driven murine models pre- and post-development of an asthma phenotype
Conclusion Our findings in HDM models administering drugs both pre- and post-development of the asthma phenotype are consistent with previous results using ovalbumin models and show differential effects for nadolol and carvedilol on the asthma phenotype. Lastly, our data suggest that ERK1/2 phosphorylation may be involved in development of the asthma phenotype, but may have a limited role in maintaining the phenotype. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - July 18, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pharmacological preclinical characterization of LAS190792, a novel inhaled bifunctional muscarinic receptor antagonist / β2-adrenoceptor agonist (MABA) molecule
In conclusion, these studies suggest that LAS190792 is a dual-acting muscarinic antagonist β2-adrenoceptor agonist that has the potential to be a next generation bronchodilator with long-lasting effects and wide safety margin in humans. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - July 18, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Ferulic acid supresses Th2 immune response and prevents remodeling in ovalbumin-induced pulmonary allergy associated with inhibition of epithelial-derived cytokines
Conclusions In this study it was demonstrated for the first time that ferulic acid treatment is able to suppress one of the main features of the airway remodeling, indicated by reduction of mucus production, besides the Th2 pathogenic response on ovalbumin-induced pulmonary allergy. Taken together, results shows that the immunopathological mechanism underlying these effects is linked to a reduction of the epithelial-derived chemokines and cytokines, suggesting that ferulic acid may be useful as a potential therapeutic agent for asthma. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - July 6, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The effect of tiotropium in combination with olodaterol on house dust mite-induced allergic airway disease
Publication date: Available online 5 July 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Gerrit John-Schuster, Stan de Kleijn, Yolanda van Wijck, Veerle Kremer, Hermelijn H. Smits, Michael P. Pieper, Pieter S. Hiemstra, Christian Taube One of the major goals of asthma therapy is to maintain asthma control and prevent acute exacerbations. Long-acting bronchodilators are regularly used for the treatment of asthma patients and in clinical studies the anti-cholinergic tiotropium has recently been shown to reduce exacerbations in patients with asthma. So far it is unclear how tiotropium exerts this effect...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - July 6, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis and its relationship with asthma
Publication date: Available online 5 July 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Kefang Lai, Ruchong Chen, Wen Peng, Wenzhi Zhan Non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB) is an important cause of chronic cough. The patients with NAEB present irritable cough as a sole or major symptom. They share similar features with asthmatic patients: sputum eosinophilia and responds well to glucocorticosteroids. However, compared with asthma, NAEB subjects have a normal spirometry and absence of airway hyperresponsiveness. The inflammatory cells and airway remodeling might result in the difference of me...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - July 6, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Sulfated dehydropolymer of caffeic acid: In  vitro anti-lung cell death activity and in vivo intervention in emphysema induced by VEGF receptor blockade
Publication date: August 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 45 Author(s): Tien M. Truong, Hua Li, Sneha Dhapare, Umesh R. Desai, Nobert F. Voelkel, Masahiro Sakagami Induced lung cell death and impaired hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling are proposed as a pathobiologic mechanism for alveolar structural destruction and loss in emphysema. We hypothesized that our sulfated dehydropolymer of caffeic acid, CDSO3, exerts anti-cell death activities and therapeutic interventions in emphysema by virtue of Fe2+ chelation-based HIF-1...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - July 1, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough and airway disease: The role of ion channels
Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Sara J. Bonvini, Maria G. Belvisi Cough is the most common reason for patients to visit a primary care physician, yet it remains an unmet medical need. It can be idiopathic in nature but can also be a troublesome symptom across chronic lung diseases such as asthma, COPD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Chronic cough affects up to 12% of the population and yet there are no safe and effective therapies. The cough reflex is regulated by vagal, sensory afferent nerves which innervate the airway. The Transien...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 30, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Individualizing duration of antibiotic therapy in community-acquired pneumonia
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Stefano Aliberti, Julio Ramirez, Fabio Giuliani, Timothy Wiemken, Giovanni Sotgiu, Sara Tedeschi, Manuela Carugati, Vincenzo Valenti, Marco Marchioni, Marco Camera, Roberto Piro, Manuela Del Forno, Giuseppe Milani, Paola Faverio, Luca Richeldi, Martina Deotto, Massimiliano Villani, Antonio Voza, Eleonora Tobaldini, Mauro Bernardi, Andrea Bellone, Matteo Bassetti, Francesco Blasi International experts suggest tailoring antibiotic duration in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) according to patients' characteristic...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 28, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Sulfated dehydropolymer of caffeic acid: In vitro anti-lung cell death activity and in vivo intervention in emphysema induced by VEGF receptor blockade
Publication date: Available online 23 June 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Tien M. Truong, Hua Li, Sneha Dhapare, Umesh R. Desai, Nobert F. Voelkel, Masahiro Sakagami Induced lung cell death and impaired hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling are proposed as a pathobiologic mechanism for alveolar structural destruction and loss in emphysema. We hypothesized that our sulfated dehydropolymer of caffeic acid, CDSO3, exerts anti-cell death activities and therapeutic interventions in emphysema by virtue of Fe2+ chelation-base...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 24, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Acute hemodynamic effects of intravenous adenosine in patients with associated pulmonary arterial hypertension: Comparison with intravenous epoprostenol
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Rosario Rossi, Francesca Coppi, Fabio Sgura, Daniel Monopoli, Giuseppe Boriani Exogenous intravenous (IV) adenosine and epoprostenol are effective vasodilator agents, causing a substantial reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance in patients affected by idiopathic pulmonary arteriolar hypertension (PAH). Their action, in patients with PAH associated with other pathological conditions, is not well defined. In the present paper the authors retrospectively analyzed the acute hemodynamic effects of intravenous ade...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 21, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of intranasal treatment with slow (GYY4137) and rapid (NaHS) donors of hydrogen sulfide in lipopolysaccharide-induced airway inflammation in mice
Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Yesim Kaya-Yasar, Yasemin Karaman, Turgut Emrah Bozkurt, Sevgen Celik Onder, Inci Sahin-Erdemli We have investigated the effects of slow (GYY4137) and rapid (NaHS) hydrogen sulfide (H2S) releasing donors in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway inflammation in mice. LPS (0.1 mg/ml) in 60 μl PBS was administered by the intranasal (i.n.) route and control group received vehicle, whereas the subgroups of mice were treated with i.n. GYY4137 or NaHS. The tracheal reactivity, inflammatory cell count in ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 21, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Inhaled salbutamol dose delivered by jet nebulizer, vibrating mesh nebulizer and metered dose inhaler with spacer during invasive mechanical ventilation
Conclusions VMNs can be exchanged with each other, with no dose adjustment. However, dose adjustment is a must when replacing VMNs by JN or MDI-AC. This similarity and difference between the 5 aerosol delivery methods suggest that for IMV patients, aerosol delivery methods should be chosen or substituted with care. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 14, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Time-dependent effects of HJP272, an endothelin receptor antagonist, in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Xingjian Liu, Nikhil Khadtare, Hardek Patel, Ralph Stephani, Jerome Cantor Using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model of acute lung injury, we have previously shown that endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent mediator of vasoconstriction, may act as a “gatekeeper” for the influx of inflammatory cells into the lung. To further investigate the potential of ET-1 to limit the progression of lung injury, hamsters were treated with an endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA), HJP272, either 1 h prior to intratracheal ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 13, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids in COPD: A meta-analysis
Conclusions The discrepancy between statistical analysis and clinical interpretation of this meta-analytic evaluation demonstrates the strong clinical need in understanding what is the real impact of ICS withdrawal in COPD. ICS discontinuation is a complex procedure that requires a well planned and tailored strategy. Further well designed studies on withdrawal of ICS should be performed by clustering COPD patients with regard to the phenotype characteristics, rate of exacerbations/year, decline of lung function, and quality of life. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough and bronchiectasis
This article reviews current concepts in bronchiectasis and focusses on the complex aspects of chronic cough in this setting. Cough is important in bronchiectasis as it is one of the most common presenting symptoms, it affects a patients' quality of life and in conjunction with cough hypersensitivity and airway hyper responsiveness may limit the successful uptake of treatment modalities such as inhaled antibiotics and/or inhaled mucoactive therapies. Effective coughing often assisted by physiotherapy is a cornerstone of bronchial toileting in bronchiectasis. Some patients however have ongoing non-productive cough symptoms ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 7, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Sustained sensitizing effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha on sensory nerves in lung and airways
Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Ruei-Lung Lin, Qihai Gu, Mehdi Khosravi, Lu-Yuan Lee Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammatory diseases. Inhalation of aerosolized TNFα induced airway hyperresponsiveness accompanied by airway inflammation in healthy human subjects, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We recently reported a series of studies aimed to investigate if TNFα elevates the sensitivity of vagal bronchopulmonary sensory nerves in a mouse model...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 4, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

HMGB1 promotes HLF-1 proliferation and ECM production through activating HIF1- α-regulated aerobic glycolysis
In this study, we investigated the effects of HMGB1 on human embryonic lung fibroblast (HLF-1) proliferation, ECM production, and aerobic glycolysis. The lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor oxamic acid (OA), and PFKFB3 inhibitor 3PO were used to block certain crucial steps of aerobic glycolysis. As a result, we observed an increase of HMGB1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in bleomycin (BLM)-treated rats as compared to non-treated rats (control group). A concentration-dependent increase of HLF-1 proliferation and expression of α-SMA and α-collagen I were observed in the HMGB1 group, as well as increases of LD...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 30, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A 57-year-old chronic cougher with somatically evoked cough
Publication date: Available online 28 May 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Federico Lavorini, Giovanni A. Fontana (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 28, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

rHuKGF ameliorates protease/anti-protease imbalance in emphysematous mice
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Sudhir Kotnala, Amit Tyagi, Jai Prakash Muyal We attempted to elucidate the beneficial role of rHuKGF supplementation in the amelioration of protease/antiprotease imbalance and TGF-β1 signalling pathway leading to alveolar tissue maintenance in elastase induced emphysematous mice. Thirty two male C57BL mice were divided into four groups i.e. control, emphysema, therapy and rHuKGF only and were oropharyngeally instilled with saline/porcine pancreatic elastase/rHuKGF. Subsequently, lungs from mice were collect...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 26, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of the CXCR2 antagonist AZD5069 on lung neutrophil recruitment in asthma
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Henrik Watz, Mohib Uddin, Frauke Pedersen, Anne Kirsten, Torsten Goldmann, Florian Stellmacher, Espen Groth, Bengt Larsson, Gerhard Böttcher, Anna Malmgren, Maarten Kraan, Klaus F. Rabe (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 23, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Bronchodilator therapy for chronic cough
Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Maria Gabriella Matera, Paola Rogliani, Alessandro Zanasi, Mario Cazzola Experimental studies indicate that airway calibre increases the sensitivity of the afferents involved in the cough reflex but it has proved difficult to demonstrate that airway calibre increases the sensitivity of the afferents involved in the cough reflex. Therefore, bronchodilators might have a role, although rather minor, in the treatment of cough. However, although bronchodilators represent the standard of care in the treatment of airway...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 18, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Blocking voltage-gated sodium channels as a strategy to suppress pathological cough
Publication date: Available online 15 May 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Hui Sun, Marian Kollarik, Bradley J. Undem Pathological cough is thought to be secondary to inappropriate activation of vagal sensory nerves. Sensory nerves can be activated by a large number of disparate stimuli. The most relevant stimuli to block for effective anti-tussive therapy likely depend on the specific underlying pathology that is leading to the coughing. Blocking voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) will prevent action potential initiation and conduction and therefore prevent sensory communication betwe...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 15, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

TRPA1 receptors in chronic cough
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Alyn H. Morice (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 13, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Adiponectin down-regulates CREB and inhibits proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells
Conclusions Overall, our results represent the first evidence of CREB inhibition by adiponectin and may provide new insight into therapeutic strategies for lung cancer. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 12, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD): Japanese experience
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Akio Niimi Differences in the aetiology as well as patient background of chronic cough have been recognised among US, UK, and Japan. One of the marked differences has been the prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), which has been one of the top three causes in Western countries. It was indeed uncommon or rare in Japan, but, with the increasing prevalence of GOR itself, chronic cough associated with GORD seems to have become more common. In this article, cough associated with GORD will be reviewed...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 12, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Use of airway epithelial cell culture to unravel the pathogenesis and study treatment in obstructive airway diseases
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Tinne C.J. Mertens, Harry Karmouty-Quintana, Christian Taube, Pieter S. Hiemstra Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are considered as two distinct obstructive diseases. Both chronic diseases share a component of airway epithelial dysfunction. The airway epithelium is localized to deal with inhaled substances, and functions as a barrier preventing penetration of such substances into the body. In addition, the epithelium is involved in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 11, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

IL-13 and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Possible links and new therapeutic strategies
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Giovanni Passalacqua, Marcello Mincarini, Daniele Colombo, Giuseppe Troisi, Marta Ferrari, Diego Bagnasco, Francesco Balbi, Annamaria Riccio, Giorgio Walter Canonica The recent advances in the knowledge of immunological aspects of many pulmonary diseases, allowed to identify cells, biological functions, cytokines, and receptors that are preferentially involved in each disease. This is the case of asthma, where IL-13 (together with IL-4) is recognized as a central mediator. The role of IL-13 is strictly related, v...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 10, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Adenosine A2A receptors are up-regulated and control the activation of human alveolar macrophages
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Tiago Manuel Alfaro, Diana Isabel Rodrigues, Ângelo Ribeiro Tomé, Rodrigo Antunes Cunha, Carlos Robalo Cordeiro Chronic inflammatory lung diseases remain a health concern and new anti-inflammatory treatments are needed. Targeting adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) affords robust anti-inflammatory effects in animal models, but the translation of this promising strategy to humans has been challenging, possibly due to interspecies differences in receptor distribution and effects. Thus, we now assessed the ef...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced pulmonary neutrophil recruitment and platelet activation is mediated via the P2Y1 and P2Y14 receptors in mice
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): R.T. Amison, S. Arnold, B.G. O'Shaughnessy, S.J. Cleary, J. Ofoedu, M. Idzko, C.P. Page, S.C. Pitchford Platelet activation occurs during host defence and in various inflammatory disorders. In animal models of infection and inflammation, experimental depletion of platelets leads to significantly reduced leukocyte recruitment and impaired clearance of pathogens from the lung. It is now appreciated that purinergic receptor activation is required for leukocyte activation, motility and adhesion, and platelet interacti...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 7, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The role of iNKT cells on the phenotypes of allergic airways in a mouse model
Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Lennart K.A. Lundblad, Nazey Gülec, Matthew E. Poynter, Victoria L. DeVault, Oliver Dienz, Jonathan E. Boyson, Nirav Daphtary, Minara Aliyeva, Jennifer L. Ather, Felix Scheuplein, Robert Schaub iNKT cells and mast cells have both been implicated in the syndrome of allergic asthma through their activation-induced release of Th2 type cytokines and secretion of histamine and other mediators, respectively, which can promote airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to agents such as methacholine. However, a mechanistic l...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 5, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Losartan, a selective antagonist of AT1 receptor, attenuates seawater inhalation induced lung injury via modulating JAK2/STATs and apoptosis in rat
Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Congcong Li, Liyan Bo, Pengcheng Li, Xi Lu, Wangping Li, Lei Pan, Yani Sun, Deguang Mu, Wei Liu, Faguang Jin Losartan is a selective antagonist of AngⅠ type (AT1) receptor of Angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ), which is widely used as a clinical medicine for the hypertension. Recent studies have shown that losartan was shown to protect from acute lung injury (ALI). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this research was to clarify whether Ang Ⅱ participated in the inflammatory response of ALI in...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 5, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough management in primary, secondary and tertiary settings
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Kay Wang, Nikki Milojevic, Bryan Sheinman, Omar S. Usmani This review reflects upon the management of cough in primary, secondary and tertiary care settings. It reviews the burden of cough, the diagnostic tools employed to investigate the cause of cough and pragmatic treatment strategies. A clinical case vignette presenting in primary care highlights the challenges of managing cough by family practitioners. An approach to establishing a persistent cough clinic service in secondary care is described. Finally, the e...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 2, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Aerosolized tobramycin for Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome
Conclusion Aerosolized tobramycin was an effective therapeutic strategy for P. aeruginosa VAP patients with ARDS. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 24, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical outcome associated with the use of different inhalation method with and without humidification in asthmatic mechanically ventilated patients
Conclusions VMN to deliver aerosol in ventilated patient resulted in trend to decreased ICU-days compared to JN and MDI-AV. Aerosol-delivery with or without humidification did not have any significant effect on any of parameters studied. However, we recommend increasing the number of patients studied to corroborate this finding. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Doxofylline does not increase formoterol-induced cAMP nor MKP-1 expression in ASM cells resulting in lack of anti-inflammatory effect
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Brijeshkumar S. Patel, Michael J. Kugel, Gina Baehring, Alaina J. Ammit The xanthine doxofylline has been examined in clinical trials and shown to have efficacy and greater tolerability than theophylline in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The ‘novofylline’ doxofylline has demonstrated bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory actions in in vivo and ex vivo experimental models of respiratory disease. However, there are limited studies in vitro. We address this herein and examine whether...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 14, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough in exercise and athletes
This article provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of exercise-associated cough in athletes. The article summarises our understanding of pathophysiological basis of cough in this context and provides a pragmatic clinical approach to this problem. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 12, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Contrasting effects of ATP and adenosine on capsaicin challenge in asthmatic patients
Conclusions Asthmatic patients exhibit hypersensitivity to aerosolized AMP and ATP, but aerosolized AMP does not mimic the effects of ATP and the effects of ATP are not mediated by adenosine. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 10, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Response to the article “Sorafenib as a potential strategy for refractory pulmonary arterial hypertension”
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Jason Weatherald, Marc Humbert, Christophe Guignabert, David Montani (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 4, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Autophagy induction by celastrol augments protection against bleomycin-induced experimental pulmonary fibrosis in rats: Role of adaptor protein p62/ SQSTM1
This study is aimed to investigate whether impaired autophagic activity leads to fibrosis and pharmacological induction of autophagy provides protection against bleomycin (BLM)-induced PF. A single dose of BLM (3 U/kg body weight) was administered intratracheally to induce fibrosis in rats. Celastrol, a triterpenoid (5 mg/kg/body weight, intraperitoneally) was given in every 81 h for a period of 28 days. Western blot and Confocal microscopic analysis of rat lung tissue samples revealed that celastrol induces autophagy in BLM-induced rats. Transmission electron microscopic analysis supports the above findings. Cel...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 4, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Role of dual bronchodilators in COPD: A review of the current evidence for indacaterol/glycopyrronium
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Joachim H. Ficker, Klaus F. Rabe, Tobias Welte In this review, we summarize the rationale for combining long-acting bronchodilators in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the evidence for the long-acting bronchodilator combination indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY). Clinical practice guidelines generally recommend the use of long-acting bronchodilators in the treatment of patients with all severities of COPD, either as a first-choice or alternative-choice therapy. Combining clas...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 4, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Physiotherapy and Speech and Language therapy intervention for chronic cough
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Surinder S. Birring, Sarah Floyd, Charles C. Reilly, Peter Siu Pan Cho There are few effective pharmacological therapies available to treat refractory chronic cough. Functional MRI studies of the brain have recently shown that patients with chronic cough have dysfunctional inhibitory control of cough. Self-management therapies delivered by physiotherapists or speech therapists are effective at suppressing cough. They enable patients to consciously suppress the urge to cough. The intervention consists of educatio...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 4, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Publication date: Available online 1 April 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Theodoros Karampitsakos, Vasilios Tzilas, Rodoula Tringidou, Paschalis Steiropoulos, Vasilis Aidinis, Spyros A. Papiris, Demosthenes Bouros, Argyris Tzouvelekis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown etiology. With a gradually increasing worldwide prevalence and a mortality rate exceeding that of many cancers, IPF diagnosis and management are critically important and require a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach. This approach also involves assessment of comorbid c...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 1, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

How to unveil chronic respiratory diseases in clinical practice? A model of alliance between general practitioners and pulmonologists
Conclusion In conclusion, the collaboration between GPs and pulmonologists based on a pro-active approach to the individuals attending the primary care offices followed by an in-house intervention by specialists may largely improve the diagnosis and management of chronic respiratory diseases. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 28, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Ursolic acid attenuates cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in rats by regulating PERK and Nrf2 pathways
Conclusions UA attenuates CS-induced rat emphysema by down-regulating PERK pathway to alleviate CS-induced apoptosis in lung, and up-regulating Nrf2 pathway to improve cigarette smoke-induced oxidant stress in rat lungs. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 27, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Asthma management in a specialist setting: Results of an Italian Respiratory Society survey
Conclusions The results of this survey support re-evaluation of asthma management by Italian specialists. More resources should be made available for the initial visit and for more severely ill patients. In addition, more extensive use should be made of validated tools, and available drugs should be used more appropriately. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 22, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A 6-alkylsalicylate histone acetyltransferase inhibitor inhibits histone acetylation and pro-inflammatory gene expression in murine precision-cut lung slices
In this study, we determined the Ki value for inhibition of the MYST type histone acetyltransferase KAT8 by MG149 to be 39 ± 7.7 μM. Upon investigating whether the inhibition of histone acetyltransferases by MG149 correlates with inhibition of histone acetylation in murine precision-cut lung slices, inhibition of acetylation was observed using an LC-MS/MS based assay on histone H4 res 4–17, which contains the target lysine of KAT8. Following up on this, upon treatment with MG149, reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression was observed in lipopolysaccharide and interferon gamma stimulated murine...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 17, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

FTY720 promotes pulmonary fibrosis when administered during the remodelling phase following a bleomycin-induced lung injury
Publication date: Available online 16 March 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): David R. Gendron, Anne-Marie Lemay, Pascale Blais Lecours, Valérie Perreault-Vallières, Carole-Ann Huppé, Ynuk Bossé, Marie-Renée Blanchet, Geneviève Dion, David Marsolais Fibrosis complicates numerous pathologies including interstitial lung diseases. Sphingosine analogs such as FTY720 can alleviate lung injury-induced fibrosis in murine models. Contradictorily, FTY720 also promotes in vitro processes normally leading to fibrosis and high doses in vivo foster lung fibro...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 17, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Involvement of epithelial-mesenchymal transition afforded by activation of LOX-1/ TGF- β1/KLF6 signaling pathway in diabetic pulmonary fibrosis
Conclusions EMT was involved in the pathological process of diabetic pulmonary fibrosis, which was activated by LOX-1/TGF-β1/KLF6 signaling pathway. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 17, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Vibrating-mesh nebulizer maintenance by CF patients: Results from a French survey
Conclusions Efforts about education, particularly for the maintenance of the mesh, are needed for CF patients using a vibrating-mesh nebulizer at home. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 16, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Neutralization of both IL-1 α/IL-1β plays a major role in suppressing combined cigarette smoke/virus-induced pulmonary inflammation in mice
Publication date: Available online 15 March 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Hannes Bucher, Samuel Mang, Martina Keck, Michèl Przibilla, David Lamb, Felix Schiele, Mareike Wittenbrink, Klaus Fuchs, Birgit Jung, Klaus J. Erb, Daniel Peter Smoking is an important risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and viral infections are believed to be major triggers of exacerbations, which periodically lead to a worsening of symptoms. The pro-inflammatory IL-1 family members IL-1α and IL-1β are increased in COPD patients and might contribute...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 16, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research