Safety and efficacy of nintedanib in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A real-life observational study in Greece
Conclusion Nintedanib demonstrated an acceptable safety and efficacy profile in our real-world observational study. Prospective observational studies in the context of registries that collect well-defined supporting data over time are sorely needed to answer residual questions on drug's performance. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Acute lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia and reperfusion is altered in obese female mice
Conclusion Obesity predisposes female mice to increased pulmonary oedema and deterioration in gas exchange, which is accompanied by an increase in iNOS expression in the lung. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Comparison of the in vitro pharmacological profiles of long-acting muscarinic antagonists in human bronchus
Conclusions and implications The observed differences in the LAMAs' in vitro pharmacological profiles in the human bronchus provide a compelling pharmacological rationale for the differences in the drugs' respective recommended daily doses and frequencies of administration. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

99mTc-vinorelbine tartrate loaded spherulites: Lung disposition study in Sprague-Dawley rats by gamma scintigraphy
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 49 Author(s): Rahul Dhande, Amit Tyagi, Rakesh Kumar Sharma, Hetal Thakkar Vinorelbine Tartrate (VLB) is the first line chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, whose non-specific distribution causes unwanted side effects. The aim of the present investigation was to formulate VLB loaded spherulites intended for targeting the lung. Spherulites were composed of Soyabean Phosphatidylcholine (SPC), Cholesterol (Chol), Potassium oleate and Mannitol. Lipid film prepared using SPC, Chol and Potassium oleate, was d...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Selectively targeting prostanoid E (EP) receptor-mediated cell signalling pathways: Implications for lung health and disease
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 49 Author(s): Leonard F. Lebender, Laura Prünte, Nowshin N. Rumzhum, Alaina J. Ammit Arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) into various prostanoids which exert different functions in mammalian physiology. One of these prostanoids, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interacts with four different G protein-coupled receptors, named EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4, to initiate different downstream signalling pathways. Prostanoid receptors are diversely expressed throughout different tissues all over the body and PGE2 is r...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Realising the potential of various inhaled airway challenge agents through improved delivery to the lungs
This article reviews the main challenge agents that are in use today (methacholine, mannitol, adenosine, allergens, endotoxin) and emphasises the importance of controlling how these agents are administered. There is a danger that the optimal value of these challenge agents may not be realised due to suboptimal inhaled delivery; thus considerations for effective and reproducible challenge delivery are provided. This article seeks to increase awareness of the importance of precise delivery of inhaled agents used to challenge the airways for diagnosis and research, and is intended as a stepping stone towards much-needed stand...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The pharmacokinetics of three doses of budesonide/glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate dihydrate metered dose inhaler compared with active controls: A Phase I randomized, single-dose, crossover study in healthy adults
In conclusion, BGF MDI 320/14.4/10 μg had a similar budesonide PK profile to BUD/FORM MDI 320/9 μg. No PK drug–drug interactions were observed when budesonide was added to glycopyrronium and formoterol fumarate dihydrate. These data support the use of budesonide 320 μg and 160 μg in future clinical trials of BGF MDI in COPD. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A comment on “Ability of using different dry powder inhalers during COPD exacerbations”
Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Jaya Muneswarao, Ashutosh Kumar Verma, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad Hassali (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 6, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Aerosol delivery during spontaneous breathing with different types of nebulizers- in vitro/ex vivo models evaluation
Conclusions These in vitro/ex vivo model comparisons of nebulizers performance indicated that breath-related nebulizers can be estimated using an in vitro model; however, the JN and VMN delivered inhaled drug mass differed between models. There was a significant correlation between respiratory rate and inhaled mass, and the inhaled drug dose generated by VMN correlated with minute ventilation. This study demonstrated that the VMN produced greater inhaled drug dose and lowest residual dose, whereas the BEN, BAN, and MTN produced lower exhaled drug dose in both in vitro and ex vivo models. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 4, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of adding roflumilast or ciclesonide to glycopyrronium on lung volumes and exercise tolerance in patients with severe COPD: A pilot study
This study provides further evidence of the efficacy of glycopyrronium 44 μg once daily, confirming that improvements in airflow are associated with increases in IC and improvements in exercise tolerance. The addition of anti-inflammatory drugs, regardless of class used, does not seem to add benefits on lung function and exercise tolerance, likely because of the large effect induced by glycopyrronium. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 31, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) 2018 report: Highlighting an incorrect information
Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Jaya Muneswarao, Ashutosh Kumar Verma, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad Hassali (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 29, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The research of the possible mechanism and the treatment for capsaicin-induced cough
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Li zhang, Tieying Sun, Longteng Liu, Lifang Wang Unexplained chronic cough (UCC) affects millions of patients worldwide. New therapeutic approaches to this condition are urgently needed, since current treatment options provide only symptomatic relief. Cough reflex hypersensitivity has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of UCC. The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is present on peripheral terminals of airway sensory nerves and modulation of its activity represents a ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 28, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Ability of using different dry powder inhalers during COPD exacerbations
Conclusion Most patients hospitalized for AECOPD, are able to receive treatment with long acting bronchodilators administered via DPIs. The possible beneficial effects of such an intervention should be tested in further studies. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Aerosol delivery during spontaneous breathing with different types of nebulizers-in vitro/ex vivo models evaluation
Conclusions These in vitro/ex vivo model comparisons of nebulizers performance indicated that breath-related nebulizers can be estimated using an in vitro model; however, the JN and VMN delivered inhaled drug mass differed between models. There was a significant correlation between respiratory rate and inhaled mass, and the inhaled drug dose generated by VMN correlated with minute ventilation. This study demonstrated that the VMN produced greater inhaled drug dose and lowest residual dose, whereas the BEN, BAN, and MTN produced lower exhaled drug dose in both in vitro and ex vivo models. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 19, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Correlations between FEV1 and patient-reported outcomes: A pooled analysis of 23 clinical trials in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Conclusions These data suggest that FEV1 improvements post-bronchodilation correlate with PRO improvements. Further improvements in patient outcomes may be expected by maximizing lung function improvements. Trial registration Registration details for the 23 randomised controlled studies used in this pooled analysis are supplied in Additional File 4. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 19, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of tiotropium bromide on airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in mice exposed to organic dust
Conclusions Tiotropium decreased the OD-induced increase of specific cytokines without influencing the OD-induced increase of airway responsiveness and neutrophil infiltration into the lungs. We conclude that the cholinergic pathway contributes to the pro-inflammatory effects caused by inhalation of OD from pig barns. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 14, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Hypoxic challenge of hyperoxic pulmonary artery myocytes increases oxidative stress due to impaired mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activity
In this study, we examined whether a transient hypoxic episode exposes antioxidant defense defects in hyperoxic PA myocytes. PA myocytes of term newborn piglets were cultured in hyperoxia (60% O2) or normoxia (21% O2) for 72 h; cells from both groups were challenged with transient hypoxia (10% O2) for 2 h. We measured NOX activity, SOD activities (fractionated by centrifugation and concavalin A- Sepharose chromatography), total ROS and superoxide generation, 8-isoprostane, and calcium responses to thromboxane mimetic. NOX activity increased in hyperoxic myocytes. Hyperoxia increased SOD1 activity but decreased SO...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 13, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Impact of erdosteine on chronic bronchitis and COPD: A meta-analysis
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Mario Cazzola, Luigino Calzetta, Clive Page, Paola Rogliani, Maria Gabriella Matera A previous meta-analysis suggested that the treatment with erdosteine was associated with significant amelioration of the cumulative global efficacy index and symptoms in comparison to placebo or other mucolytics. However, this conclusion was criticized because the meta-analysis, as it had been done, made it impossible to preclude the potential operation of selection biases within and across trials, and identify any realised b...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 10, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The Ninth 2016 International London Cough Symposium
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 47 Author(s): Kian Fan Chung (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Neuropeptides and breathing in health and disease
This article provides a concise review of the possible role and functions of several selected neuropeptides in the process of breathing in health and disease and in lung pathologies. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

On the pharmacokinetics of two inhaled budesonide/formoterol combinations in asthma patients using modeling approaches
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): K. Soulele, P. Macheras, V. Karalis Dry powder inhalers containing the budesonide/formoterol combination have currently a well-established position among other inhaled products. Even though their efficacy mainly depends on the local concentrations of the drug they deliver within the lungs, their safety profile is directly related to their total systemic exposure. The aim of the present investigation was to explore the absorption and disposition kinetics of the budesonide/formoterol combination delivered via t...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Tiotropium inhibits mucin production stimulated by neutrophil elastase but not by IL-13
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 48 Author(s): Kosaku Komiya, Shuichi Kawano, Isao Suzaki, Tomohiro Akaba, Jun-ichi Kadota, Bruce K. Rubin Tiotropium, a muscarinic antagonist, is approved for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and poorly controlled asthma. Because mucus hypersecretion is characteristic of both of these diseases, and muscarinic agonists stimulate mucus secretion, we hypothesized that tiotropium would attenuate airway MUC5AC expression. We grew normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells to a goblet cell phenotype with 1 or 5...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, efficacy and toxicity profiling of a potential nitrofuranyl methyl piperazine derivative IIIM-MCD-211 for oral tuberculosis therapy via in-silico –in-vitro–in-vivo approach
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 48 Author(s): Asmita Magotra, Anjna Sharma, Samsher Singh, Probir Kumar Ojha, Sunil Kumar, Naveen Bokolia, Priya Wazir, Shweta Sharma, Inshad Ali Khan, Parvinder Pal Singh, Ram A. Vishwakarma, Gurdarshan Singh, Utpal Nandi Recent tuberculosis (TB) drug discovery programme involve continuous pursuit for new chemical entity (NCE) which can be not only effective against both susceptible and resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) but also safe and faster acting with the target, thereby shortening the prolonged TB treatm...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

M3 receptor is involved in the effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride reduced endothelial injury in LPS-stimulated human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell
This study is to investigate whether the effect of PHC on microvascular endothelial injury is related to its inhibition of M3 receptor or not. HPMVECs were treated with specific M3 receptor shRNA or PBS, and randomly divided into LPS group (A group), LPS+PHC group (B group), LPS + M3 shRNA group (C group) and LPS + PHC + M3 shRNA group (D group). Cells were collected at 60 min after LPS treatment to measure levels of LDH, endothelial permeability, TNF-α and IL-6 levels, NF-κB p65 activation, I-κB protein expression, p38MAPK, and ERK1/2 activations as well as M3 mRNA expr...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Efficacy and tolerability of pharmacological interventions for pulmonary arterial hypertension: A network meta-analysis
Conclusion Overall, we recommend EAP as the optimal choice for patients with PAH in clinical practice and PAE as suboptimal in view of their desirable performance in efficacy. Most of the combination therapies performed better than monotherapies. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 13, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Population pharmacokinetics of nintedanib in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Conclusions The developed model provides further details about the pharmacokinetics of nintedanib in patients with IPF and can be used for simulations exploring covariate effects and exposure-response analyses in this patient population. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 13, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Activating prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP4 increases secreted mucin from airway goblet cells
We examined exposure to 4 specific EP receptor agonists at 24 h and 14 days in cells grown with or without IL-13 exposure, and measured MUC5AC mRNA and secreted protein, as well as airway culture morphology, and EP receptor expression. In ciliated-enriched cells grown in the absence of IL-13, the EP4 receptor agonist modestly increased both MUC5AC mRNA and secretion (p < 0.001, 241% increase of transcripts and p < 0.01, 86% increase of secreted protein) but did not visibly change cell morphology. In goblet-enriched cells grown in the presence of IL-13, the EP4 receptor agonist greatly...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 13, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Baicalein attenuates monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension by inhibiting vascular remodeling in rats
Conclusion Baicalein ameliorates MCT-induced PAH by inhibiting pulmonary arterial remodeling at least partially via the MAPK and NF-κB pathways in rats. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 13, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Treatment with long acting muscarinic antagonists stimulates serum levels of irisin in patients with COPD
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 48 Author(s): Jyotshna Mandal, Michael Roth, Eleni Papakonstantinou, Qingzhu Sun, Luigi Costa, Lucas Boeck, Andreas Scherr, Janko Rakic, Renaud Louis, Branislava Milenkovic, Wim Boersma, Konstantinos Kostikas, Francesco Blasi, Joachim Aerts, Gernot Rohde, Alicia Lacoma, Antoni Torres, Tobias Welte, Michael Tamm, Daiana Stolz Long acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA) are currently considered the therapeutic mainstay for patients with COPD and have been shown to improve clinical outcomes including symptoms, exercise capacity and air...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 13, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Inhibition of angiotensin II and calpain attenuates pleural fibrosis
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 48 Author(s): Lin-Jie Song, Fei Xiang, Hong Ye, Hai Huang, Jie Yang, Fan Yu, Liang Xiong, Juan-Juan Xu, Peter A. Greer, Huan-Zhong Shi, Jian-Bao Xin, Yunchao Su, Wan-Li Ma Pleural fibrosis is associated with various inflammatory processes such as tuberculous pleurisy and bacterial empyema. There is currently no ideal therapeutic to attenuate pleural fibrosis. Some pro-fibrogenic mediators induce fibrosis through inflammatory processes, suggesting that blockage of these mediators might prevent pleural fibrosis. The MeT-5A human ple...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 13, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Long-acting β2-adrenoreceptor agonists suppress type 1 interferon expression in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells via epigenetic regulation
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 48 Author(s): Chang-Hung Kuo, San-Nan Yang, Yi-Giien Tsai, Chong-Chao Hsieh, Wei-Ting Liao, Li-Chen Chen, Min-Sheng Lee, Hsuan-Fu Kuo, Ching-Hsiung Lin, Chih-Hsing Hung The combination of inhaled long-acting β2-adrenoreceptor (LABA) and inhaled glucocorticoid (ICS) is a major therapy for asthma. However, the increased risk of infection is still a concern. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the predominant cells producing type 1 interferon (IFN) against infection. The effect of LABA/ICS on type 1 IFN expression in human p...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 13, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Size distribution of salbutamol/ipratropium aerosols produced by different nebulizers in the absence and presence of heat and humidification
Conclusions The VMN produced more fine particles of salbutamol/ipratropium, and the drug particle size clearly increased in the presence of heat and humidification. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 13, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The effect of l-Arginine on Ciliary Beat Frequency in PCD patients, non-PCD respiratory patients and healthy controls
Conclusions l-Arginine increases CBF and merits to be evaluated as a potential stimulator of mucociliary clearance in chronic respiratory conditions and congenital ciliary disorders with residual motility. Larger human studies are needed to confirm these findings. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 13, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Steroid sparing effects of doxofylline
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 48 Author(s): Yanira Riffo-Vasquez, Radhakrishnan Venkatasamy, Clive P. Page Glucocorticosteroids are widely used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there are growing concerns about the side effect profile of this class of drug, particularly an increased risk of pneumonia. Over the last two decades there have been many attempts to find drugs to allow a reduction of glucocorticosteroids, including xanthines such as theophylline. Use of xanthines has been shown to lead to a reductio...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 13, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The leukotriene receptor antagonist pranlukast attenuates airway remodeling by suppressing TGF- β signaling
Conclusions The leukotriene receptor antagonist pranlukast can reduce airway inflammation and remodeling by inhibiting TGF-β/Smad signaling in an OVA-sensitized and -challenged asthma mouse model, thus suppressing AHR. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 14, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Factors affecting the selection of an inhaler device for COPD and the ideal device for different patient profiles. Results of EPOCA Delphi consensus
Conclusions Selection of the inhalation device is recognized by specialists as a strategic therapeutic decision and should be based on the characteristics of the individual patient. Some devices may be more adequate for different patient profiles. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 13, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Are valved holding chambers (VHCs) interchangeable? An in vitro evaluation of VHC equivalence
Conclusions The performance of VHCs that superficially resemble one another may differ markedly. Thus, as implied by EMA guidelines, VHCs should not automatically be considered to be interchangeable. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 10, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough and severe asthma
Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Liam G. Heaney (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 4, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and safety of revefenacin (TD-4208), a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Results of two randomized, double-blind, phase 2 studies
Conclusions Following single or multiple nebulized-dose administration in patients with COPD, revefenacin demonstrates a rapid onset and sustained duration of bronchodilator effect over 24 h following once-daily administration, with a PK profile that is commensurate with low systemic exposure. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 4, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Inhaled nebulised unfractionated heparin improves lung function in moderate to very severe COPD: A pilot study
Conclusion Inhaled nebulised UFH is safe and provides additional clinical benefit for patients with moderate to very severe COPD through effects that are independent of its anticoagulant activity. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 3, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

ADRB2 gene polymorphism and emphysema heterogeneity can modulate bronchodilator response in patients with emphysema
Conclusion Combination analysis of ADRB2 Arg16Gly polymorphism and EHI% may predict the effectiveness of β2-adrenergic receptor agonist treatment in patients with COPD and emphysema. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - September 29, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Role of prostaglandin E2 in bronchoconstriction-triggered cough response in guinea pigs
This study was designed to elucidate the role of lipid mediators in bronchoconstriction-triggered cough response in an experimental animal model. We examined the influence of bronchoconstriction on cell components and mediators including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). We studied the cough response to bronchoconstriction (CRB) by measuring the correlation between the increase in enhanced pause (Penh), an index of bronchoconstriction, and cough counts induced by methacholine (Mch) inhalation in conscious guinea pigs. We then examined the effects of intraperitoneal pretreatment with 16, 16-dim...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - September 23, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor at serine 1047 in cultured lung alveolar epithelial cells by bradykinin B2 receptor stimulation
Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Shunsuke Izumi, Sayomi Higa-Nakamine, Hiroyuki Nishi, Hidetsugu Torihara, Ayako Uehara, Kazuhiro Sugahara, Manabu Kakinohana, Hideyuki Yamamoto Accumulating evidence indicates that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is desensitized by phosphorylation of serine 1047 (Ser1047). We and other groups have reported that stimulation of a receptor of tumor-necrosis factor α (TNFα) and Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) induced the phosphorylation of Ser1047 through activation of p38 mitogen-activated prote...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - September 10, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Comparison of fluticasone/formoterol with budesonide/formoterol pMDI in adults with moderate to severe persistent asthma: Results from a 12-week randomized controlled trial
Conclusion Fluticasone/formoterol combination administered through a pMDI is as efficacious and well-tolerated as budesonide/formoterol and offers a new therapeutic option for patients with moderate to severe persistent asthma. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - September 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Lung fibrosis-associated soluble mediators and bronchoalveolar lavage from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients promote the expression of fibrogenic factors in subepithelial lung myofibroblasts
In conclusion, BALF from IPF patients induces fibrotic activity in lung myofibroblasts, similar to mediators associated with lung fibrosis, indicating a key role of SELMs in IPF. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - September 2, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Safety and efficacy of pirfenidone in severe Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A real-world observational study
Conclusion Pirfenidone appears to be safe when administered in patients with advanced IPF. Pirfenidone efficacy in IPF patients with severe lung function impairment may diminish after 6 months of treatment. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - September 1, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

In  vitro activity of alpha-viniferin isolated from the roots of Carex humilis against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
This study explores the antitubercular activity of α-viniferin, a bioactive phytochemical compound obtained from Carex humilis. α-Viniferin was active against both drug-susceptible and -resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at MIC50s of 4.6 μM in culture broth medium and MIC50s of 2.3–4.6 μM inside macrophages and pneumocytes. In combination with streptomycin and ethambutol, α-viniferin exhibited an additive effect and partial synergy, respectively, against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. α-Viniferin also did not show cytotoxicity in any of the cell lines tested up to a c...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - September 1, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Model-based clinical pharmacology profiling and exposure-response relationships of the efficacy and biomarker of lebrikizumab in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Rui Zhu, Yanan Zheng, Nathanael L. Dirks, Shweta Vadhavkar, Jin Yan Jin, Kun Peng, Cecile T.J. Holweg, Julie Olsson, John G. Matthews, Wendy S. Putnam Lebrikizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to interleukin-13 and has been evaluated as a treatment for moderate-to-severe asthma. Objectives of this work were to characterize lebrikizumab pharmacokinetics (PK), identify influential covariates, and graphically explore exposure-response relationships in moderate-to-severe asthmatics. Pooled PK data...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - August 25, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Safety and efficacy of pirfenidone in severe Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis a real-world observational study
Conclusion Pirfenidone appears to be safe when administered in patients with advanced IPF. Pirfenidone efficacy in IPF patients with severe lung function impairment may fade away after 6 months of treatment. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - August 25, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Glucocorticoids and β2-agonists regulate the pathologic metabolism of hyaluronic acid in COPD
Conclusions The combination of glucocorticoids with LABA counteracts the pathologic metabolism of HA in patients with COPD, suggesting an additional beneficial effect of the drugs when used for the treatment of COPD. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - August 18, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research