Roflumilast N-oxide inhibits bronchial epithelial to mesenchymal transition induced by cigarette smoke in smokers with COPD
Conclusions Roflumilast N-oxide may mitigate epithelial–mesenchymal transition in bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic interaction profile of riociguat, a new soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, in vitro
Publication date: August 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 28, Issue 2 Author(s): Verena Rickert , Walter Emil Haefeli , Johanna Weiss Riociguat is a new soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator under development for pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. So far, the interaction potential of riociguat with other drugs is nearly unknown. Therefore, we assessed in vitro the potency of riociguat to inhibit important drug metabolising enzymes (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) and drug transporters (P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1), breast ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Sevoflurane anesthesia deteriorates pulmonary surfactant promoting alveolar collapse in male Sprague–Dawley rats
In conclusion, the observed changes in surfactant composition and viscosity properties suggest a direct effect of sevoflurane on surfactant function, a factor potentially involved in anesthetic-induced alterations in lung mechanics. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The in vitro and in vivo profile of aclidinium bromide in comparison with glycopyrronium bromide
This study characterised the in vitro and in vivo profiles of two novel long-acting muscarinic antagonists, aclidinium bromide and glycopyrronium bromide, using tiotropium bromide and ipratropium bromide as comparators. All four antagonists had high affinity for the five muscarinic receptor sub-types (M1–M5); aclidinium had comparable affinity to tiotropium but higher affinity than glycopyrronium and ipratropium for all receptors. Glycopyrronium dissociated faster from recombinant M3 receptors than aclidinium and tiotropium but more slowly than ipratropium; all four compounds dissociated more rapidly from M...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of chronic administration of β-blockers on airway responsiveness in a murine model of heart failure
This study was designed to investigate in an animal model of HF whether a treatment with a β-AR blocker, metoprolol, could modify the altered airway hyperresponsiveness. In rats, randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups sham-operated rats (SH), rats with HF induced by left anterior descending coronaric occlusion (HF n = 10), and rats treated with metoprolol 100 mg/kg/die (MET = 10), HF was evaluated after 10 weeks and resulted in increases in plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine and left ventricular end diastolic pressure. β2-ARs and G-protein-βAR2-kinase (GRK2) mRNA levels were d...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Biofilm-dependent airway infections: A role for ambroxol?
Publication date: August 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 28, Issue 2 Author(s): M. Cataldi , V. Sblendorio , A. Leo , O. Piazza Biofilms are a key factor in the development of both acute and chronic airway infections. Their relevance is well established in ventilator associated pneumonia, one of the most severe complications in critically ill patients, and in cystic fibrosis, the most common lethal genetic disease in Caucasians. Accumulating evidence suggests that biofilms could have also a role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and their involvement in bronchiectasis has been pro...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Comparative mortality risk of tiotropium administered via handihaler or respimat in COPD patients: Are they equivalent?
Conclusion Although the two tiotropium formulations have similar efficacy, current data cannot prove safety equivalence, since respimat may be associated with increased cardiovascular and general mortality, especially in patients with comorbid diseases. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

5-Aminosalicylic Acid attenuates allergen-induced airway inflammation and oxidative stress in asthma
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): K. Rama Satyanarayana Raju , M.N. Sathish Kumar , Saurabh Gupta , Srinivas T. Naga , Jaya K. Shankar , Vishakantha Murthy , Subba Rao V. Madhunapanthula , Shashank Mulukutla , Nilesh S. Ambhore , Shashank Tummala , V.J. Vishnuvarthan , Afzal Azam , Kannan Elango Pro-inflammatory cytokines regulate the magnitude of allergic reactions during asthma. Tumor necrosis factor – alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) play a crucial role in aggravating the inflammatory conditions dur...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial on the management of post-infective cough by inhaled ipratropium and salbutamol administered in combination
Publication date: Available online 8 August 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Alessandro Zanasi , Marzia Lecchi , Manuela Del Forno , Elisa Fabbri , Marianna Mastroroberto , Massimiliano Mazzolini , Lara Pisani , Paolo Pandolfi , Stefano Nava , Antonio Maria Morselli-Labate Post-viral cough is a type of cough originating from upper respiratory tract infections that persists after the infection is resolved. Although it was hypothesized that bronchodilators might have a role in the management of post-viral cough, a clear demonstration of their efficacy is missing. Therefore, we tested the...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Comparison of airway dimensions with once daily tiotropium plus indacaterol versus twice daily Advair® in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Conclusions These findings suggest that dual bronchodilation with tiotropium plus indacaterol is superior in airway geometry and lung function compared with Advair® in COPD. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Airway Smooth Muscle and Fibroblast Biology still a leading research focus for Young Investigators in the field
Publication date: Available online 23 August 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Janette K. Burgess , Reinoud Gosens (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pooled analysis of tiotropium Respimat® pharmacokinetics in cystic fibrosis
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Ashish Sharma , David E. Geller , Petra Moroni-Zentgraf , Sabine Kattenbeck , Marion Schmid , Katja Boland , Barbara Rapp , Michael W. Konstan , Felix Ratjen , J. Stuart Elborn , Paul Koker Tiotropium is the first bronchodilator to be studied systematically in cystic fibrosis (CF). We investigated whether any intrinsic or extrinsic factors affected pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of inhaled tiotropium delivered by Respimat® in adults and children with CF. Tiotropium PK in patients with CF was compared wit...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Oral targeted therapies in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension: A meta-analysis of clinical trials
Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that all oral agents confer a therapeutic benefit. Of these, only PDE-5Is has a proven survival benefit. ERAs and riociguat are efficient in reducing clinical worsening, and ameliorating exercise capacity. Oral prostanoids have the significant adverse effects and weak therapeutic effects. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pleiotropic effects of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors in pulmonary diseases: A comprehensive review
Publication date: Available online 27 August 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Rama K. Krishna , Omar Issa , Debjit Saha , Francisco Yuri B. Macedo , Barbara Correal , Orlando Santana The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are used extensively in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. They have also demonstrated a secondary benefit in a variety of other disease processes, actions which are known as pleiotropic effects. Review of the current pulmonary literature suggests a potential advantage of statin usage in a variety of pulmonary conditions. Our paper serves as a...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of beclomethason/formoterol and budesonide/formoterol fixed combinations on lung function and airway inflammation in patients with mild to moderate asthma – An exploratory study
Conclusions In patients with mild to moderate asthma pre-treated with inhaled corticosteroids, the use of ICS/LABA formulations led to improvements of C Alv and Delta R5–R20 indicating that these parameters might be helpful to further assess the effects of inhaled ICS/LABA combinations on lung function and airway inflammation. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Daily variation in lung function in COPD patients with combined albuterol and ipratropium: Results from a 4-week, randomized, crossover study
Conclusions The free combination of albuterol and ipratropium resulted in greater improvements and lower day-to-day variability in FEV1 compared with either monotherapy or no bronchodilator therapy. The reduced daily variability may be an important therapeutic advantage of using different classes of bronchodilators in COPD. Trial registration NCT01691482. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Beyond TGFβ – Novel ways to target airway and parenchymal fibrosis
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): C.E. Boorsma , B.G.J. Dekkers , E.M. van Dijk , K. Kumawat , J. Richardson , J.K. Burgess , A.E. John Within the lungs, fibrosis can affect both the parenchyma and the airways. Fibrosis is a hallmark pathological change in the parenchyma in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), whilst in asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) fibrosis is a component of the remodelling of the airways. In the past decade, significant advances have been made in understanding the disease behaviour a...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Mechanisms of glucocorticoid action and insensitivity in airways disease
Publication date: Available online 9 September 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): C. Boardman , L. Chachi , A. Gavrila , C.R. Keenan , M.M. Perry , Y.C. Xia , H. Meurs , P. Sharma Glucocorticoids are the mainstay for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it has been recognized that glucocorticoids do not work well in certain patient populations suggesting reduced sensitivity. The ultimate biologic responses to glucocorticoids are determined by not only the concentration of glucocorticoids but also the di...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A systematic study on the influence of the main ingredients of an ivy leaves dry extract on the β2-adrenergic responsiveness of human airway smooth muscle cells
Publication date: Available online 16 September 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Christian Greunke , Anne Hage-Hülsmann , Thomas Sorkalla , Nelli Keksel , Felix Häberlein , Hanns Häberlein The bronchospasmolytic and secretolytic effects of ivy leaves dry extracts can be explained by an increased β2-adrenergic responsiveness of the bronchi. Recently, it was shown that α-hederin inhibits the internalization of β2-adrenergic receptors (ß2AR) under stimulating conditions. α-Hederin pretreated alveolar type II cells and human airway smooth muscle c...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Specific subsets of mesenchymal stroma cells to treat lung disorders – Finding the Holy Grail
Publication date: Available online 16 September 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Sara Rolandsson , Jenny C. Karlsson , Stefan Scheding , Gunilla Westergren-Thorsson Accumulating studies, both in animals and human clinical trials with mesenchymal stroma cells (MSC) support the hypothesis of therapeutic effects of these cells in various disorders. However, despite success in immune-mediated disorders such as Crohns' disease, lung disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary disease (IPF) treated with MSC have so far not yielded a revolutionary e...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The orl rat is more responsive to methacholine challenge than wild type
Conclusion orl rats had greater AHR than wild type rats during methacholine challenge, with higher IL-4 levels in diaphragmatic tissue homogenates. Positive immunostaining for IL-4 was detected in lung and diaphragmatic tissue in both strains. This model offers advantages over other pre-clinical murine models for studying potential mechanistic links between cryptorchidism and asthma. This animal model may be useful for further testing of compounds/therapeutics options for treating AHR. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Macrolide antibiotics for treatment of asthma in adults: A meta-analysis of 18 randomized controlled clinical studies
Publication date: Available online 22 September 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Xiang Tong , Tingting Guo , Sitong Liu , Shifeng Peng , Zhipeng Yan , Xin Yang , Yonggang Zhang , Hong Fan Mounting studies have been showed that long-term macrolides used in patients with asthma could improve the lung function and symptoms. However, a large number of studies have reported inconclusive results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of macrolide antibiotics in patients with asthma. We have performed a search in PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI), ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Risk of a biased assessment of the evidence when limiting literature searches to the English language: Macrolides in asthma as an illustrative example
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Guy G. Brusselle , Francesco Blasi (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Asthma control in severe asthmatics under treatment with omalizumab: A cross-sectional observational study in Italy
Publication date: Available online 30 September 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Federica Novelli , Manuela Latorre , Letizia Vergura , Maria Filomena Caiaffa , Gianna Camiciottoli , Gabriella Guarnieri , Andrea Matucci , Luigi Macchia , Andrea Vianello , Alessandra Vultaggio , Alessandro Celi , Mario Cazzola , Pierluigi Paggiaro Few data are available on the proportion of asthmatics achieving a good asthma control (according GINA guidelines) and on the level of airway inflammation during omalizumab treatment. The aim of this cross-sectional national observational study was to assess t...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Inaccurate data in my meta-analysis of prolonged macrolides for patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in adult
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 29, Issue 1 Author(s): Guang-Ying Zhuo , Qing He (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Inaccurate data in meta-analysis of macrolides by Guang-Ying et al
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 29, Issue 1 Author(s): D.J. Serisier (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Prolonged treatment with macrolides in adult patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Conclusions Macrolide maintenance therapy was effective in reducing pulmonary exacerbations, and improving lung function in adults with NCFB. However, it did not improve quality of life, and could have led to macrolide resistance. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Omalizumab management beyond clinical trials: The added value of a network model
Conclusion Our retrospective analysis represents a preliminary report from the NEONet activity. It confirmed omalizumab efficacy and provided some new insights about its impact on lung function and on comorbid rhinitis. The network approach, under a prospective view, allows creating a large uniform database, by means of a standardized shared tool for data collecting, and joining a multidisciplinary expertise. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol delivered as a combination dry powder via a capsule-based inhaler and a multi-dose inhaler
Conclusions SFC 50/250 μg Rotacaps/Rotahaler (L) showed comparable systemic exposure to Diskus in terms of FP AUC and SALM AUC and C max. These results merit further progression of SFC 50/250 μg Rotacaps/Rotahaler (L) to phase 3 clinical evaluation in asthma and COPD patients. The lack of pharmacokinetic comparability between the inhalers for SFC 50/100 μg requires further evaluation. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Partial versus maximal forced exhalations in COPD: Enhanced signal detection for novel therapies
Conclusions The use of PF800 increased detection of a BDR in COPD compared to FEV1 alone and may reflect small airway responses. The PEFV maneuver is simple, repeatable and may avoid some of the theoretical disadvantages of FEV1. The role of PF800 for evaluating novel anti-inflammatory agents remains to be determined. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A randomized, placebo- and moxifloxacin-controlled thorough QT study of umeclidinium monotherapy and umeclidinium/vilanterol combination in healthy subjects
Conclusion There was no clinically significant effect on QTcF observed following 10-days' treatment with inhaled UMEC/VI 125/25 μg or UMEC 500 μg compared with placebo. The supratherapeutic dose of UMEC/VI 500/100 μg prolonged QTcF by 6.4 ms (90% CI: 4.3, 8.5) at 10 min and 8.2 ms (90% CI: 6.2, 10.2) at 30 min compared with placebo, following which QTcF interval difference from placebo declined rapidly.. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Macitentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, does not affect cardiac repolarization in healthy subjects
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 29, Issue 1 Author(s): Nicolas Lindegger , Patricia N. Sidharta , Kathrin Reseski , Jasper Dingemanse Macitentan is an orally active dual endothelin receptor antagonist, which demonstrated a reduction of the risk of morbidity/mortality events in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients. This double-blind, randomized, placebo- and positive-controlled, four-way crossover thorough QTc study was designed to investigate the effects of therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of macitentan on cardiac repolarization in healthy male and fem...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Airway and systemic oxidant-antioxidant dysregulation in asthma: A possible scenario of oxidants spill over from lung into blood
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 29, Issue 1 Author(s): A. Nadeem , N. Siddiqui , Naif O. Alharbi , Mohamed M. Alharbi Asthma is characterized by repeated episodes of airway obstruction and an ongoing cycle of airway inflammation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by inflammatory cells in the lung play a key role in the pathogenesis as well as amplification of inflammation in asthmatic airways. Several enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants are available in the lung and systemic circulation to counteract ROS-mediated damage on various biomolecules such as ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury
Conclusions Atrial natriuretic peptide had a protective effect in the lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury model. Atrial natriuretic peptide may be of value in therapeutic strategies aimed at the treatment of acute lung injury such as pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of JNJ-40929837, a leukotriene A4 hydrolase inhibitor, in a bronchial allergen challenge model of asthma
In conclusion, JNJ-40929837 demonstrated target engagement in blood and sputum. No significant impact in response to allergen inhalation was observed with JNJ-40929837 versus placebo. Registration This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01241422. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) attenuates haemodynamic changes to chronic hypoxia in the mouse
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 29, Issue 1 Author(s): David G.S. Farmer , Marie-Ann Ewart , Kirsty M. Mair , Simon Kennedy The calgranulin-like protein MTS1/S100A4 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) have recently been implicated in mediating pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation and vascular remodelling in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH). Here, the effects of RAGE antagonism upon 2 weeks of hypobaric hypoxia (10% O2)-induced PH in mice were assessed. Treatment with sRAGE was protective against hypobaric h...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Role of the nitric oxide–soluble guanylyl cyclase pathway in obstructive airway diseases
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 29, Issue 1 Author(s): Lisa L. Dupont , Constantinos Glynos , Ken R. Bracke , Peter Brouckaert , Guy G. Brusselle Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseotransmitter, which is involved in many signaling processes in health and disease. Three enzymes generate NO from l-arginine, with citrulline formed as a by-product: neuronal NO synthase (nNOS or NOS1), endothelial NOS (eNOS or NOS3) and inducible NOS (iNOS or NOS2). NO is a ligand of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), an intracellular heterodimer enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of guanosin...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Compare the efficacy of inhaled budesonide and systemic methylprednisolone on systemic inflammation of AECOPD
Conclusions Inhaled budesonide and systemic methylprednisolone have the same effects on systemic inflammation of AECOPD. Inhaled corticosteroid alone could instead systemic corticosteroid in AECOPD treatment. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Luteolin inhibited the gene expression, production and secretion of MUC5AC mucin via regulation of nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway in human airway epithelial cells
In this study, we investigated whether luteolin significantly affects the secretion, production and gene expression of airway mucin. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with luteolin for 30 min and then stimulated with EGF (epidermal growth factor) or PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) for 24 h or the indicated periods. The MUC5AC mucin gene expression was measured by RT-PCR. Production and secretion of MUC5AC mucin protein were measured by ELISA. To elucidate the action mechanism of luteolin, effect of luteolin on PMA-induced NF-κB signaling pathway was investigated by western blot analysis. The re...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Hypoxia increases pulmonary arterial thromboxane receptor internalization independent of receptor sensitization
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): J. Fediuk , A.S. Sikarwar , P.P. Lizotte , M. Hinton , N. Nolette , S. Dakshinamurti Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (PPHN) is characterized by sustained vasospasm and an increased thromboxane:prostacyclin ratio. Thromboxane (TP) receptors signal via Gαq to mobilize IP3 and Ca2+, causing pulmonary arterial constriction. We have previously reported increased TP internalization in hypoxic pulmonary arterial (PA) myocytes. Serum-deprived PA myocytes were grown in normoxia (NM) or hypoxia ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pulmonary vascular changes in asthma and COPD
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Louise M. Harkness , Varsha Kanabar , Hari S. Sharma , Gunilla Westergren-Thorsson , Anna-Karin Larsson-Callerfelt In chronic lung disorders such as in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) there is increased bronchial angiogenesis and remodelling of pulmonary vessels culminating to altered bronchial and pulmonary circulation. The involvement of residential cells such as endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and pulmonary fibroblasts, all appear to have a crucial role in the progression of...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Indacaterol and tiotropium combination therapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Conclusions Indacaterol and tiotropium combination therapy improved airflow limitation and respiratory resistances. Adding indacaterol to tiotropium, or tiotropium to indacaterol, had similar effects on airflow limitation. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Roflumilast added to triple therapy in patients with severe COPD: A real life study
Conclusions Roflumilast, when added to triple therapy, reduces exacerbations in a “real-life” population of severe COPD patients with frequent exacerbations. However, side effects are more common and lead more frequently to discontinuation of therapy than has been reported in trials. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Plp1 gene duplication inhibits airway responsiveness and induces lung inflammation
Publication date: Available online 4 November 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Elena Rodriguez , Lauren Sakowski , Grace M. Hobson , Milena Hirata Armani , Portia A. Kreiger , Yan Zhu , Scott A. Waldman , Thomas H. Shaffer Mice with Plp1gene duplication model the most common form of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD), a CNS disease in which patients may suffer respiratory complications. We hypothesized that affected mice would lack airway responsiveness compared to wild-type and carrier mice during methacholine challenge. Wild-type (n=10), carrier female (n=6) and affected male (n=8) m...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research