Racial Disparities in the Health Benefits of Educational Attainment: A Study of Inflammatory Trajectories Among African American and White Adults
Objective: The current study examined the prospective effects of educational attainment on proinflammatory physiology among African American and white adults. Methods: Participants were 1192 African Americans and 1487 whites who participated in Year 5 (mean [standard deviation] age = 30 [3.5] years), and Year 20 (mean [standard deviation] age = 45 [3.5]) of an ongoing longitudinal study. Initial analyses focused on age-related changes in fibrinogen across racial groups, and parallel analyses for C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 assessed at Year 20. Models then estimated the effects of educational attainment on changes ...
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - January 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Comparison of Telomere Length in Black and White Teachers From South Africa: The Sympathetic Activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans Study
Objective: Telomere length is a marker of biological aging that has been linked to cardiovascular disease risk. The black South African population is witnessing a tremendous increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, part of which might be explained through urbanization. We compared telomere length between black South Africans and white South Africans and examined which biological and psychosocial variables played a role in ethnic difference in telomere length. Methods: We measured leukocyte telomere length in 161 black South African teachers and 180 white South African teachers aged 23 to 66 years without a his...
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - January 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Ethnic Differences in Resting Heart Rate Variability: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusions: These findings suggest that decreased vagally mediated HRV is not likely to account for the persistent health disparities experienced by AAs with respect to CVD risk and burden. These disparities underscore the need for continued research addressing socioethnic cardiovascular differences and the biobehavioral mechanisms involved. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - January 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Systematic Review/Meta-Analysis Source Type: research

Racial and Ethnic Differences in Diurnal Cortisol Rhythms: Are They Consistent Over Time?
Conclusions: Racial and ethnic differences in diurnal cortisol rhythms are stable over time. However, the magnitude of changes in cortisol levels associated with chronic stress levels may vary by racial and ethnic subgroups. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - January 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health: Examining the Contexts That Shape Resilience and Risk
Abstract: Race, ethnicity, and social class differences in the prevalence and effects of cardiovascular risk factors have been observed in many studies. Understanding the drivers of these differences is critical to efforts aimed at reducing racial disparities in health. Two articles in this volume of Psychosomatic Medicine contribute to our understanding of the underlying mechanisms driving racial disparities in health. The first article confirms the deleterious effects of psychosocial stressors on neuroendocrine function and suggests that the effects of stress on cortisol patterning are worse for Black and Latino individu...
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - January 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Editorial Comment Source Type: research

Article Summaries for January 2015 Psychosomatic Medicine, Volume 77, Issue 1
No abstract available (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - January 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research

Author and Subject Index
No abstract available (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Author and Subject Index Source Type: research

Volume contents
No abstract available (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Volume Contents Source Type: research

All Issue Ads.
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Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: All Issue Ads: PDF Only Source Type: research

Table of Contents
No abstract available (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Table of Contents Source Type: research

Editorial Board
No abstract available (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Editorial Board Source Type: research

Cover.
No abstract available (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Cover: PDF Only Source Type: research

Ecological Momentary Assessment of Eating Episodes in Obese Adults
This study examined emotional, physiological, and environmental correlates of pathological and nonpathological eating episodes in a heterogeneous sample of obese adults. Methods: Community-based participants (n = 50; 84% female [n = 42]; mean [standard deviation] body mass index = 40.3 [8.5]; mean [standard deviation] age = 43.0 [11.9]) recorded all eating episodes and their emotional, physiological, and environmental correlates via ecological momentary assessment for 2 weeks. Generalized estimating equations examined relations between these variables and eating episodes characterized by both self-identified loss of contro...
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Post–Myocardial Infarction Anxiety or Depressive Symptoms and Risk of New Cardiovascular Events or Death: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study
Conclusions: Post-MI anxiety symptoms were not an independent prognostic risk factor for new cardiovascular events or for death, whereas depressive symptoms were associated with an increased risk of mortality. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Associations Between Depression and Anxiety Symptoms and Retinal Vessel Caliber in Adolescents and Young Adults
Conclusions: Depression and anxiety symptoms are associated with measurable signs in the retinal microvasculature in early life, suggesting that pathological microvascular mechanisms linking depression/anxiety and cardiovascular disease may be operative from a young age. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Leukocyte ß-Adrenergic Receptor Sensitivity and Depression Severity in Patients With Heart Failure
Conclusions: Clinical depression was associated with elevated β-AR sensitivity in patients with HF. By deconstructing depression measurements, a greater depth of information may be garnered to potentially reveal subtypes of depression symptoms and their relation to β-AR sensitivity. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Increases in Exhaled Nitric Oxide After Acute Stress: Association With Measures of Negative Affect and Depressive Mood
We examined the association of stress-induced FeNO changes with momentary negative affect and questionnaires of perceived stress, anxious mood, and depressive mood in 39 asthma patients and 41 healthy controls. Results: FeNO increased from baseline to stress in participants with asthma (from 3.38 [0.102] to 3.46 [0.103] ln(ppb)) and controls (2.86 [0.098] to 2.92 [0.099]; F(4,141) = 3.26, p = .014), but the magnitude of the FeNO response did not differ between groups (F
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Life Satisfaction and Bone Mineral Density Among Postmenopausal Women: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations
Conclusions: Easily assessed global life satisfaction should be taken into account when effects of aging and prevention of osteoporosis as well as health promotion in postmenopausal women are considered. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Menopausal Status in Relation to Cardiovascular Stress Reactivity in Healthy Japanese Participants
Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that postmenopausal women demonstrate greater cardiovascular stress reactivity during mental stress tasks than do both premenopausal women and men. Methods: The study included 979 Japanese participants (338 men and 641 women [238 postmenopausal]) aged 16 to 82 years. Blood pressure, heart rate, heart rate variability, and peripheral blood flow were measured at rest and during a mirror drawing stress task and a maze task. Differences between measured variables during tasks and at rest were calculated and considered to represent reactivity to stress. Analyses were adjusted for age and...
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Cue-induced Craving in Pathological Buying: Empirical Evidence and Clinical Implications
Objective: Pathological buying is associated with marked distress and impaired functioning in important life domains. It is currently under debate whether pathological buying can be considered a behavioral addiction. In analogy to results reported in addicted individuals, craving reactions elicited by addiction-related cues might be an underlying mechanism for the etiology and pathogenesis of pathological buying. Methods: In the present study, 30 pathological buyers and 30 matched control participants were examined with a cue-reactivity paradigm consisting of shopping and control cues. Skin conductance responses, as well a...
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Longitudinal Study of the Impact of Psychological Distress Symptoms on New-Onset Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms in World Trade Center Responders
Conclusions: In this large sample of WTC responders, psychological distress symptoms assessed at 3 years after 9/11 are related to reporting upper GI symptoms 6 years after 9/11. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Stress and the City: Impact of Urban Upbringing on the (re)Activity of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that urban upbringing changes the (re)activity of the HPA axis. Given that changes in HPA axis regulation have been associated with several psychiatric disorders, this may represent a mechanism that contributes to the increased risk for psychopathology in urban populations. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Psychophysiological Response to Virtual Reality and Subthreshold Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Recently Deployed Military
Conclusions: Our findings support the use of a virtual reality environment in eliciting physiological responses associated with subthreshold PTSD symptoms. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Article Summaries for November–December 2014 Psychosomatic Medicine, Volume 76, Issue 9
No abstract available (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research

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No abstract available (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - October 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: All Issue Ads: PDF Only Source Type: research

Social Integration and Mortality in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease: Findings From the Heart and Soul Study
Objective: To determine why lower social integration predicts higher mortality in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods: The association between social integration and mortality was examined prospectively in 1019 outpatients with stable CHD from the Heart and Soul Study. Baseline social integration was assessed with the Berkman Social Network Index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the extent to which demographic and disease-relevant confounders and potential biological, behavioral, and psychological mediators explained the association between social integration and mortality. Results: D...
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - October 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Omega-3 Supplementation and Loneliness-Related Memory Problems: Secondary Analyses of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Conclusion: These results suggest that omega-3 supplementation attenuates loneliness-related verbal episodic memory declines over time and support the use of exploring novel interventions for treating episodic memory problems among lonely people. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00385723. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - October 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Applying Differentially Expressed Genes From Rodent Models of Chronic Stress to Research of Stress-Related Disease: An Online Database
Conclusions: CS-DEGs is the first gene database on CS research. It enables researchers to apply rodent expression data in candidate gene and pathway identification for stress-related disease study. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - October 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Methods and Statistics Source Type: research

Sex-Specific Association Between Nerve Growth Factor Polymorphism and Cardiac Vagal Modulation
Objective: Substantial research has shown that anxiety disorders are associated with decreased cardiac vagal tone, which is a known risk factor for cardiac vulnerability. A functional nerve growth factor (NGF) polymorphism (rs6330, c.104C> T, p.Ala35Val) has been associated with anxiety such that in males but not females, T-allele carriers exhibit higher levels of trait anxiety. Here we investigate whether the nonsynonymous NGF variant has an effect on cardiac autonomic control. Methods: From 705 adults initially screened for medical and psychiatric illnesses, a final cohort of 580 healthy Han Chinese (352 men, 228 wome...
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - October 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress, Heart Rate Variability, and the Mediating Role of Behavioral Health Risks
Conclusions: These results indicate that behavioral factors—specifically smoking, alcohol overuse, and sleep disturbance—mediate the association between PTSD and HRV-based indices of autonomic nervous system dysregulation. Benefits from psychiatric and psychological interventions in PTSD may therefore be enhanced by including modification of health behaviors. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - October 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Childhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Prediabetes and Diabetes in Later Life: A Study of Biopsychosocial Pathways
Conclusions: The consequences of childhood SES disadvantage are complex and include both critical period and pathway effects. The lack of a direct effect of childhood SES on glucoregulation does not negate the importance of early environment but suggests that early-life socioeconomic factors propel unequal life-course trajectories that ultimately influence health. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - October 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Attachment and the Metabolic Syndrome in Midlife: The Role of Interview-Based Discourse Patterns
Conclusions: Insecure adult attachment is associated with increased risk of MetS. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - October 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Parental Accuracy Regarding Adolescent Daily Experiences: Relationships With Adolescent Psychological Adjustment and Inflammatory Regulation
In this study, we examined the role of parental accuracy—that is, whether parents who are more accurate about their adolescents’ daily experiences have adolescents with better psychological functioning and inflammatory regulation. Methods: In a 2-week daily diary study of 116 parent-adolescent dyads, we examined whether parental accuracy about their adolescent’s daily demands and the positivity of their day together were associated with markers of psychological functioning and with regulation of the inflammatory response in terms of glucocorticoid sensitivity (the extent to which cortisol is able to dampe...
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - October 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

E-Health to Manage Distress in Patients With an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator: Primary Results of the WEBCARE Trial
Conclusions: In this Web-based intervention trial, no significant intervention effects on anxiety, depression, health-related quality of life, device acceptance, shock anxiety, or ICD-related concerns were observed. A more patient tailored approach targeting the needs of different subsets of ICD patients may be warranted. Trial registration:clinicaltrials.gov . Identifier: NCT00895700. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - October 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Effects of a Telehealth Coping Skills Intervention on Outcomes in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Primary Results From the INSPIRE-II Study
Conclusions: A telehealth CST intervention produced clinically meaningful improvements in QoL and functional capacity, but no overall improvement in risk of COPD-related hospitalization and all-cause mortality. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00736268. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - October 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Distance Therapy to Improve Symptoms and Quality of Life: Complementing Office-Based Care With Telehealth
Abstract: Two randomized trials exemplify strategies for administering behavioral interventions through distance therapy–the use of telemedicine or e-health approaches to treating patients outside the conventional in-person office-based visit. In the first trial, telephone-based coping skills training for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was not more effective than an education control in reducing mortality or rehospitalization. However, it was superior in improving psychological and somatic quality of life. In the second trial, a web-based distress management program was not more effective than us...
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - October 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Editorial Comment Source Type: research

Article Summaries for October 2014 Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol. 76, Issue 8
No abstract available (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - October 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: In This Issue Source Type: research

All Issue Ads.
No abstract available (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - September 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: All Issue Ads: PDF Only Source Type: research

Table of Contents
No abstract available (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - September 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Table of Contents Source Type: research

Editorial Board
No abstract available (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - September 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Editorial Board Source Type: research

Cover.
No abstract available (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - September 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Cover: PDF Only Source Type: research

Association of Vitamin D Status With Mental Stress–Induced Myocardial Ischemia in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease
Conclusions: Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a higher prevalence of MSIMI but not PSIMI among stable patients with CAD. Whether this association serves as a potential mechanism linking low vitamin D status to adverse cardiovascular outcomes warrants further investigation. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - September 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Job Strain as a Risk Factor for the Onset of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Findings From the MONICA/KORA Augsburg Cohort Study
Conclusions: Men and women who experience high job strain are at higher risk for developing T2DM independently of traditional risk factors. Preventive strategies to combat the globally increasing T2DM epidemic should take into consideration the adverse effects of high strain in the work environment. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - September 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Is the Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Glucose Metabolism Bidirectional? Evidence From the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing
Conclusions: These data suggest that there is a bidirectional association between depressive symptoms and diagnosed diabetes in people aged 52 to 64 years but not in people 65 years and older. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - September 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Characterizing the Longitudinal Relations Between Depressive and Menstrual Symptoms in Adolescent Girls
This study examined the association between depressive and menstrual symptoms in adolescent girls in a 3-year longitudinal study. It was hypothesized that menstrual symptoms would increase in early adolescence and decrease in later adolescence, that girls with greater depressive symptoms would report greater menstrual symptoms, and that effects would persist after adjusting for general somatic complaints. Methods: A community sample of girls (n = 262) enrolled in an observational study by age cohort (11, 13, 15, 17 years) completed three annual visits. At each time point, girls completed the Menstrual Symptom Questionnaire...
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - September 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Child Maltreatment and Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity: Identifying Dysregulated Stress Reactivity Patterns by Using the Biopsychosocial Model of Challenge and Threat
We present a novel framework for conceptualizing stress reactivity after CM that uses the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat. We predicted that in the context of a social-evaluative stressor, maltreated adolescents would exhibit a threat pattern of reactivity, involving sympathetic nervous system activation paired with elevated vascular resistance and blunted cardiac output (CO) reactivity. Methods: A sample of 168 adolescents (mean age =14.9 years) participated. Recruitment targeted maltreated adolescents; 38.2% were maltreated. Electrocardiogram, impedance cardiography, and blood pressure were acquired at rest...
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - September 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Music and Psychophysiological Recovery from Stress
Objective: This experimental study examined whether listening to self-chosen music after stress exposure improves mood, decreases subjective arousal and rumination, and facilitates cardiovascular recovery. Method: Participants (N = 123) were exposed to a mental arithmetic task with harassment to induce stress. Afterward, participants were randomly assigned to one of four “recovery” conditions where they (1) listened to self-chosen relaxing music, (2) listened to self-chosen happy music, (3) listened to an audio book, or (4) sat in silence. After this 5-minute “recovery manipulation period,” particip...
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - September 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Day-to-Day Dynamics of Associations Between Sleep, Napping, Fatigue, and the Cortisol Diurnal Rhythm in Women Diagnosed as Having Breast Cancer
Objectives: To examine whether day-to-day variations in sleep behaviors, ongoing sleep disturbance, and fatigue predict the cortisol diurnal rhythm in women recently diagnosed as having early-stage breast cancer. Methods: Women (N = 130, mean [standard deviation] age = 55.6 [9.4] years) collected saliva 5×/day/2 days for cortisol. Diaries were used to assess prior-day nap duration, nocturnal awakenings, sleep latency, and morning restfulness. Ongoing fatigue and sleep disturbance were measured using the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Inventory. Data were analyzed using a mu...
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - September 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Relationship of Chronic and Momentary Work Stress to Cardiac Reactivity in Female Managers: Feasibility of a Smart Phone–Assisted Assessment System
Conclusions: Female managers who experience chronic work stress displayed elevated cardiac reactivity during momentary stress at work. The joint assessment of chronic stress and momentary stress and their relationship to physiological functioning during work clarifies the potential health risks associated with work stress. Moreover, this wireless SPA system captures the immediate subjective context of individuals when physiological arousal occurs, which may lead to tailored stress management programs in the workplace. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - September 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Effects of Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation to the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex on Executive Function, Food Cravings, and Snack Food Consumption
Conclusion: These results support the contention that EF strength, as modulated by DLPFC activity, is causally associated with effective dietary self-control. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - September 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research