Systematic review, meta-analysis of basal cortisol levels in Borderline Personality Disorder compared to non-psychiatric controls
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a debilitating psychiatric illness that is common in both the general population and in clinical settings, with a life-time prevalence of 5.9% (Grant et al., 2008; Lenzenweger et al., 2007). BPD is characterised by a pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood. These symptoms must persist and cause marked distress and or functional impairment within a variety of contexts, although symptoms often fluctuate markedly over short periods of time (Association, A.P. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - December 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: N Thomas, C Gurvich, A Hudaib, E Gavrilidis, J Kulkarni Source Type: research

Post-learning Stress Reduces the Misinformation Effect: Effects of Psychosocial Stress on Memory Updating
Episodic memory representations can be altered after learning new and related information (for a review: Lee et al., 2017). This characteristic of memory can be viewed as adaptive because it allows encoded memories to be modified and updated with relevant information (Nader and Hardt, 2009; Schacter et al., 2011). However, it can also lead to distortions, causing false memories. One of the most prominent presentations of memory distortion is the misinformation effect, when misleading information presented after an event changes the memory of that original event (Loftus, 2005). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - December 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jonas P. Nitschke, Sonja Chu, Jens C. Pruessner, Jennifer A. Bartz, Signy Sheldon Source Type: research

Chronic stress exposure and daily stress appraisals relate to biological aging marker p16INK4a
An emergent literature suggests that exposure to adverse social conditions is associated with accelerated biological aging, offering one mechanism through which adversity may increase risk for age-related diseases, including diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Chronic stress, via prolonged or repeated activation of the sympathoadrenal system, is thought to increase disease risk through its cumulative impact on key biological aging pathways (Epel, 2009; Robles and Carroll, 2011; Shalev et al., 2014). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - December 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kelly E. Rentscher, Judith E. Carroll, Rena L. Repetti, Steven W. Cole, Bridget M. Reynolds, Theodore F. Robles Source Type: research

Sociodemographic Correlates of Change in Leukocyte Telomere Length during Mid- to Late-Life: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
Telomere attrition is a hallmark indicator of biological aging (Kennedy et al., 2014; Lopez-Otin et al., 2013), and leukocyte telomere length has been proposed as a biomarker of aging (Aubert and Lansdorp, 2008). Telomeres cap the ends of chromosomes and promote chromosomal stability (Blackburn et al., 2015). Due to the end replication problem, telomeres naturally shorten with mitosis (Blackburn, 2005). Oxidative damage and DNA replication stress also contribute to telomere loss (Blackburn et al., 2015; von Zglinicki, 2002). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - December 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Belinda Needham Source Type: research

Altered Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function: A Relevant Factor in the Comorbidity of Atopic Eczema and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?
Atopic eczema (AE) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with key symptoms such as eczematous and inflammatory eruptions of the skin and intense pruritus (Brown, 2016; Lawton, 2014). AE typically manifests in early infancy (with an onset before the age of 5 in 90% of the patients) and represents one of the most common chronic childhood disorders (Weidinger and Novak, 2016). Notably, about 50% of all individuals with AE have specific allergic sensitization indicating that atopy is not a necessary feature of AE (Flohr et al., 2004). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - December 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: A. Buske-Kirschbaum, K. Trikojat, F. Tesch, J. Schmitt, V. Roessner, H. Luksch, A. Roesen-Wolff, F. Plessow Source Type: research

Genetic and Peripheral Markers of the Oxytocin System and Parental Care Jointly Support the Cross-Generational Transmission of Bonding across Three Generations
Studies have repeatedly shown that oxytocin (OT), a nine-amino-acid neuropeptide synthesized in the hypothalamus, plays a critical role in human social affiliations and in the formation of attachment bonds, particularly the parent-infant bond (Feldman et al., 2011; Feldman et al., 2007; Gordon et al., 2010). Children experiencing high-quality caregiving from their parents, as measured by direct observations of sensitive parenting that is characterized by enhanced positive affect, social gaze, affectionate touch, and warm vocalizations, showed higher levels of peripheral OT and better social competencies (Feldman et al., 20...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - December 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Takeo Fujiwara, Omri Weisman, Manami Ochi, Kokoro Shirai, Kenji Matsumoto, Emiko Noguchi, Ruth Feldman Source Type: research

Maternal high fat diet programs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in adult rat offspring
Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that, besides the parental heredity and adult lifestyle, the specific environmental factors that a developing offspring experiences in early life may also have a tremendous impact on the development and health problems throughout the life (Barker 2004). Early life challenges such as mother-infant separation and neonatal immune challenge has been reported to increase adult susceptibility to obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and cardiovascular dysfunction (Gluckman and Hanson 2004; Craft et al., 2006; Warner and Ozanne 2010; Liang et al., 2011). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - December 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: XiaoTing Niu, XiaoYun Wu, AnNa Ying, Bei Shao, XiaoFeng Li, WanLi Zhang, ChengCheng Lin, YuanShao Lin Source Type: research

Altered overnight levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in men and women with posttraumatic stress disorder
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 8% (Kessler et al., 1995). In addition to severely impairing psychological wellbeing, PTSD is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular, autoimmune and metabolic disorders, and premature mortality (Boscarino, 2006; Cohen et al., 2009, O ’Donovan et al., 2015). Inflammation can drive the development of multiple physical diseases and has been proposed as a mechanism linking PTSD with ill health (O’Donovan et al., 2013). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - December 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andreas K üffer, Laura D. Straus, Aric A. Prather, Sabra S. Inslicht, Anne Richards, Judy K. Shigenaga, Erin Madden, Thomas J. Metzler, Thomas C. Neylan, Aoife O’Donovan Source Type: research

Effects of internet-based stress management on acute cortisol stress reactivity: preliminary evidence using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)
Chronic stress has been associated with several somatic diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular illness including myocardial infarction, stroke, and depression (Cohen et al., 2007). Although the mechanisms by which chronic stress can increase vulnerability and ultimately contribute to illness are not fully understood, heightened reactivity of physiological systems to everyday stressors or an impaired ability to recover from acute stress have been discussed as mediating factors within the allostatic load model (McEwen, 1998). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - December 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gregor Domes, Tobias St ächele, Bernadette von Dawans, Markus Heinrichs Source Type: research

Daily oxytocin patterns in relation to psychopathy and childhood trauma in residential youth
Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that has received much attention due its relation to social behaviors, such as social affiliation, pair bonding, emotion recognition, trust, empathy, altruism, and attachment (Campbell, 2008, 2010; Lee et al., 2009a; Veening& Olivier, 2013). Several approaches have been proposed to better understand the underlying mechanisms of oxytocin in social behaviors. Particularly, it has been suggested that oxytocin might play a role in the development of the social brain as it is involved in the processing of social sensory input in the neocortex during the first postnatal years (Vaidyanathan& Ham...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - December 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Iro Fragkaki, Maaike Verhagen, Antonius Eduard van Herwaarden, Maaike Cima Source Type: research

Detection of Estradiol in Rat Brain Tissues: Contribution of Local Versus Systemic Production
Estrogens have important effects on brain structure, function and behavior. Estrogens influence not only reproductive behaviors, but also affect mood, cognitive performance, synaptic plasticity, neurodegenerative disease, and functional recovery following brain injury (Erickson et al., 2007; Garcia-Segura, 2008; Gibbs, 2010; Greene, 2000; Sherwin and Henry, 2008; Walf and Frye, 2006). Estrogens are derived from cholesterol, which is converted in the mitochondria to 17 α-hydroxypregnenolone and then is transferred to smooth endoplasmic reticulum, converted to dehydroepiandrosterone and then to androgens (androstenedio...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Junyi Li, Robert B. Gibbs Source Type: research

Temporal dynamics of cortisol-associated changes in mRNA expression of glucocorticoid responsive genes FKBP5, GILZ, SDPR, PER1, PER2 and PER3in healthy humans
The glucocorticoid cortisol, regulated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, plays an essential role in both stress-related and baseline homeostasis. In peripheral tissues, it exerts its function mainly through binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), encoded by NR3C1. The GR is a ligand-activated transcription factor predominantly located in the cytoplasm in a multiprotein complex consisting of chaperones and co-chaperones (Wochnik et al., 2005). Activation of the GR leads to up- and down-regulation of target gene expression, both through direct interaction between activated GR dimers and glucocorticoid re...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: T ürkan Yurtsever, Fabian Streit, Jerome C. Foo, Slavena Trifonova, Robert Kumsta, Claude P. Muller, Jonathan D. Turner, Jobst Meyer, Andrea B. Schote Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Childhood urbanicity and hair steroid hormone levels in ten-year-old children
Urban areas may be stressful living environments for humans (Mizrahi, 2016). They are characterized by high population density, encounters with strangers and unclear dominance order, factors that may increase the threat of social evaluation and thus social stress (Van Os et al., 2000). Living in a socially stressful environment is considered to be a major contributor to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (Champagne, 2013) and has been linked to earlier sexual maturation in females (i.e. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: B.E Evans, R Beijers, C Hagquist, C de Weerth Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Investigating associations between momentary stress and cortisol in daily life: What have we learned so far?
Psychosocial stress reliably activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, resulting in elevations of circulating cortisol. Kirschbaum et al. (1993) demonstrated this psychoneuroendocrinological association using a specific laboratory-based motivated performance-related stressor in a social-evaluative setting including uncontrollability, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). A meta-analysis later demonstrated that TSST-like stressors were indeed the most potent activators of cortisol responses to stress when compared to other stressors such as cognitive tasks, noise exposure or emotion induction without un...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Wolff Schlotz Source Type: research

Resting Amygdala Connectivity and Basal Sympathetic Tone as Markers of Chronic Hypervigilance
Hypervigilance is a behavioral, cognitive, and physiological state of sustained hyperarousal and alertness for potential threat. The cognitive component of hypervigilance (i.e., increased alertness) is mediated by activation of threat-detection neural circuitry centered around the amygdala (e.g., Yoon& Weierich, 2016), whereas its physiological component (i.e., elevated arousal) is mediated by activation of the neuroendocrine stress systems (e.g., Pole et al., 2007). In potentially dangerous situations, hypervigilance is adaptive, as it facilitates threat detection when an actual threat appears and enables a prompt res...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Olena Kleshchova, Jenna K. Rieder, Jack Grinband, Mariann R. Weierich Source Type: research

Social Identification and Contagious Stress Reactions
The phenomenon of experiencing affective and physiological stress merely by observing other people in stressful situations has been, among others, dubbed stress contagion (Dimitroff et al., 2017; Ebisch et al., 2012), contagious stress (White& Buchanan, 2016), resonance of stress (Buchanan et al., 2012) or empathic stress (Engert et al., 2014). Although all terms refer to the transmission of physiological stress reactions from a stressed person to an observer, a consistent terminology has not yet been agreed on (see White& Buchanan, 2016 for a helpful discussion of the different concepts and a distinction between e...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Valerie A. Erkens, Urs M. Nater, J ürgen Hennig, Jan A. Häusser Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Associations Between Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety and Cortisol Responses to and Recovery from Acute Stress
The ability to rapidly and adaptively respond to environmental threats and stressors is critical to survival. Interactive physiological responses involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous systems influence metabolic, immune, and cardiovascular parameters in order to aid the body in responding appropriately to environmental demands (McEwen, 1998). This process of achieving stability through change, first introduced by Sterling and Eyer (Sterling and Eyer, 1988), is known as ‘allostasis’. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alexander Fiksdal, Luke Hanlin, Yuliya Kuras, Danielle Gianferante, Xuejie Chen, Myriam V. Thoma, Nicolas Rohleder Source Type: research

The association of potential stressors with hair steroids in parents with small children: The Ulm SPATZ Health Study
Hair steroid concentrations have been implicated as potential indicators of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Yet, previous studies have reported only weak associations between questionnaire-based measurements of stress or related constructs and hair cortisol concentrations (hairF), details see in various systematic reviews (Bates et al., 2017; Stalder et al., 2017; Mustonen et al., 2018) and subsequent original reports (Janssens et al., 2017; Gerber et al., 2017; Herr et al., 2017; CORtisolNETwork (CORNET) Consortium et al., 2017; Boss é et al., 2018; Mayer et al., 2018; van der Meij et al., 2018)...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: S Braig, T Stalder, C Kirschbaum, D Rothenbacher, J Genuneit Source Type: research

Unraveling the association between depression and telomere length using genomics
Research in the past decade provided consistent evidence for an inverse cross-sectional association between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and telomere length, suggestive of advanced biological aging in the depressed (Wolkowitz et al., 2010). Meta-analyses with>34,000 subjects found average shorter telomere length in depressed patients versus controls, with a small to medium effect sizes (Cohen's d range  = 0.21-0.55) (Darrow et al., 2016; Ridout et al., 2016; Schutte and Malouff, 2015). The meta-analyses included data from the large observational Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) cohort...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Josine E. Verhoeven, Brenda W.J.H. Penninx, Yuri Milaneschi Source Type: research

The role of cortisol and prolactin in the pathogenesis and clinical expression of psychotic disorders
Psychotic disorders are relatively prevalent mental illnesses (3% lifetime prevalence) that cause abnormal thinking and perceptions (van Os et al., 2010) and constitute a major health burden worldwide (Vigo et al., 2016). The subtype of psychotic disorder may be difficult to diagnose at the onset of the illness due to the heterogeneity of the presentation of symptoms (Peralta et al., 2013). In most cases, patients with psychotic symptoms requiring psychiatric treatment will develop a recurrent and chronic mental disorder in the following years, with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder and psychotic de...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Javier Labad Source Type: research

Relationships Between Cerebrospinal Fluid GABAergic Neurosteroid Levels and Symptom Severity in Men with PTSD
Many interacting neurobiological factors are involved in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Pitman et al., 2012; Rasmusson et al., 2018, 2017b), including allopregnanolone and pregnanolone, neurosteroid metabolites of progesterone that equipotently facilitate GABAergic neurotransmission at nanomolar concentrations (Fig. 1) (Pineles et al., 2018; Rasmusson et al., 2006b). In premenopausal women with PTSD, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of these stereoisomers [undifferentiated by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodology employed; herein termed allo  + pregnan when...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ann M. Rasmusson, Matthew W. King, Ivan Valovski, Kristin Gregor, Erica Scioli-Salter, Suzanne L. Pineles, Mohamed Hamouda, Yael I. Nillni, George M. Anderson, Graziano Pinna Source Type: research

Inflammation and Dimensions of Reward Processing Following Exposure to the Influenza Vaccine
Depression is a debilitating, chronic, and widespread condition characterized by a constellation of affective, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms (Hasler et al., 2004; Kessler et al., 2012). Compelling evidence links dysregulated inflammatory biology to depression broadly (Dantzer et al., 2008; Valkanova et al., 2013), but less is known about specific dimensions of depression that are sensitive to alterations in inflammation. One critical dimension is reward processing, with reward dysfunction linked to anhedonia (Craske et al., 2016). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chloe C. Boyle, Kate R. Kuhlman, Larissa N. Dooley, Marcie D. Haydon, Theodore F. Robles, Yuen-Siang Ang, Diego A. Pizzagalli, Julienne E. Bower Source Type: research

Androstadienone, a putative chemosignal of dominance, increases gaze avoidance among men with high social anxiety
In order to efficiently navigate the social world, humans possess a crucial ability to interpret social dominance cues (Chiao, 2010). Nonetheless, some individuals are more attuned to cues of dominance than others. Studies have shown that individuals with social anxiety show increased sensitivity to dominance signals as compared to individuals without social anxiety (Maner et al., 2008a,b; Aderka et al., 2013; Haker et al., 2014; Banner& Shamay-Tsoory, 2018b). Socially anxious individuals are preoccupied with the impression they make and place fundamental importance on being positively appraised by others. (Source: Psy...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: A. Banner, S. Gabay, S. Shamay-Tsoory Source Type: research

Gene expression signature in brain regions exposed to long-term psychosocial stress following acute challenge with cannabinoid drugs
When a living organism is subjected to a life stressor, a cellular machinery is activated to recover homeostasis (Sapolsky, 2003) by regulating distinct physiological features, such as the hypothalamo –pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and cardiovascular functions, which, per se, do not result in a pathological condition. However, when a long-term and constant stress exposure stimulation overwhelms the body’s capacity to maintain homeostasis, it can result in severe consequences in numerous brai n regions, including the prefrontal cortex (Tomas-Roig et al., 2018), the dorsal striatum (Tomas-Roig et al., 2018),...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: J. Tomas-Roig, U. Havemann-Reinecke Source Type: research

Child ’s Oxytocin Response to Mother-Child Interaction: The Contribution of Child Genetics and Maternal Behavior
The oxytocinergic system is a key biological system underlying the need for bonding and protection from threat (Insel, 2010), with recognized associations with social behavior, particularly involving social affiliation (Winslow& Insel, 2002). Indeed, it has been shown to respond to social interactions. For example, Feldman, Gordon, Schneiderman, Weisman, and Zagoory-Sharon (2010) reported that mothers and fathers who provided high levels of tactile contact to their infants evinced increases in salivary oxytocin (OT) following parent –infant interaction. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rita Baiao, Pasco Fearon, Jay Belsky, Joana Baptista, Alexandra Carneiro, Raquel Pinto, Marlene Nogueira, C ésar Oliveira, Isabel Soares, Ana Mesquita Source Type: research

Hair and fingernail cortisol and the onset of acute coronary syndrome in the middle-aged and elderly men
Acute psychosocial stress triggers an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which causes the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol. Traditionally, cortisol has been measured in blood and saliva samples, which revealed hormone levels for a short time period. Recently, cortisol has been reportedly measured in hair samples (Russell et al., 2012). Scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1.0  cm/month; 1.0 cm of scalp hair may be used to determine the level of the hormone secreted during a period of 1 month. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shuhei Izawa, Keiichi Miki, Masao Tsuchiya, Haruyo Yamada, Masatoshi Nagayama Source Type: research

Associations of plasma testosterone with clinical manifestations in acute panic disorder
The biological basis of panic disorder (PD) remains largely unknown, despite the significant progress achieved during the last decades regarding this issue (see for a review: Bandelow et al., 2017). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Vasilios G. Masdrakis, Charalambos Papageorgiou, Manolis Markianos Source Type: research

Estrogen Administration Improves the Trajectory of Eating Disorder Pathology in Oligo-Amenorrheic Athletes: A Randomized Trial
Disordered eating behavior and attitudes are common in conditions of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, such as anorexia nervosa (AN) and exercise-induced amenorrhea (Beals and Hill, 2006; Quah et al., 2009), which are also associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity, including anxiety and depression. Hypogonadism in these conditions has been implicated in psychological morbidity. Estrogen and progesterone receptors are expressed in appetite regulation centers (e.g., the hypothalamus) and regions regulating emotion and cognition (e.g., the amygdala, ventral tegmental area, insula, and hippocampus) (Campolier et a...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Franziska Plessow, Vibha Singhal, Alexander T. Toth, Nadia Micali, Kamryn T. Eddy, Madhusmita Misra Source Type: research

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Dysregulation in Depressed Adolescents with Non-Suicidal Self-Injury
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) involves the self-directed act of causing harm to one ’s own body without the intent of suicide (Muehlenkamp, 2005). The estimated prevalence of adolescent NSSI is 17% (Swannell et al., 2014) and 40% or higher in clinical samples (Glenn& Klonsky, 2013). Those who self-injure are more prone to self-criticism and negative emotionality (Glassman et al., 2007). Most adolescents engage in NSSI as a method of stress-regulation, with the expectation that it will serve to relieve interpersonal difficulties or reduce negative affect (e.g., Zetterqvist et al., 2013). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bonnie Klimes-Dougan, Erin Begnel, Brandon Almy, Michelle Thai, Melinda Westlund Schreiner, Kathryn Cullen Source Type: research

Beyond the HPA-axis: exploring maternal prenatal influences on birth outcomes and stress reactivity
Mounting evidence indicates that maternal prenatal stress is associated with an increased risk of altered physiological, behavioral, emotional and cognitive outcomes in offspring (Van den Bergh et al., 2017). Maternal depressive or anxiety symptoms have been the most common measures of prenatal stress (e.g. Talge et al., 2007) and findings from many community samples have shown that they might have a detectable impact even at subclinical levels(reviewed in Talge et al., 2007; Van den Bergh et al., 2017; Madigan et al., 2018), thus broadening scientific and public health implications. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: S. Nazzari, P. Fearon, F. Rice, N. Dottori, F. Ciceri, M. Molteni, A. Frigerio Source Type: research

Long-term glucocorticoid levels measured in hair in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders
Dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may result in increased or decreased levels of its end-product, cortisol. A disproportionate change in cortisol levels is one of the main hypothesized pathophysiological mechanisms underlying depressive and anxiety disorders (Casper et al., 1988; Elnazer and Baldwin, 2014; Hilbert et al., 2014; Vreeburg et al., 2009, 2010). However, findings have been inconsistent regarding relative hyper- or hypocortisolism in different (subtypes of) disorders. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lotte Gerritsen, Sabine M. Staufenbiel, Brenda W.J.H Penninx, Albert M. van Hemert, Gerard Noppe, Yolanda B. de Rijke, Elisabeth F.C. van Rossum Source Type: research

Foot massage evokes oxytocin release and activation of orbitofrontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) plays an important role in influencing both social bonds and a number of different aspects of social cognition in a variety of different species, including humans (Kendrick et al., 2017). There is increasing evidence across cultures that basal plasma OXT concentrations are reduced in disorders with social dysfunction, such as autism, and by early life social neglect which can also lead to social dysfunction (Green et al., 2001; Oztan et al., 2018; Parker et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2016). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Qin Li, Benjamin Becker, Jennifer Wernicke, Yuanshu Chen, Yingying Zhang, Rui Li, Jiao Le, Juan Kou, Weihua Zhao, Keith M Kendrick Source Type: research

Abnormal postural behavior in patients with functional movement disorders during exposure to stress
Functional (psychogenic) neurological disorders or conversion disorders consist of neurological symptoms that occur in the absence of visible lesions of the nervous system (Espay et al., 2018). Up to 18% of the neurological patients presenting with “unexplained” symptoms are currently diagnosed with functional neurological disorders (Stone et al., 2009b). One of the most common clinical presentations is functional movement disorders (FMD), characterized by motor symptoms such as paralysis or paresis, tremor or dystonia (Stone and Carson, 2 015; Voon et al., 2010). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Giuseppe Angelo Zito, Kallia Apazoglou, Anisoara Paraschiv-Ionescu, Kamiar Aminian, Selma Aybek Source Type: research

Hippocampal volume modulates salivary oxytocin level increases after intranasal oxytocin administration
Adverse childhood experiences have protracted neurobiological effects and have been associated with changes in the oxytocinergic system (Meaney, 2001). Research indicates that individuals with a history of childhood adversity show lower oxytocin levels in cerebrospinal fluid (Heim et al., 2009), plasma (Opacka-Juffry& Mohiyeddini, 2012), and saliva (Riem et al., 2017, but see Bhandari et al., 2014), and attenuated sensitivity to intranasal oxytocin administration. For example, stress-reducing effects of intranasal oxytocin, as reflected by cortisol decreases, are impeded in individuals with a history of childhood adver...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Madelon Riem, Marinus van IJzendoorn, Marian Bakermans-Kranenburg Source Type: research

Low neuroticism and cognitive performance are differently associated to overweight and obesity: a cross-sectional and longitudinal UK Biobank study
Personality traits can be used to identify the appropriate weight loss treatment and management strategies for obese patients (Munro et al., 2011). The outcome of different weight loss interventions in obese people seems to be influenced by their underlying personality traits (Gerlach et al., 2015). For example, obese people with high reward dependence and cooperativeness are more willing to participate in behavioral group therapies (Sullivan et al., 2007). Moreover, patients with lower novelty seeking are more likely to effectively lose gain with this type of intervention (Sullivan et al., 2007). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gaia Olivo, Shaili Gour, Helgi B. Schi öth Source Type: research

Short- and long-term alterations of FKBP5-GR and specific microRNAs in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of male rats induced by adolescent stress contribute to depression susceptibility
Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder with different population risks. Exposure to early life adversities is considered a major risk factor for the onset and development of affective disorders (Heim and Binder, 2012; Heim and Nemeroff, 2001). In particular, adolescence is a critical window of brain development; during this stage, the brain is sensitive to stress reactivity, which heightens vulnerability to psychiatric disorders later in life (Lo Iacono and Carola, 2017; Yohn and Blendy, 2017). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jingjing Xu, Rui Wang, Yuan Liu, Wei Wang, Dexiang Liu, Hong Jiang, Fang Pan Source Type: research

The endogenous oxytocin system in depressive disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Depressive disorders are characterized by affective symptoms such as depressed mood, loss of interest and enjoyment, reduced energy, increased fatiguability, and diminished activity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). They are complex disorders, as they comprise various subtypes, characterized by co-occuring symptoms and chronicity, and are often accompanied by comorbidities. Furthermore, depressive disorders are influenced by multiple psychological, social and biological factors (Kendler et al., 2006, 2002) which has implications for their treatment. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sinha Engel, Sebastian Laufer, Christine Knaevelsrud, Sarah Schumacher Source Type: research

Chronic Histamine 3 Receptor Antagonism Alleviates Depression like Conditions in mice via Modulation of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Hypothalamus-Pituitary Adrenal Axis
Modulation of histaminergic activity has been shown to be involved in several physiological functions, such as circadian rhythm, energy homeostasis, sensory and motor functions, cognition, and attention, which are affected in several central nervous system(CNS) disorders (Haas and Panula, 2003; Leurs et al., 2005). All actions of histamine (HA) are orchestrated by four HA receptors, H1-H4R, which are members of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family (Haas and Panula, 2003). Out of four HA receptors, H3R is of particular interest concerning CNS functions. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ajeet Kumar, Shalini Dogra, Chandan Sona, Deepmala Umrao, Mamunur Rashid, Sandeep K Singh, Muhammad Wahajuddin, Prem N Yadav Source Type: research

Basal testosterone ’s relationship with dictator game decision-making depends on cortisol reactivity to acute stress: A dual-hormone perspective on dominant behavior during resource allocation
As a species, we have evolved in social hierarchies, and the stratification of individuals within human groups helps organize us and maintain social order (Anderson et al., 2015; Ellis, 1994; Sapolsky, 2000). Within a social hierarchy, having higher status - respect or deference that is based on an individual ’s perceived social value (Anderson et al., 2015; Magee and Galinsky, 2008) - grants several benefits, such as access to limited resources and social influence over others (Cheng et al., 2013; Sapolsky, 2000). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Smrithi Prasad, Erik L. Knight, Pranjal H. Mehta Source Type: research

Epigenetics of the Molecular Clock and Bacterial Diversity in Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a mood disorder, which is characterized by recurrent manic, depressive or mixed episodes. Even though many potential pathomechanisms of BD have been identified over the last decades, it is still largely unknown how these disease mechanisms interact with each other. Neurotransmitter dysbalances, neurotrophic factor imbalances, chronic inflammation, oxidative stress and disturbed circadian rhythms have been put forward as putative underlying mechanisms (Boland et al., 2012; Andreazza et al., 2008; Berk et al., 2011; Bengesser and Reininghaus, 2013; Tsai et al., 2012; Soczynska et al., 2011; Kapczinsk...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: S.A. Bengesser, S. M örkl, A. Painold, N. Dalkner, A. Birner, F.T. Fellendorf, M. Platzer, R. Queissner, C. Hamm, A. Maget, R. Pilz, A. Rieger, J. Wagner-Skacel, B. Reininghaus, H.P. Kapfhammer, E. Petek, K. Kashofer, B. Halwachs, P. Holzer, A. Waha, E.Z Source Type: research

Virtually Stressed? A refined virtual reality adaptation of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) induces robust endocrine responses
Over the last decades a number of highly standardized laboratory stressors have been developed to induce psychosocial stress in the laboratory (e.g. the Socially-Evaluated Cold Pressor Test, SECPT, (Schwabe et al., 2013); Maastricht Acute Stress Test, MAST, (Smeets et al., 2012). Among these protocols, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum et al., 1993) has become widely used in psychobiological stress research as it has been proven to evoke robust endocrine and cardiovascular responses in the majority of participants. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Patrick Zimmer, Benjamin Buttlar, Georg Halbeisen, Eva Walther, Gregor Domes Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Increased frequency of mind wandering in healthy women using oral contraceptives
Oral contraceptives (OC) are the most common type of contraceptive method used in industrialized countries (Daniels et al., 2015). It is estimated that 26% of women who are of reproductive age currently use OC and 82% of women report using it at some point in their lives (Daniels and Mosher, 2013). Around 10% of OC users report experiencing mood side effects (e.g., depressive symptoms, irritability (Kelly et al., 2010), which are common reasons for OC cessation (Rosenberg and Waugh, 1998; Westhoff et al., 2007). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Catherine Raymond, Marie-France Marin, Robert-Paul Juster, Sarah Leclaire, Olivier Bourdon, Sophia Cayer-Falardeau, Sonia J. Lupien Source Type: research

Stress reactivity in preschool-aged children: Evaluation of a social stress paradigm and investigation of the impact of prenatal maternal stress
In animals and humans, prenatal maternal stress (PS) has impact on birth outcomes, development and stress regulation as well as disease in the offspring (e.g., Stein et al., 2014; Van den Bergh et al., 2017). The intrauterine environment contributes to long-term consequences particularly via epigenetic modifications —a process referred to as prenatal programming (Sosnowski et al., 2018). While the importance of PS is well-established, its precise mechanisms and the timing of its effects are still within the scope of current research. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: T.S. Send, S. Bardtke, M. Gilles, I.A.C. Wolf, M.W. S ütterlin, C. Kirschbaum, M. Laucht, S.H. Witt, M. Rietschel, F. Streit, M. Deuschle Source Type: research

Withdrawal of plasma estradiol is associated with increased anxiety reported by women in the first 12 hours after delivery
Transient mood changes, also known as postpartum blues, occur in 15 to 85% of women in the immediate puerperium (Henshaw, 2003) and are usually described as predictors of postpartum depression (DPP) (Reck et al., 2009). DPP is a severe condition affecting around 10 to 22% of the mothers (Gaynes et al., 2005). In recent reviews investigating predictors of postpartum depression, besides the role of postpartum blues and environmental stressors, hormonal changes were addressed as possible important biomarkers for this period (Garcia-Leal et al., 2017; Guintivano et al., 2018). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marcos Gon çalves de Rezende, Cybele Garcia-Leal, Marcos Felipe Silva de Sá, Ricardo de Carvalho Cavalli, Cristina Marta Del-Ben Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Low vagal tone in two rat models of psychopathology involving high or low corticosterone stress responses
One of the current challenges in mental health research is the identification of risk factors and mechanisms related to individual vulnerability to develop psychopathologies (Weger and Sandi, 2018). Given the well-known impact of stress in triggering and exacerbating psychopathologies (de Kloet et al., 2016; McEwen et al., 2012), a great deal of research is concentrating on understanding the role of the major physiological stress systems [i.e., the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis] in this context (Carnevali et al., 2018; de Kloet et al., 2005; Pruessner et al., 1997; ...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Damien Huzard, Sriparna Ghosal, Jocelyn Grosse, Luca Carnevali, Andrea Sgoifo, Carmen Sandi Source Type: research

Cross-sectional relationship between kynurenine pathway metabolites and cognitive function in major depressive disorder
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent and disabling psychiatric illness, with a high lifetime prevalence ranging from 10-15% (Kessler et al., 2005, 2013a). Cognitive dysfunction is a core diagnostic feature of MDD and is likely to cause considerable interference and functional impairment in patients' daily life function (Mcintyre et al., 2013), but effective alleviation of the cognitive deficits is difficult to achieve with current antidepressant therapies (Amado-Boccara et al., 1995). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - November 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yanling Zhou, Wei Zheng, Weijian Liu, Chengyu Wang, Yanni Zhan, Hanqiu Li, Lijian Chen, Yuping Ning Source Type: research

Poor night ’s sleep predicts following day’s salivary alpha-amylase under high but not low stress
Poor sleep predicts next day ’s salivary alpha-amylase profile under stressThe salivary alpha-amylase profile is unrelated to following night’s sleepDiurnal salivary alpha-amylase profile is not sensitive to everyday occurring sleep variationsSalivary alpha-amylase profiles indicate autonomic nervous system dysregulation (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - October 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kristina Klaus, Johanna M. Doerr, Jana Strahler, Nadine Skoluda, Alexandra Linnemann, Urs M. Nater Source Type: research

Memories of and influenced by the Trier Social Stress Test
Stress has obtained a rather bad reputation nowadays. It is often related to impaired cognitive performance and when occurring chronically it is commonly associated with physical and mental health problems. However, research has illustrated that the impact of stress on cognitive functions such as learning and memory are far more complex than initially assumed. Stress may enhance or impair memory depending on several key modulators and mediators. Both quantitative and qualitative shifts take place (Schwabe& Wolf, 2013). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - October 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Oliver T. Wolf Source Type: research

Hpa axis responses to psychological challenge linking stress and disease: what do we know on sources of intra- and interindividual variability?
Chronic stress is a major risk factor for several disorders, including highly prevalent diseases such as depression, anxiety disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and the metabolic syndrome (see 3.8 and 3.9). Since the finding of a disinhibited hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in depressed patients (Carroll et al., 1980), it was assumed that alterations in the activity of this system may be a close correlate of stress-related pathology. The HPA axis is a core component of the neuroendocrine stress response. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - October 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sandra Z änkert, Silja Bellingrath, Stefan Wüst, Brigitte M. Kudielka Source Type: research