Limbic response to stress linking life trauma and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function
Lifetime trauma exposure has been shown to significantly impact physical and psychological well-being, increasing risk for stress-related disorders and negative health outcomes (Bevans et al., 2008; McEwen, 2002; Sinha, 2008). Studies have identified the neurobiological underpinnings of trauma exposure; this line of studies has largely found altered function associated with trauma in two stress-related pathways, the hypothalamic –pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis system (Fries et al., 2005) and limbic brain regions (McEwen, 2001; Williams et al., 2006). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dongju Seo, Arielle G. Rabinowitz, Ryan J. Douglas, Rajita Sinha Source Type: research

Discrimination Exposure and DNA Methylation of Stress-Related Genes in Latina Mothers
The accumulation of stress over the lifespan can contribute to biological vulnerability and directly affect health outcomes for mothers and their children. Latina women, who have the highest fertility rate among all ethnic groups and represent the largest minority group in the US (Center, 2015), are exposed to a multitude of stressful events and sociocultural factors, including discrimination (Ay ón, 2015). Extant research in Latinas has largely focused on varied levels of exposure to risk and protective factors in the perinatal period including socio-determinants of health (e.g., socioeconomic background), prenatal...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hudson P. Santos, Benjamin C. Nephew, Arjun Bhattacharya, Xianming Tan, Laura Smith, Reema Alyamani, Elizabeth M. Martin, Krista Perreira, Rebecca C. Fry, Christopher Murgatroyd Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Genetic and environmental influences on pubertal hormones in human hair across development” [Psychoneuroendocrinology 90 (2018) 76–84]
The authors regret that the units of measurement reported for the hair hormones was incorrect. We originally write on page. 78 of the Method section, and in the Online Supplement, that the lower limit of detection for hair hormones was 0.1  pg/ml. This should have read that the lower limit of detection was 0.1 pg/mg. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrew D. Grotzinger, Daniel A. Briley, Laura E. Engelhardt, Frank D. Mann, Megan W. Patterson, Jennifer L. Tackett, Elliot M. Tucker-Drob, K. Paige Harden Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Impact of Early Life Adversity on the Stress Biobehavioral Response During Nicotine Withdrawal
Accumulating evidence demonstrates an association between exposure to early life adversity (ELA), including emotional, physical and sexual abuse, with subsequent risk for addiction (Harrison, Fulkerson et al. 1997, Bensley, Spieker et al. 1999, Widom, Weiler et al. 1999, Lovallo 2013). ELA also predicts acceleration and maintenance of tobacco, marijuana and alcohol use (Kaplan and Johnson 1992, Wills, Vaccaro et al. 1996, Harrison, Fulkerson et al. 1997, Anda, Croft et al. 1999, Edwards, Anda et al. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mustafa al ’Absi, Motohiro Nakajima, Andrine Lemieux Source Type: research

Emerging role of the P2  × 7-NRLP3-IL1β pathway in mood disorders
It is now well established that mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) show high lifetime prevalence rates resulting in significant impact on quality of life to patients and their families (Hirschfeld, 2012). This is compounded by the negative social stigma associated with mental health, resulting in delayed medical assistance, causing debilitating neuropsychological conditions, sometimes leading to suicidal ideation and death. When patients with mood disorders do seek medical attention, a large proportion of the patient pool either do not respond adequately or with only a very lim...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anindya Bhattacharya, Declan N.C Jones Source Type: research

Modulating Kynurenine Monooxygenase in Microglia: the need for further characterization
In their paper, Garrison et al. studied the effects of inhibiting kynurenine monooxygenase (KMO) on microglia activation. The authors observed attenuation of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitrite after genetic and pharmacological inhibition of KMO, and identified subsequent kynurenine (KYN) accumulation as the likely source of this effect. There are several concerns about the study that should be discussed. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: P.K. Moon, P.S. Minhas Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Multiple Forms of Discrimination, Social Status, and Telomere Length: Interactions within Race
Previous research has demonstrated inverse associations between experiences of interpersonal discrimination and telomere length, a marker of cellular aging. Here, we investigate within-race interactions between multiple indices of interpersonal discrimination and sociodemographic characteristics in relation to telomere length in African American and White adults. Participants were from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study (Baltimore, Maryland). Ages ranged from 30-64 years old and all self-identified as either African American (n  = 176) or White (n = 165). ...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Elizabeth J. Pantesco, Daniel K. Leibel, Jason J. Ashe, Shari R. Waldstein, Leslie I. Katzel, Hans B. Liu, Nan-ping Weng, Michele K. Evans, Alan B. Zonderman, Danielle L. Beatty Moody Source Type: research

Obesity, perceived weight discrimination, and hair cortisol: a population-based study
Obesity is recognized as a global health issue, and associations with a wide range of adverse psychological and physiological correlates have long been established (Ng et al., 2014). Recent years have seen a growing interest in the relationship between obesity and stress, with symptoms of metabolic syndrome – a cluster of comorbidities that often accompany obesity – closely mirroring those of Cushing's syndrome, a disorder caused by overproduction of the stress hormone cortisol (Anagnostis et al., 2009). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sarah E. Jackson, Andrew Steptoe Source Type: research

The Psychobiology of Stress and Intimate Partner Violence
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a type of domestic violence defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as “physical violence, sexual violence, stalking, and psychological aggression (including coercive acts) by a current or former intimate partner” (Breiding et al., 2015). It is a global public health problem that occurs across age, genders, and sexual orientation, permeating racial, cultural, geogr aphic, socioeconomic, educational and religious boundaries (Huecker and Smock, 2018). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ilona S. Yim, Yasmin B. Kofman Source Type: research

Stress and Immune Biomarkers Interact with Parenting Behavior to Shape Anxiety Symptoms in Trauma-Exposed Youth
The relations between stress and the immune system in general and their interdependence in the context of chronic trauma in particular have been extensively studied (Boscarino, 2004; Heim et al., 2008; Segerstrom and Miller, 2004a, 2004b, 2004b). Stress-induced hormonal alterations have been linked with changes in the immune system as well as with behavioral, emotional, and cognitive processes that lead to physical illness and psychiatric problems (De Bellis and Zisk, 2014; Lupien et al., 2009). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Karen Yirmiya, Amir Djalovski, Shai Motsan, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman Source Type: research

Psychotherapeutic treatment and HPA axis regulation in posttraumatic stress disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined as a pathological response to traumatic events involving exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury or sexual violation (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), is a highly distressing condition with lifetime prevalence rates of 11.0% for women and 5.4% for men (Kilpatrick et al., 2013). Numerous biological alterations that are associated with the development and maintenance of PTSD have been identified (Michopoulos et al., 2015; Zoladz and Diamond, 2013). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sarah Schumacher, Helen Niemeyer, Sinha Engel, Jan Christopher Cwik, Christine Knaevelsrud Source Type: research

Sex Hormones and Incident Dementia in Older Men: The Health in Men Study
Dementia affects approximately 6.5% of adults over the age of 65 and its burden is projected to rise (Wu et al., 2017). As current treatments are mostly symptomatic, prevention is key to reducing the burden of dementia. It has been suggested that more than a third of dementia cases could be prevented by systematically addressing potentially modifiable risk factors from across the life-span (Livingston et al., 2017). One potentially modifiable factor not included in these analyses was testosterone status. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrew H. Ford, Bu B. Yeap, Leon Flicker, Graeme J. Hankey, S.A. Paul Chubb, Jonathan Golledge, Osvaldo P. Almeida Source Type: research

Role of DHEA and Cortisol in Prefrontal-Amygdalar Development and Working Memory
Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are the most abundant adrenal hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and exert potent, pleiotropic effects on human physiology including regulation of immune, metabolic and cognitive function (Kamin and Kertes 2017). The role of cortisol in supporting acute stress responses by drawing upon the brain and the body ’s energy reserves (i.e. increasing the body’s catabolic state) has been extensively investigated (Nicolaides et al., 2014). Notably, cortisol may lead to increased neurotoxicity (and other adverse physical effects) when it remains elevated f...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nasr Farooqi, Martina Scotti, Jimin Lew, Kelly N. Botteron, Sherif Karama, James T. McCracken, Tuong-Vi Nguyen Source Type: research

Beyond the West: Chemosignaling of Emotions Transcends Ethno-Cultural Boundaries
The human sense of smell has long been underestimated, from the ancient Greeks, to Sigmund Freud, and beyond (Le Gu érer, 2002). Currently, pseudoscientific ideas about poor human olfaction are being replaced by empirical studies showing excellent human smell skills (McGann, 2017). Indeed, one capacity humans share with super smeller species is social communication (Stevenson, 2010): Human body odor can convey a person’s identity (Kuhn and Natsch, 2008), gender (Penn et al. 2007), age (e.g., Haze et al., 2001), sickness (Olsson et al. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jasper H.B. de Groot, Lisanne A.E.M. van Houtum, Ilse Gortemaker, Yuting Ye, Wei Chen, Wen Zhou, Monique A.M. Smeets Source Type: research

Stress burden and neuroendocrine regulation of cytokine production in patients with ulcerative colitis in remission
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic relapsing and remitting inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affecting the mucosal layer of the large intestine. Disease flares are characterized by intestinal mucosal inflammation, bloody diarrhea, fecal urgency, and abdominal pain. Despite considerable progress in research, the aetiology of UC remains elusive and is thought to be multifactorial, involving genetic and environmental factors, immune dysregulation, and alterations in intestinal microflora (Ananthakrishnan, 2015). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Harald Engler, Sigrid Elsenbruch, Laura Rebernik, Janina K öcke, Holger Cramer, Margarita Schöls, Jost Langhorst Source Type: research

Marital Distress, Depression, and a Leaky Gut: Translocation of Bacterial Endotoxin as a Pathway to Inflammation
Unhappy marriages take a toll on mental and physical health. For example, marital stress worsened the prognosis for recurrent coronary events three-fold (Orth-Gomer et al., 2000). Among patients with congestive heart failure, marital quality was as strong a predictor of four-year survival as well as patients ’ illness severity (Coyne et al., 2001). A meta-analysis reported that the relationships between marital quality and clinical health endpoints had statistical effect sizes similar in magnitude to the health effects of diet and exercise (Robles et al., 2014). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser, Stephanie J. Wilson, Michael L. Bailey, Rebecca Andridge, Juan Peng, Lisa M. Jaremka, Christopher P. Fagundes, William B. Malarkey, Bryon Laskowski, Martha A. Belury Source Type: research

The placebo and its effects: A psychoneuroendocrinological perspective
Placebos have a longstanding history, in which their effects to the most part have either been utilized to separate the therapeutic wheat from the interventional chaff or to comfort patients considered untreatable or incurable (Kaptchuk, 1998). But although its use in randomized placebo-controlled trials can be traced back to Henry K. Beecher (1955) notorious claim that the placebo having powerful clinical effects in a third of patients some 60 years ago, the underlying principle – to control incidental and to manipulate characteristic treatment constituents – was employed much earlier and also in non-medical s...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jens Gaab Tags: Review Source Type: research

Childhood maltreatment, pituitary volume and adolescent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis – evidence for a maltreatment-related attenuation
Child maltreatment is a widespread phenomenon affecting the lives of millions of children all over the world (Stoltenborgh et al., 2015). Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that experiences of childhood maltreatment lead to enduring changes in both the activity, and particularly the reactivity, of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA); however, data on the exact developmental pathways of these alterations are rare (McCrory et al., 2010; Tarullo and Gunnar, 2006). The HPAA is one of the major stress response systems of the human body (Gunnar and Quevedo, 2007); HPAA activation causes the release of corticotro...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michael Kaess, Sarah Whittle, Laurie O ’Brien-Simpson, Nicholas B. Allen, Julian G. Simmons Source Type: research

Perinatal high fat diet induces early activation of endocrine stress responsivity and anxiety-like behavior in neonatal offspring
Worldwide, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity prevalence, including in women of reproductive age (Fisher et al., 2013). Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic and neuropsychological disorders later in life (Dearden and Ozanne, 2015; Rivera et al., 2015). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the mediator of the endocrine stress response, is sensitive to environmental factors early in life and HPA programming is associated with anxiety behaviors later in life (McGowan and Matthews, 2017). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sameera Abuaish, Richard L. Spinieli, Patrick O. McGowan Source Type: research

Aerobic exercise lengthens telomeres and reduces stress in family caregivers: A randomized controlled trial - Curt Richter Award Paper 2018
In the United States, the number of people aged 65 and over is expected to nearly double by 2050, from approximately 40 million (~14% of the population) in 2012 to greater than 80 million, or ~22% of the population (Ortman et al. 2014). These numbers are equally striking worldwide. Even though populations are ageing, older adults are not necessarily increasing their healthspan (i.e., years of maintained good health) (GBD 2015 DALYs and HALE Collaborators et al. 2016). Non-communicable, preventable diseases account for the majority of deaths in adults across the globe (Lozano et al. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eli Puterman, Jordan Weiss, Jue Lin, Samantha Schilf, Aaron Slusher, Kirsten L. Johansen, Elissa S. Epel Source Type: research

COMMENTARY: Sex and an Eye Test
The paper by Strandqvist and colleagues on cognitive abilities in women with disorders of development ( DSD) reports a striking finding: sex chromosomes determine emotion recognition. How did they arrive at such a dramatic conclusion? They studied women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome ( CAIS) who are XY and women with gonadal dysgenesis ( GD) with either XX or XY chromosomes. None were exposed in utero to androgens, either because of resistance to their action (CAIS) or from lack of androgen production (GD).Thus the effect of androgens on, for example, spatial ability well recognised to be sex dimorphic is re...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ieuan Hughes Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Environmental enrichment prevents acute restraint stress-induced anxiety-related behavior but not changes in basolateral amygdala spine density
Either acute restraint stress (2  h) or systemic injection of corticosterone (CORT, a rodent GC) in rats leads to anxiety-like behavior and dendritic branches remodeling in the BLA 10- 12 days later (Mitra et al., 2005; Mitra and Sapolsky, 2008). In a previous study, we found that exposure to EE prevented anxiety-related behavior in adult rats observed immediately after acute restraint stress, but it is not yet known whether EE affects the persistent effects of acute stress (Novaes et al., 2017). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Leonardo Santana Novaes, Nilton Barreto dos Santos, Juliano Genaro Perfetto, Ki Ann Goosens, Carolina Demarchi Munhoz Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Molecular basis of Gender Dysphoria: androgen and estrogen receptor interaction
Transsexualism in ICD-10 (World Health Organization, 1993), Gender Identity Disorder in DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000), Gender Dysphoria in DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) or Gender Incongruence in ICD-11 (World Health Organization, 2018) are characterized by a marked incongruence between one ´s experienced gender and biological sex (World Health Organization, 1993). Transsexuals are individuals who seek, or have undergone, a social transition from male-to-female (MtF) or female-to-male (FtM) that in many, but not all cases involves a somatic transition through cross-sex hormone tre...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rosa Fern ández, Antonio Guillamón, Joselyn Cortés-Cortés, Esther Gómez-Gil, Amalia Jácome, Isabel Esteva, MariCruz Almaraz, Mireia Mora, Gloria Aranda, Eduardo Pásaro Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: Sex and the Eye test
We read professor Hughes commentary on our manuscript “Cognitive abilities in women with complete androgen insensitivity or gonadal dysgenesis” with great interest. He acknowledges that we, quite unexpectedly, found that on a test of emotion recognition (the eye test) women with either androgen insensitivity or gonadal dysgenesis, both groups havin g XY chromosomes and lacking early androgen effects, performed inferior to women in the control group that we assume have 46,XX karyotype. In addition, they performed inferior to a small group of women with XX gonadal dysgenesis, lacking early androgen and oestrogen ...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - August 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anna Strandqvist, Agneta Herlitz, Agneta Nordenskj öld, Lisa Örtqvist, Louise Frisén, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg, Anna Nordenström Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Effects of acute olanzapine exposure on central insulin-mediated regulation of whole body fuel selection and feeding
The use of antipsychotics (APs) is increasing at an alarming rate, owing to expanding on- and off-label uses in adults and children (Pringsheim and Gardner, 2014). This is concerning due to the severe metabolic side effects associated with chronic and acute AP-use. In addition to the increased propensity for weight gain and related comorbidities (Bergman and Ader, 2005), acute AP-exposure is associated with rapid, unmatched fuel repartitioning (Klingerman et al., 2014). Specifically, treatment with the AP olanzapine has been shown to increase hepatic glucose output (Houseknecht et al., 2007) and decrease adipose tissue lip...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Laura N. Castellani, Jennifer Wilken, Andrew Abela, Louise Benarroch, Zohra Ahasan, Celine Teo, Virginia Wilson, Chantel Kowalchuk, Adria Giacca, Gary J. Remington, Margaret K. Hahn Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Targeted sensory enrichment therapy is protective against behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of early life stress
In the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), preterm infants undergo stressful and often painful procedures (Brummelte et al., 2012) and are at a heightened risk of acquiring nosocomial or other types of infections (Hornik et al., 2012; Stoll et al., 2004; Stoll et al., 2010). In combination with parental separation, early life stressors such as these are associated with permanent alterations in neurobiological, hormonal, and adverse behavioral outcomes (see Mooney-Leber& Brummelte, 2017; Rand et al., 2016). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Amanda. C Kentner, Stephanie Scalia, Junyoung Shin, Mattia M. Migliore, Alejandro. N. Rond ón-Ortiz Source Type: research

No compelling evidence that more physically attractive young adult women have higher estradiol or progesterone
Many researchers have hypothesized that human attractiveness judgments are psychological adaptations for identifying high-quality mates (Grammer et al., 2003; Little et al., 2011; Thornhill and Gangestad, 1999). Researchers have also hypothesized that fertility, as indexed by high levels of estradiol and/or progesterone, is a particularly important aspect of women's mate quality (Grammer et al., 2003; Little et al., 2011; Thornhill and Gangestad, 1999). Although this proposal has become very influential in the human attractiveness and mate choice literatures, evidence that more physically attractive women have higher estra...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Benedict C. Jones, Amanda C. Hahn, Claire I. Fisher, Hongyi Wang, Michal Kandrik, Junpeng Lao, Chengyang Han, Anthony J. Lee, Iris J. Holzleitner, Lisa M. DeBruine Source Type: research

The Role of Co-Rumination and Adrenocortical Attunement in Young Women ’s Close Friendships
Same sex close friends serve as essential sources of social support, particularly for females (Byrd-Craven& Geary, 2013). These friendships are typically characterized by dyadic self-disclosure, empathy, and high validation and support (Parker& Asher, 1993). The give and take within the relationship is highly monitored, with a greater fragility of the relationship resulting from lack of equity (Benenson& Christakos, 2003). The female-typical cognitive style of internalization of distress, rumination, and focus on relationship dynamics (Lewinsohn et al., 1997), provide an avenue to achieve intimacy by discussing...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ashley Rankin, CaSandra Swearingen-Stanborough, Douglas A. Granger, Jennifer Byrd-Craven Source Type: research

Childhood trauma dependent anxious depression sensitizes HPA axis function
Anxious depression is a common subtype of major depression with a reported proportion ranging between 45-55%. It has been associated with an increased severity (Fava et al, 2004), worse response to treatment (Domschke et al, 2010; Fava et al, 2008), increased suicidality (Tollefson et al, 1994) and increased functional impairment (Joffe et al, 1993). Despite the huge burden and severe consequences DSM-5 does not recognize anxious depression as a diagnostic subtype, but it provides the option to add the specifier “anxious distress”. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andreas Menke, Dominik Lehrieder, Jasmin Fietz, Carolin Leistner, Catherina Wurst, Saskia Stonawski, Jannika Reitz, Karin Lechner, Yasmin Busch, Heike Weber, J ürgen Deckert, Katharina Domschke Source Type: research

Sleep Quality is Differentially Related to Adiposity in Adults
The prevalence of obesity has steadily risen worldwide in the last few decades and has become a major public health issue. More than one-third of adults (34.9%) in the United States are obese (Ogden et al., 2013). Obesity, particularly in the visceral region, is related to increased risk of diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and some cancers (Tchernof and Despres, 2013). Measures such as body mass index (BMI) and weight give limited information about disease risk because they lack the ability to determine body fat distribution. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: S. Katherine Sweatt, Barbara A. Gower, Angela Y. Chieh, Yang Liu, Li Li Source Type: research

Low estradiol is linked to increased skin conductance, but not subjective anxiety or affect, in response to an impromptu speech task
Anxiety disorders are characterized by impaired fear regulation. Exposure therapy is the most effective psychotherapeutic treatment for anxiety (Vervliet et al., 2013), involving exposure to situations that evoke fear, leading to a reduction in this emotion. Evidence suggests sex hormones modulate fear extinction, the laboratory basis of exposure therapy, which involves repeated non-reinforced exposure to a fear-eliciting conditioned stimulus (CS; i.e., a stimulus that was previously paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus; US, like shock). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Emily C White, Bronwyn M Graham Source Type: research

Radiolabel Validation of Cortisol in the Hair of Rhesus Monkeys
Hair is becoming an increasingly popular matrix to measure cortisol as a biomarker of stress. It has been used in a diverse range of topics including: autism (Ogawa et al., 2017), the impact of asthma in children (Kamps et al., 2014), socioeconomic status (Vliegenthart et al., 2016), sleep (Maurer et al., 2016) as well as the association of hair cortisol with disease (e.g. Pereg et al., 2013). It has also been used to assess steroid hormones in utero from neonates, a measure that is only possible in hair, and more recently nails (Tegethoff et al., 2011), without invasive sampling. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Amita Kapoor, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Toni E. Ziegler Source Type: research

Antenatal depression programs cortisol stress reactivity in offspring through increased maternal inflammation and cortisol in pregnancy: The Psychiatry Research and Motherhood – Depression (PRAM-D) Study
In clinical studies, depression in pregnancy (antenatal depression) has been recognized as a key clinical risk factor for the transmission of abnormal mental health and behavior to the offspring generation, over and above the effects of disrupted maternal care due to postnatal depression (Davis et al., 2007; Pawlby et al., 2009; Gerardin et al., 2010; Hay et al., 2010; Pearson et al., 2013; Van Batenburg-Eddes et al., 2013). These effects of antenatal depression are wide-ranging, and include adverse effects on neonatal behavior (Zuckerman et al., 1990; Field et al., 2004a; Diego et al., 2005; Goodman et al., 2011; Pacheco ...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: S. Osborne, A. Biaggi, T.E. Chua, A. Du Preez, K. Hazelgrove, N. Nikkheslat, G. Previti, P.A. Zunszain, S. Conroy, C.M. Pariante Source Type: research

Early life stress accelerates age-induced effects on neurogenesis, depression, and metabolic risk
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors that include obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. MetS increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and shows a high comorbidity with depression (Zanoveli et al., 2016). However, this relationship is complex and poorly understood. Clinical evidence has shown that while T2DM did not predict symptoms of depression or anxiety, these symptoms emerged as significant risk factors for the onset of T2DM. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Roberto Ruiz, Ang élica Roque, Edel Pineda, Paula Licona-Limón, Juan José Valdéz-Alarcón, Naima Lajud Source Type: research

Peer victimization and diurnal cortisol rhythm among children affected by parental HIV: Mediating effects of emotional regulation and gender differences
Peer victimization is a wide-spread issue among school-aged children. Previous research estimated that approximately 70% of school children were targets of peer victimization (Finkelhor et al., 2009), with 10% experiencing frequent peer victimization (Reijntjes et al., 2010). Notably, peer victimization is a potent risk factor for poor physical and mental health during childhood and adolescence (Cluver et al., 2010; Hager and Leadbeater, 2016). The effect of childhood peer victimization on health may even persist through adulthood (Wolke et al., 2013). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yanping Jiang, Xiaoming Li, Lihua Chen, Guangyu Zhou, Junfeng Zhao, Guoxiang Zhao Source Type: research

Peripheral DNA methylation of HPA axis-related genes in humans: cross-tissue convergence, two-year stability and behavioural and neural correlates
An increasing body of evidence spanning over the past decade supports the potential role of epigenetic processes in the development and maintenance of psychiatric disorders. One of these mechanisms is through the effects of HPA axis dysregulation. Indeed, one widely postulated hypothesis suggests that stress has a long-lasting influence on gene expression through epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, which can disrupt behavioural and physiological outcomes by interfering with neurobiological pathways (Szyf, 2013). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jessica Di Sante, Elmira Ismaylova, Zsofia Nemoda, Jean-Philippe Gouin, Wei-Jo Yu, Warren Caldwell, Frank Vitaro, Moshe Szyf, Richard E. Tremblay, Linda Booij Source Type: research

Obesity influences white matter integrity in schizophrenia
Schizophrenia associates with metabolic alterations and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes, various cancers, and overall mortality (Vancampfort et al., 2013). Possibly due to unhealthy life-style and antipsychotics side-effects (Mitchell et al., 2013), patients with schizophrenia have an increased weight or comorbid obesity in 40-60%. Metabolic alteration are detectable at the earliest stages of illness, and their incidence increases in multi-episode patients (Minichino et al., 2017). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marco Spangaro, Elena Mazza, Sara Poletti, Roberto Cavallaro, Francesco Benedetti Source Type: research

Associations between adrenarcheal hormones, amygdala functional connectivity and anxiety symptoms in children
Anxiety disorders are common in childhood and adolescence (Costello et al., 2003). They have an early median age of onset compared to other forms of psychopathology, such as depression (Kessler et al., 2005), and often persist through adolescence (Costello et al., 2003). Further, elevated anxiety symptoms during childhood are associated with increased risk for later anxiety and depressive disorders (Keenan et al., 2009). The transition from childhood to adolescence seems to be a particularly vulnerable period for the development of anxiety symptoms and disorders. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marjolein E.A. Barendse, Julian G. Simmons, Michelle L. Byrne, George Patton, Lisa Mundy, Craig A. Olsson, Marc L. Seal, Nicholas B. Allen, Sarah Whittle Source Type: research

Alcohol consumption is positively associated with fasting serum ghrelin in non-dependent adults: Results from the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study
Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide hormone, which is predominantly synthesized in the stomach. A multitude of potential functions of ghrelin has been described including potent effects on different endocrine axes (Kluge et al., 2007 2010b, 2013; Takaya et al., 2000) as well as various other peripheral (e.g. increasing intestinal motility and cardiac output (M üller et al., 2015)) and central effects, e.g. on sleep (Kluge et al., 2010a) or learning (Diano et al., 2006). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dirk Alexander Wittekind, J ürgen Kratzsch, Roland Mergl, Cornelia Enzenbach, A. Veronica Witte, Arno Villringer, Michael Kluge Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid receptor exon 1F methylation and the cortisol stress response in health and disease
Stress is arguably the most common environmental factor leading to psychopathology (Smoller, 2016), and its effects are especially detrimental when occurring during childhood (Carr et al., 2013; Nanni et al., 2012). This persisting impact of stress during development is thought to be partially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. A seminal study in 2004 proposed the 1F region of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to be of crucial importance in this context (Weaver et al., 2004). Pups of low licking-grooming dams showed higher methylation in the rat ortholog of the 1F region, which was linked to impaired feedback by corticoster...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Remmelt R. Sch ür, Judith M.C. van Leeuwen, Lotte C. Houtepen, Marian Joëls, René S. Kahn, Marco P. Boks, Christiaan H. Vinkers Source Type: research

Pathophysiology in a model of Gulf War Illness: Contributions of pyridostigmine bromide and stress
The Gulf War was unusual in its use of pyridostigmine bromide (PB) as prophylactic treatment against toxicity from nerve gas agents. However, this prophylactic treatment along with the stress of deployment may have caused unexpected alterations in neural and immune function, resulting in a host of cognitive deficits which are a component of symptoms now clinically termed Gulf War Illness (GWI). Although GWI is considered a unique diagnosis for veterans deployed in the Gulf War, symptomology of GWI parallels symptoms of other conditions in civilian populations, including chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), major depressive diso...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: V.A. Macht, J.L. Woodruff, C.A. Grillo, C.S. Wood, M.A. Wilson, L.P. Reagan Source Type: research

Prenatal and postnatal cortisol and testosterone are related to parental caregiving quality in fathers, but not in mothers
The quality of parental caregiving is a critical factor in a child ’s cognitive and social-emotional development, with insensitive caregiving practices increasing the risk for developing various types of psychopathology (Gilbert et al., 2009; Keyes et al., 2012; Morris et al., 2013; Pechtel and Pizzagalli, 2011). It is therefore of great importance to understand the underlying factors that bring forth variation in parents’ caregiving quality, including endocrine factors (Bos, 2017; Feldman, 2015; Rilling, 2013). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Peter A. Bos, Christine Hechler, Roseriet Beijers, Kazuyuki Shinohar, Gianluca Esposito, Carolina de Weerth Source Type: research

Sexual Orientation and Salivary Alpha-Amylase Diurnal Rhythms in a Cohort of U.S. Young Adults
Sexual orientation-related physical and mental health disparities have been well-documented in the United States. Sexual minorities report greater prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), disordered eating, and other adverse health outcomes compared with heterosexual populations (Institute of Medicine, 2011). Both stress and attachment paradigms suggest that health inequities adversely affecting sexual minorities result from social stigmatization enacted through discrimination, harassment, abuse, and violence (Minority Stress Theory) (Meyer, 2003; Rosario et al., 2002) and from ...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: S. Bryn Austin, Margaret Rosario, Katie A. McLaughlin, Andrea L. Roberts, Vishnudas Sarda, Kimberly Yu, Stacey Missmer, Laura Anatale-Tardiff, Emily A. Scherer Source Type: research

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and dysregulations in biological stress systems
Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) consist of e.g. α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and are primarily found in fatty fish, along with some other seafood, and certain nuts and seeds (Simopoulos, 1999). N-3 PUFAs have anti-inflammatory properties and are suggested to positively influence brain functi oning (Smith et al., 2011). Low levels of n-3 PUFAs are observed in patients with several somatic or mental disorders, and accordingly several intervention studies have found a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on, for example, cardiovascular dis...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Carisha S. Thesing, Mariska Bot, Yuri Milaneschi, Erik J. Giltay, Brenda W.J.H. Penninx Source Type: research

A P2X7 receptor antagonist reverses behavioural alterations, microglial activation and neuroendocrine dysregulation in an unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model of depression in mice
Depression is a major public health challenge that has been the focus of intense research in the past. In 2010, in the Global Burden of Disease study, depressive disorders were found to be the 2nd leading cause of years lived with disability, and depression will rise to become the leading cause of disability by 2030 worldwide (Mathers and Loncar, 2006). The pathophysiology of depression is explained mainly on the basis of alterations in neuroplasticity and metabolism of monoamines. Though these theories have been translated into pharmacotherapy, 100% remission rates have still not been achieved (Santarelli et al., 2003). (...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rai Khalid Farooq, Arnaud Tanti, Samia Ainouche, S ébastien Roger, Catherine Belzung, Vincent Camus Source Type: research

Influence of pre-existing hypertension on neuroendocrine and cardiovascular changes evoked by chronic stress in female rats
Clinical and preclinical studies have indicated that the complications related to stress are determined by characteristics of the aversive stimulus, such as type, duration, frequency, controllability, and intensity (Crestani, 2016; Koolhaas et al., 2011; Steptoe and Kivim äki, 2012). The influence of predictability on animal models has been investigated by comparing the effects of chronic stressors involving daily exposure to the same type of aversive stimuli (i.e., homotypic/predictable) versus different stressors (i.e., heterotypic/unpredictable) (Crestani, 2016). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jonas O. Vieira, Josiane O. Duarte, Willian Costa-Ferreira, Carlos C. Crestani Source Type: research

Elevated salivary alpha-amylase levels at awakening in patients with depression
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders and the leading cause of disability worldwide (WHO, 2017). Despite extensive research, no specific biomarkers for MDD have been identified to date (Fried& Nesse, 2015). Although the mean level of salivary cortisol (SC; a hormone reflecting hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity) has often been found to be elevated in patients with mood, anxiety, and somatic disorders (MAS-disorders), this possible biomarker lacks the potential to distinguish among these disorders (Rief et al., 1998; Hellhammer et al., 2009). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: S.E.E.C. Bauduin, M.S. van Noorden, S.J.A. van der Werff, M. de Leeuw, A.M. van Hemert, N.J.A. van der Wee, E.J. Giltaya Source Type: research

Social-Evaluative Threat, Cognitive Load, and the Cortisol and Cardiovascular Stress Response
The social self-preservation model contends that humans are motivated to preserve the social self, or to maintain social esteem, acceptance, status, and value (Dickerson et al., 2004; Dickerson& Kemeny, 2004). Prototypical threats to this central goal are social-evaluative threats, or conditions in which an important aspect of self-identity is or could be negatively judged by others (Dickerson& Kemeny, 2004). We propose that these social-evaluative situations elicit a coordinated psychobiological response, including increases in cortisol. (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alex Woody, Emily D. Hooker, Peggy M. Zoccola, Sally S. Dickerson Source Type: research

Early-life socioeconomic disadvantage, not current, predicts accelerated epigenetic aging of monocytes
Aging-related chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Morbidity and mortality from these conditions are disproportionately high among socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals (Braveman& Barclay, 2009). Although much evidence comes from studies of socioeconomic status (SES) during adulthood, accumulating data suggest early-life SES is also associated with age-related health problems. Independent of adulthood SES, early-life SES confers increased risk for upper respiratory infection, premature death, and morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular d...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Makeda K. Austin, Edith Chen, Kharah M. Ross, Lisa M. McEwen, Julia L. Maclsaac, Michael S. Kobor, Gregory E. Miller Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Depressive Symptoms and Adipokines in Women: Study of Women ’s Health Across the Nation
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms have been linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and diabetes (Everson et al., 2002; Everson-Rose et al., 2004; Golden et al., 2004), all of which are metabolic risk factors that increase risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). A potential pathophysiologic pathway by which depression influences metabolic dysregulation is inflammation (Stewart et al., 2009; Rethorst et al., 2014). Clear associations have been reported between depression and C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), fibrinogen, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) (Maes, 1999...
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Susan A. Everson-Rose, Cari J. Clark, Qi Wang, Hongfei Guo, Peter Mancuso, Howard M. Kravitz, Joyce T. Bromberger Source Type: research