Can measuring hippocampal atrophy with a fully automatic method be substantially less noisy than manual segmentation over both 1 and 3 years?
Hippocampal atrophy is the amount of shrinkage of the hippocampus from one time point to the next. It can be measured with noninvasive MRI and is a widely validated surrogate outcome for Alzheimer's disease (AD) trials (Frisoni et al., 2010). It has been shown to be one of the first observable characteristics of AD (Bobinski et al., 1996). It also accelerates before the translation to clinical dementia (Jack et al., 2011) as part of the AD pathology cascade (Jack et al., 2010). Analysis of the images from the ADNI1 study found the median annualized atrophy rates were 1.5% (healthy controls (HC)), 2.4% (mildly cognitively i...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Keith S. Cover, Ronald A. van Schijndel, Paolo Bosco, Soheil Damangir, Alberto Redolfi, Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, neuGRID Source Type: research

A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed in Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Preliminary Behavioral and Brain Imaging Study
Alzheimer's disease imposes significant socioeconomic pressures on the national health care system, creating the necessity to develop valid screening tools that can be quickly applied in the clinic. Various screening tools have been developed for detecting dementia. For example, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is one of the most widely used, reliable, and valid diagnostic methods for dementia (Folstein  et al., 1975). However, the MMSE needs to be administered by highly trained practitioners. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Soowon Park, Suyeon Pyo, Seong A Shin, Ji Yeon Lee, Yu Kyeong Kim, Hyeon-Ju Park, Jung-Hae Youn, Sun-Won Park, Jun-Young Lee Source Type: research

Delayed hemodynamic responses associated with a history of suicide attempts in bipolar disorder: a multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy study
Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with a high risk of suicidal behavior compared with other major psychiatric disorders (Costa Lda et al., 2015; Goldstein et al., 2012). Although many clinical predictors of suicide have been reported, the strongest predictive factor of future suicide is a history of suicide attempts (Hawton and van Heeringen, 2009). Patients with BD spend the majority of their time in episodes of depression (Judd et al., 2002; Kupka et al., 2007). This is the predominant phase in BD and is also strongly associated with suicide attempts (Hawton et al., 2005; Saunders and Hawton, 2013). (Source: Psychiatry...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tomoyuki Hirose, Noa Tsujii, Wakako Mikawa, Osamu Shirakawa Source Type: research

Aggressiveness of martial artists correlates with reduced temporal pole grey matter concentration
From an evolutionary point of view, aggressive behaviour is a widespread phenomenon in animals and humans (Kr ämer et al., 2011; Pietrini and Bambini, 2009). Violence against the own species occurs in almost all mammals (Gómez et al., 2016; Porges and Decety, 2013). Lorenz (1963) has explained this remarkable abundance by reproductive advantages for more aggressive individuals and their aggression disposi ng genes. This kind of behaviour is a prerequisite for building and dominating hierarchies, which goes along with power and higher reproductive success (Elbert et al., 2010). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stephanie Breitschuh, Maria Sch öne, Leonardo Tozzi, Jörn Kaufmann, Hendrik Strumpf, Daniela Fenker, Thomas Frodl, Bernhard Bogerts, Kolja Schiltz Source Type: research

Impact of substance use disorder on gray matter volume in schizophrenia
Comorbid substance use disorders are highly prevalent in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum psychotic disorders and are associated with increased mortality, decreased treatment compliance, and worse outcomes (Ascher-Svanum et  al., 2006; Hjorthøj et al., 2015; Moore et al., 2012; Nesvåg et al., 2015; Volkow, 2009). It has been well documented that in schizophrenia there are gray matter deficits in multiple regions including the medial frontal gyrus, temporal cortex, insula, cingulate cortex, thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala (Ellison-Wright and Bullmore, 2010; Shepherd et al., 2...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Margaret Quinn, Maureen McHugo, Kristan Armstrong, Neil Woodward, Jennifer Blackford, Stephan Heckers Source Type: research

Systematic review of in-vivo neuro Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for the assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma and stressor-related disorder that results in complex somatic, cognitive, affective and behavioural effects, after exposure to traumatic event(s). PTSD is precipitated by a number of factors, including exposure to actual or threatened death or serious injury or a response to intense fear, helplessness or horror. PTSD is characterised by persistent re-experiencing of the traumatic event; avoidance of stimuli related to the trauma; and hyperarousal for at least one month post trauma (American Psychiatric Association, 1994), leading to significant psychosocial impairment for pa...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Scott Quadrelli, Carolyn Mountford, Saadallah Ramadan Source Type: research

Estimating Glutamate and Glx from GABA-Optimized MEGA-PRESS: Off-Resonance but not Difference Spectra Values Correspond to PRESS Values
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is a technique for the non-invasive measurement of neurometabolites in defined regions of the human brain. Using optimized acquisition sequences, 10 or more different brain metabolites may be present in sufficiently high concentration to be measurable with clinical scanners. Among these metabolites, glutamate and GABA are of particular interest, as their functions include serving as the principal excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, respectively. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Richard J. Maddock, Michael D. Caton, J. Daniel Ragland Source Type: research

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the neural correlates of psychological therapies in major depression
Major depression is the most prevalent of the mental health disorders, affecting an estimated 350 million people globally, and is the leading cause of disability worldwide (Vos  et al., 2015). The disorder is associated with a high risk of relapse, which is about 50% following the first depressive episode and increases up to 80% after two episodes (Mueller et al., 1999). Treatments which can reduce the risk of a depressive relapse are essential for supporting recovery and for maintaining interpersonal, social and occupational functioning. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anjali Sankar, Alice Melin, Valentina Lorenzetti, Paul Horton, Sergi G. Costafreda, Cynthia H.Y Fu Source Type: research

Brain metabolism changes in women with BPD undergoing olanzapine treatment
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by symptoms (e.g. impulsivity) that are difficult to treat (Soloff  and Fabio, 2008). Research is needed to better understand both the underlying neural mechanisms of BPD and the mechanisms of existing treatments. Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) studies have identified hypometabolism in frontally mediated networks associated with impaire d emotion processing and impulsivity in BPD (Mauchnik and Schmahl, 2010; Schulze et al., 2016; Soloff et al., 2000). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jazmin Camchong, Kathryn R. Cullen, Kelvin O. Lim, S. Charles Schulz Source Type: research

Registration-based methods applied to serial high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of brain volume changes in anorexia nervosa of the restricting type
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a relentless pursuit of thinness and a refusal to maintain the body weight at a minimally acceptable standard for age and height, an abnormal concern about gaining weight, and a disturbance in the way the body weight or shape are experienced, along with a persistent lack in recognizing the severity of the associated weight loss (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, 2013; Klein and Walsh, 2003). AN has the highest rate of mortality among psychiatric disorders, its average prevalence is approximately 0.3%, and up to 90% of patients with AN are young women (H...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mariana Santos, Eva Os ório, Sarah Finnegan, Matt Clarkson, Sertório Timóteo, Isabel Brandão, António Roma-Torres, Nick C. Fox, António J. Bastos-Leite Source Type: research

Cortical properties of adults with autism spectrum disorder and an IQ > 100
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an umbrella term comprising several neurodevelopmental conditions. These conditions share deficits in social communication and interaction, as well as repetitive and stereotypic behaviors and interests. The last decades of ASD research made evident that ASD is not a single clinical entity (Levy  et al., 2009), but rather the behavioral manifestation of hundreds of genetic and genomic disorders (Betancur, 2011; Stessman et al., 2014), in interaction with environmental etiological factors (e.g. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Simon Maier, Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Evgeniy Perlov, Ansgard Lena D üppers, Kathrin Nickel, Thomas Fangmeier, Dominique Endres, Andreas Riedel Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Functional magnetic resonance imaging with encoding task in patients with mild cognitive impairment and different severity of leukoaraiosis
Dementia is one of the most relevant causes of disability in the elderly as it affects 5.4% of people over 65 years and its prevalence increases with age. Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the main type of dementia, however vascular dementia (VaD) is also frequently encountered (Di  Carlo et al., 2002). VaD is often caused by small vessel disease (SVD) whose pathological hallmarks are represented by leukoaraiosis (also called age related changes in white matter), lacunar infarcts, microbleeds and parenchymal haemorrhage (Pantoni, 2010). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alberto Chiti, Paolo Cecchi, Ilaria Pesaresi, Giovanni Orlandi, Nicola Giannini, Gino Gialdini, Eva Terni, Gloria Tognoni, Leda Volpi, Cristina Pagni, Irene Ghicopulos, Gabriele Siciliano, Maria Teresa Dotti, Antonio Federico, Anna Poggesi, Emilia Salvado Source Type: research

Association of Excessive Social Media Use with Abnormal White Matter Integrity of the Corpus Callosum
The use of social media sites can excite the reward centers of the brain (Meshi et al., 2013; Meshi et al., 2015). Hence, some people may develop excessive use patterns that may provide immediate reinforcing rewards but be disadvantageous in the long-run, and infringe users' normal functioning (Montag et al., 2017; Montag et al., 2018). Excessive social media use (ESMU) is defined as an excessive behavioral pattern of social media use that has adverse effects on individuals by producing addiction-like symptoms, including salience, withdrawal, mood modification, relapse, conflict, and tolerance" (He et al., 2017b). (So...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Qinghua He, Ofir Turel, Antoine Bechara Source Type: research

Neural correlates of response bias: Larger hippocampal volume correlates with symptom aggravation in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex and debilitating psychiatric disorder, caused by exposure to traumatic events. PTSD is characterized by hyperarousal, avoidance, and re-experiencing, including intrusive memories and sensory flashbacks of the traumatic event (American  Psychiatric Association, 2013). Diagnosis of PTSD is made by a clinical assessment of the nature of the traumatic event, the duration since the event, the symptoms experienced, and the level of functional impairment. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Oisin Butler, Kerstin Herr, Gerd Willmund, J ürgen Gallinat, Peter Zimmermann, Simone Kühn Source Type: research

Dental Health in advanced age and Alzheimer ´s Disease: A possible link with bacterial toxins entering the brain?
While abnormal deposition of amyloid beta protein in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the debate about its pathogenetic role has undergone several twists (Maurer and Hoyer, 2006), the latest of which is a possible link with antimicrobial activity (Kumar et al., 2016). Amyloid beta oligomers have been found to exert intrinsic antibacterial and antifungal effects by binding to cell walls and inhibiting adhesion to host tissues (Kumar et al., 2016). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Konrad Maurer, Sven Rahming, David Prvulovic Source Type: research

Aberrant functional connectivity between the thalamus and visual cortex is related to attentional impairment in schizophrenia
Cognitive impairment, a core feature of schizophrenia, is one of the most critical factors determining functional outcomes (Green  et al., 2000). Although the pathophysiological mechanism of schizophrenia is unclear, it has been characterized as a neurodevelopmental disorder of brain dysconnectivity (Friston et al., 2016). There is considerable evidence suggesting that the thalamus is a crucial component of this dysconnect ivity (Pergola et al., 2015). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Maeri Yamamoto, Itaru Kushima, Ryohei Suzuki, Aleksic Branko, Naoko Kawano, Toshiya Inada, Tetsuya Iidaka, Norio Ozaki Source Type: research

Changes in amygdala, cerebellum, and nucleus accumbens volumes in bipolar patients treated with lamotrigine
Bipolar disorder type II (BD-II) is characterized by frequent depressive phases, comorbidities such as anxiety and personality disorders, and high risk for disability and suicidal behaviors (Dell'Osso, Holtzman, Goffin, Portillo, Hooshmand, Miller et  al., 2015; Holma, Haukka, Suominen, Valtonen, Mantere, Melartin et al., 2014; Nordentoft and Mortensen, 2011). BD II patients are also at elevated risk for relapse and recurrence, which increase their risk for self-harm and suicide (Holma et al., 2014). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Isabelle E. Bauer, Robert Suchting, Fadwa Cazala, Gokay Alpak, Marsal Sanches, Fabiano G. Nery, Giovana B. Zunta-Soares, Jair C. Soares Source Type: research

Increased cognitive control and reduced emotional interference is associated with reduced PTSD symptom severity in a trauma-exposed sample: A preliminary longitudinal study
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) impacts approximately 15 million individuals each year in the United States alone (Kilpatrick et al., 2013). Neuroimaging work has begun to describe at least some of the pathophysiology underpinning PTSD. Individuals with PTSD show an increased amygdala response to emotional stimuli (Blair et al., 2013; El Khoury-Malhame et al., 2011; Hayes et al., 2012; Rauch et al., 2006; Shin and Liberzon, 2010), as well as disrupted recruitment of regions implicated in cognitive control, including emotion regulation (Blair et al., 2013; New et al., 2009; Pannu Hayes et al., 2009; Rabinak et al., 201...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stuart F. White, Michelle E. Costanzo, Laura C. Thornton, Alita M. Mobley, James R. Blair, Michael J. Roy Source Type: research

A Longitudinal Human Phantom Reliability Study of Multi-Center T1-weighted, DTI, and resting state fMRI Data
This study is being conducted as a part of the NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. SSDs have been associated with changes across several structural and functional neuroimaging metrics, including deficits in white matter identified via cortical thickness (Schultz et al., 2010; Wheeler et al., 2015), diffusion imaging (Voineskos et al. , 2010), and resting state functional connectivity (Rotarska-Jagiela et al., 2010; Zhou et al., 2007). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Colin Hawco, Joseph D. Viviano, Sofia Chavez, Erin W. Dickie, Navona Calarco, Peter Kochunov, Miklos Argyelan, Jessica Turner, Anil K. Malhotra, Robert W. Buchanan, Aristotle N. Voineskos, for the SPINS Group Source Type: research

Neurometabolic Abnormalities in the Associative Striatum in Antipsychotic-na ïve First Episode Psychosis Patients
Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder often characterized by a remitting and relapsing course that can be progressive in its nature. Noteworthy efforts have been made to better understand the underlying neurobiology with respect to illness stages as a pivotal step in designing targeted interventions and alleviating disease burden. In this regard, the focus on first episode psychosis (FEP) patients is especially promising. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Soumya Sivaraman, Nina V. Kraguljac, David M. White, Charity J. Morgan, Sara S. Gonzales, Adrienne C. Lahti Source Type: research

Fronto-striatal effective connectivity of working memory in adults with cannabis use disorder
The expanding decriminalization of cannabis in the United States has brought forth debate and scrutiny regarding potentially detrimental cognitive effects of cannabis. Both animal (Rubino and Parolaro, 2014) and human (Schweinsburg et al., 2008a; Martin-Santos et al., 2010; Wrege et al., 2014) studies show that cannabis use disorder (CUD) is associated with altered working memory function (Solowij and Battisti, 2008; Crean et al., 2011; Schoeler and Bhattacharyya, 2013) and other cognitive dysfunction (Quickfall and Crockford, 2006; Bhattacharyya et al., 2012; Batalla et al., 2013). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Liangsuo Ma, Joel L. Steinberg, James M. Bjork, Lori Keyser-Marcus, Jasmin Vassileva, Min Zhu, Venkatesh Ganapathy, Qin Wang, Edward L. Boone, Sergi Ferr é, Warren K. Bickel, F. Gerard Moeller Source Type: research

Higher fasting plasma glucose is associated with smaller striatal volume and poorer fine motor skills in a longitudinal cohort
This study investigated the relationship between blood glucose levels, striatal volume and fine motor skills in a longitudinal cohort of cognitively healthy individuals living in the community with normal or impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tianqi Zhang, Marnie Shaw, Erin Walsh, Perminder Sachdev, Kaarin J. Anstey, Nicolas Cherbuin Source Type: research

Effects of Valproate on brain volumes in pediatric bipolar disorder: a preliminary study
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a major health problem with a prevalence of about 4% in the general population (Ketter, 2010). Advances in the diagnosis and characterization of pediatric BD (PBD) showed that the early onset cases may constitute a particularly severe form of the illness (Ferreira-Maia et al., 2016). Early prevention and treatment are therefore primary research goals in this field. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fadwa Cazala, Robert Suchting, Cristian P. Zeni, Isabelle E. Bauer, Benson Mwangi, Mon-Ju Wu, Ives Cavalcante Passos, Danielle E. Spiker, Giovanna B. Zunta-Soares, Jair C. Soares Source Type: research

A novel task for examining the neural basis of Theory of Mind deficits in Bipolar Disorder
Theory of mind is the ability to understand emotions, thoughts, and desires in oneself and others (Happ é, 2003). Theory of mind is thus fundamental to human cognition and social behavior, as it enables people to understand others and predict their behaviors, and because it precedes feelings of sympathy and prosocial behavior (Kerr, Dunbar,& Bentall, 2003). Several studies have reported that even when euthymic, people with bipolar disorder (BD) have measurable abnormalities in ToM processing (Bora, Bartholomeusz,& Pantelis, 2016; Mitchell& Young, 2016). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kiran Grant, Stefanie Hassel, Jacqueline A Bobyn, Geoffrey BC Hall, Glenda M MacQueen Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

High Correlations between MRI Brain Volume Measurements based on NeuroQuant ® and FreeSurfer
Previously we compared NeuroQuant ® (NQ) and FreeSurfer (FS), two software applications that identify MRI brain regions and measure brain volume (Ochs, Ross, Zannoni, Abildskov and Bigler, 2015). Herein, we report on an extension of that study. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David E. Ross, Alfred L. Ochs, David F. Tate, Umit Tokac, John Seabaugh, Tracy J. Abildskov, Erin D. Bigler Source Type: research

A Pilot Study of GABAB Correlates with Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Five Depressed Female Adolescents
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is diagnosed clinically using functional and mood-related impairments that are suggestive of but not specific to underlying neuropathology. There is significant variation in the etiology of MDD and in the response to treatment between patients (Kupfer et al., 2012). Rapidly implementable biomarkers are needed to characterize patient phenotypes and inform treatment plans. This is especially true for adolescents, in whom disease processes and neuromodulatory treatments interact with the developing brain. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Irena Balzekas, Charles P. Lewis, Julia Shekunov, John D. Port, Gregory A. Worrell, Hang Joon Jo, Paul E. Croarkin Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Gaming-addicted teens identify more with their cyber-self than their own self: neural evidence
Self-concept, as a stable essence, is based on the beliefs of individual's cognitive uniqueness, constancy and continuity (Erikson, 1959; Yi, 2002). Recognizing oneself as a being with cognitive, social and emotional characteristics distinct from other people is a starting point of self-awareness and a basis of self-knowledge. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eun Jung Choi, Margot J. Taylor, Soon-Beom Hong, Changdai Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Roger S. McIntyre, Soon-Hyung Yi Source Type: research

Elevated hippocampal choline level is associated with altered functional connectivity in females with major depressive disorder: a pilot study
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe worldwide public health problem, characterized by persistent low mood and anhedonia (Kupfer et al., 2012). Dysfunction of the limbic-cortical pathway, which dominates emotion processing and regulation, plays an important role in MDD pathophysiology (Hamilton et al., 2011; Mayberg, 2003). As one of the most influential network models of MDD, the limbic-cortical model suggests abnormal reciprocal interactions between the limbic system and the cortex in MDD, resulting in affective and cognitive abnormalities (Kaiser et al., 2015). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yingying Tang, Xiaoliu Zhang, Jianhua Sheng, Xuanhong Zhang, Jianye Zhang, Jiale Xu, Yajing Zhu, Junjie Wang, Tianhong Zhang, Shanbao Tong, Lipeng Ning, Manhua Liu, Yao Li, Jijun Wang Source Type: research

Neuroimaging investigations of dorsal stream processing and effects of stimulus synchrony in schizophrenia
Impairments in perception are recognized as a core deficit of schizophrenia (Green  et al., 2004). These include specific deficits in auditory and visual processing (Rojas et al., 2002; Williams et al., 2011; Butler et al., 2008). However, it remains unclear how these types of unisensory deficits impact cognitive functioning and behavioral outcomes in schizophrenia patients ( SP) despite studies implicating links. Multisensory integration (MSI) represents an important extension to studies of unisensory processing. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lori Sanfratello, Cheryl Aine, Julia Stephen Source Type: research

Formal thought disorder is related to aberrations in language-related white matter tracts in patients with schizophrenia
Formal thought disorder (FTD) is a severe language disturbance and a core syndrome of schizophrenia (Bleuler, 1958). This syndrome, however, is not only found in schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders, but also in the general population, in people at high risk of developing psychosis, and in people with non-psychotic disorders (Roche et al., 2015). Therefore, FTD should be considered as both a dimensional entity of speech pathology and a categorical entity in terms of a trait marker for psychosis (Roche et al., 2015). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marialuisa Cavelti, Stephanie Winkelbeiner, Andrea Federspiel, Sebastian Walther, Katharina Stegmayer, St éphanie Giezendanner, Karin Laimböck, Thomas Dierks, Werner Strik, Helge Horn, Philipp Homan Source Type: research

Structural and functional alterations of the suicidal brain: an updated review of neuroimaging studies
Brain imaging is a non-invasive and in vivo direct estimation of detailed brain structure, regional brain functioning and estimation of molecular processes in the brain. The main objective of this review was to systematically analyze functional and structural neuroimaging studies in individuals at risk for suicide. We reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2018, indexed in PubMed and Medline, assessing structural and functional alterations of the brain of individuals at high risk for suicide and at low risk for suicide. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ali Bani-Fatemi, Samia Tasmim, Ariel Graff, Philip Gerretsen, John Strauss, Nathan Kolla, Gianfranco Spalletta, Vincenzo De Luca Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Trait and state anxiety is marked by increased working memory-related parietal BOLD signal
Anxiety disorders are closely associated with compromised cognitive and behavioural functions, and this compromised functionality has neurological underpinnings (Stefanopoulou et al., 2014). Cognitive functions, such as working memory, are modulated by the cognitive control network, and this network has been shown to be compromised at clinical and non-clinical levels of anxiety (Moran, 2016; Vytal et al., 2012), suggesting a spectrum of associated neurological deficits. As such, utilising non-clinical, unmedicated populations in the identification of anxiety-related neural markers may aid in the development of preventative...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Talitha C. Ford, Tamara Simpson, Grace McPhee, Con Stough, Luke A. Downey Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

fMRI Classification Method with Multiple Feature Fusion Based on Minimum Spanning Tree Analysis
The human brain is a complex system with a sophisticated structure. As a non-invasive way to measure spontaneous neural activity in the human brain, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has attracted considerable attention (Fox et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2010). Resting-state fMRI using blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals as neurophysiological indicators can detect spontaneous low-frequency brain activity and has been successfully applied to the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric diseases such as epilepsy (Horstmann et al., 2010; Raj et al., 2010), Alzheimer's disease (AD) (He et al., 2008; Stam, 2010...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hao Guo, Pengpeng Yan, Chen Cheng, Yao Li, Junjie Chen, Yong Xu, Xiang Jie Source Type: research

Anterior Thalamic Radiation Structural and Metabolic Changes in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Combined DTI-MRS Study
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with 1% ∼ 3% prevalence in general population, characterized by intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors (compulsions) (Calkins et al., 2013; Rasmussen and Eisen, 1992; Ruscio et al., 2010). World Health Organization (WHO) has ranked OCD as one of the top ten disabling chronic diseases. Th e obsession and compulsion symptoms interfere severely with cognitive function and cause emotional maladjustment. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ruilin Wang, Qing Fan, Zongfeng Zhang, Yongjun Chen, Yajing Zhu, Yao Li Source Type: research

Longitudinal changes in the mismatch field evoked by an empathic voice reflect changes in the empathy quotient in autism spectrum disorder
Empathy is the ability to understand and share another person's inner life, and it is an essential process in social cognition. Recent studies have focused on the difficulty of cognitive empathy (Baron-Cohen and Wheelwright, 2004; Mazza et al., 2014) and emotional empathy (Fridenson-Hayo et al., 2016; Trimmer et al., 2017) in individuals with ASD. It has been proposed that social interactive and communicative problems can be attributed to impairments in empathy (Baron-Cohen, 2002). Auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) or its magnetic mismatch field (MMF) (Sams, 1991) has been used as a neurophysiological marker for the integ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yuko Yoshimura, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Hirotoshi Hiraishi, Chiaki Hasegawa, Tetsu Hirosawa, Tetsuya Takahashi, Toshio Munesue, Hirotaka Kosaka, Haruhiro Hiagashida, Yoshio Minabe Source Type: research

Emotion introspection and regulation in depression
Being aware of and voluntarily controlling and guiding one's own mental states are highly evolved human capabilities (Heatherton,  2011). These abilities, however, may be impaired in mental disorders such as depression. Depression is characterized by difficulties in controlling unpleasant emotions and thoughts (DeRubeis et al., 2008; Disner et al., 2011). Neural models of impaired emotional processing in depression implicat e amygdala hyperactivity and impaired emotion regulation related to dysfunction of the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (MPFC, DLPFC (DeRubeis et al., 2008; Disner et a...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Uwe Herwig, Sarah Opialla, Katja Cattapan, Thomas C. Wetter, Lutz J äncke, Annette B. Brühl Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Parkinsonism is associated to fronto-caudate disconnectivity and cognition in schizophrenia
The present work studies the possible relation of parkinsonism and fronto-caudate dysconnectivity, as well as its relation to cognition in schizophrenia patients. We assessed parkinsonism using Simpson-Angus scale and prefronto-caudate connectivity using diffusion magnetic resonance in 22 schizophrenia patients (11 first-episodes) and 14 healthy controls. Fractional anisotropy was calculated for the white matter tracts directly linking rostral middle prefrontal (RMPF) and superior medial prefrontal (SMPF) regions with caudate nucleus. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Vicente Molina, Alba Lubeiro, Jorge Blanco, Jos é A. Blanco, Margarita Rodríguez, Alicia Rodríguez-Campos, Rodrigo de Luis-García Source Type: research

A semi-automated algorithm for hypothalamus volumetry in 3 Tesla magnetic resonance images
The hypothalamus, a small diencephalic gray matter structure, is part of the limbic system. Volumetric changes of this structure occur in psychiatric diseases, therefore there is increasing interest in precise volumetry. Based on our detailed volumetry algorithm for 7 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we developed a method for 3 Tesla MRI, adopting anatomical landmarks and work in triplanar view. We overlaid T1-weighted MR images with gray matter-tissue probability maps to combine anatomical information with tissue class segmentation. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Julia Wolff, Stephanie Schindler, Christian Lucas, Anne-Sophie Binninger, Luise Weinrich, Jan Schreiber, Ulrich Hegerl, Harald E. M öller, Marco Leitzke, Stefan Geyer, Peter Schönknecht Source Type: research

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(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Prefrontal Cortex Activation During Cognitive Interference in Nonsuicidal Self-Injury
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is deliberate behavior resulting in self-inflicted damage without suicidal intent. Although skin cutting is most common (Nock,  2009a), many engage in multiple methods of NSSI (Victor& Klonsky,  2014), including scratching, picking, burning, bruising, etc. (Hooley, 2008; Nock, 2009b). NSSI is common, with 5.9% of adults (Klonsky, 2011) and up to 23% of adolescents reporting a history of NSSI (Jacobson& Gould,  2007). Adolescent females are three times more likely to engage in NSSI than males (Barrocas et al., 2012). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: M. Kathryn Dahlgren, Jill M. Hooley, Stephanie G. Best, Kelly A. Sagar, Atilla Gonenc, Staci A. Gruber Source Type: research

Association between schizophrenia polygenic risk and neural correlates of emotion perception
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a highly debilitating and heritable mental illness, characterized by impairment in diverse abilities spanning perception, reasoning, and social cognition (de Jong et  al., 2013; Green et al., 2004). Evidence suggests that the SCZ-related impairment in these abilities may be due to the dynamic interplay between genes and brain (Martin et al., 2014; Roffman et al., 2006). Current estimates from twin and family studies put the heritability of SCZ at 81% (Wahlst rom et al., 1986), which has led to large collaborative efforts to identify genes able to explain this heritabilit...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ilvana Dzafic, Hana Burianov á, Sathish Periyasamy, Bryan Mowry Source Type: research

Association between schizophrenia polygenic risk and neural correlates of emotion perception.
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a highly debilitating and heritable mental illness, characterized by impairment in diverse abilities spanning perception, reasoning, and social cognition (de Jong et  al., 2013; Green et al., 2004). Evidence suggests that the SCZ-related impairment in these abilities may be due to the dynamic interplay between genes and brain (Martin et al., 2014; Roffman et al., 2006). Current estimates from twin and family studies put the heritability of SCZ at 81% (Wahlst rom et al., 1986), which has led to large collaborative efforts to identify genes able to explain this heritabilit...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ilvana Dzafic, Hana Burianov á, Sathish Periyasamy, Bryan Mowry Source Type: research

Alterations in Anterior Cingulate Cortex Myoinositol and Aggression in Veterans with Suicidal Behavior: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study
Suicide is the tenth leading cause of death and is a significant public health issue in the United States (CDC,  2015). Suicide is also prevalent among veterans with an average of 18 individuals dying by suicide every day in the United States, which is approximately 18% of suicides in individuals 18 or older (Department of Veterans Affairs, 2009). The high rate of suicide among veterans coupled with limite d number of pharmacological treatments highlight the fact that there is an urgent need to investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of suicide in veterans, with the overall goal of identifying objectiv...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chandni Sheth, Andrew Prescot, Elliott Bueler, Jennifer DiMuzio, Margaret Legarreta, Perry F. Renshaw, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd, Erin McGlade Source Type: research

Association between schizophrenia polygenic risk and neural correlates of emotion perception.
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a highly debilitating and heritable mental illness, characterized by impairment in diverse abilities spanning perception, reasoning, and social cognition (de Jong et  al., 2013; Green et al., 2004). Evidence suggests that the SCZ-related impairment in these abilities may be due to the dynamic interplay between genes and brain (Martin et al., 2014; Roffman et al., 2006). Current estimates from twin and family studies put the heritability of SCZ at 81% (Wahlst rom et al., 1986), which has led to large collaborative efforts to identify genes able to explain this heritabilit...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ilvana Dzafic, Hana Burianov á, Sathish Periyasamy, Bryan Mowry Source Type: research

Alterations in Anterior Cingulate Cortex Myoinositol and Aggression in Veterans with Suicidal Behavior: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study
Suicide is the tenth leading cause of death and is a significant public health issue in the United States (CDC,  2015). Suicide is also prevalent among veterans with an average of 18 individuals dying by suicide every day in the United States, which is approximately 18% of suicides in individuals 18 or older (Department of Veterans Affairs, 2009). The high rate of suicide among veterans coupled with limite d number of pharmacological treatments highlight the fact that there is an urgent need to investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of suicide in veterans, with the overall goal of identifying objectiv...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chandni Sheth, Andrew Prescot, Elliott Bueler, Jennifer DiMuzio, Margaret Legarreta, Perry F. Renshaw, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd, Erin McGlade Source Type: research

Manual dexterity and brain structure in patients with schizophrenia: A whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging study
Patients with schizophrenia exhibit impairments in a variety of cognitive functions, including fine motor (e.g., manual) dexterity (Ayesa-Arriola et  al., 2013; Gonzalez-Blanch et al., 2007; Heinrichs and Zakzanis, 1998; Midorikawa et al., 2008; Sponheim et al., 2010). The Purdue Pegboard Test (PPT) is a bimanual coordination task that can be used to assess psychomotor abilities (i.e., motor speed and coordination) in subjects, such as patie nts with schizophrenia (Lee et al., 2013). PPT scores are consistently lower in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls (Docx et a...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shinsuke Hidese, Miho Ota, Daimei Sasayama, Junko Matsuo, Ikki Ishida, Moeko Hiraishi, Toshiya Teraishi, Kotaro Hattori, Hiroshi Kunugi Source Type: research

Manual dexterity and brain structure in patients with schizophrenia: a whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging study
Patients with schizophrenia exhibit impairments in a variety of cognitive functions, including fine motor (e.g., manual) dexterity (Ayesa-Arriola et al., 2013; Gonzalez-Blanch et al., 2007; Heinrichs and Zakzanis, 1998; Midorikawa et al., 2008; Sponheim et al., 2010). The Purdue Pegboard Test (PPT) is a bimanual coordination task that can be used to assess psychomotor abilities (i.e., motor speed and coordination) in subjects, such as patients with schizophrenia (Lee et al., 2013). PPT scores are consistently lower in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls (Docx et al., 2013; Fuller and Jahanshahi, 1999...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shinsuke Hidese, Miho Ota, Daimei Sasayama, Junko Matsuo, Ikki Ishida, Moeko Hiraishi, Toshiya Teraishi, Kotaro Hattori, Hiroshi Kunugi Source Type: research