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(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Long-term antipsychotic and benzodiazepine use and brain volume changes in schizophrenia: The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 study
High doses of antipsychotics have been associated with loss in cortical and total gray matter in schizophrenia. However, previous imaging studies have not taken benzodiazepine use into account, in spite of evidence suggesting adverse effects such as cognitive impairment and increased mortality. In this Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 study, 69 controls and 38 individuals with schizophrenia underwent brain MRI at the ages of 34 and 43 years. At baseline, the average illness duration was over 10 years. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sanna Huhtaniska, Erika J ääskeläinen, Tuomas Heikka, Jani S. Moilanen, Heli Lehtiniemi, Jussi Tohka, José V. Manjón, Pierrick Coupé, Lassi Björnholm, Hannu Koponen, Juha Veijola, Matti Isohanni, Vesa Kiviniemi, Graham K. Murray, Jouko Miettunen Source Type: research

Brain neurodevelopmental markers related to the deficit subtype of schizophrenia
Deficit schizophrenia is a homogeneous subtype characterized by a trait-like feature of primary and prominent negative symptoms, but the etiologic factors related to this specific subtype remain largely unknown. This magnetic resonance imaging study aimed to examine gross brain morphology that probably reflects early neurodevelopment in 38 patients with deficit schizophrenia, 37 patients with non-deficit schizophrenia, and 59 healthy controls. Potential brain neurodevelopmental markers investigated in this study were the adhesio interthalamica (AI), cavum septi pellucidi (CSP), and surface morphology (i.e., olfactory sulcu...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tsutomu Takahashi, Yoichiro Takayanagi, Yumiko Nishikawa, Mihoko Nakamura, Yuko Komori, Atsushi Furuichi, Mikio Kido, Daiki Sasabayashi, Kyo Noguchi, Michio Suzuki Source Type: research

Frontal and subcortical grey matter reductions in PTSD
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterised by a range of debilitating psychological, physical and cognitive symptoms. PTSD has been associated with grey matter atrophy in limbic and frontal cortical brain regions. However, previous studies have reported heterogeneous findings, with grey matter changes observed beyond limbic/frontal areas. Seventy-five adults were recruited from the community, 25 diagnosed with PTSD along with 25 healthy and 25 trauma exposed age and gender matched controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 19, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Daniel C.M. O'Doherty, Ashleigh Tickell, Will Ryder, Charles Chan, Daniel F. Hermens, Maxwell R. Bennett, Jim Lagopoulos Source Type: research

Morphometric analysis of thalamic volume in progressive supranuclear palsy: in vivo evidence of regionally specific bilateral thalamic atrophy
We investigated whether differences were detectable in the volume and shape of the dorsal thalamus on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Manual segmentation of the left and right thalami on magnetic resonance imaging scans occurred in 22 patients with clinically diagnosed PSP and 23 healthy controls; thalamic volumes (left, right, total) were calculated. Between group differences were explored by multivariate analysis of co-variance, using age and intracranial volume as covariates. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Brian D. Power, David Jakabek, Mitchell Hunter-Dickson, Fiona A. Wilkes, Danielle van Westen, Alexander.F. Santillo, Mark Walterfang, Dennis Velakoulis, Christer Nilsson, Jeffrey C.L. Looi Source Type: research

Disrupted Resting Brain Graph Measures in Individuals at High Risk for Alcoholism
Familial susceptibility to alcoholism is likely to be linked to the externalizing diathesis seen in high-risk offspring from high-density alcohol use disorder (AUD) families. The present study aimed at comparing resting brain functional connectivity and their association with externalizing symptoms and alcoholism familial density in 40 substance-naive high-risk (HR) male offspring from high-density AUD families and 30 matched healthy low-risk (LR) males without a family history of substance dependence using graph theory-based network analysis. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 14, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bharath Holla, Rajanikanth Panda, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Bharat Biswal, Rose Dawn Bharath, Vivek Benegal Source Type: research

Aberrant Functional Connectivity in Incarcerated Male Adolescents with Psychopathic Traits
The present study examined the association between psychopathic traits and functional connectivity in 177 incarcerated male adolescents. We hypothesized that psychopathic symptoms would be associated with aberrant functional connectivity within networks encompassing limbic and paralimbic regions, such as the default mode (DMN), salience networks (SN), and executive control network (ECN). The present sample was drawn from the NIMH-funded Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample (SWANC-Y), and from research at a youth detention facility in Wisconsin. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 11, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sandra Thijssen, Kent A. Kiehl Source Type: research

Patients with bulimia nervosa do not show typical neurodevelopment of cognitive control under emotional influences
Bulimia nervosa (BN) emerges in the late teen years and is characterized by binge eating and related compensatory behaviors. These behaviors often co-occur with periods of negative affect suggesting an association between emotions and control over eating behavior. In the current study, we examined how cognitive control and neural processes change under emotional states of arousal in 46 participants with (n=19) and without (n=27) BN from the ages of 18 to 33 years. Participants performed a go/nogo task consisting of brief negative, positive and neutral emotional cues and sustained negative, positive and neutral emotional st...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michael F.W. Dreyfuss, Melissa L. Riegel, Gloria A. Pedersen, Alexandra O. Cohen, Melanie R. Silverman, Jonathan P. Dyke, Laurel E.S. Mayer, B. Timothy Walsh, B.J. Casey, Allegra I. Broft Source Type: research

Resting State Functional Connectivity in Primary Insomnia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Controls
Sleep abnormalities are extremely common in anxiety disorders and may contribute to their development and persistence. Their shared pathophysiological mechanisms could thus serve as biomarkers or targets for novel therapeutics. Individuals with Primary Insomnia were age- and sex-matched to controls and to persons with Generalized Anxiety Disorder. All underwent fMRI resting-state scans at 3-T. In Primary Insomnia and controls, sleep was recorded for 2 weeks using diaries and actigraphy. All participants completed state-anxiety and neuroticism inventories. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Edward F. Pace-Schott, Jared P. Zimmerman, Ryan M. Bottary, Erik G. Lee, Mohammed R. Milad, Joan A. Camprodon Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 30, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Population differences in Brain morphology: Need for population specific Brain template
Brain templates provide a standard anatomical platform for population based morphometric assessments. Typically, standard brain templates for such assessments are created using Caucasian brains, which may not be ideal to analyze brains from other ethnicities. To effectively demonstrate this, we compared brain morphometric differences between T1 weighted structural MRI images of 27 healthy Indian and Caucasian subjects of similar age and same sex ratio. Furthermore, a population specific brain template was created from MRI images of healthy Indian subjects and compared with standard Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI-152)...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 30, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Naren P Rao, Haris Jeelani, Rashmin Achalia, Garima Achalia, Arpitha Jacob, Rose dawn Bharath, Shivarama Varambally, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Phaneendra Yalavarthy Source Type: research

Structural brain abnormalities in patients with type I bipolar disorder and suicidal behavior: preliminary results
Some studies have identified brain morphological changes in the frontolimbic network (FLN) in bipolar subjects who attempt suicide (SA). The present study investigated neuroanatomical abnormalities in the FLN to find a possible neural signature for suicidal behavior in patients with bipolar disorder type I (BD-I). We used voxel-based morphometry to compare euthymic patients with BD-I who had attempted suicide (n = 20), who had not attempted suicide (n = 19) and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 20). We also assessed the highest medical lethality of their previous SA. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 29, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dante G.G. Duarte, Maila de Castro L. Neves, Maicon R. Albuquerque, Gustavo Turecki, Yang Ding, Fabio Luis de Souza-Duran, Geraldo Busatto, Humberto Correa Source Type: research

Functional network connectivity predicts treatment outcome during treatment of nicotine use disorder
Altered resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) and functional network connectivity (FNC), which is a measure of coherence between brain networks, may be associated with nicotine use disorder (NUD). We hypothesized that higher connectivity between insula and 1) dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and 2) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) would predict better treatment outcomes. We also performed an exploratory analysis of the associations between FNC values between additional key frontal and striatal regions and treatment outcomes. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 29, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Claire E. Wilcox, Vince D. Calhoun, Srinivas Rachakonda, Eric D. Claus, Rae A. Littlewood, Jessica Mickey, Pamela B. Arenella, Kent E. Hutchison Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 26, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Glutamatergic and neural dysfunction in postpartum depression using magnetic resonance spectroscopy
This study aimed to evaluate brain metab olites abnormalities in women with PPD compared with healthy postpartum (HP) women. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 25, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Carlos E. Rosa, Jair C. Soares, Felipe P. Figueiredo, Ricardo C. Cavalli, Marco A. Barbieri, Maristela S. Spanghero, Carlos E.G. Salmon, Cristina M. Del-Ben, Antonio C. Santos Source Type: research

Cognitive Performance is Associated with Gray Matter Decline in First-Episode Psychosis
Progressive loss of gray matter has been demonstrated over the early course of schizophrenia. Identification of an association between cognition and gray matter may lead to development of early interventions directed at preserving gray matter volume and cognitive ability. The present study evaluated the association between gray matter using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and cognitive testing in a sample of 16 patients with first-episode psychosis. A simple regression was applied to investigate the association between gray matter at baseline and 80 months and cognitive tests at baseline. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 24, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kara Dempster, Ross Norman, Jean Th éberge, Maria Densmore, Betsy Schaefer, Peter Williamson Source Type: research

Using short-range and long-range functional connectivity to identify schizophrenia with a family-based case-control design
This study was conducted to examine the potential of short-range and long-range FCs for differentiating the patients from the controls with a family-based case-control design. Twenty-eight first-episode, drug-naive patients with schizophrenia, 28 unaffected siblings of the patients (family-based controls, FBCs), and 40 healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 24, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Wenbin Guo, Feng Liu, Jindong Chen, Renrong Wu, Lehua Li, Zhikun Zhang, Huafu Chen, Jingping Zhao Source Type: research

Basal Forebrain Mediated Increase in Brain CRF is Associated with Increased Cholinergic Tone and Depression
Cholinergic innervation of the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, amygdala, and olfactory bulb originates from the basal forebrain area, an area of the brain characterized as a network of cholinergic neurons distinguishable by four cell groups (Mesulam et al., 1983a, 1983b). The basal forebrain is comprised of (1) the septal area which provides a projection into the hippocampus with 10% of its neurons presenting as cholinergic; (2) the diagonal band nucleus, comprised of ~70% cholinergic neurons; (3) the horizontal nucleus of the diagonal band, with ~1% cholinergic neurons, and finally, (4) the nucleus basalis of Meynert, c...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jackie K. Gollan, Hongxin Dong, Davide Bruno, Jay Nierenberg, Jos é N. Nobrega, Michel J. Grothe, Bruce G. Pollock, Charles R. Marmar, Stefan Teipel, John G. Csernansky, Nunzio Pomara Source Type: research

Emotional face processing in adolescents with childhood sexual abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder, internalizing disorders and healthy controls
About one in ten children worldwide experience Childhood Sexual Abuse (CSA; Stoltenborgh et al., 2011), with all too often long lasting and devastating consequences. These include a variety of psychiatric disorders related to emotion dysregulation, that usually last into adulthood (Anda et al., 2006; Fergusson et al., 2013). In order to develop early interventions and personalize treatment to reduce the impact of CSA, better insight in the neural sequelae of CSA, especially in adolescence, is warranted. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marie-Jos é van Hoof, Bianca G. van den Bulk, Serge A.R.B. Rombouts, Mirjam A.W. Rinne-Albers, Nic J.A. van der Wee, Marinus H. van IJzendoorn, Robert R.J.M. Vermeiren Source Type: research

White matter microstructural abnormalities and their association with anticipatory anhedonia in depression
We examined specifically the correlation between WM characteristics and anhedonia measured with the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS) in MDD patients. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 14, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Xin-hua Yang, Yi Wang, Dong-fang Wang, Kai Tian, Eric F.C. Cheung, Guang-rong Xie, Raymond C.K. Chan Source Type: research

Automated Detection of Pathologic White Matter Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease Using Combined diffusivity and Kurtosis Method
In this study, we hypothesize that the combination of diffusivity and kurtosis in DKI improves the capacity of DKI to detect Alzheimer's disease compared with diffusivity or kurtosis alone. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 13, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yuanyuan Chen, Miao Sha, Xin Zhao, Jianguo Ma, Hongyan Ni, Wei Gao, Dong Ming Source Type: research

Network modeling of resting state connectivity points towards the bottom up theories of schizophrenia
The dysconnectivity theory of schizophrenia proposes that schizophrenia symptoms arise from abnormalities in neuronal synchrony. Resting-state Functional Connectivity (FC) techniques allow us to highlight synchronization of large-scale networks, the Resting-state Networks (RNs). A large body of work suggests that disruption of RN synchronization could give rise to specific schizophrenia symptoms. The present study aimed to explore within- and between-network FC strength of 34 RNs in 29 patients suffering from schizophrenia, and their relationships with schizophrenia symptoms. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 13, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fran çois Orliac, Pascal Delamillieure, Nicolas Delcroix, Mikael Naveau, Perrine Brazo, Annick Razafimandimby, Sonia Dollfus, Marc Joliot Source Type: research

Relationship of mindful awareness to neural processing of angry faces and impact of mindfulness training: A pilot investigation
This study examined the relationship of mindful awareness and brain hemodynamics of angry face processing, and the impact of mindfulness training. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Athene K.W. Lee, David A. Gansler, Nanyin Zhang, Matthew W. Jerram, Jean A. King, Carl Fulwiler Source Type: research

Meditation and the brain –neuronal correlates of mindfulness as assessed with near infrared spectroscopy
In this study, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to detect differences in hemodynamic responses of meditation experts (14 participants) and a control group (16 participants) in a resting and a mindfulness condition. In both conditions, the sound of a meditation bowl was used to find group differences in the auditory system and adjacent cortical areas. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Friederike Gundel, Johanna von Spee, Sabrina Schneider, Florian B. Haeussinger, Martin Hautzinger, Michael Erb, Andreas J. Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis Source Type: research

Electroconvulsive therapy changes the regional resting state function measured by regional homogeneity (ReHo) and amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in elderly major depressive disorder patients: an exploratory study
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective and rapid treatment for severe major depressive disorder (MDD) in elderly patients. The mechanism of ECT is unclear, and studies on ECT in elderly MDD patients by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging are rare. Thirteen elderly MDD patients were scanned before and after ECT using a 3.0T MRI scanner. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) were processed to compare resting-state function before and after treatment. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 7, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Xiao-ming Kong, Shu-xian Xu, Yan Sun, Ke-yong Wang, Chen Wang, Ji Zhang, Jin-xiang Xia, Li Zhang, Bai-jian Tan, Xin-hui Xie Source Type: research

Functional connectivity of the circadian clock and neural substrates of sleep-wake disturbance in delirium
A possible mechanism of disrupted circadian rhythms in delirium was identified using resting-state functional connectivity. Thirty-four delirious patients and 38 non-delirious controls were scanned for resting-state functional MRI. Seed-based connectivity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus was compared between the groups. In delirious patients functional connectivity from the circadian clock was increased to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and decreased to the posterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, cerebellum, and thalamus. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - April 3, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sunghyon Kyeong, Soo-Hee Choi, Jung Eun Shin, Woo Suk Lee, Kyu Hyun Yang, Tae-Sub Chung, Jae-Jin Kim Source Type: research

Clinical Correlates of Hippocampus Volume and Shape in Antipsychotic-na ïve Schizophrenia
In this study, we analyzed the volume and shape of hippocampus in antipsychotic-na ïve schizophrenia patients (N=71) in comparison to healthy controls (N=82). Using 3-Tesla MRI data, gray matter (GM) volume (anterior and posterior sub-divisions) and shape of the hippocampus were analyzed. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 29, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sunil Vasu Kalmady, Venkataram Shivakumar, Rashmi Arasappa, Aditi Subramaniam, S Gautham, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Bangalore N. Gangadhar Source Type: research

Functional network connectivity alterations in schizophrenia and depression
In this study, we performed a group independent component analysis on resting-state functional MRI data from 20 MDD patients, 24 schizophrenia patients, and 43 matched healthy controls. The functional network connectivity analysis revealed that, compared to healthy controls, the MDD and schizophrenia patients exhibited convergent decreased positive connectivity between the left and right fronto-parietal control network and decreased negative connectivity between the left control and medial visual networks. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Xing-jie Wu, Ling-Li Zeng, Hui Shen, Lin Yuan, Jian Qin, Peng Zhang, De-wen Hu Source Type: research

White matter microstructure in children with autistic traits
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is thought to arise from aberrant development of connections in the brain. Previous studies have identified differences in white matter microstructure in children with ASD, offering support to such hypotheses. While ASD is thought to represent the severe end of a spectrum of traits, there are no studies evaluating white matter microstructure in relation to autistic traits in children from the general population. In a population-based sample of 604 6-to-10 year-old children, we assessed the relation between a continuous measure of autistic traits and white matter microstructure, using both pro...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Laura M.E. Blanken, Ryan L. Muetzel, Vincent W.V. Jaddoe, Frank C. Verhulst, Aad van der Lugt, Henning Tiemeier, Tonya White Source Type: research

Right fronto-temporal activation differs between Chinese first-episode and recurrent Major Depression Disorders during a verbal fluency task: A near-infrared spectroscopy study
Major Depression Disorder (MDD) is the second most common psychiatric disease, the prevalence of which is about 2 –4% globally, and 1.7–2% in China (Gu et al., 2013). Around 50–60% of these patients who have gone through the first-episode of MDD encounter recurrences (Talarowska et al., 2015), and 20–60% of patients diagnosed with recurrent MDD experience more than two episodes of MDD in their lifetime (Mead et al., 2008). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jiuju Wang, Bin Lvd, Wenxiang Quan, Taeko N. Wydell, Ju Tian, Pengfei Wang, Jin Liu, Wentian Dong Source Type: research

Relationship between rapheal echogenicity and personality as possible markers of a disposition to develop depressive and anxiety disorders
We examined 100 healthy volunteers using quantitative and qualitative TCS, the five-dimension revised NEO Personality Inventory, Beck ´s scales of anxiety and depression, and the Social Re-adjustment Rating Scale (SRRS). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 26, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Petr Šilhán, Martin Hýža, Ladislav Hosák, Denisa Perničková, Jan Vantuch, Monika Jelínková, David Školoudík Source Type: research

Elucidating the aberrant brain regions in bipolar disorder using T1-weighted/T2-weighted magnetic resonance ratio images
Although diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have revealed brain abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD) subjects, DTI methods might not detect disease-related abnormalities in the white matter (WM) where nerve fibers are crossing. We investigated BD myelin-related abnormal brain regions in both gray matter and WM for 29 BD and 33 healthy control (HC) participants using T1-weighted (T1w)/T2-weighted (T2w) ratio images that increase myelin-related contrast irrespective of nerve fiber orientation. To check effect of the brain volume, the results were compared with those of voxel-based morphometry (VBM). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 25, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Takuya Ishida, Tomohiro Donishi, Jun Iwatani, Shinichi Yamada, Shun Takahashi, Satoshi Ukai, Kazuhiro Shinosaki, Masaki Terada, Yoshiki Kaneoke Source Type: research

Availability of Dopamine Transporters in Heroin-dependent Subjects: A 18F-FECNT PET Imaging Study
This study was to reconfirm the reduced dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in heroin-dependent subjects and validate the use of 2 β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-chlorophenyl)−8-(2-fluoroethyl)-nortropane (18F-FECNT) as a PET radiotracer to assess the changes of striatal DAT in drug addicted subjects. Herein, we assessed DAT standardized uptake values (SUV) of 18F-FECNT in the striatum and cerebellum of 20 heroin-dependent subjects a nd 10 healthy controls and analyzed the correlation between DAT availability and heroin withdrawal symptom scores and anxiety/depression rating scales in heroin-dependent subjects, as well as th...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 24, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shasha Xu, Ying Liu, Yu Li, Yangping Deng, Jie Yuan, Rongbin Lv, Yuankai Wang, Guangming Zhang, Zhirui Guo, Daxu Fu, Hui Zeng, Xingdang Liu, Mei Han Source Type: research

Evaluating the diagnostic utility of applying a machine learning algorithm to diffusion tensor MRI measures in individuals with major depressive disorder
Using MRI to diagnose mental disorders has been a long-term goal. Despite this, the vast majority of prior neuroimaging work has been descriptive rather than predictive. The current study applies support vector machine (SVM) learning to MRI measures of brain white matter to classify adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and healthy controls. In a precisely matched group of individuals with MDD (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 25), SVM learning accurately (74%) classified patients and controls across a brain map of white matter fractional anisotropy values (FA). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David M Schnyer, Peter C. Clasen, Christopher Gonzalez, Christopher G. Beevers Source Type: research

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Genotype Modulates Amygdala Habituation
A deficit in amygdala habituation to repeated emotional stimuli may be an endophenotype of disorders characterized by emotion dysregulation, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). Amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli is genetically modulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) variants. Whether amygdala habituation itself is also modulated by BDNF genotypes remains unknown. We used imaging-genetics to examine the effect of BDNF Val66Met genotypes on amygdala habituation to repeated emotional stimuli. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 21, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: M. Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, Antonia S. New, Kim E. Goldstein, Daniel Rosell, Qiaoping Yuan, Zhifeng Zhou, Colin Hodgkinson, David Goldman, Larry J. Siever, Erin A. Hazlett Source Type: research

Single dose of mirtazapine modulates whole-brain functional connectivity during emotional narrative processing
The link between neurotransmitter-level effects of antidepressants and their clinical effect remain poorly understood. A single dose of mirtazapine decreases limbic responses to fearful faces in healthy subjects, but it is unknown whether this effect applies to complex emotional situations and dynamic connectivity between brain regions. Thirty healthy volunteers listened to spoken emotional narratives during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In an open-label design, 15 subjects received 15mg of mirtazapine two hours prior to fMRI while 15 subjects served as a control group. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 21, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Emma Komulainen, Enrico Glerean, Katarina Meskanen, Roope Heikkil ä, Lauri Nummenmaa, Tuukka T. Raij, Jari Lahti, Pekka Jylhä, Tarja Melartin, Erkki Isometsä, Jesper Ekelund Source Type: research

Increased Nucleus Accumbens Volume in First-Episode Psychosis
Nucleus accumbens has been reported as a key structure in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Studies analyzing structural abnormalities have shown conflicting results, possibly related to confounding factors. We investigated the nucleus accumbens volume using manual delimitation in first-episode psychosis (FEP) controlling for age, cannabis use and medication. Thirty-one FEP subjects who were naive or minimally exposed to antipsychotics and a control group were MRI scanned and clinically assessed from baseline to 6 months of follow-up. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mireia Forns-Nadal, Daniel Berg é, Federico Sem, Anna Mané, Laura Igual, Dani Guinart, Oscar Vilarroya Source Type: research

Imaging decision about whether to benefit self by harming others: Adolescents with conduct and substance problems, with or without callous-unemotionality, or developing typically
We sought to identify brain activation differences in conduct-problem youth with limited prosocial emotions (LPE) compared to conduct-problem youth without LPE and community adolescents, and to test associations between brain activation and severity of callous-unemotional traits. We utilized a novel task, which asks subjects to repeatedly decide whether to accept offers where they will benefit but a beneficent other will be harmed. Behavior on this task has been previously associated with levels of prosocial emotions and severity of callous-unemotional traits, and is related to empathic concern. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joseph T. Sakai, Manish S. Dalwani, Susan K. Mikulich-Gilbertson, Kristen Raymond, Shannon McWilliams, Jody Tanabe, Don Rojas, Michael Regner, Marie T. Banich, Thomas J. Crowley Source Type: research

Imaging Decision about Whether to, or Not to, Benefit Self by Harming Others: Adolescents with Conduct and Substance Problems, with or without Callous-Unemotionality, or Developing Typically
We sought to identify brain activation differences in conduct-problem youth with limited prosocial emotions (LPE) compared to conduct-problem youth without LPE and community adolescents, and to test associations between brain activation and severity of callous-unemotional traits. We utilized a novel task, which asks subjects to repeatedly decide whether to accept offers where they will benefit but a beneficent other will be harmed. Behavior on this task has been previously associated with levels of prosocial emotions and severity of callous-unemotional traits, and is related to empathic concern. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joseph T. Sakai, Manish S. Dalwani, Susan K. Mikulich-Gilbertson, Kristen Raymond, Shannon McWilliams, Jody Tanabe, Don Rojas, Michael Regner, Marie T. Banich, Thomas J. Crowley Source Type: research

The Relation between Parent Depressive Symptoms and Neural Correlates of Attentional Control in Offspring: A Preliminary Study
Offspring of depressed parents are at significantly elevated risk for depressive disorders themselves; however, the specific mechanisms associated with this risk are not well known. Given the well-established link between parental depression and biased attention for negative stimuli in children, this preliminary study sought to examine the neural correlates of directing attention toward and away from emotional faces in children and adolescents in association with parent's current depressive symptoms. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Katie L. Burkhouse, Autumn Kujawa, Kate Keenan, Heide Klumpp, Kate D. Fitzgerald, Christopher S. Monk, K. Luan Phan Source Type: research

Altered functional connectivity in brain networks underlying self-referential processing in delusions of reference in schizophrenia
Delusions of reference in schizophrenia are thought to result from misattributions of self-relevance to neutral events. Activation of regions within the cortical midline structures (CMS; e.g., medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and precuneus) have been previously associated with self-referential processing in schizophrenia patients; however, the specificity of this pattern to individuals with current delusions of reference has yet to be determined. In the present study, we identified functional brain networks that underlie self-referential processing using task-based multivariate functional connectivity. (Source: ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sara Larivi ère, Katie M. Lavigne, Todd S. Woodward, Philip Gerretsen, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Mahesh Menon Source Type: research

Screening of autism based on task-free fMRI using graph theoretical approach
Studies on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have indicated several dysfunctions in the structure, and functional organization of the brain. However, findings have not been established as a general diagnostic tool yet. In this regard, current study proposed an automatic screening method for recognition of ASDs from healthy controls (HCs) based on their brain functional abnormalities. In this paradigm, brain functional networks of 60 adolescent and young adult males (29 ASDs and 31 HCs) were estimated from subjects ’ task-free fMRI data. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 7, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Masoumeh Sadeghi, Reza Khosrowabadi, Fatemeh Bakouie, Hoda Mahdavi, Changiz Eslahchi, Hamidreza Pouretemad Source Type: research

Gender Dimorphism of Brain Reward System Volumes in Alcoholism
The brain's reward network has been reported to be smaller in alcoholic men compared to nonalcoholic men, but little is known about the volumes of reward regions in alcoholic women. Morphometric analyses were performed on magnetic resonance brain scans of 60 long-term chronic alcoholics (ALC; 30 men) and 60 nonalcoholic controls (NC; 29 men). We derived volumes of total brain, and cortical and subcortical reward-related structures including the dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC), orbitofrontal, and cingulate cortices, and the temporal pole, insula, amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens septi (NAc), and ventral diencephalon...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 4, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kayle S. Sawyer, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Olivier J. Barthelemy, George M. Papadimitriou, Gordon J. Harris, Nikos Makris Source Type: research

Self-Referential Processing in Unipolar Depression: Distinct Roles of Subregions of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex
In this study, we aimed to explore the neural basis of self-referential processing in depressive patients and the activation-deactivation patterns of subregions of the MPFC. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - March 2, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yu Li, Xia Kong, Dongtao Wei, Xue Du, Jiangzhou Sun, Jiang Qiu Source Type: research

Cortical complexity in bipolar disorder applying a spherical harmonics approach
Recent studies using surface-based morphometry of structural magnetic resonance imaging data have suggested that some changes in bipolar disorder (BP) might be neurodevelopmental in origin. We applied a novel analysis of cortical complexity based on fractal dimensions in high-resolution structural MRI scans of 18 bipolar disorder patients and 26 healthy controls. Our region-of-interest based analysis revealed increases in fractal dimensions (in patients relative to controls) in left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and right precuneus, and decreases in right caudal middle frontal, entorhinal cortex, and right pars orbitalis, a...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Igor Nenadic, Rachel A. Yotter, Maren Dietzek, Kerstin Langbein, Heinrich Sauer, Christian Gaser Source Type: research

Neural Correlates of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels Predict Smoking Cessation Relapse
Exposure to graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packaging has been found to produce heightened activity in brain regions central to emotional processing and higher-order cognitive processes. The current study extends this literature by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activation in response to GWLs and use it to predict relapse in an evidence-based smoking cessation treatment program. Participants were 48 treatment-seeking nicotine-dependent smokers who completed an fMRI paradigm in which they were exposed to GWLs, text-only warning labels (TOLs), and matched control stimuli. ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Max M. Owens, James MacKillop, Joshua C. Gray, Brittany E. Hawkshead, Cara M. Murphy, Lawrence H. Sweet Source Type: research

A functional connectivity comparison between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder in medication-na ïve adolescents with mood fluctuation and attention problems
In order to compare patterns of connectivity between affective and attention networks in adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we investigated differences in resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) between these populations. Study participants were medication-na ïve adolescents (aged 13–18 years) with BD (N=22) or ADHD (N=25) and age- and sex-matched healthy adolescents (healthy controls [HC]) (N=22). Forty-seven adolescents with mood fluctuation and attention problems showed increased functional correlation (FC) between two pairs of regions within the a ffectiv...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Young Don Son, Doug Hyun Han, Sun Mi Kim, Kyung Joon Min, Perry F. Renshaw Source Type: research

Effect of Maternal Rumination and Disengagement during Childhood on Offspring Neural Response to Reward in Late Adolescence
Maternal rumination is a cognitive-affective trait that could influence offspring's ability to respond flexibly to positive and negative events, depending on the quality of maternal problem-solving behaviors with which rumination co-occurs. As reward circuitry is sensitive to stressors and related to risk for depression, reward circuitry is an appropriate candidate mechanism for how maternal characteristics influence offspring. We evaluated the independent and combined effect of maternal rumination and disengagement on adolescent neural response to reward win and loss. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Judith K. Morgan, Daniel S. Shaw, Rachel H. Jacobs, Sarah E. Romens, Stephanie L. Sitnick, Erika E. Forbes Source Type: research

Task-dependent modulation of amygdala connectivity in social anxiety disorder
In this study, we measured 15 SAD patients and 15 healthy controls during an affective counting Stroop task with emotional faces to assess the interaction of affective stimuli with a cognitive task in SAD, as well as to investigate the causal interactions between the amygdala and the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) using dynamic causal modeling (DCM). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lora Minkova, Ronald Sladky, Georg S. Kranz, Michael Woletz, Nicole Geissberger, Christoph Kraus, Rupert Lanzenberger, Christian Windischberger Source Type: research

Abnormal Fear Circuitry in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Controlled Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study
We examined whether non-traumatized subjects with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have dysfunctional activation in brain structures mediating fear extinction, possibly explaining the statistical association between ADHD and other disorders characterized by aberrant fear processing such as PTSD. Medication na ïve, non-traumatized young adult subjects with (N=27) and without (N=20) ADHD underwent a 2-day fear conditioning and extinction protocol in a 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrea E. Spencer, Marie-France Marin, Mohammed R. Milad, Thomas J. Spencer, Olivia E. Bogucki, Amanda L. Pope, Natalie Plasencia, Brittany Hughes, Edward F. Pace-Schott, Maura Fitzgerald, Mai Uchida, Joseph Biederman Source Type: research