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Face and gaze perception in borderline personality disorder: an electrical neuroimaging study
In this study we wanted to investigate the temporal-spatial dynamics of spontaneous gaze processing in BPD. We used a 2-back-working-memory task, in which neutral faces with direct and averted gaze were presented. Gaze was used as an emotional modulator of event-related-potentials to faces. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cristina Berchio, Camille Piguet, Kornelia Gentsch, Anne-Lise K üng, Tonia A Rihs, Roland Hasler, Jean- Aubry, Alexandre Dayer, M Christoph, Nader Perroud Source Type: research

Basal ganglia and ventricle volume in first-episode psychosis. A family and clinical study
Patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) exhibit considerable heterogeneity in subcortical brain volumes. We sought to compare ventricle and basal ganglia volumes in FEP patients (n = 50) with those in unaffected relatives (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 24). Participants were assessed with a semistructured interview and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients had significantly larger left lateral, right lateral and third ventricle volumes than their siblings and larger third ventricle volumes than controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Manuel J. Cuesta, Pablo Lecumberri, Teresa Cabada, Lucia Moreno-Izco, Mar ía Ribeiro, Jose M. López-Ilundain, Victor Peralta, Ruth Lorente-Omeñaca, Ana Ma Sánchez-Torres, Marisol Gómez Source Type: research

1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy suggests neural membrane alteration in specific regions involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is the fourth most common psychiatric disorder, after phobias, addiction to alcohol and drugs, and depressive disorders, with prevalence between 1.2 to 2.4% (Karno M et al., 1988; Robins et al., 1985; Ruscio et al., 2010). Recommended first-line treatment is based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) combined with antidepressant treatments (primarily Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors SRI antidepressants). However, 40 to 60% of OCD patients exhibit drug resistance, leaving them with a major handicap in everyday life (Jaafari et al., 2011). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 13, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Laura Hatchondo, Nematollah Jaafari, Nicolas Langbour, Sylvie Maillochaud, Guillaume Herpe, R émy Guillevin, Carole Guillevin Source Type: research

Age-dependent effects of acute methylphenidate on amygdala reactivity in stimulant treatment-naive patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
In the present study, we investigate whether methylphenidate (MPH) affects emotional processing and whether this effect is modulated by age. We measured amygdala reactivity with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during processing of angry and fearful facial expressions in male stimulant treatment-naive patients with ADHD (N=35 boys; N=46 men) and 23 healthy control subjects (N=11 boys; N=12 men). In ADHD patients, we also measured amygdala reactivity 90minutes after an acute oral challenge with MPH (0.5mg/kg). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 12, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marco A. Bottelier, Anouk Schrantee, Bart Ferguson, Hyke G.H. Tamminga, Cheima Bouziane, J.J. Sandra Kooij, Michiel B. de Ruiter, Liesbeth Reneman Source Type: research

Metabolic correlate of memory-deficit awareness in dementia with Lewy bodies: implication in cortical midline structure
The neural substrate of memory-deficit awareness has been studied in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about that in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). To determine the neural substrates of memory-deficit awareness in DLB, we investigated the relationship between awareness of memory-deficit and glucose metabolism in DLB. Thirty-four patients with DLB were assessed by 18F-FDG-PET and dopamine transporter (DAT)-SPECT. The awareness was evaluated using an awareness index that represents the discrepancy between objective and subjective memory scores. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 12, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tomomichi Iizuka, Masashi Kameyama Source Type: research

Neural dysfunction during temporal discounting in paediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Both Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are associated with choice impulsivity, i.e. the tendency to prefer smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. However, the extent to which this impulsivity is mediated by shared or distinct underlying neural mechanisms is unclear. Twenty-six boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD and 20 matched controls (aged 12 –18) completed an fMRI version of an individually adjusted temporal discounting (TD) task which requires choosing between a variable amount of money now or £100 in one week, one month or one year. (Source...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 12, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Luke J. Norman, Christina O. Carlisi, Anastasia Christakou, Kaylita Chantiluke, Clodagh Murphy, Andrew Simmons, Vincent Giampietro, Michael Brammer, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia Source Type: research

Inter-hemispherical asymmetry in default-mode functional connectivity and BAIAP2 gene are associated with anger expression in ADHD adults
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by resting-state alterations, including abnormal activity, connectivity and asymmetry of the default-mode network (DMN). Concurrently, recent studies suggested a link between ADHD and the presence of polymorphisms within the gene BAIAP2 (i.e., brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2), known to be differentially expressed in brain hemispheres. The clinical and neuroimaging correlates of this polymorphism are still unknown. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 11, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: R Hasler, Mg. Preti, De. Meskaldji, J. Prados, W. Adouan, C. Rodriguez, S. Toma, N. Hiller, T. Ismaili, J. Hofmeister, I. Sinanaj, P. Baud, S. Haller, P. Giannakopoulos, S. Schwartz, N. Perroud, D Van De. Ville Source Type: research

Excess Social Media Use in Normal Populations is Associated with Amygdala-Striatal but not with Prefrontal Morphology
This study aims to investigate the gray matter volume (GMV) of key neural systems possibly associated with Excess Social Media Use (ESMU) in the general user population. It employs a sex-balanced case (relatively high ESMU scores) - control (relatively low ESMU scores) design with 50 random university students who have reported varying levels of ESMU. The case and control groups included 25 subjects each. Brain volumes were calculated with Voxel-Based Morphometry techniques applied to structural MRI scans. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Qinghua He, Ofir Turel, Damien Brevers, Antoine Bechara Source Type: research

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(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A structural MRI study of excoriation (skin-picking) disorder and its relationship to clinical severity
This study examined differences in cortical thickness and basal ganglia structural volumes between 20 individuals with SPD and 16 healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no significant differences in demographic variables (age, gender, education and race) between groups. All subjects completed a structural MRI scan and completed a battery of clinical assessments focusing on SPD symptom severity, depression and anxiety symptoms, and quality of life. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michael D Harries, Samuel R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Brian Odlaug, Austin Blum, Jon E Grant Source Type: research

Defining functioning levels in patients with schizophrenia: a combination of a novel clustering method and brain SPECT analysis
This study aims to define functioning levels of patients with schizophrenia by using a method of interpretable clustering based on a specific functioning scale, the Functional Remission Of General Schizophrenia (FROGS) scale, and to test their validity regarding clinical and neuroimaging characterization. In this observational study, patients with schizophrenia have been classified using a hierarchical top-down method called clustering using unsupervised binary trees (CUBT). Socio-demographic, clinical, and neuroimaging SPECT perfusion data were compared between the different clusters to ensure their clinical relevance. (S...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Faget-Agius Catherine, Vincenti Aur élie, Guedj Eric, Michel Pierre, Richieri Raphaëlle, Alessandrini Marine, Auquier Pascal, Lançon Christophe, Boyer Laurent Source Type: research

Comparing abnormalities of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in multiple system atrophy and idiopathic Parkinson's disease measured with resting-state fMRI
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) show overlapping clinical manifestations with different treatment and prognosis. However, the shared and distinct underlying neural substrates are not yet understood, which needs to be explored between MSA and IPD. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 29 MSA patients, 17 IPD patients and 25 healthy controls (HC) and the Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuations (ALFF) was compared. Lower ALFF in bilateral basal ganglion, bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and right amygdala, as well as higher ALFF in parieto-...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 7, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Na Wang, Elliot Kale Edmiston, XiaoGuang Luo, HuaGuang Yang, Miao Chang, Fei Wang, GuoGuang Fan Source Type: research

Depression in chronic ketamine users: sex differences and neural bases
Chronic ketamine use leads to cognitive and affective deficits including depression. Here, we examined sex differences and neural bases of depression in chronic ketamine users. Compared to non-drug using healthy controls (HC), ketamine-using females but not males showed increased depression score as assessed by the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We evaluated resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), a prefrontal structure consistently implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 5, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chiang-Shan R. Li, Sheng Zhang, Chia-Chun Hung, Chun-Ming Chen, Jeng-Ren Duann, Ching-Po Lin, Tony Szu-Hsien Lee Source Type: research

Neural activation in stress-related exhaustion: Cross-sectional observations and interventional effects
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the association between burnout and neural activation during working memory processing in patients with stress-related exhaustion. Additionally, we investigated the neural effects of cognitive training as part of stress rehabilitation. Fifty-five patients with clinical diagnosis of exhaustion disorder were administered the n-back task during fMRI scanning at baseline. Ten patients completed a 12-week cognitive training intervention, as an addition to stress rehabilitation. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hanna Malmberg Gavelin, Anna Stigsdotter Neely, Micael Andersson, Therese Stenlund, Lisbeth Slunga J ärvholm, Carl-Johan Boraxbekk Source Type: research

Acute Change in Anterior Cingulate Cortex GABA, but not Glutamine/Glutamate, Mediates Antidepressant Response to Citalopram
Little is known about the acute effects of antidepressant treatments on brain glutamate and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) levels, and their association with clinical response. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) we examined longitudinally the effects of citalopram on glutamine/glutamate ratios and GABA levels in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). We acquired 1H-MRS scans at baseline and at days 3, 7, and 42 of citalopram treatment in nineteen unmedicated individuals with MDD. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Brian P. Brennan, Roee Admon, Chris Perriello, Erin M. LaFlamme, Alison J. Athey, Diego A. Pizzagalli, James I. Hudson, Harrison G. Pope, J. Eric Jensen Source Type: research

White matter microstructural deficits in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS), a neurogenetic condition associated with psychosis, report brain white matter (WM) microstructure aberrations. Several studies report that WM disruptions in 22q11DS are similar to deficits in idiopathic schizophrenia. Yet, DTI results in 22q11DS are inconsistent. We used DTI to compare WM structure in 22q11DS individuals to healthy controls (HC) and explored WM differences in 22q11DS with (+) and without (-) psychosis spectrum symptoms. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David R. Roalf, J. Eric Schmitt, Simon N. Vandekar, Theodore D. Satterthwaite, Russell T. Shinohara, Kosha Ruparel, Mark A. Elliott, Karthik Prabhakaran, Donna M. McDonald-McGinn, Elaine H. Zackai, Ruben C. Gur, Beverly S. Emanuel, Raquel E. Gur Source Type: research

Neural Predictors of Substance Use Disorders in Young Adulthood
This study assessed the relationship between amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) volumes obtained in adolescence and SUD outcomes in young adulthood among high-risk offspring and low-risk controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 18, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jessica W. O ’Brien, Shirley Y. Hill Source Type: research

Prevalence of depressive symptoms and their association with brainstem raphe echogenicity in patients with Parkinson's disease and non-PD controls
In this study, we report on the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms as well as their association with brainstem raphe echogenicity in patients with PD and non-PD controls. The study included 266 Estonian PD patients and 168 age- and education-matched controls. Demographic and clinical data was documented. Brainstem raphe (BR) was visualized by transcranial sonography (TCS). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 16, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Toomas Toomsoo, Ren é Randver, Inga Liepelt-Scarfone, Liis Kadastik-Eerme, Toomas Asser, Inna Rubanovits, Daniela Berg, Pille Taba Source Type: research

Brain structural changes in late-life generalized anxiety disorder
In this study, we compare the brain structural characteristics in white and gray matter in 31 non-anxious older adults and 28 late-life GAD participants.Gray matter indices (cortical thickness and volume) were measured using FreeSurfer parcellation and segmentation, and mean diffusivity was obtained through Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 16, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Carmen Andreescu, Dana Tudorascu, Lei K. Sheu, Anusha Rangarajan, Meryl A. Butters, Sarah Walker, Rachel Berta, Thomas Desmidt, Howard Aizenstein Source Type: research

Altered corticostriatal pathway in first-episode paranoid schizophrenia: resting-state functional and causal connectivity analyses
Until today, the etiology of schizophrenia remains unclear. A dysconnectivity hypothesis has been proposed that schizophrenia is associated with certain changes in neuronal connectivity during the neural developmental process(Pettersson-Yeo et al., 2011; Stephan et al., 2009). Converging evidence suggests that schizophrenia is related to disruptive connectivity and functional integration failures in large-scale brain networks (Pettersson-Yeo et al., 2011; Woodward et al., 2012; Wotruba et al., 2014; Yu et al., 2012; Zhou et al., 2015). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Huan Huang, Chang Shu, Jun Chen, Jilin Zou, Cheng Chen, Shihao Wu, Ling Xiao, Zhongchun Liu, Huiling Wang, Yuan Zhou, Gaohua Wang, Tianzi Jiang Source Type: research

Precuneus Abnormalities in Middle-Aged to Older Adults with Depressive Symptoms: An Analysis of BDI-II Symptom Dimensions
We recently reported age-related increases in left precuneus cortical thickness (CT) in older adults with elevated total depressive symptoms. However, it is unclear whether abnormalities in precuneus surface area (SA) are also evident and whether specific symptom dimensions of depression moderated age effects on these measurements. Seventy-three adults completed the Beck Depression Inventory – 2nd edition (BDI-II) and underwent structural neuroimaging. Measures of CT and SA were extracted from the right and left precuneus via FreeSurfer. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 14, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sarah M. Szymkowicz, Vonetta M. Dotson, Molly E. McLaren, Liselotte De Wit, Deirdre M. O'Shea, Francis T. Talty, Andrew O'Shea, Eric C. Porges, Ronald A. Cohen, Adam J. Woods Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 11, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Hippocampal activation and memory performance in schizophrenia depend on strategy use in a virtual maze
Different strategies may be spontaneously adopted to solve most navigation tasks. These strategies are associated with dissociable brain systems. Here, we use brain-imaging and cognitive tasks to test the hypothesis that individuals living with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD) have selective impairment using a hippocampal-dependent spatial navigation strategy. Brain activation and memory performance were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the 4-on-8 virtual maze (4/8VM) task, a human analog of the rodent radial-arm maze that is amenable to both response-based (egocentric or landmark-ba...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 31, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Leanne K. Wilkins, Todd A. Girard, Katherine A. Herdman, Bruce K. Christensen, Jelena King, Michael Kiang, Veronique D. Bohbot Source Type: research

Hippocampal activation and memory in schizophrenia depend on spatial strategy use in a virtual maze
Different strategies may be spontaneously adopted to solve most navigation tasks. These strategies are associated with dissociable brain systems. Here, we use brain-imaging and cognitive tasks to test the hypothesis that individuals living with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD) have selective impairment using a hippocampal-dependent spatial navigation strategy. Brain activation and memory performance were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the 4-on-8 virtual maze (4/8VM) task, a human analog of the rodent radial-arm maze that is amenable to both response-based (egocentric or landmark-ba...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 31, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Leanne K. Wilkins, Todd A. Girard, Katherine A. Herdman, Bruce K. Christensen, Jelena King, Michael Kiang, Veronique D. Bohbot Source Type: research

Childhood Maltreatment is Associated with Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Patients with First-Episode Depression
Previous neuroimaging studies suggest that childhood maltreatment (CM) can affect brain function and structure and constitutes a potent risk of developing depression. The present study attempts to differentiate the effect of CM from the impact of depression diagnosis on brain structure. Eighty-four patients with first-episode depression and 84 controls participated in this study. All subjects underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Voxel-based morphometric analysis of variance (ANOVA), between-group comparison, and regression analyses were performed on a whole-brain level to identify the unbiased effe...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 26, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shuran Yang, Yuqi Cheng, Yin Mo, Yan Bai, Zonglin Shen, Fang Liu, Na Li, Linlin Jiang, Wei Chen, Yi Lu, Xuejin Sun, Xiufeng Xu Source Type: research

Structural brain correlates of interpersonal violence: systematic review and voxel-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies
Owing to inconsistent nomenclature and results, we have undertaken a label-based review and anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of studies measuring the quantitative association between regional grey matter (GM) volume and interpersonal violence. Following PRISMA guidelines, we identified studies by searching 3 online databases (Embase, Medline, PsycInfo) and reference lists. Thirty-five studies were included in the label-based review, providing information for 1288 participants and 86 brain regions. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 26, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jelle Lamsma, Clare Mackay, Seena Fazel Source Type: research

Lifetime PTSD and Geriatric Depression Symptomatology Relate to Altered Dorsomedial Frontal and Amygdala Morphometry
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects a large portion of combat deployed Veterans. Moreover, many individuals also suffer from comorbid late life depression (geriatric depression; GD). While a great deal of research has begun to characterize the morphometric features of PTSD and depression individually, few studies have investigated the interacting effect of these two disorders, specifically in a Veteran population. The current study used cortical and subcortical surface-based morphometry (SBM) in combination with psychological assessments of PTSD and GD symptom severity to examine morphometric alterations in Vietna...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 25, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lindsay K. Knight, Farah Naaz, Teodora Stoica, Brendan E. Depue, for the Alzheimer ’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Source Type: research

Regional decrease in gray matter volume is related to body dissatisfaction in anorexia nervosa
Anorexia nervosa (AN), which is a psychiatric disorder that typically affects teenage females, is characterized by severe weight loss, relentless pursuit of thinness, a refusal to maintain body weight at 85% of the expected standard for age and height, food restriction, and strong fears of becoming fat (American Psychiatric Association, 2013, 2000). The prognosis of AN is poor for some patients, because patients with AN tend to be resistant to most medical treatments due to their poor understanding of their disease. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 24, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kunihiro Kohmura, Yasunori Adachi, Satoshi Tanaka, Hiroto Katayama, Miho Imaeda, Naoko Kawano, Kazuo Nishioka, Masahiko Ando, Tetsuya Iidaka, Norio Ozaki Source Type: research

Manual morphometry of hippocampus and amygdala in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
Previous studies have pointed to the involvement of limbic structures in the genesis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present researchers manually segmented magnetic resonance images of 30 individuals with ADHD and 30 individually matched controls, focusing on amygdala and hippocampus volumes. Neither hippocampus nor amygdala volume differed significantly between individuals with and without ADHD. However, ADHD patients with higher hyperactivity scores had significantly smaller left amygdala volumes. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 14, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kathrin Nickel, Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Evgeniy Perlov, Renate Jitten-Schachenmeier, Daniel Beier, Dominique Endres, Peter Goll, Alexandra Philipsen, Simon Maier Source Type: research

Subcortical Surface Shape in Youth at Familial High Risk for Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is an incapacitating disorder: the effects of cognitive deficits (e.g. impaired attention, memory), positive symptoms (e.g. delusions, hallucinations), and negative symptoms (e.g. social withdrawal) (Keshavan et al., 2011) may lead to severe functional disability. First-degree relatives of individuals with schizophrenia, including offspring, dizygotic twins and full siblings, are at familial high risk for developing schizophrenia (HRSZ) and have about a 10% chance of developing the disorder (Gottesman, 1991). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 14, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kathryn Hill, Nicolas Bolo, Suraj Sarvode Mothi, Paulo Lizano, Synthia Guimond, Neeraj Tandon, Elena Molokotos, Matcheri Keshavan Source Type: research

Reduced Lateral Prefrontal Cortical Volume is associated with Performance on the Modified Iowa Gambling Task: A Surface Based Morphometric Analysis of Previously Deployed Veterans with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI), or Co-occurring PTSD/mTBI
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are two of the most common consequences of combat deployment. Estimates of comorbidity of PTSD and mTBI are as high as 42% in combat exposed Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) Veterans. Combat deployed Veterans with PTSD and/or mTBI exhibit deficits in classic executive function (EF) tasks. Similarly, the extant neuroimaging literature consistently indicates abnormalities of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and amygdala/hippocampal complex in these individuals. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nicholas D. Fogleman, Farah Naaz, Lindsay K. Knight, Teodora Stoica, Samantha C. Patton, Jennifer H. Olson-Madden, Meghan. C. Barnhart, Trisha A. Hostetter, Jeri Forster, Lisa A. Brenner, Marie T. Banich, Brendan E. Depue Source Type: research

Oxytocin effects on emotional response to others ’ faces via serotonin system in autism: A pilot study
The oxytocin (OT)-related serotonergic system is thought to play an important role in the etiology and social symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, no evidence exists for the relation between the prosocial effect of chronic OT administration and the brain serotonergic system. Ten male subjects with ASD were administered OT for 8 –10 weeks in an open-label, single-arm, non-randomized, uncontrolled manner. Before and during the OT treatment, positron emission tomography was used with the (11C)-3-amino-4-(2-[(demethylamino)methyl]phenylthio)benzonitrile(11C-DASB) radiotracer. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mina Fukai, Tetsu Hirosawa, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Yasuomi Ouchi, Tetsuya Takahashi, Yuko Yoshimura, Yoshiaki Miyagishi, Hirotaka Kosaka, Masamichi Yokokura, Etsuji Yoshikawa, Tomoyasu Bunai, Yoshio Minabe Source Type: research

The association between in vivo central noradrenaline transporter availability and trait impulsivity
The brain noradrenaline (NA) system, particularly NA transporters (NAT), are thought to play an important role in modulating impulsive behavior. Impaired impulsivity is implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions; however, an in vivo link between central NAT availability and human impulsivity has not been shown. Using positron emission tomography (PET) and S,S-[11C]O-methylreboxetine (MRB), we tested whether NAT availability is associated with this basic behavioral trait based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) in twenty healthy individuals (12 females, 33.8 ± 9.3, 21–52 years of age) with ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Swen Hesse, Ulrich M üller, Michael Rullmann, Julia Luthardt, Anke Bresch, Georg-Alexander Becker, Franziska Zientek, Marianne Patt, Philipp M. Meyer, Matthias Blüher, Maria Strauß, Wiebke Fenske, Mohammed Hankir, Yu-Shin Ding, Anja Hilbert, Osama Sabr Source Type: research

Longitudinal investigation of the parietal lobe anatomy in bipolar disorder and its association with general functioning
The parietal lobe (PL) supports cognitive domains, including attention and memory, which are impaired in bipolar disorder (BD). Although cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry studies found reduced PL grey matter (GM) in BD, none has longitudinally focused on PL anatomy in BD, relating it to patients ’ functioning. Thirty-eight right-handed BD patients and 42 matched healthy subjects (HS) underwent a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan at baseline. Seventeen BD patients and 16 matched HS underwent a follow-up MRI. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Adele Ferro, Carolina Bonivento, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Marcella Bellani, Cinzia Perlini, Nicola Dusi, Veronica Marinelli, Mirella Ruggeri, A. Carlo Altamura, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Paolo Brambilla Source Type: research

White matter abnormalities in treatment-naive adolescents at the earliest stages of Anorexia Nervosa: A diffusion tensor imaging study
Few studies have examined white matter (WM) integrity in long-lasting Anorexia Nervosa (AN) patients using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). In this paper, we investigated WM integrity at the earliest stages of AN (i.e. less than 6 months duration). Fourteen treatment-naive female adolescents with AN restrictive type (AN-r) in its earliest stages and 15 age-matched healthy females received brain MRI. Fractional Anisotropy (FA), Axial Diffusivity (AD), Radial diffusivity (RD), and Mean Diffusivity (MD) maps were computed from DTI data using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Santino Gaudio, Carlo Cosimo Quattrocchi, Claudia Piervincenzi, Bruno Beomonte Zobel, Francesca Romana Montecchi, Antonios Dakanalis, Giuseppe Riva, Filippo Carducci Source Type: research

Proximity Alert! Distance Related Cuneus Activation in Military Veterans with Anger and Aggression Problems
This study therefore investigated effects on neural activation related to threat and escapability among veterans with deployment experience. Twenty-seven male veterans with anger and aggression problems (Anger group) and 30 Control veterans performed a virtual predator-task during fMRI measurement. In this task, threat and proximity were manipulated. The distance of cues determined their possibility for escape. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lieke Heesink, Thomas Gladwin, David Terburg, Jack van Honk, Rolf Kleber, Elbert Geuze Source Type: research

Associations between psychopathic traits and brain activity during instructed false responding
In this study, we examine brain activity in sixteen individuals with varying degrees of psychopathic traits during a task in which they are instructed to falsify information or tell the truth about autobiographical and non-autobiographical facts, some of which was related to criminal behavior. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 19, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrea L. Glenn, Hyemin Han, Yaling Yang, Adrian Raine, Robert A. Schug Source Type: research

Grey matter density changes of structures involved in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after recovery following Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy
This study aimed to determine whether symptoms improvement is associated with GM density changes of brain structures involved in PTSD. Two groups of PTSD patients were involved in this study. The first group was treated with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy and recovered from their symptoms (recovery group) (n = 11); Patients were scanned prior to therapy (T1), one week (T2) and five months after the end of therapy (T3). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 19, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sarah Boukezzi, Myriam El-Khoury-Malhame, Guillaume Auzias, Emmanuelle Reynaud, Pierre-Fran çois Rousseau, Emmanuel Richard, Xavier Zendjidjian, Jacques Roques, Nathalie Castelli, Nadia Correard, Valérie Guyon, Caroline Gellato, Jean-Claude Samuelian, A Source Type: research

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(Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 16, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

“First episode psychosis moderates the effect of gray matter volume on cognition“
Patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) present with cognitive deficits and volume differences in certain brain areas. Brain volumetric information further correlates with cognitive testing, and multiple brain areas shows different strengths of correlation with the cognitive functions being tested. Traditionally, these cognitive functions are independently related to volumetric differences, but these functions share variance. Failing to account for this aspect of cognition hinders the proper representation of cognition in neuroimaging studies. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Luis F.S. Castro-de-Araujo, Richard A.A. Kanaan Source Type: research

Neural correlates of psychotic-like experiences during spiritual-trance state
Recent studies indicate high levels of psychotic experiences in the general population. Here, we report a functional imaging study with 8 mentally healthy spiritual mediums and 8 matched controls. The mediums entered a mediumistic-trance state using a standardized manner by closing their eyes and actively seeking to ignore external and internal stimuli to achieve a ‘state of emptiness’; in a control condition, they were instructed to re-enact the same mediumistic experience that they had during the mediumistic-trance condition but in a non-trance state (imaginative-trance). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 14, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alessandra Ghinato Mainieri, Julio Fernando Prieto Peres, Alexander Moreira-Almeida, Klaus Mathiak, Ute Habel, Nils Kohn Source Type: research

Associations between cognition and serotonin receptor 1B binding in patients with major depressive disorder – a pilot study
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has a lifetime prevalence of 11-15 % (Bromet et al., 2011) and is the leading cause of disability worldwide (World Health Organization, 2017). It is a clinically heterogeneous disease of variable course in which the core symptoms, low mood and loss of interest, are related to emotional dysregulation. Recent research has demonstrated that also cognitive impairments play an important role in the symptomatology of MDD (Rock et al., 2014; Trivedi and Greer, 2014). These include reversible dysfunctions that largely normalize after a major depressive episode, that is, visuospatial short term memor...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ämma Tangen, Jacqueline Borg, Mikael Tiger, Katarina Varnäs, Kimmo Sorjonen, Nils Lindefors, Christer Halldin, Johan Lundberg Source Type: research

Olfactory identification deficit predicts white matter tract impairment in Alzheimer's disease
Olfactory identification deficit (OID) has been associated with both aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the context of an amnestic disorders, OID predicts conversion to AD. Neuroanatomical correlates could increase specificity and sensitivity and elucidate the mechanistic differences between OID in AD and aging. Cross-sectional analysis of white matter microstructural changes was performed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tract-based-spatial-statistics in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), AD and normal controls (NC) in 66 subjects (26 AD, 15 aMCI, 25 NC). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Matthew R. Woodward, Michael G. Dwyer, Niels Bergsland, Jesper Hagemeier, Robert Zivadinov, Ralph HB. Benedict, Kinga Szigeti Source Type: research

A Distinctive Abnormality of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameters in the Fornix of Patients with Bipolar II Disorder
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have revealed a changed integrity in the white matter of bipolar disorder. However, only a few investigations have examined bipolar II disorder (BP-II). A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare thirty-eight patients with BP-II (mean age = 38.26 years, F/M = 19/19) with thirty-eight age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean age = 34.45 years, F/M = 18/20). Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) analysis of the fractional anisotropy (FA) was done with age, gender and education years as covariates, then a complementary atlas-based region-of-interest (ROI) analysis including t...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 7, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Akeo Kurumaji, Michio Itasaka, Akihito Uezato, Kazuo Takiguchi, Daisuke Jitoku, Mizue Hobo, Toru Nishikawa Source Type: research

Computerized cognitive training for children with neurofibromatosis type 1: a pilot resting-state fMRI study
In this pilot study, we examined training effects of a computerized working memory program on resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). We contrasted pre- with post-training resting state fMRI and cognitive measures from 16 participants (nine males; 11.1 ±2.3 years) with NF1 and documented working memory difficulties. Using non-parametric permutation test inference, we found significant regionally specific differences (family-wise error corrected) in two of four voxel-wise resting state measures: fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuat...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 5, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yuliya N. Yoncheva, Kristina K. Hardy, Daniel J. Lurie, Krishna Somandepalli, Lanbo Yang, Gilbert Vezina, Nadja Kadom, Roger J. Packer, Michael P. Milham, F. Xavier Castellanos, Maria T. Acosta Source Type: research

Neural Correlates of Preserved Facial Affect Performance in High Functioning Schizophrenia
This study compared brain activation during FA P performance in HF-SCZ, LF-SCZ, and controls. Results demonstrated greater activation in the precuneus in CON compared to both SCZ groups, while HF-SCZ activated this region intermediate to controls and LF-SCZ. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 2, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tatiana M. Karpouzian, Matthew P. Schroeder, Samantha V. Abram, Harry Wanar, Eva C. Alden, Shaun M. Eack, John G. Csernansky, Matthew J. Smith Source Type: research

Psychophysical assessment of koniocellular pathway in patients with schizophrenia versus healthy controls
This study was designed to perform psychophysical assessment of koniocellular pathway in patients with schizophrenia versus healthy controls. A total of 26 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls were included. Snellen Visual Acuity Chart scores and Short Wavelength Automated Perimetry (SWAP) visual field testing including global visual field indices [mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD), test time (min)], reliability parameters [false negative responses (%), false positive responses (%) and fixed losses (%)] and average threshold sensitivity [central (parafovea), peripheral area, and...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 26, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ozgur Bulent Timucin, Elif Aktan Mutlu, Damla Timucin, Mehmet Emin Aslanci, Isil Is ıkligil, Mehmet Fatih Karadag, Esra Kizildag Ozbay Source Type: research

Attempts at memory control induce dysfunctional brain activation profiles in Generalized Anxiety Disorder: An exploratory fMRI study
Suppression of aversive memories through memory control has historically been proposed as a central psychological defense mechanism. Inability to suppress memories is considered a central psychological trait in several psychiatric disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Yet, few studies have attempted the focused identification of dysfunctional brain activation profiles when patients with generalized anxiety disorders attempt memory control. Using a well-characterized behavioral paradigm we studied brain activation profiles in a group of adult GAD patients and well-matched healthy controls (HC). (Source: P...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 25, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Vaibhav A. Diwadkar, Marta Re, Filippo Cecchetto, Marco Garzitto, Sara Piccin, Carolina Bonivento, Marta Maieron, Serena D ’Agostini, Matteo Balestrieri, Paolo Brambilla Source Type: research

Reduced fronto-amygdalar connectivity in adolescence is associated with increased depression symptoms over time
This study used resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) magnetic resonance imaging to examine neurobiological markers of escalating depression symptoms in adolescents (ages 12 –16 years; free from psychopathology at baseline). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 24, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hannah Scheuer, Gabriela Alarc ón, Damion V. Demeter, Eric Earl, Damien A. Fair, Bonnie J. Nagel Source Type: research

Diffusion tensor imaging of cingulum bundle and corpus callosum in schizophrenia vs. bipolar disorder
Both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder show abnormalities of white matter, as seen in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses of major brain fibre bundles. While studies in each of the two conditions have indicated possible overlap in anatomical location, there are few direct comparisons between the disorders. Also, it is unclear whether phenotypically similar subgroups (e.g. patients with bipolar disorder and psychotic features) might share white matter pathologies or be rather similar. Using region-of-interest (ROI) analysis of white matter with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 T, we analysed fractional anisotropy (F...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - May 24, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Igor Nenadic, Anna Hoof, Maren Dietzek, Kerstin Langbein, J ürgen R. Reichenbach, Heinrich Sauer, Daniel Güllmar Source Type: research