Identify, Engage, Understand: Supporting Transgender Youth in an Inpatient Psychiatric Hospital
This study sought to address limited understanding of the inpatient experience of transgender adolescents. This study uses qualitative methods to gain insight into the experience of transgender adolescents and psychiatric care providers on an adolescent inpatient psychiatric unit in the northeast United States. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (9 total, ages 13 –17) and unit care providers (18 total). These interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Patients and providers generally reported a supportive inpatient environment. Factors that contributed ...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - June 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Effects of Terrorist Attacks on Symptom Clusters of PTSD: a Comparison with Victims of Other Traumatic Events
AbstractIn the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) literature, no study assessed differences in symptom clusters among victims of terrorist attacks (TA) as compared with victims of other traumatic events. Due to the intentional nature of the harm infliction, TA may be expected to produce more severe symptoms, particularly avoidance, since this cluster was found to be a severity marker and a maintenance factor of the disorder. As several patients delay treatment-seeking, duration of untreated illness (DUI) is another problem potentially influencing PTSD severity. The current study explored differences in PTSD symptom clus...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - June 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Unmet Needs of People with Serious Mental Illness: Perspectives from Certified Peer Specialists
AbstractExamine the unmet needs of people with serious mental illness (SMI) from the perspective of certified peer specialists. 267 certified peer specialists from 38 states completed an online survey (female [73%], 50.9 [SD = 12] years, and non-Hispanic White [79.8%]). Many respondents reported a primary mental health diagnoses (n = 200), 22 respondents reported their diagnosis as schizophrenia spectrum disorder (11%), 46 respondents reported bipolar disorder (22.1%), 47 respondents reported major depressive disorder (22.6%), 29 respondents reported post-traumatic stress disorder (13.9%), 27 respon...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - June 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Comparison of the Effect of Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy and Positive Psychotherapy on Perceived Stress and Quality of Life in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
This study aimed to compare dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and positive psychotherapy (PPT) effects on perceived stress (PS) and quality of life (QOL) among patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Seventy six eligible patients with a Rome- IV diagnosis were randomly allocated in DBT (n = 18), MBCT (n = 20), PPT (n = 18), and control groups (n = 20). All the patients were evaluated for PS by perceived stress scale (PSS) and QOL by irritable bowel syndrome quality of life (IBS-QOL) on the studied groups at the time o...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Schizophrenia Mortality: Barriers to Progress
AbstractIndividuals with schizophrenia die, on average, 20  years before their peers, with ‘natural causes’ accounting for 80% of premature deaths. The aim of this narrative review is to address this phenomenon from the perspective of known factors that contribute to long life. The relevant literature from the last decade was searched in PubMed and Goo gle Scholar databases. Four factors have been shown to be common to centarians, people who live to be a hundred: genes, life style behaviors that favor a healthy heart, social support, and a subjective purpose in life. The latter three factors are potentiall...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - May 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Experiencing and Witnessing Patient Violence - an Occupational Risk for Outpatient Therapists?
AbstractViolence against therapists by their clients are a common occurrence across clinical settings and may have a lasting impact on the clinician ’s professional and personal functioning. In spite of this, no study to date has looked at the frequency of trauma-induced symptoms in psychotherapists. Using a sample ofN = 917 psychotherapists across Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, we analyzed the frequency and sequelae of patient attacks suffered or witnessed by therapists. More than half (51.3%) of the sample reported having been the victim or witness of patient attacks or threats of violence in thei...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - May 27, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Emotional Recognition in Schizophrenia: An Analysis of Response Components in Middle-Aged Adults
AbstractAgeing seems to present a bias towards positive stimuli that might be reflected in response times. However, this process is more complex for middle-aged adults, and even more in schizophrenia. In order to examine this issue, an experimental study was carried out in which 48 participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group of 24 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia and a control group of 24 subjects with no disorders. The main objective of the study was to evaluate response time components according to the emotional valence of the stimulus, to test recognition and discrimination in both groups. ...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - May 27, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Quality of Life in Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis of Comparative Studies
AbstractStudies and findings regarding the impact of schizophrenia on quality of life (QOL) has been highly variable. This meta-analysis compared QOL between schizophrenia subjects and healthy controls with a focus on standardized measures. A systematic literature search was conducted through Pubmed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. Only studies using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) or its brief version or the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) were included. Fifteen case-control studies with 2195 schizophrenia subjects and 1508 healthy controls were included in this ...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - May 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Prevalence of Suicide Attempts and Independent Demographic and Clinical Correlates among Chronic Schizophrenia Patients in Agricultural Areas of China
This study investigated the lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts (SA) and independent demographic and clinical correlates in stabilized schizophrenia inpatients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three psychiatric hospitals in Anhui province, an agricultural province located in east China. Psychopathology and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), respectively. A total of 315 stable schizophrenia inpatients were interviewed prior to discharge. The lifetime prevalence of SA was 22.2%. Multiple logistic regression analysi...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - May 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cyberchondria and its Relationships with Related Constructs: a Network Analysis
AbstractCyberchondria denotes repeated online searches for health information that are associated with increasing levels of health anxiety. The aims of this study were to apply network analysis to investigate the extent to which cyberchondria is a distinct construct, ascertain which of the related constructs have the strongest relationships with cyberchondria and investigate whether some of the symptoms of cyberchondria are more central to the construct of cyberchondria. Questionnaires assessing the severity of cyberchondria, health anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms, intolerance of uncertainty, problematic In...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - May 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Post-Traumatic Growth and Resilience Among Medical Students After the March 2011 Disaster in Fukushima, Japan
AbstractIn March of 2011, an earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident struck northern Japan causing profound damage to the surrounding area and lasting effects to all those who lived there. Fukushima Medical University (FMU), the closest hospital that remained open during the disaster, was greatly impacted and its students rallied to help the cause. Many of them were directly affected as their neighborhoods were ruined and family and friends were injured or killed. Our study sought to better understand how this disaster impacted their posttraumatic growth and resilience in the wake of the disaster and today, 8 years later...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - May 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

More Optimistic Recovery Attitudes Are Associated with Less Stigmatization of People with Mental Illness among Healthcare Professionals Working on Acute and Semi-Acute Psychiatric Wards
In this study, we examined to what extent recovery attitudes among mental healthcare professionals are associated with stigmatization. We conducted a survey among staff members (n = 110) of a large psychiatric hospital working on acute or semi-acute wards one year following a multi-professional training session, which included the promotion of recovery orientation as a therapeutic approach. The survey included measures such as gender, age, professional background, years of working experience, ward setting (mostly open or closed doors), recovery attitudes (RAQ-7), and stigmatization of individuals with mental ...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - May 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cognitive Impairments in First-Episode Drug-Na ïve Versus Medicated Depressive Patients: RBANS in a Chinese Population
AbstractCognitive deficits are a core feature of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, there are no previous studies that directly compare cognitive performance between first-episode drug-naive depressive patients (FDDP) and medicated depressive patients (MDP). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether there were the differences in cognitive functions between FDDP and MDP. Sixty-two FDDP, 111 MDP and 90 healthy controls were enrolled in a Chinese population. Cognitive functions were assessed using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). There were the difference...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - May 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Disparities in Health Coverage Across Gender and Marital Status among Discharged Psychiatric Patients
AbstractThe goal of this study was to examine the demographics sex and marital status of inpatients with schizophrenia and bipolar and compare differences in patients ’ chances of possessing adequate health coverage to cover hospital expenses. Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey was extracted and analyzed. For hospital discharges of patients age 18 and older 702,626 hospital discharges were included in the study representing a weighted population o f77,082,738 hospital discharges.Prediction model was applied to test the ability of the independent variables sex and marital status to predict differences in...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - May 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Enhancing Completion of Cognitive Processing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Quetiapine in Veterans with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: a Case Series
AbstractTo evaluate the outcomes of the antiarousal medications valproate, risperidone, and quetiapine on completion of treatment of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for PTSD. A case series of fifty treatment-seeking adult ( ≥18 years) veterans with mild traumatic brain injury and combat-related PTSD who had unsuccessful trials of 2 or more first-line agents and previously declined treatment with trauma-focused therapy, seen at the psychiatric outpatient services of the local Polytrauma Rehabilitation Center from Jan uary 1, 2014, through December 31, 2017. Patients were prescribed valproate (n = 8)...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - May 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Perfectionism Moderates the Relationship between Thwarted Belongingness and Perceived Burdensomeness and Suicide Ideation in Adolescents
AbstractAccording to the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide, suicide ideation is associated with thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. According to the Perfectionism Social Disconnection Model, excessive perfectionism is also considered to be a risk factor for depression and suicide. In the present study, the role of perfectionism as a moderator in the association between interpersonal distress (i.e., perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, low connectedness to parents and friends) and suicide ideation was examined in a nonclinical sample of adolescents. One-hundred and three adolescents were assessed...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - April 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Folie du syst ème? Preventing Violence Against Nurses in In-patient Psychiatry
AbstractViolence against psychiatric nurses is a difficult reality of work on in-patient psychiatry units. Health care providers and managers, nursing unions, and workplace protection agencies are looking for solutions to improve safety and quality of care. We are suggesting that simultaneous to this solution-seeking, there is also a need to critically reflect on the nature of violence itself within in-patient psychiatric settings. In this article we consider the gendered dynamics of power and violence within the in-patient psychiatric setting. The nursing profession is over 90% female. Given that violence in society often...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - April 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Commentary on “Predictors of Seclusion or Restraint Use Within Residential Treatment Centers for Children and Adolescents” by Green-Hennessy and Hennessy
AbstractIn their 2015 study, Sharon Green-Hennessy and Kevin D. Hennessy addressed an important gap in the literature on seclusion and restraint use in child and adolescent residential treatment centers (RTCs). Their analysis revealed that several facility-level characteristics —such as facility size and ownership—predicted the use of seclusion/restraint in child/adolescent RTCs. The authors also examined patient demographic variables that were significant predictors of seclusion/restraint in prior research on individual patients within facilities. However, Green-Henne ssy and Hennessy did not find any relation...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - April 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Intervention Effects of Motivation Interviewing Chinese Modified on the Mental Health of College Students with Exercise Dependence
This study aims to investigate the intervention effects of motivation interviewing Chinese modified on the mental health of college students with exercise dependence. Thirty college students with exercise dependence were selected from Hunan University of Science and Technology in Hunan province of China to participate in the experiment. The participants were divided equally into the intervention and control groups. A three-week motivation interviewing Chinese modified session was conducted in the intervention group, whereas no intervention was carried out in the control group. This strategy allowed for the vertical and the...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - April 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Media Use Is Linked to Lower Psychological Well-Being: Evidence from Three Datasets
AbstractAdolescents spend a substantial and increasing amount of time using digital media (smartphones, computers, social media, gaming, Internet), but existing studies do not agree on whether time spent on digital media is associated with  lower psychological well-being (including happiness, general well-being, and indicators of low well-being such as depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts). Across three large surveys of adolescents in two countries (n = 221,096), light users (
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - March 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Multimorbidity among Veterans Diagnosed with PTSD in the Veterans Health Administration Nationally
We examined psychiatric multimorbidity among these patients and consider its implications for treatment and research. Using national VHA data from Fiscal Year 2012 on all veterans diagnosed with PTSD, we compared those with PTSD only to those with one, two, and three or more concurrent (non-substance use) psychiatric disorders. Comparisons of these four groups on sociodemographic characteristics, medical and substance use co-morbidities, health service use, and psychotropic prescription fills were conducted using bi-variate and ordinal logistic regression methods. Of 638,451 veterans diagnosed with PTSD in FY2012, only 29....
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - March 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Insight and Symptom Severity in an Inpatient Psychiatric Sample
This study sought to examine the differences in insight and symptom severity between individuals with psychotic, bipolar, and depressive disorders in an inpatient psychiatric sample. 199 participants were interviewed and medical records were consulted. Results show that participants with a psychotic disorder had significantly less insight into their illness, more debilitating symptoms, and reported less depression symptoms after controlling for education, race, marital status, homelessness, age, gender, and history of incarceration. Insight was shown to be a mediator between having a psychotic disorder and symptom severity...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - March 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Gender Differentiation of Indirect Self-Destructiveness in Drug Addicted Individuals (Indirect Self-Destructiveness in Addicted Women and Men)
AbstractThe use of psychoactive substances is considered to be a typical self-destructive behaviour with addiction itself regarded as one of the self-destructiveness forms. The aim of this work was to explore the gender differentiation of the indirect self-destructiveness syndrome (and its particular categories) in drug addicted individuals treated in drug addiction treatment centres. 172 drug addicted individuals (116 men and 56 women, M age  = 23,5), ranged from 19 to 28 years, was recruited. In order to examine indirect self-destructiveness and its manifestations, the Polish version of the “Chro...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - March 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Factors Associated with Long-Stays in an Italian Psychiatric Intensive Treatment Facility: 1-Year Retrospective Observational Analysis
AbstractPsychiatric Intensive Treatment Facilities (PITF) are health inpatient settings for patients affected by sub-acute psychiatric disorders with impaired personal and social functioning. The aim of this study is to analyse the demographic and clinical variables related to long-stays in an Italian PITF in order to highlight the risk factors for stay lengthening. We retrospectively collected the selected variables from all patients and their stays in a PITF from 1 to 11-2016 to 31-10-2017. We divided the stays according to the median of duration, ≤29 and >  29 days, to compare selected variables...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - March 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Digitally Delivered Psychological Interventions for Anxiety Disorders: a Comprehensive Review
AbstractDigital interventions for anxiety disorders have been well-researched over the past two decades. However, reviews to date have focused on internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT), whereas other psychological interventions have received less attention. The aim of this review was therefore to evaluate the effectiveness of digitally delivered psychological therapies (CBT, Attention Bias Modification, Exposure Therapy, Applied Relaxation, Bibliotherapy, Psychodynamic Therapy, Mindfulness, Behavioural Stress Management, Counselling) compared with control conditions and/or other psychological interventions for...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - March 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correlates of Negative Attitudes towards Medication in People with Schizophrenia
This study revealed evidence of a strong relationship between the attitudes toward medication and a  history of discontinuation of taking medication and duration of treatment. Therefore, we suggest that interventions focused preventing the internalization of stigmatizing attitudes towards mental illness should be available to people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, especially in the early st ages of the illness – irrespective of the patient’s age. (Source: Psychiatric Quarterly)
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - March 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Suicidal Thoughts, Attempts and Motives Among University Students in 12 Muslim-Majority Countries
AbstractThere is a scarcity of research on suicidal phenomena in the Muslim world. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the self-reported prevalence of suicidal thoughts, attempts and motives in 12 Muslim countries. A total of 8417 (54.4% women) university students were surveyed by means of a self-report questionnaire. Overall, 22% of the participants reported suicidal ideation and 8.6% reported attempting suicide. The odds of suicidal thoughts were elevated in Azerbaijan, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia, while reduced ORs were recorded in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Malaysia. While odds of suicide attempts were high in ...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - March 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychiatric Co-Morbidity in the United States
The objective of the present study was to provide a nationally representative psychiatric epidemiologic investigation of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its co-morbid conditions. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III) collected between 2012 and 2013 was used. Results indicated that TBI was significantly associated with any lifetime mental health (AOR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.65 –3.70), substance use disorder (AOR = 1.57–1.01-2.42), and violent (AOR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.03–2.65) and nonviolent (AOR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.25–2.70) criminal behaviors. In our stu...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - March 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Sociodemographic Variation in Increasing Needs for Mental Health Services among Canadian Adults from 2002 to 2012
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. (Source: Psychiatric Quarterly)
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - March 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Clinical and Cognitive Correlates of Insight in Bipolar Disorder
AbstractInsight is greatly impaired in Bipolar Disorder (BD), especially during mania. Cognitive impairment is also present in BD. Despite that, few studies have investigated a possible association between these two aspects. The main goal of the current study is to compare BD affective states regarding performance in cognitive testing and investigate clinical and cognitive predictors for insight loss in BD. The study investigated a sample of 65 patients who were evaluated in one of the BD phases (mania, euthymia or depression). All the subjects underwent neuropsychological evaluation and completed the Insight Scale for Aff...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - February 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Emotion Regulation and Desire Thinking as Predictors of Problematic Facebook Use
AbstractResearch evidence suggests that problematic Facebook use (PFU) affects large numbers of people worldwide. A variety of studies have investigated the relationship between PFU and psychological dysfunction, revealing that negative mood and cognitive self-regulation are common among problematic Facebook users. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of craving, emotion regulation and desire thinking in predicting PFU. An online survey was administered to 750 participants (Mage = 23.38 years; SDage = 5.72). Correlation analyses indicated that all predictor variables were po...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - February 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Phenomenology of Lying in Young Adults and Relationships with Personality and Cognition
AbstractDespite research suggesting that lying may be a normal aspect of development and a fairly frequent occurrence in many adults, surprisingly little is known about its phenomenology and possible associations with relevant personality traits and cognitive functions. University students were invited to participate in an online study, which included a 91-item questionnaire and four neurocognitive tasks (selected to focus on frontal lobe function). The survey included questions about frequency of lying and reasons for doing so, mental health history, personality traits, religiosity, and insight into lying. Those who lied ...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Knowledge of and Attitudes Towards Mental Illness Among ASHA and Anganwadi Workers in Vadodara District, Gujarat State, India
AbstractUnmet needs in mental health care are high in low and middle-income countries like India. We propose recruiting community health workers (CHWs) to provide mental health services and address the treatment gap, but there is limited data available on the training needs for this potential role. The aim of this study is to help determine what type of formal mental health training and programming could most benefit CHWs in India. This was a cross sectional study design. Self-administered surveys were conducted amongst CHWs in the villages of Vadodara District, Gujarat, India. Statistical analyses included two tailed t-te...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Missing Ingredients in Shared Decision-Making?
AbstractShared decision-making (SDM) is a collaborative approach to making decisions in health care, and is a cornerstone of person-centered care. While providers are increasingly expected to utilize SDM in routine practice, widespread and sustainable implementation has proven difficult, especially in the care of individuals diagnosed with serious mental illnesses, and physicians and patients continue to identify barriers to effective collaboration. To date, SDM research has largely focused on the provision of high-quality clinical information from doctors to patients to the neglect of what may be the most important, and t...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Hospitalization Patterns over 30  Years Across a Statewide System of Public Mental Health Hospitals: Readmission Predictors, Optimal Follow-Up Period, Readmission Clusters and Individuals with Statistically Significant High Healthcare Utilization
AbstractFour related hospital utilization questions (optimal follow-up period, predictors of readmission, definition of individuals with statistically significant high healthcare utilization, and patterns of readmissions) were examined using data for 491,094 hospital discharges for 250,091 patients across a statewide public mental health hospital system for 30  years (1987 to 2016). Using survival analysis, the first quartile of the survival time, the time when 25% of the entire population of discharges had a readmission was 229 days. Using observed readmissions, rather than the population as in survival analysis...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

PG-13 Rated Movie Violence and Societal Violence: is there a Link?
AbstractRecent scholarship has suggested that the frequency of violence in PG-13 rated movies has increased in recent years. Although some scholars have expressed concern that such an increase may have public health implications, this has remained untested. In the current article, trends in PG-13 movie violence are tested against trends in violence in society, including both homicides and youth violence. Raw correlations suggest that PG-13 rated movie violence isinversely related to actual violence in society. However, controlling for autocorrelations suggests that the best interpretation is that PG-13 rated movie violence...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Working Nursing Students Willing to Seek Psychological Services
In conclusion, working nursing students are willing to seek psychological services regardless of stigma. (Source: Psychiatric Quarterly)
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of Cigarette Smoking and Clozapine Treatment on 20-Year All-Cause & amp; Cardiovascular Mortality in Schizophrenia
AbstractTo estimate 20-year mortality risk in people with schizophrenia treated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) and examine the effects of cigarette smoking on mortality. Of the 1199 individuals with schizophrenia in the study, estimated 20-year all-cause mortality risk by Kaplan Meier Curve was 30% and leading causes of death included 27% cardiovascular disease, 13% cancer, 12% non-HIV infection, 5% respiratory causes, 20% other causes and 18% had unknown cause of death. For all-cause mortality, we found that white race and male sex were significant risk factors (HR  = 1.5,p = 0.002...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 10, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress and Interpersonal Sensitivity: Alexithymia as Mediator and Emotional Expressivity as Moderator
This study examined 1) the link between PTSD from past trauma, interpersonal sensitivity and psychiatric co-morbidity, 2) mediational effects of alexithymia on 1), and 3) moderated mediational effects with emotional expressivity as the moderator. Five hundred and fifteen Kazakh students completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, General Health Questionnaire-28, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire and Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure. The results showed that 28% met the criteria for full-PTSD. Controlling for academic year, age and university major, PTSD from past trauma was signific...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - December 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Medical Student Reactions to Disaster after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake: Motivation and Posttraumatic Growth
We examined how cognitive and emotional reactions to disaster correlated with posttraumatic growth (PTG) in medical students in Fukushima, Japan after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011. To date, Fukushima continues to suffer from radiation concerns following the nuclear power plant meltdown. In a survey three years after the onset of a long-term disaster, with a cross-sectional research design, medical students (N = 494) reported their negative post-disaster reactions, desire to help, and demonstrations of capability, and completed the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). We conducted hierar...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - October 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Influence of Trauma on Autobiographical Memory in the Assessment of Somatoform Disorders According to DSM IV Criteria
AbstractRecalling an event impairs an individual ’s later ability to recall related knowledge. Impairment in this retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) produces a dysfunction in autobiographical memory. This, like somatic symptoms, has been documented in trauma and sexual abuse survivors. To investigate the relationship between past trauma and soma toform disorders, and the role of memory recall dysfunction in this relationship, three sex-matched groups were constituted using DSM IV criteria: Somatoform (SD) (n. 22) other Psychiatric Disorders (PD) (n. 26) and Healthy Subjects (HS) (n. 35). Responses to Stressful Life E...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - October 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Impact of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Bipolar Depression, Mania, and Euthymia: a Systematic Review of Preliminary Data
AbstractThe neurobiological basis of bipolar disorders (BD) has received increased attention and several brain regions and brain circuits have been correlated with clinical symptoms. These brain regions and circuits may represent targets for neuromodulation techniques such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). We systematically reviewed the literature to explore the risks and benefits of tDCS in BD and examined all mood states. Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature search using several databases was performed from April 2002 to June 2017. From the 135 eligible studies, we retained 19 relevan...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - October 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Influence of Psychological Needs and Exercise Motivation on Exercise Dependence among Chinese College Students
AbstractTo explore the influence of exercise motivation and basic psychological needs on exercise dependence among Chinese college students. 1689 college students engaged in long-term exercise were selected from three universities in Hunan province in China as the objects of the survey. 1601 valid copies of the questionnaire were collected. Exercise Addiction Inventory, Motivation for Physical Activity Measure-Revised, Psychological Need Satisfaction in Exercise Scale and other questionnaires were used in the correlation analysis and structural equation model to investigate the influence of psychological needs and exercise...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - October 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Pre- and Post-Clerkship Knowledge, Perceptions, and Acceptability of Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) in 3rd Year Medical Students
AbstractTo examine the impact of the third year psychiatry clerkship on medical students ’ knowledge and opinion of ECT at University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine. Despite overwhelming evidence of ECT’s efficacy and safety for refractory affective illnesses, (among other conditions), it remains a misunderstood and underutilized intervention. Several studies indicate that ECT stigma and misinformation, unfortunately, does not spare the medical community. Medical students are an optimal group to study, as they are forming their perspectives on different specialties. Few studies have measured the effect...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - October 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sociodemographic Variation in Increasing Needs for Mental Health Services among Canadian Adults from 2002 to 2012
ConclusionFindings from this study confirm the increasing and need for mental health services in Canada, and suggest that public health campaigns should be geared to specific sociodemographic groups. (Source: Psychiatric Quarterly)
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - October 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

SUDEP and Grief: Overview and Current Issues
AbstractThe medical community and the general public are aware of sudden deaths in apparently healthy infants (SIDS) and in cases of cardiac arrest (SCD). However, there is a third, less-well known, form of sudden death that occurs in persons with epilepsy (SUDEP). This paper provides a detailed overview what is known about SUDEP, including the current important, unresolved issues being considered in the field (research, education, informed consent). This paper also includes an overview of the grieving process common to all three conditions. Again, the current issues being considered in the field of grieving are presented ...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - October 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Association between Falls and Balance among Inpatients with Schizophrenia: A Preliminary Prospective Cohort Study
AbstractFalls are adverse events affecting psychiatric inpatients that can lead to external injuries, fractures, and death. However, none have attempted to examine fall-related factors, particularly focused on balance, specifically among inpatients with schizophrenia. The present preliminary study aimed to assess the association between falls and balance in patients with schizophrenia. The authors performed baseline assessments of background factors, postural sway, and maximum step length in 120 patients with schizophrenia hospitalized in the psychiatric ward. A prospective 3-month follow-up was conducted, and participants...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - October 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychometric Testing of Three Chinese Online-Related Addictive Behavior Instruments among Hong Kong University Students
AbstractGiven that there is a lack of instruments assessing internet-related addictions among Chinese population, this study aimed to validate the Chinese version of the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scales- Short Form (IGDS-SF9), Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), and Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (SABAS) among Hong Kong university students. Participants aged between 17 and 30  years participated in the present study (n = 307; 32.4% males; mean [SD] age = 21.64 [8.11]). All the participants completed the IGDS-SF9, BSMAS, SABAS, and the Hospital Anxiety and Dep...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - October 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correlations between Body Mass Index, Plasma High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Lipids in Patients with Schizophrenia
AbstractHigh prevalence of obesity in individuals with schizophrenia, associated with metabolic syndrome, leads to high rate of premature deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD) in this population. Body mass index (BMI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are correlated in the general population but this relationship has not been fully elucidated in patients with schizophrenia. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between BMI and CRP while relating both variables to plasma lipids in patients with schizophrenia. BMI, fasting high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP), cotinine, and lipids were measured in 106 patients with schizophrenia (diag...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - October 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Do Home-Based Psychiatric Services for Patients in Medico-Social Institutions Reduce Hospitalizations? Pre-Post Evaluation of a French Psychiatric Mobile Team
The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of home-based interventions to reduce hospitalizations and improve collaboration between psychiatric hospital facilities and MSHI. We used a pre-post study design. A same cohort of patients living in a MSHI one year before intervention and one year after implementation of the ESMS was studied. Hospitalizations were compared between the two periods. A survey was conducted for qualitative evaluation among professionals in MHSI. Sixty-three patients were included. Most patients suffered from psychotic disorders (71%). We found a significant decrease in the mean number ...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - October 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research