Association of Adverse Family Experiences with School Engagement and Performance in US Adolescents: Do Behavioral Health Conditions Mediate the Relationship?
AbstractTo examine the prevalence of adverse family experiences (AFEs), their association with poor school engagement and performance, and whether behavioral health conditions mediate the association among US adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents aged 12 –17 years from the 2016–2018 National Survey of Children’s Health (n = 41,648 unweighted). We first estimated the prevalence of AFEs, investigated the association of AFEs with school engagement and performance, and whether behavioral health conditions mediate such relationships, using multivariabl...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - March 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Examination of Gender Differences in the Influence of Social Support on Psychological Distress in Canadian Adults with Bipolar Disorder
The objectives of this study were to determine whether gender differences exist in how social support, and different types of support, impact psychological distress among Canadian adults with bipolar I and bipolar II disorder (BD), to examine whether females and males with BD differ in their perceived levels of support and distress compared to females and males without BD, and to investigate whether females and males with BD perceive different levels of support and distress. Using a cross-sectional, national datafile, 281 females and 282 males (20 –64 years) who reported being diagnosed with BD were investigated...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - March 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Emptiness Mediates the Association Between Pathological Narcissism and Problematic Smartphone Use
This study investigated the relationships between pathological narcissism, emptiness and problematic smartphone use. Participants included 278 young Israeli adults (159 males; Mage = 26.21) who completed a battery of self-report questionnaires. Our results show that narcissistic grandiosity, vulnerability and emptiness were positively related to problematic smartphone use. Importantly, emptiness mediated the relationships between pathological narcissism and problematic sm artphone use. These findings highlight the mediating role of emptiness experience in the associations between pathological narcissism and p...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - February 24, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Attitudes towards People with Mental Illness and Low Interest in Psychiatry among Medical Students in Central and Eastern Europe
This study aimed to examine attitudes towards people with mental illness and psychiatry and interest in career choice in psychiatry among medical students from three medical schools in Czechia and Slovakia. A total of 495 medical students participated in a cross-sectional study. Participants completed (1) the Medical students ’ version of mental illness: clinicians’ attitudes (MICA-2) scale, (2) the Reported and intended behaviour scale (RIBS), (3) the Attractiveness of working on a psychiatry-related position scale (P-ATTRACT), and (4) the Status of psychiatry scale (P-STATUS). Descriptive statistics, group co...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - February 24, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Identification of Psychiatric Disorders by Rural Grass-Root Health Workers: Case Series & amp; Implications for the National Mental Health Program of India
AbstractAuxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANMs) and Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) are well suited to cater to the mental health needs of the communities. Integrating primary mental health care into the general healthcare is one of the important objectives of the District Mental Health Program (DMHP) to reduce the treatment gap. As a part of an ICMR funded trial to evaluate the effectiveness of NIMHANS-ECHO blended training program, the ASHAs and ANMs were trained to identify and refer cases from the community. We aim to describe a series of cases identified by those workers from the community, highlighting their import...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - February 24, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

10-Year Trends of Emergency Department Visits, Wait Time, and Length of Stay among Adults with Mental Health and Substance use Disorders in the United States
This study examined if there was a change in the number of Emergency Department (ED) visits, wait time, and length of stay among adults with mental health and substance use disorders (MHSUD) in the United States from 2006 to 2015. From the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, a total of 17,488 ED visits by adults with MHSUD were identified. Linear regression and negative binomial regression analyses were conducted to assess statistically significant changes in trends of ED visits, wait time, and length of stay. Results indicated that ED visits by adults with MHSUD increased by 30.6% from 2006 to 2015. Wait tim...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - February 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

On-Site Prescription Dispensing Improves Antidepressant Adherence among Uninsured Depressed Patients
AbstractThe successful treatment of depressive disorders critically depends on adherence to prescribed treatment regimens. Despite increasing rates of antidepressant medication prescription, adherence to the full treatment course remains poor. Rates of antidepressant non-adherence are higher for uninsured patients and members of some marginalized racial and ethnic communities due to factors such as inequities in healthcare and access to insurance. Among patients treated in a free, student-run and faculty-supervised clinic serving uninsured patients in a majority Hispanic community in East Harlem, adherence rates are lower ...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - February 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Association of the Military Transition to an All-Volunteer Force and Subsequent Zero-Tolerance Drug Policy with Characteristics of Male Veterans in the Vietnam, Post-Vietnam and Subsequent Post-Post Vietnam Cohorts
AbstractIn the 1970s, following the Vietnam Conflict, the U.S. military transitioned to an All-Volunteer Force (AVF). In the 1980 ’s military benefits increased and a zero-tolerance policy for illicit drugs was instituted. Changes in characteristics of veterans deserve study. National survey data from 2012 to 2013 compare vetderan-non-veteran differences in three age cohorts: the Vietnam cohort; the AVF (Post-Vietnam) cohort ; and volunteers under the no tolerance policy (Post-Post-Vietnam). Comparisons addressed socio-demographic, behavioral, and substance use and psychiatric diagnoses. Multivariate interaction anal...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - February 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Receipt of Telepsychiatry and Emergency Department Visit Outcomes in New York State
This study sought to examine the potential role of telepsychiatry across a wider range of EDs by comparing visit dispositions for psychiatric visits in EDs that did (versus did not) receive telepsychiatry services. ED telepsychiatry service status was identified from the 2016 National ED Inventory-USA and then linked to psychiatric visits from the 2016 New York State Emergency Department Databases/State Inpatient Databases. Unadjusted analyses and multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between an ED ’s telepsychiatry service status and two clinical outcomes: use of observation ser...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - February 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder on Prison Adjustment and Recidivism among Military Veterans: Evidence from Minnesota
AbstractThe prevalence of, and link between, mental health disorders —such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)—and antisocial behavior is well-documented among the military veteran population. Studies also show that TBI and PTSD account for variation in prison-based and re-entry outcomes. Despite this body of research, compar atively fewer studies have explicitly focused on how these factors affect prison adjustment for inmates with prior military experience. We used administrative data provided by the Minnesota Department of Corrections (MnDOC) and employed a series of sur...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - February 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Gender and Racial Disparities among US Psychiatry Residents: A Review of Trends
In this study, we explore the gender and racial trends in the recruitment of medical graduates into US psychiatry residency programs. Retrospective data analysis was performed utilizing the data from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Data ’s annual Resource Books from the year 2007 to 2018. Demographic data, including gender and race, were extracted for psychiatry residents. Gender was categorized as Male, Female, and Not Reported. Race/ethnicity was categorized as White (Non-Hispanic), Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic, Black/Afric an-American (Non-Hispanic), Native American/Alaskan, Ot...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - February 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mental Health Staff Perceptions of Improvement Opportunities around COVID-19: A Mixed-Methods Analysis
This study used mixed-methods to understand the complex and varied experiences of staff of a psychiatric service line at a large tertiary medical center with high community spread of COVID-19. A brief convenience survey was sent to all staff of the service line and thematic analysis generated brief themes and their frequency. Qualitative focus groups were then held to elucidate greater detail on survey responses. In total, 99 individuals responded to the survey and 17 individuals attended two focus groups in which theoretical saturation was achieved. While brief survey responses generated three broad themes, including oper...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Preliminary Evidence for Sociotropy and Autonomy in Relation to Antidepressant Treatment Outcome
AbstractSociotropy and autonomy are cognitive-personality styles that have been hypothesized to confer vulnerability to different presentations of major depressive disorder (MDD), which may respond differentially to treatment. Specifically, the profile of low sociotropy and high autonomy is hypothesized to indicate a positive response to antidepressant medication. The current study examines sociotropy and autonomy in relation to sertraline treatment response in individuals with MDD. As part of an ancillary study to the larger Establishing Moderators and Biosignatures of Antidepressant Response for Clinical Care (EMBARC) pr...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - February 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A Predictive Model for Estimating Risk of Harm and Aggression in Inpatient Mental Health Clinics
AbstractSerious mental illness is a major risk factor for aggression and violence. The present study aimed to develop and test an algorithm to predict inpatient aggressions that involve a risk of harm to self or others. This work is based on a retrospective study aimed to investigate the prediction of risk of harm and aggressions at St. Joseph ’s Healthcare Hamilton, between 2016 and 2017. An analysis of the risk factors most strongly associated with harmful incidents is, followed by the description of the process involved in the development of a predictive model which estimates the risk of harm. The efficiency of th...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Predicting Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Young Adults with and without Borderline Personality Disorder: a Multilevel Approach Combining Ecological Momentary Assessment and Self-Report Measures
AbstractNon-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is an increasingly prevalent phenomenon associated with many detrimental outcomes, ranging from poor academic performance to suicide attempts. Research on self-harming behaviors has identified emotion dysregulation, negative affect, and borderline pathology as strong risk factors of NSSI, whereas the potential protective effects of metacognitive skills such as decentering have not yet been explored. The current study combined ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and self-report measures to explore potential risk and protective factors of NSSI in a clinical group of Borderline Person...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic on Healthcare Workers with Pre-Existing Psychiatric Conditions
AbstractBoth healthcare workers (HCWs) and psychiatric patients during the COVID-19 pandemic appear to have elevated prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, but little is known about HCWs with psychiatric diagnoses. To examine their response to the pandemic, we analyzed their perspective, and association with psychiatric symptoms and stress among HCW with psychiatric diagnosis. Using an online survey of HCW, we analyzed demographics, work information, health factors, open-ended question, sources of stress and standardized mental health scales (Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Patient Health...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychiatric Clinical Profiles and Pharmacological Interactions in COVID-19 Inpatients Referred to a Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Unit: a Cross-Sectional Study
AbstractThe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) can affect mental health in different ways. There is little research about psychiatric complications in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The aim of the study was to describe the psychiatric clinical profile and pharmacological interactions in COVID-19 inpatients referred to a Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry (CLP) unit. This is a cross-sectional study, carried out at a tertiary hospital in Spain, in inpatients admitted because of COVID-19 and referred to our CLP Unit from March 17,2020 to April 28,2020. Clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records. The pati...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Adverse Effects of Esketamine for the Treatment of Major Depression Disorder: Findings from Randomized Controlled Trials
AbstractEsketamine is a promising drug which can induce antidepressant effects in Major Depression Disorder (MDD). Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been implemented to assess the efficacy and safety of esketamine for the treatment of MDD. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis to assess adverse effect profiles of esketamine for the treatment of MDD. We searched RCTs which were implemented from January 2010 to June 2020 by searching PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. Finally, four RCTs with 551 patients were included in our study. We pooled 551 patients from 4 RCTs. Compared with placebo, an i...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mentalizing Errors in Patients with Schizophrenia Who Received Psychosocial Rehabilitation: a Case-Control Study
AbstractThe main objective of this study was to evaluate the mentalizing performance of patients with schizophrenia who received daily psychosocial rehabilitation treatment compared with healthy controls. Differences in mentalizing performance between men and women, and the relationship between mentalizing deficits, cognitive impairment, symptoms, and global functioning of patients were also examined. A case-control study design was utilized(N = 95). Adults with schizophrenia were recruited from psychosocial rehabilitation clinics (n = 53) and healthy controls were recruited from the community (...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Protecting Health and Safety with Needed-Treatment: the Effectiveness of Outpatient Commitment
AbstractOutpatient civil commitment (OCC) requires the provision of needed-treatment, as a less restrictive alternative (LRA) to psychiatric-hospitalization in order to protect against imminent-threats to health and safety associated with severe mental illness (SMI). OCC-reviews aggregating all studies report inconsistent outcomes and interpret such as intervention failure. This review, considering those studies whose outcome criteria are consistent with the provisions of OCC-law, seeks to determine OCC-effectiveness in meeting its legislated objectives. This review incorporated studies from previous systematic-reviews, us...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Longitudinal Assessment of Prevalence and Risk Factors of Anxiety and Depression among Prostate Cancer Survivors Post-Resection
AbstractOur study aimed to detect the longitudinal prevalence of anxiety and depression in prostate cancer survivors post-resection and their risk factors. A total of 169 prostate cancer patients who underwent resection were included and followed up for 3  years. Then anxiety and depression were assessed by Zung’s Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) or Zung’s Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) from the day of discharging from hospital to the last follow up every 3 months. Overall survival (OS) was calculated and documented. In prostate cancer survi vors post-resection, the SAS score, anxiety occurrence ra...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correlates of Obtaining Employment among Veterans Receiving Treatment for Severe PTSD in Specialized Intensive Programs
This study examines rates and correlates of transitioning from not being employed at admission to working four months after discharge using national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) program evaluation data on veterans engaged in specialized intensive PTSD treatment (N = 27,339). Results suggest that only 5.68% of the sample made the transition to employment while 10.6% lost employment, 8.9% worked both at admission and following discharge, and 74.9%, did not work either at admission or following discharge. Multinomial regression analysis found that compared to other groups, veterans who became employed we...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

In Their Own Words : Veteran Experiences with Evidence-Based Treatments for PTSD in the Veterans Health Administration
AbstractThe aim of the present study was to increase the understanding of veteran experiences with receiving an evidence-based psychotherapy (EBPs) for PTSD (Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure therapy) in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System (VA). Eighteen veterans who participated in the study were being seen in the outpatient PTSD clinic at a New England VA and had elected to participate in an EBP. The study assessed veteran experiences with, and outcomes from, treatment through the use of both quantitative and qualitative assessment tools. A rigorous data analytic approach, Consensual Qualitative Rese...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Prediction of Self-Report Cognitive Function for the Symptomatic Remission in Schizophrenia Treated with Amisulpride: a Multicenter, 8-Week Case-Control Study
This study aimed to determine whether self-report cognitive function is a predictor of symptomatic remission in amisulpride-treated schizophrenia. Patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia diagnoses who received amisulpride treatment, were recruited. Each patient received amisulpride with a flexible-dose strategy of 400-800  mg daily for eight weeks. Remission was defined by a shorter version of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale(PANSS)criteria, which includes six items (PANSS-6) with scores of less than three in each item(criteria A) or total six scores of less than fourteen(criteria B). Three hundred and three patient...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Patient Satisfaction with and Use of Telemental Health Services in the Perinatal Period: a Survey Study
AbstractWe aimed to assess patients ’ utilization of and satisfaction with telemental health (TMH) in the perinatal period. We hypothesized that satisfaction with TMH would be at least equal to, if not greater than, with in-person appointments. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between March 2018–June 2019 to evaluate patient satisfaction with and use of TMH services in the perinatal period. Participants used TMH services across the second and third trimester of pregnancy and the first year post-partum. Nearly half of the patients (8/19, 42%) used TMH to see their provider within the first two weeks post-pa...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Personality and Body Mass Index in U.S. Military Veterans: Results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study
AbstractThe relationship between the “Big 5” personality dimensions and body mass index (BMI) were examined in a nationally representative sample (National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study) of male and female U.S. military veterans. Multivariable analyses were conducted to evaluate gender-specific associations between person ality factors and BMI. Among male veterans, greater extraversion was associated with higher BMI, (β = 0.18), while lower conscientiousness (β = −0.18), agreeableness (β = −0.18), and emotional stability (β&thin...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Decision-Making Capacity in Healthcare: Instruments Review and Reflections About its Assessment in the Elderly with Cognitive Impairment and Dementia
AbstractThe prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases has been significantly increasing in the last decades, and it is expected to continue to grow. These health disorders can impair patients ’ decision-making capacity in healthcare. The capacity to make healthcare decisions is a fundamental pillar of informed consent, therefore, it should be carefully assessed. Clinicians’ assessment, when not supported by a standardized tool, has revealed to be unreliable, so the recourse to an ins trument of capacity assessment is crucial. The present paper aims to identify and summarize published instruments of healthcare de...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Occurence of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms, Anxiety and Depression in the Acute Phase of Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke
AbstractRates of post-traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety and depression are increased in patients having experienced a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke several months ago. However, data of psychiatric symptoms in the acute phase within the first days after ictus are lacking. In 20 patients with stroke and 33 patients with TIA we assessed disease severity by means of the NIHSS, levels of depression and anxiety by HADS, PTSD-like symptoms by PC-PTSD, quality of life (HrQoL) by SF-12, and coping style by brief COPE Inventory within the first 5  days after ictus. NIHSS on admission was lower in patients with TIA ...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - January 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Hormonal Contraceptive Use and Risk of Attempted and Completed Suicide: a Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis
AbstractDespite its widespread use, there is conflicting evidence on the association between hormonal contraception and the risk of suicide among women. This review seeks to identify, appraise and synthesize all studies on the association between hormonal contraceptive use and attempted or completed suicide. A systematic review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Relevant citations were identified from three bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycInfo). Cross-sectional, cohort and case control studies were included. Quality of studies was assessed with validated tools, and a narrative synthesis w...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - October 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Past Epidemics, Natural Disasters, COVID19, and Mental Health: Learning from History as we Deal with the Present and Prepare for the Future
AbstractAs cases of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continue to rise, psychological endurance is a challenge many people will face. For mental health, heightened stress responses to the pandemic, is likely to manifest in three ways: 1) development of a new episode of a disorder in those with a predisposition to a major psychiatric disorder or an acute exacerbation in those who already have such a disorder, 2) development of a trauma or stressor related disorder, such as acute stress disorder, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), or adjustment disorders, and 3) development of a symptomatic stress response that does not...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - October 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Global Prevalence of Suicidal Attempt among Medical Students: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
AbstractEven though suicidal attempt among medical students is a major public health concern, there are no prior studies that reported its consolidated magnitude worldwide. To the best of our knowledge, this systematic review is the first to quantitatively analyze the prevalence of suicidal attempts among medical students. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and Scopus for English language articles that assessed the prevalence of suicide attempts among medical students. A random-effect meta-analysis was used to combine data from individual studies. The heterogeneity across the studies was evaluated using Cochran &rs...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - October 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

“The COVID-19 Pandemic and its Effect on Mental Health in USA – A Review with Some Coping Strategies”
AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in enormous losses in terms of human lives and economy in United States. The outbreak has been continuing to heavily impact the mental health of people. Developing key strategies to prevent mental illnesses is extremely important for the well-being of people. A survey conducted during the last week of March 2020 showed that 72% of Americans felt that their lives were impacted by the outbreak, which was a 32% increase from the survey conducted only 2  weeks earlier. The results show a positive correlation between COVID-19 infections/casualties and growing public concern. These...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - October 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Finding Common Ground for Diverging Policies for Persons with Severe Mental Illness
AbstractTwo diametrically opposed positions predominate discourse for the care and treatment of persons with severe mental illness: anti-deinstitutionalization and anti-institutionalization. Both share the same goal of ensuring best quality of life for those with severe psychiatric disorders, but pathways to achieving this goal are very different and have resulted in much contention. Supporters of each position espouse a different belief system regarding people with psychiatric disorders and their presumed capabilities, placing varying emphasis on maximizing protection of the community versus protection of individual right...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - October 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Two Case Studies of Delusions Leading to Suicide, a Selective Review
AbstractMany questions pertaining to delusional disorder (DD) remain unanswered. It is unclear what syndromes to include under this category of psychotic illness and when to treat with antidepressants, cognitive therapy, or antipsychotic medication. DD is associated with psychiatric comorbidity, especially depression, and rates of suicidal behavior are high when the two conditions co-exist. In this selective review, we present two instances of suicide in the context of DD, one illustrating risks for the somatic subtype and the second, risks for the persecutory subtype. The frequency of suicidal behaviour in these two subty...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - October 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

High-Sensitive c-Reactive Protein Levels in Euthymic Bipolar Patients: Case-Control Study
AbstractBipolar disorder is a chronic, disabling disease that is characterized by the recurrence of thymic episodes. The role of the immune-inflammatory system in the etiopathogenesis of this affection arouses the interest of research. The aim of this work was to determine the plasma levels of the high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with bipolar disorder in remission phase by comparing them to a control group.A case-control cross-sectional study was conducted from 56 subjects with bipolar disorder in clinical remission, and 56 volunteers and healthy control subjects.Mean plasma hs-CRP was significantly...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - October 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Perspectives on Working with Immigrants Held in Detention Using Photovoice
This study used Photovoice to capture reflections on how the lives of volunteers are affected by their work on behalf of immigrant family detainees. Participants were recruited over a two-month period in 2018 from amongst the volunteers of a non-governmental organization that provides legal services to the detainees at one immigration detention center. Participants submitted photos and captions that explored their experiences with their work. Thirteen volunteers consented to participate and submitted 44 photos with captions to the project. Major themes included emotional challenges of the work, frustrations with the U.S. g...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - October 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Lessons Learned to Building Stakeholder Engagement during the Initial Stages of Pragmatic Research Development and Implementation
AbstractResearch does not occur in a vacuum. Effective stakeholder engagement occurs on several levels, including outside influence and cooperation inside the institution. Little guidance around designing and implementing pragmatic mental health research exists. The following paper outlines lessons learned during the initial stages of research design and implementation for a project focused on mental health treatment outcomes. (Source: Psychiatric Quarterly)
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - October 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Impulsivity and its Therapeutic Management in Borderline Personality Disorder: a Systematic Review
AbstractNo treatment has been approved and recognized as effective in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Impulsivity is a key dimension because it is a predictor of remission but also suicide. The purpose of this review is to establish an inventory on the management of impulsivity in BPD and determine the effective treatments. A systematic review on the PubMed and Ovid databases was conducted up to September 2019 to December 2019 using the PRISMA guidelines. The inclusion criteria were: studies with patients with borderline personality disorder, were published between 1989 and 2019, used English-language and evaluated ...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - September 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Based Short-Term Abstinence Intervention for Problematic Social Media Use: Improved Well-Being and Underlying Mechanisms
AbstractProblematic social media use is detrimental to users ’ subjective well-being. Based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), we proposed a short-term abstinence intervention to treat this problem. A mixed method study with 65 participants was conducted to examine the effectiveness of this intervention and to reveal the underlying mechanisms of how the intervention influences participants. While the experimental group (N = 33) took eight 2.5-h breaks from social media over two weeks and had daily dairies, the control group (N = 32) used social media as usual and had daily diaries. The...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - September 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among People Living with HIV/AIDS: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
AbstractNumerous studies have reported that the prevalence estimates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) might be substantially high among people with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) when compared to the general population. However, there are no previous systematic reviews and meta-analysis studies that reported the pooled prevalence of PTSD among PLWHA. To fill this gap in research, this study aims to analyze data from observational studies concerning the prevalence of PTSD among PLWHA and formulate a recommendation for future research and clinical practice. Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPUS) were searched to i...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - September 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Recovering the Capacity to Live outside of a Psychiatric Hospital: Impact of a Specialized Inpatient Program
AbstractDeinstitutionalization in psychiatry led to a decrease in hospital beds, short hospital admissions focussed on symptoms reduction, and the development of ambulatory care. However, the needs of patients who despite symptoms reduction do not display the minimal competencies to live alone or in a sheltered accommodation, are not met in such a context. They usually go through long admissions and fail to improve. In 2016, we implemented a new inpatient program focused on fostering the development of the competencies needed to adapt to living outside the hospital; the aim of this study was to evaluate if it lead to the r...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - September 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Acceptability and Feasibility of Using Text Messaging to Support the Delivery of Physical Health Care in those Suffering from a Psychotic Disorder: a Review of the Literature
AbstractThose suffering with serious mental illness (SMI), such as psychotic disorders, experience life expectancy 15  years shorter than the general population. Cardiovascular disease is the biggest cause of death in those with psychotic disease and many risk factors may be limited by healthy lifestyle choices. Text messaging interventions represent mobile health (mHealth), a nascent way to deliver physical healt h care to those suffering with a psychotic disorder. This paper aims to review the literature on the feasibility of text messaging to support the delivery of physical health care in those with a psychotic di...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - September 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A Comparison of Cognitive Processing Therapy and Seeking Safety for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Veterans
AbstractTo compare the outcomes of Seeking Safety (SS) and cognitive processing therapy (CPT) in veterans with PTSD in a specialty clinic of an urban VA medical center. Retrospective chart review of electronic medical records was conducted for 420 veterans with PTSD who received treatment with either CPT (n = 227) or SS (n = 193) in group setting. 1) treatment completion rate, 2) self-reported PTSD symptom severity measured by PTSD checklist (PCL), and 3) additional mental health services received within 12 months after treatment. Data were analyzed for the 160 who had both a pre and post P...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - September 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation and Attempt Among Young People with HIV/AIDS: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
This study found that a considerable proportion of young people with HIV/AIDS had suicidal ideation and attempt , suggesting the urgent needs of intervention strategies to relieve the suffering and possibly prevent death due to suicide. (Source: Psychiatric Quarterly)
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - September 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Clozapine for Treatment-Refractory Aggressive Behavior
AbstractEmergency psychiatry has the main role of resolving suicidal behavior and aggression. These severe psychiatric symptoms can be found in many psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, personality disorders, cognitive disorders, intellectual disability and substance abuse. Although indications for the use of antipsychotics are limited to a specific group of diseases, they are frequently used as rescue medication in high-risk or nonresponsive cases. Clozapine, the gold standard for TRS (treatment resistant schizophrenia) is effective in controlling aggression. The aim of the rese...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - September 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Evaluating the Prevalence of PTSD among Children and Adolescents after Earthquakes and Floods: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
AbstractOur study systematically reviews articles about the prevalence of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among children and adolescents, aiming to evaluate its prevalence after earthquakes and floods.Three databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) were searched for articles published from 1981 to 2019 containing information on PTSD prevalence among survivors of earthquakes and floods. Articles with insufficient data on the prevalence of PTSD or without any available full-text were excluded. Major study variables consist of the prevalence of PTSD of the included studies, gender, and the elapsed time after the di...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - September 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Hippocratic Risk: Epidemiology of Suicide in a Sample of Medical Undergraduates
AbstractIn spite of the growing awareness on medical students ’ mental health in recent years, epidemiologic literature about the topic is scarce, particularly for what concerns suicide. Here, we collected cases of suicides among medical students enrolled at a local University in Italy and compared it to the general population of the same age group. Our samp le was collected using records of suicides in the city of Pavia, Italy between the years of 2014 and 2019. This record was cross-referenced with enrolment numbers to the Medical Faculty of the city in order to select cases that involved medical students A time-wi...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - September 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Attitude towards Preventive Measures and Knowledge of COVID-19 Inpatients with Severe Mental Illness in Economically Underdeveloped Areas of China
This study examined hospitalized SMI patients ’ attitude and knowledge towards the COVID-19 infection. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in five psychiatric hospitals located in Gansu province, the most economically underdeveloped area in China. Patients’ attitude towards preventive measures and knowledge of COVID-19 were measured by a self-report questionnaire. A total of 925 hospitalized patients with SMI were recruited. Of them, 84.8% (95%CI: 82.4%–87.1%) had positive attitudes towards preventive measures of the COVID-19 outbreak. Being married (OR: 1.55, 95%CI: 1.05–2.30) and a higher educa...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - September 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Clinical Utility and Safety of Slower-than-Recommended Titration of Clozapine for Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia: a Retrospective Cohort Study
AbstractSlow titration of clozapine is recommended given the risk of serious adverse effects. However, the utility and safety of slower-than-recommended titration of clozapine remain unclear. Consequently, we aimed to investigate the clinical utility and safety of slower-than-recommended titration of clozapine for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 152 inpatients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia who had been newly started on clozapine in a tertiary psychiatric public hospital between April 2012 and March 2018. The primary outcome was clozapine continuation for the first 18...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - September 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Clinical Characteristics and Comorbidities in Bipolar Disorder: a Study from South India
The objective of this study was to identify gender differences in patients with bipolar disorder. This was a cross-sectional, hospital-based observational study conducted over a period of 25  months. The sample consisted of 110 males and 90 females with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder according to ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria for Research. Socio-demographic and clinical details were collected using semi-structured proforma. All patients were evaluated on Mini International Neuropsychiatr ic Interview Plus, Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale and Clinical Global Impression. Sample consisted of 55% men and 45% women. ...
Source: Psychiatric Quarterly - September 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research