Lipidomic characterization of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine species of egg yolk lipid derived from hens fed flaxseed oil and marine algal biomass
The chicken egg yolk contains ∼30 % by weight of lipid, allowing manipulation for enrichment of a variety of nutritionally important compounds for human consumption [1, 2]. Such compounds include omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly the longer chain PUFA (LCPUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) and docos ahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) [3, 4]. These fatty acids play an important structural and functional role in cellular membranes and serve as precursors in the biosynthesis of numerous bioactive, lipid mediators [5–8]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - September 19, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: M. Neijat, P. Zacek, M.J. Picklo, J.D. House Source Type: research

Inhibition of fatty acid binding protein 4 attenuates gestational diabetes mellitus
In pregnant women, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications [1, 2]. Nearly 7% of pregnant women are suffered from GDM, which leads to more than 200,000 events each year [3]. GDM is charactered by glucose intolerance, which is caused by reduced insulin production [3-5]. Moreover, GDM is associated with the enhanced risk of metabolic diseases, mortality and morbidity for mother and childen [6, 7]. It is potential for GMD to cause premature rupture of membranes, preeclampsia and preterm birth. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - September 18, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Xiujuan Dong, Long Yang Source Type: research

Soluble epoxide hydrolase as a therapeutic target for obesity-induced disorders: roles of gut barrier function involved
Obesity, which is defined by body mass index (BMI) over 30, is a serious health problem in Western countries [1, 2]. It was estimated that>35% adults and>17% children in the United States are obese [1, 2]. Obese individuals have increased risks of developing many chronic diseases, including metabolic diseases, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and several types of cancers [3]. For example, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States [4], and previous studies have shown that obese individuals have 30-60% greater risk of developing C...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - September 18, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jianan Zhang, Maolin Tu, Zhenhua Liu, Guodong Zhang Source Type: research

Leukotrienes, a potential target for Covid-19
Repositioning of clinically approved drugs that may reduce the severity, hospitalization events, and time of recovery from SARS-CoV2 infection is a global health priority. Clinical reports of drug effects and lung pathology are providing insight into the pathogenesis of Covid-19, and comparison of these findings with our knowledge of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) can be used to develop rational hypotheses to prioritize clinical studies of available therapeutics. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - September 16, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Francesca Citron, Luigi Perelli, Angela K. Deem, Giannicola Genovese, Andrea Viale Source Type: research

Acyl-CoA Synthetases as regulators of brain phospholipid acyl-chain diversity
Fatty acids are critical substrates for numerous metabolic processes, have high potential for energy production, and serve as the foundation for cellular membrane hydrophobic regions. Across the body, the distribution and metabolic fate of fatty acids are highly differential. Metabolically, fatty acid fate can be placed into three major categories: oxidation for energy, storage as triacylglycerol, and use for phospholipid synthesis and remodeling. While the oxidation and storage of fatty acids are the main metabolic fates for certain cell types or in response to feeding/fasting conditions, the use of fatty acids for incorp...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - September 15, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Regina Fernandez Fernandez, Jessica M Ellis Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - August 28, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Role of oxylipins generated from dietary PUFAs in the modulation of endothelial cell function
Endothelial cells (ECs), which line the inner surface of blood vessels, are more than a barrier separating the blood from the surrounding tissues, since they also participate in the regulation of key vascular functions, including vascular tone, inflammation, and vessel formation. Dietary fatty acids (FAs) have been known to positively or negatively impact EC function [1, 2], however, the exact mechanisms are largely unknown. Oxylipins, a family of oxygenated lipid mediators generated from polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), have been shown to modulate endothelial function [3]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - July 18, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Youjia Du, Carla G. Taylor, Harold M. Aukema, Peter Zahradka Source Type: research

Downregulation of PGI2 pathway in Pulmonary Hypertension Group-III patients
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by a progressive increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP>20 mmHg) and vascular resistance due to sustained pulmonary artery vasoconstriction [1, 2]. The clinical classification of PH is intended to categorize multiple clinical conditions into five groups. Depending on this classification, PH Group-III is defined as PH due to lung diseases and/or hypoxia. Common lung diseases associated with PH are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease and combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema [3]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - July 5, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Gulsev Ozen, Yasmine Amgoud, Heba Abdelazeem, Salma Mani, Chabha Benyahia, Amel Bouhadoun, Alexy Tran-Dinh, Yves Castier, Alice Guyard, Dan Longrois, Adam M. Silverstein, Xavier Norel Source Type: research

Genetic variants in FADS1 and ELOVL2 increase level of arachidonic acid and the risk of Alzheimer's disease in the Tunisian population
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are an important component of the brain. These molecules, especially long-chain PUFAs (C>20) (LC-PUFAs), are found as constituents of the cell membrane. Besides, they can affect cognitive development and modulate several processes within the brain, such as neuroinflammation [1-3]. In neuronal cells, these molecules can modulate inflammation through pro-inflammatory and/or anti-inflammatory mediators such as eicosanoids and specialized pro-resolving mediators [3, 4]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - July 4, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Souha HAMMOUDA, Imen GHZAIEL, Sonia HAMMAMI, Samia YOUNES MHENNI, Slim SAMET, Mohamed HAMMAMI, Amira ZARROUK Source Type: research

Evaluation of cyclooxygenase oxylipins as potential biomarker for obesity-associated adipose tissue inflammation and type 2 diabetes using targeted multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry
Adipose tissue inflammation is a well-observed consequence of obesity and a prologue of the metabolic syndrome (T2D) [1-3]. The underlying molecular mechanisms of obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation and the subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) development are multifactorial but important to detect in an early stage as it is likely that the severity of obesity-associated inflammation relates to T2D onset and related complications. Notably, with already 650 million obese individuals globally [4] there is a high need for clinically validated biomarkers to control this increasing health risk. (Source: Prostaglandin...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - June 26, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Roel Tans, Rieke Bande, Arno van Rooij, Billy J. Molloy, Rinke Stienstra, Cees J. Tack, Ron A. Wevers, Hans J.C.T. Wessels, Jolein Gloerich, Alain J. van Gool Source Type: research

Metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women is associated with lower erythrocyte PUFA/MUFA and n-3/n-6 ratio: A case-control study
Female cardiovascular risk is currently a major health concerns. Women after menopause are more prone to changes in lipid metabolism, and so to cardiovascular disease [1,2]. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal women is thus higher than in other population groups [3,4]. Moreover, MetS and postmenopausal status are independent factors associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is important to identify the genetic and nutritional determinants of lipid abnormalities in postmenopausal women, so as to be able to modify factors affecting the occurrence of MetS in this group, and in t...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - June 26, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Agata Muzsik, Henryk H. Jele ń, Agata Chmurzynska Source Type: research

Abnormal n-6 fatty acid metabolism in cystic fibrosis contributes to pulmonary symptoms
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a metabolic recessive hereditary disease with the most common mutation, dF508, identified at chromosome 7 in the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) [1]. To date, roughly 2000 mutations have been identified; however, less than a tenth of those are associated with a clinical CF phenotype. The distribution of mutations varies in different ethnic populations and combinations with frequent complex alleles further influencing the phenotype [2,3,4]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - June 26, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Craig E. Wheelock, Birgitta Strandvik Source Type: research

Evaluation of cyclo-oxygenase oxylipins as potential biomarker for obesity-associated adipose tissue inflammation and type 2 diabetes using targeted multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry
Adipose tissue inflammation is a well-observed consequence of obesity and a prologue of the metabolic syndrome (T2D) [1-3]. The underlying molecular mechanisms of obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation and the subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) development are multifactorial but important to detect in an early stage as it is likely that the severity of obesity-associated inflammation relates to T2D onset and related complications. Notably, with already 650 million obese individuals globally [4] there is a high need for clinically validated biomarkers to control this increasing health risk. (Source: Prostaglandin...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - June 26, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Roel Tans, Rieke Bande, Arno van Rooij, Billy J. Molloy, Rinke Stienstra, Cees J. Tack, Ron A. Wevers, Hans J.C.T. Wessels, Jolein Gloerich, Alain J. van Gool Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - June 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

DHA-enriched fish oil reduces insulin resistance in overweight and obese adults
Percent body fat (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - June 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: KA Abbott, TL Burrows, S Acharya, RN Thota, ML Garg Source Type: research

Evolution of breast milk fatty acids in Spanish mothers after one year of uninterrupted lactation
Health benefits of breastfeeding for mother and baby are substantial and widely recognized worldwide. Hence, human milk has been described as the gold standard of infant nutrition [1]. Breastfeeding is acknowledged as a biological process since it is firmly rooted in our mammalian identity and it is essential to the survival of mammalian species [2]. This practice protects the neonate from malnutrition or even infectious diseases, potentially caused by contaminated water used to prepare breast milk substitutes in developing countries. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - May 30, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: R. Barreiro, P. Regal, O. L ópez-Racamonde, A. Cepeda, C. Fente Source Type: research

ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter C4 is a Prostaglandin D2 Exporter in HMC-1 cells
ATP-binding cassette transporter C4 (ABCC4) functions as an efflux pump for certain antiviral drugs (adefovir) and anticancer drugs (methotrexate), which contributes to chemotherapy resistance [1]. In addition to functioning as a multidrug resistance-associated protein, ABCC4 is thought to mediate intra- and intercellular signalling by export of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and some bioactive lipid mediators [2-5]. Our research group and others have reported that ABCC4 transports certain prostaglandins (PGs) as high affinity substrates [4-7]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - May 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Nobuaki Tanaka, Junya Kawai, Noriyasu Hirasawa, Nariyasu Mano, Hiroaki Yamaguchi Source Type: research

A prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the effects of an n-3 essential fatty acids supplement (Agepi ® ω3) on clinical signs, and fatty acid concentrations in the erythrocyte membrane, hair shafts and skin surface of dogs with poor quality coats.
The skin is the body's largest organ and with haircoat, uses a large proportion of the daily nutrient intake. Modifying nutrition can lead to visible effects on skin and haircoat quality. Fatty acids (FA) are one of the most common dietary ingredients that seem to benefit such quality [1]. In the skin, FA not only form part of the cell membranes but also have an extracellular function and contribute to normal haircoat luster, skin smoothness and epidermal barrier integrity [1, 2]. Some FA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3), are called “essential” because of...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - May 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: D. Combarros, E. Castilla-Casta ño, L.A. Lecru, C. Pressanti, N. Amalric, MC Cadiergues Source Type: research

Caprylic (Octanoic) Acid as a Potential Fatty Acid Chemotherapeutic for Glioblastoma
Gliomas are the most frequently encountered human brain tumors and contain histologic subtypes including astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and ependymomas [1]. Gliomas are classified as grades I –IV on the basis of pathological criteria established by the World Health Organization (WHO) [1]. While WHO grade I gliomas are mostly treatable with total surgical resection, gliomas of WHO grade II or III are invasive, progress to higher-grade tumors and have a poor prognosis [1]. Glioma WHO Gra de-IV or so called Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) has the highest incidence among primary brain tumors, second only to meningioma wi...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - May 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Meric A Altinoz, Aysel Ozpinar, Thomas N Seyfried Source Type: research

Intake of Camelina Sativa Oil and Fatty Fish Alter the Plasma Lipid Mediator Profile in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Metabolism – A Randomized Controlled Trial
Several clinical trials have studied the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on lipid mediators [1-4]. However, these trials have mainly been conducted with either eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as fish oil supplements or with flaxseeds or flaxseed oil, which is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (ALA). There are no previous studies comparing the effects of n-3 PUFAs from different dietary sources in parallel, such as fatty fish and Camelina sativa -oil (CSO), on lipid mediators. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - May 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Topi Meuronen, Maria A. Lankinen, Alexander Fauland, Bun-ichi Shimizu, Vanessa D. de Mello, David E. Laaksonen, Craig E. Wheelock, Arja T. Erkkil ä, Ursula S. Schwab Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Plasma metabolomic profiles associated with infant food allergy with further consideration of other early life factors
Metabolomic signatures may be helpful to identify biomarkers for food allergy that are both specific and robust [1, 2]. In children, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis revealed increased levels of uric acid in serum of children with peanut allergy [3] and elevated lactate, creatinine and glutamine levels and lower lipid and nicotinic acid levels have been observed in young adults with peanut allergy [4]. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics allows simultaneous quantification of a large number of metabolites that are involved in different pathways [5, 6]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - May 25, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Susan Ellul, Wolfgang Marx, Fiona Collier, Richard Saffery, Mimi Tang, David Burgner, John Carlin, Peter Vuillermin, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Barwon Infant Study Investigator Group Source Type: research

Stearic Acid Methyl Ester Affords Neuroprotection and Improves Functional Outcomes after Cardiac Arrest
Cardiac arrest causes neuronal damage and functional impairments that can result in learning/memory dysfunction after ischemia. We previously identified a saturated fatty acid (stearic acid methyl ester, SAME) that was released from the superior cervical ganglion (sympathetic ganglion). The function of stearic acid methyl ester is currently unknown. Here, we show that SAME can inhibit the detrimental effects of global cerebral ischemia (i.e. cardiac arrest). Treatment with SAME in the presence of asphyxial cardiac arrest (ACA) revived learning and working memory deficits. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - May 22, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Po-Yi Chen, Celeste Yin-Chieh Wu, Garrett A. Clemons, Cristiane T. Citadin, Alexandre Couto e Silva, Harlee E. Possoit, Rinata Azizbayeva, Nathan E. Forren, Chin-Hung Liu, K.N. Shanaka Rao, David M. Krzywanski, Reggie Hui-Chao Lee, Jake T. Neumann, Hung W Source Type: research

Maternal dietary deficiency of n-3 fatty acids affects metabolic and epigenetic phenotypes of the developing fetus
Human babies are unique to have more fat in the brain and body, each contributing to 11-14% of body weight [1, 2]. Breastfeeding alone, therefore, cannot meet the demand for energy required for rapid growth and development of the baby. Moreover, the human fetal brain has a special requirement for docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6 n-3 (DHA). Thus DHA is conditionally essential and must be ensured in the human brain in multiple ways by the mother [3]. LCPUFAs play several important roles, namely energy homeostasis, signal transduction, eicosanoid production, and membrane structure-function [4-6]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrien...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - May 22, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sanjay Basak, Srinivas Vilasagaram, Asim K Duttaroy Source Type: research

Therapeutic targeting of brain arachidonic acid cascade in bipolar disorder by low dose aspirin and celecoxib
Mechanisms underlying bipolar disorder are not agreed on, but have been suggested to involve neuroinflammation, disturbed immunological competence, and disturbed diurnal cycling [1, 2]. Drug response studies in patients also have suggested that excessive catecholaminergic and glutamatergic but reduced cholinergic muscarinic neurotransmission contribute to bipolar symptoms [3, 4]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - May 21, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Stanley I. Rapoport, Joseph R. Hibbeln Source Type: research

Docosahexaenoic acid and oleic acid induce altered DNA methylation of individual CpG loci in Jurkat T cells
Fatty acids can modify cell function by influencing cell membrane fluidity and, consequently the activity of integral proteins, by changing the nature of lipid second messengers and by altering the expression of the transcriptome, for example via the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activity [1]. In addition, there is increasing evidence that fatty acids can alter cell function via inducing changes in epigenetic processes [2]. For example, feeding pre-pregnant and pregnant mice diets with different 18:2n-6: 18:3n-3 ratios has been shown to induce in the offspring modest changes in the mean DNA...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - May 20, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: J. Eduardo P érez-Mojica, Karen A. Lillycrop, Cyrus Cooper, Philip C. Calder, Graham C. Burdge Source Type: research

Omega-3 derivatives, specialized pro-resolving mediators: promising therapeutic tools for the treatment of pain in chronic liver disease
Chronic liver diseases (CLD) are a worldwide clinical problem, as they are related to high morbidity and mortality. The principal causes include viral, alcoholism, cholestatic, autoimmune and metabolic diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). These CLD can evolve into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1]. Patients with CLD showed significant health problems like ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic encephalopathy and persistent variceal bleeding concomitant with a decrease in health-related quality of life [1-3]. (Source: Prostaglandins,...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - May 16, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: TA Mariqueo, J. Z úñiga-Hernández Source Type: research

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(Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - May 15, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Conversion of dietary polyunsaturated fats between humans and rodents: A review of allometric scaling models
Food and bioactives in food are increasingly becoming important in health promotion and disease prevention. In order to better investigate the potential physiological effects of dietary constituents and their potential mechanism of actions, preclinical experimental rodent models are used because they are cost effective, duration of the experiments are much shorter, tissues can be harvested for analysis, experimental conditions can be highly controlled, and working with humans present unique challenges not experienced with rodent models. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - May 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: J. Whelan, Jay Whelan Source Type: research

SC411 treatment can enhance survival in a mouse model of sickle cell disease
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common inherited blood disorders in African Americans affecting 70,000-100,000 individuals in the United States. It is characterized by abnormal hemoglobin (HbS) which develops into severe hemolytic anemia and vaso-occlusive crisis. Therefore, patients with SCD suffer from a chronic state of inflammation, which is responsible for multiple organ damage, ischemic attacks, and premature death. Another major hallmark of SCD patients is the abnormally low levels of omega-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in their red blood cell membranes. (Source: Prostaglandins, L...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - May 3, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Celeste Y.C. Wu, Miguel A. Lopez-Toledano, Ahmed A. Daak, Garrett A. Clemons, Cristiane T. Citadin, Fredrick D. Sancilio, Adrian L. Rabinowicz, Alireza Minagar, Jake Neumann, Reggie H.C. Lee, Hung Wen Lin Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - May 1, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The effect of Fish oil on social interaction memory in total sleep-deprived rats with respect to the hippocampal level of Stathmin, TFEB, Synaptophysin and LAMP-1 proteins
Sleep has a critical role in various physiological systems such as immune and neurobiological systems [1, 2]. It has been reported that healthy sleep modulates different types of memory, from declarative (e.g., memory for highly complex episodes) to non-declarative (e.g., conditioning of simple stimulus-response associations) [3]. Sleep also modulates neuronal activities during memory storage and promotes memory consolidation [4]. Previous studies have reported that sleep regulates expression of certain genes involved in synaptic plasticity and memory, such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synapsin I, calcium &...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - April 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mohammad-Bagher Almaspour, Mohammad Nasehi, Solmaz Khalifeh, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast Source Type: research

Maternal Fats and Pregnancy Complications: Implications for Long-term Health
Pregnancy is a critical period during which the diet consumed by the mother can influence the health of both the mother and child. In recent years, there is a growing interest in examining factors which influence fetal growth as accumulating evidence suggests that adult non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have their origin in prenatal life and in early childhood [1,2]. Maternal obesity and pregnancy complications like gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and preeclampsia are early life risk factors associated with adverse birth outcomes such as impaired fetal growth and preterm birth [3,4]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotriene...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - April 21, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Amrita Khaire, Nisha Wadhwani, Shweta Madiwale, Sadhana Joshi Source Type: research

A rapid method for the separation of the phospholipids from the neutral lipids in plasma
It is well-established that different types of dietary fats have different physiological properties with both observational and clinical trials having identified associations between the levels of several specific fatty acids and a number of human diseases, such as inflammatory diseases and cardiovascular diseases [1-3]. Further, there is increasing evidence that the balance between n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), in particular arachidonic acid (AA), and the n-3 LCPUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is particularly important in human health [4], [5]. (Source: Prostaglandin...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - April 15, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ge Liu, Robert Gibson Source Type: research

Deborah Diersen-Schade: In memoriam (1957 –2020)
On January 3, 2020, the infant nutrition and lipid research community lost one of its lesser known heroes with the passing of Dr Deborah Diersen-Schade, a research scientist who worked tirelessly in her professional life to improve infant nutrition. She blazed a trail in lipid research and skillfully navigated regulatory hurdles to bring formulas with lipid profiles similar to those found in human milk to infants, a legacy of innovation that continues to improve infant health. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - April 14, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Robert Burns, Tom Brenna, Susan Carlson, Margaret Craig-Schmidt Source Type: research

Deborah Diersen-Schade: In Memoriam (1957-2020)
On January 3, 2020, the infant nutrition and lipid research community lost one of its lesser known heroes with the passing of Dr Deborah Diersen-Schade, a research scientist who worked tirelessly in her professional life to improve infant nutrition. She blazed a trail in lipid research and skillfully navigated regulatory hurdles to bring formulas with lipid profiles similar to those found in human milk to infants, a legacy of innovation that continues to improve infant health. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - April 14, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Robert Burns, Tom Brenna, Susan Carlson, Margaret Craig-Schmidt Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - April 1, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Fats in maternal and child health: Regional ISSFAL congress in India
The current issue of Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids contains peer-reviewed papers presented at the International Symposium on Fats in Maternal and Child Health Nutrition in the context of India, held on 17 –18 September 2018. The symposium was organized as part of regional International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids (ISSFAL) congress in collaboration with the ICMR-National Institute of Nutrition, India. The symposium brought together expert researchers with their shared interest a bout the roles of fats in paediatrics, maternal nutrition, fetoplacental nutrition, nutriti...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - March 17, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: S. Ahamed Ibrahim, Sanjay Basak Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Fats in maternal & child health: regional ISSFALcongress in India
The current issue of  Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids contains peer-reviewed papers presented at the International Symposium on fats in maternal and child health nutrition- in the context of India, held on 17-18 September 2018. The symposium was organized as part of regional International Socie ty for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids (ISSFAL) congress in collaboration with the ICMR-National Institute of Nutrition, India. The symposium brought together expert researchers with their shared interest about the roles of fats in paediatrics, maternal nutrition, fetoplacental nutritio...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - March 17, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: S. Ahamed Ibrahim, Sanjay Basak Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - March 1, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Concentrates of buttermilk and krill oil improve cognition in aged rats
According to the latest Global Burden of Disease, the world population enjoys better overall health [1]. However, the number of years spent with disability is increasing [1]. The reason is that, thanks to better hygiene, diet, and medicine, we live longer. Aging is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and neurodegeneration, due to declines in cellular function and resistance to stress [2]. Many of the risk factors for age-related pathologies are preventable and include obesity, poor diet, and physical inactivity. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - February 21, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Alba Garc ía-Serrano, Joao Tomé-Carneiro, M. Carmen Crespo, M. Visitación Calvo, Inmaculada Pereda-Pérez, Shishir Baliyan, Emma Burgos-Ramos, Olimpio Montero, Alberto Dávalos, César Venero, Francesco Visioli, Javier Fontecha Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Concentrates of buttermilk and krill oil improve spatial memory in aged rats
According to the latest Global Burden of Disease, the world population enjoys better overall health [1]. However, the number of years spent with disability is increasing [1]. The reason is that, thanks to better hygiene, diet, and medicine, we live longer. Aging is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and neurodegeneration, due to declines in cellular function and resistance to stress [2]. Many of the risk factors for age-related pathologies are preventable and include obesity, poor diet, and physical inactivity. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - February 21, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Alba Garc ía-Serrano, Joao Tomé-Carneiro, M. Carmen Crespo, M. Visitación Calvo, Inmaculada Pereda-Pérez, Shishir Baliyan, Emma Burgos-Ramos, Olimpio Montero, Alberto Dávalos, César Venero, Francesco Visioli, Javier Fontecha Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

LPS induces ALOX5 promoter activation and 5-lipoxygenase expression in human monocytic cells
Leukotrienes (LT) are pro-inflammatory lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid [AA) that are crucial in the immune response to pathogens or danger signals. However, LT also play a role in chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and atherosclerosis, and in certain types of cancers [1,2]. Encoded by the ALOX5 gene, 5-lipoxygenase [5-LO) is the key enzyme involved in the bioconversion of AA to LT. Following cell activation, 5-LO catalyzes an oxygenation reaction on the 5th carbon from the carboxyl group resulting in the formation of 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6-trans-8,11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HpETE) [3]. (Source: ...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - February 21, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Samuel J Poirier, Luc H Boudreau, Nicolas Flamand, Marc E Surette Tags: Original research article Source Type: research

Changes in behavior and fatty acid composition induced by long-term reduction in murine Δ6-desaturation activity
Among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that cannot produced ω6 fatty acid linoleic acid (LA) and ω3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA) play an important role in biological regulation [1,2]. However, ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids compete with each other because they share a synthetic pathway involving the same desaturation and chain elongation enzymes. A study using Δ6 desaturase (D6D) null mice that were fed artificial milk containing LA and ALA showed an obvious decrease in ARA, EPA, and DHA levels, and impaired growth and development. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - February 21, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Akiko Harauma, Toshiaki Sueyasu, Hisanori Tokuda, Hidemi Yasuda, Yukino Hoshi, Yoshihisa Kaneda, Tomohiro Rogi, Hiroshi Shibata, Manabu T. Nakamura, Toru Moriguchi Tags: Original research article Source Type: research

Maternal dietary fatty acids and their roles in human placental development
Fatty acids carry out many functions throughout the life cycle. Fatty acids are crucial for regulating the architecture, dynamics, phase transitions, and permeability of the cellular membranes. Besides, they are involved in the regulation of membrane ion gates, ion channels, receptors, and cell signaling and gene expression [1-4]. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) belong to the n-6 (omega-6) and n-3 (omega-3) families, starting with the precursors, linoleic acid,18:2n-6 (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid, 18:3n-3 (ALA). (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - February 21, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Asim K. Duttaroy, Sanjay Basak Source Type: research

The regulatory mechanism involved in the prostaglandin E2 disposition in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a major lipid mediator derived from arachidonic acid via the cyclooxygenase (COX/PTGS)/prostaglandin E synthase (PGES/PTGES) pathway and exhibits various activities. In the liver, PGE2 exhibits protective effects against multiple types of liver injury. For example, PGE2 enhances tissue regeneration by promoting the proliferation of hepatocytes in a partial hepatectomy rat model and downregulates the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ, in an ischemia/reperfusion injury mouse model [1,2]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - February 21, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hiroaki Shimada, Ryota Hashimoto, Aya Aoki, Saya Yamada, Ken-ichi Oba, Atsushi Kawase, Takeo Nakanishi, Masahiro Iwaki Tags: Original research article Source Type: research

Diets with Low n-6:n-3 PUFA Ratio Protects Rats from Fructose-Induced Dyslipidemia and Associated Hepatic Changes: Comparison between 18:3 n-3 and Long-Chain n-3 PUFA
Dietary fructose plays a critical role in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), a metabolic disorder defined by the presence of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, and visceral obesity [1]. Hypertriglyceridemia is a critical component of the MetS and contributes to the development and worsening of other MetS components like insulin resistance [2]. Hypertriglyceridemia increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases [3]. Fructose consumption elevates the circulatory triglyceride levels in both human subjects and animal models [4, 5]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and ...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - February 21, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Anil Sakamuri, Siva S.V.P. Sakamuri, Suryam Reddy Kona, Sugeedha Jayapal, Ahamed Ibrahim Tags: Original research article Source Type: research

The impact of PUFA on cell responses: caution should be exercised when selecting PUFA concentrations in cell culture
The fatty acid composition of human cells has an impact on many cellular functions [1 –4]. In addition to their role in energy storage in the form of triglycerides (TG), fatty acids are also major components of membrane phospholipids (PL), thus controlling cell membranes fluidity and integrity [5–7]. In particular, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) from the n-6 and n-3 families s uch as arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) are important components of cellular membranes that perform signaling functions, can serve as ligands for nuclear receptors and are precursors to lipid me...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - February 21, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Maroua Mbarik, Roody S Biam, Philippe-Pierre Robichaud, Marc E. Surette Tags: Original research article Source Type: research

An association between niacin skin flush response and plasma triglyceride levels in patients with schizophrenia
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activation triggers the release of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ARA) from membrane phospholipids, and this mechanism is reportedly involved in a variety of physiological processes, including dopaminergic neurotransmission, insulin secretion and the skin flush response to the water-soluble B vitamin niacin [1-6]. Individuals with schizophrenia frequently exhibit abnormal signaling of dopamine and other neurotransmitters, disturbances of lipid and glucose metabolism and attenuated niacin-induced skin flushing [1,4,5,7-9]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - February 21, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sergej Nadalin, Suzana Jonovska, Vesna Šendula Jengić, Alena Buretić-Tomljanović Tags: Original research article Source Type: research

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Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - February 1, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research