Editorial Board
(Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 27, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Effects of industrial heat treatments on bovine milk oxylipins and conventional markers of lipid oxidation
Lipid oxidation is one of the most important factors affecting the shelf life of foods because it results in chemical changes that lead to flavor deterioration and food spoilage [1,2]. Bovine milk is an example of a complex food matrix that can undergo lipolysis and oxidation when subjected to industrial heat treatments and storage [3]. It contains omega-6 linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6) and omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3), which are susceptible to oxidation due to the presence of multiple double bonds [4 –6]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 26, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Fernanda Furlan Goncalves Dias, Thalita Riquelme Augusto-Obara, Marie Hennebelle, Siriyakorn Chantieng, Gulustan Ozturk, Ameer Y. Taha, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza Vieira, Juliana Maria Leite Nobrega de Moura Bell Source Type: research

Influence of sociodemographic, lifestyle and genetic characteristics on maternal DHA and other polyunsaturated fatty acid status in pregnancy: A systematic review
The omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) have a number of established health benefits, most notably in inflammatory and immune conditions [1-3]. In maternal and infant health, an adequate supply of these fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6n-3), is critical for supporting the development of the brain and visual system of the fetus [3-5]. DHA also has positive effects on a number of pregnancy outcomes, in particular the length of gestation and incidence of preterm birth [6]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 25, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: N.A. Wilson, E. Mantzioris, P.F. Middleton, B.S. Muhlhausler Source Type: research

Loss of RAR-related orphan receptor Alpha (ROR α) selectively lowers docosahexaenoic acid in developing cerebellum
Staggerer mice were first reported in 1962 as spontaneous mutant offspring of stock obese mice with ataxic gait, hypotonia, body imbalance and tremor associated with predominant cerebellar cortex degeneration [1]. The staggerer cerebellum exhibit folia with small fissures, indistinct lamination of cerebellar cortex, thin molecular layer and absence of granular layer [1 –3]. Developmental atrophy of staggerer cerebellum begins at birth with accelerated degeneration of Purkinje and granule cells [4,5]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 20, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chuck T. Chen, Joseph A. Schultz, Sophie E. Haven, Breanne Wilhite, Chi-Hsiu Liu, Jing Chen, Joseph R. Hibbeln Source Type: research

Comparison of dietary and plasma phospholipid fatty acids between normal weight and overweight black South Africans according to metabolic health: The PURE study
The metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized by a group of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including truncal obesity, hypertension, deranged lipid profiles, and abnormal glucose metabolism [1], is a significant risk factor for CVD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [2]. The prevalence of obesity in South Africa is exceptionally high, at 11% in men and 41% in women [3], compared to that of the USA, where 31.7% of men and 33.9% of women are obese [4]. The prevalence of MetS in South Africa is increasing due to the high prevalence of obesity and poor dietary habits, which are now also reported in rural areas [5, 6]...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: AA Ojwang, CM Smuts, M Zec, E Wentzel-Viljoen, IM Kruger, HS Kruger Source Type: research

Serum concentration of dihomo- γ-linolenic acid is associated with cognitive function and mild cognitive impairment in coronary artery disease patients
Elderly patients with cardiovascular disease and patients with dementia in Japan are increasing and are becoming public health problems [1,2]. Accordingly, prevention of and therapeutic intervention for these problems are demanded. Cardiovascular disease and dementia have similar risk factors, one of which is essential fatty acids. Essential fatty acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and n-6 PUFAs are needed by the human body, and intake of these essential fatty acids can help in treating cardiovascular diseases and even improve body composition and mental and physical performance [3]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Le...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 16, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kodai Ishihara, Kazuhiro P. Izawa, Masahiro Kitamura, Takayuki Shimogai, Yuji Kanejima, Tomoyuki Morisawa, Ikki Shimizu Source Type: research

A simple system for measuring the level of free fatty acids in human milk collected as dried milk spot
With the increased use of donor human milk through milk banks and neonatal units in recent years, changes to the composition of breast milk during storage, processing and transportation have received increased attention with several systematic reviews dedicated to the topic [1-6]. Breast milk fats represent 50% of the energy of breast milk and are of particular interest as they are essential for the optimal growth and development of infants [7, 8]; however, they appear to be particularly sensitive to different storage and handling processes [5, 6]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 14, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chang Gao, Ge Liu, Andrew J. McPhee, Jaqueline Miller, Robert A. Gibson Source Type: research

Different Metabolism of EPA, DPA and DHA in humans: a double-blind cross-over study
Considerable research supporting the beneficial biological effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) have shown that these LCP contribute to preventing and improving chronic disease outcomes, including metabolic disease, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and some kinds of cancers [1-3]. A large proportion of these studies have focused on fish oils, which commonly contain three kinds of n-3 LCP, namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 12, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Xiao-fei Guo, Wen-feng Tong, Yue Ruan, Andrew J. Sinclair, Duo Li Source Type: research

ISSFAL Official Statement Number 6: The importance of measuring blood omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in research
It is becoming increasingly clear that n-3 LCPUFA play an important role in human health [2]. N-3 LCPUFA have been shown to be important for neurological development [3,4], cardiovascular health [5,6] and there is emerging evidence of their beneficial role in other disease states, including mental health conditions [7]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 6, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Renate H.M. de Groot, Barbara J. Meyer Source Type: research

Breast milk and erythrocyte fatty acid composition of lactating women residing in a peri ‑urban South African township
Data on breast milk fatty acid (FA) composition in South African lactating women in relation to their FA status, as well as on potential compositional changes within feed, are limited.The aim of this study was to assess the FA composition of breast milk sampled at three time points within feed, and to determine associations with red blood cell (RBC) total phospholipid FA levels in lactating South African mothers of 2 –4-month-old breastfed infants.FA composition (% total FAs) was analyzed in RBC total phospholipids, and in fore-, mid-feed and hind-milk samples of lactating mothers (n = 100) of Black African desce...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 6, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Linda P. Siziba, Tsitsi Chimhashu, Sicelosethu S. Siro, Jennifer Osei Ngounda, Adriaan Jacobs, Linda Malan, Cornelius M. Smuts, Jeannine Baumgartner Tags: Original research article Source Type: research

Development and evaluation of a simultaneous and efficient quantification strategy for final prostanoid metabolites in urine
Prostanoids (PNs), which consist of prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGE2, PGF2 α, PGI2, and thromboxane (TX)A2, are biosynthesized from arachidonic acid under the action of cyclooxygenases [1]. PNs play an important role in various physiological functions, such as vascular vasodilation/constriction [2], platelet aggregation [3] and pain perception [4]. Conversely, it has been reported that the abnormality of PN expression contributes to the onset or progression of many diseases such as asthma [5], headache [6], osteogenesis imperfecta [7], and inflammation-related diseases [8]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 6, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tian-qi Zhang, Hirotaka Kuroda, Kazuya Nagano, Soshi Terada, Jian-Qing Gao, Kazuo Harada, Kazumasa Hirata, Hirofumi Tsujino, Kazuma Higashisaka, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Yasuo Tsutsumi Source Type: research

Association of Vitamin D with Fatty Acids in Pregnancy
This study includes 69 normotensive control (NC) and 50 women with preeclampsia (PE). Maternal and cord serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were lower in women with PE. Maternal plasma LCPUFA levels were lower while saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated f atty acids (MUFA) were higher in women with PE. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 6, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: A. Nandi, N. Wadhwani, K. Randhir, G. Wagh, S.R. Joshi Source Type: research

Umbilical Cord Blood Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase index and Lipoprotein Lipase Mass Level in Small-for-Gestational Age Newborns
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is a rate limiting enzyme in converting saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid [16:0] and stearic acid [18:0]) to monounsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic acid [16:1 (n-7)] and oleic acid [18:1 (n-9)]) in the cell, respectively, and is associated with de novo lipogenesis (DNL). [1] SCD index is known as a surrogate marker for DNL. There are some published studies on SCD index in children, [2-6] however, studies on SCD index in neonates are limited. [7] (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 6, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kazumasa Fuwa, Nobuhiko Nagano, Yohei Kitamura, Fujihiko Iwata, Tomoo Okada, Ichiro Morioka Source Type: research

Associations of erythrocyte fatty acid compositions with FADS1 gene polymorphism in Japanese mothers and infants
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are involved in the fetal growth in utero, and are essential for the development of visual and cognitive functions during infancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of erythrocyte fatty acid compositions with FADS1 gene polymorphism in Japanese mothers and infants. The subjects were 383 mothers who participated in an adjunct birth cohort study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS). In maternal FADS1 SNP genotypes, the precursor fatty acids composition of the Δ5 desaturase in the maternal blood showed significant differences in le...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 6, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Reiko Nita, Terue Kawabata, Yasuo Kagawa, Kazuhiro Nakayama, Yoshiko Yanagisawa, Sadahiko Iwamoto, Fumiko Kimura, Teruo Miyazawa, Nozomi Tatsuta, Takahiro Arima, Nobuo Yaegashi, Kunihiko Nakai Source Type: research

Breast milk and erythrocyte fatty acid composition of lactating women residing in a peri-urban South African township
Data on breast milk fatty acid (FA) composition in South African lactating women in relation to their FA status, as well as on potential compositional changes within feed, are limited.The aim of this study was to assess the FA composition of breast milk sampled at three time points within feed, and to determine associations with red blood cell (RBC) total phospholipid FA levels in lactating South African mothers of 2-4-month-old breastfed infants.FA composition (% total FAs) was analyzed in RBC total phospholipids, and in fore-, mid-feed and hind-milk samples of lactating mothers (n=100) of Black African descent living in ...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 6, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Linda P. Siziba, Tsitsi Chimhashu, Sicelosethu S. Siro, Jennifer Osei Ngounda, Adriaan Jacobs, Linda Malan, Cornelius M. Smuts, Jeannine Baumgartner Source Type: research

Intravenous fat induces changes in PUFA and their bioactive metabolites: Comparison between Japanese and Australian preterm infants.
Very preterm infants ( (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 6, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hiroki Suganuma, Andrew J McPhee, Carmel T Collins, Ge Liu, Shalem Leemaqz, Chad C Andersen, Naho Ikeda, Natsuki Ohkawa, Ameer Y Taha, Robert A Gibson Source Type: research

ISSFAL Official Statement Number 6 The importance of measuring blood omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in research
It is becoming increasingly clear that n-3 LCPUFA play an important role in human health [2]. N-3 LCPUFA have been shown to be important for neurological development [3, 4], cardiovascular health [5, 6] and there is emerging evidence of their beneficial role in other disease states, including mental health conditions [7]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 6, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Renate H.M. de Groot, Barbara J. Meyer Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 1, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Spotlight on fatty acids in cell signaling: The 13th FACS Meeting
In the early 1990s it was recognized that long-chain fatty acids serve physiological functions beyond their well-known roles as nutrients for metabolic energy provision, as components of complex lipids, and as post-translational modifiers of proteins. Fatty acids were found to act as signaling molecules that modulate homeostatic processes. Furthermore, fatty acids can be converted into more potent or more specific signals, the best known examples of which are the prostaglandins. Thus, fatty acids and specific metabolites can modulate biological processes in cells, for instance accelerate or decelerate gene transcription, o...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - October 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jan F.C. Glatz, Michel Lagarde Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Anticancer effects of n-3 EPA and DHA and their endocannabinoid derivatives on breast cancer cell growth and invasion.
We previously showed that n-3-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) can enhance apoptosis in breast cancer cells (BC) and that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) can improve the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs commonly used in breast and prostate cancer treatment [1,2]. Suggestions that n-6 LCPUFA, that predominate in Western diets, can elicit pro-cancer effects, as observed in both cell studies and in animal models of cancer [3], instead of the anticancer effects attributed to n-3 LCPUFA, are still controversial. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - October 16, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Iain Brown, Jisun Lee, Alan A. Sneddon, Maria G. Cascio, Roger G. Pertwee, Klaus W.J. Wahle, Dino Rotondo, Steven D. Heys Source Type: research

Human milk fatty acid profile across lactational stages after term and preterm delivery: a pooled data analysis
SUMMARY (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - October 16, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: L.M. Floris, B. Stahl, M. Abrahamse-Berkeveld, I.C. Teller Source Type: research

Relationships between seafood consumption during pregnancy and childhood and neurocognitive development: two systematic reviews.
Maternal prenatal nutrition and nutrition during childhood are crucial factors in a child's neurodevelopment, and failure to provide adequate amounts of key nutrients at critical periods may result in lifelong impairment in cognitive development and mental health that cannot be corrected by subsequent repletion of nutrients. Seafood is a rich source of key nutrients that are biologically essential for optimal fetal and child neurodevelopment including iodine, vitamin B12, iron, vitamin D, zinc, manganese and highly unsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids [1]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - October 11, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: CAPT Joseph R. Hibbeln, Philip Spiller, J. Thomas Brenna, Jean Golding, Bruce J. Holub, William S. Harris, Penny Kris-Etherton, Bill Lands, Sonja L. Connor, Gary Myers, J.J. Strain, Michael A Crawford, Susan E. Carlson Source Type: research

An abundance of seafood consumption studies presents new opportunities to evaluate effects on neurocognitive development
The 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans1 (DGA) will address the following two questions: “What is the relationship between seafood consumption during pregnancy and lactation and the neurocognitive development of the infant? What is the relationship between seafood consumption during childhood and adolescence (up to 18 years of age) and neurocognitive development?” [1] (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - October 11, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Philip Spiller, CAPT Joseph R. Hibbeln, Gary Myers, Gretchen Vannice, Jean Golding, Michael A Crawford, J.J. Strain, Sonja L. Connor, J. Thomas Brenna, Penny Kris-Etherton, Bruce J. Holub, William S. Harris, Bill Lands, Robert K. McNamara, Michael F. Tlus Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - October 1, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Maternal polymorphisms in the FADS1 and FADS2 genes modify the association between PUFA ingestion and plasma concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
Western diet changes in the last few decades have culminated in increased of omega-6 (n-6) and reduction of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids intake, which are characterized by an essentially pro-inflammatory activity [1,2]. This dietary pattern is particularly detrimental in pregnancy when large amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22: 6, n-3), the major long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) n-3, is deposited in fetal retina and tissues, influencing cognitive development and visual acuity in the infant's early years [3,4]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - September 13, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: GQ Carvalho, M Pereira-Santos, LD Marcon, ID Louro, MCG Peluzio, DB Santos Source Type: research

Effects of Prostaglandin E2 and D2 on cell proliferation and osteogenic capacity of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that affects and destroys the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. Early manifestations of the disease are characterized by the formation of gingival pockets, followed by periodontal attachment loss and resorption of the alveolar bone, leading ultimately to tooth loss [1]. According to recent epidemiologic surveys, the overall prevalence of this entity still remains high; for example more than 40% of the adult population in the United States suffers from periodontitis, and worldwide almost 10% of adults present with an advanced stage of this disease [2,3]. (Source: Prostagl...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - September 13, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: C. Ern, I. Frasheri, T. Berger, H.G. Kirchner, R. Heym, R. Hickel, M. Folwaczny Source Type: research

Branched chain fatty acid composition of yak milk and manure during full-lactation and half-lactation
Yak (Bos grunniens or Poephagus grunniens) is a versatile domestic animal that provides the basic subsistence and nutrition to the people inhabiting the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), which comprises alpine and subalpine regions [1]. The yak is the only bovine species that has adapted to thrive in extremely harsh and high altitude conditions of QTP, at heights of 2,500 to 6,000 m above sea level [2]. The total world population of yaks is estimated at around 14.2 million, approximately 13.3 million occur within China [3]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - September 5, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Wancheng Sun, Yihao Luo, Donghao Wang, Kumar S.D. Kothapalli, J. Thomas Brenna Source Type: research

Association between fat-soluble nutrient status and auditory and visual related potentials in newly diagnosed non-screened infants with cystic fibrosis: A case-control study
Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most prevalent inherited disease in Caucasian populations, is caused by mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), The Canadian province of Quebec has among the highest prevalence rates of CF in the world, with an average of one in 2,500 newborns [1]. Typically known as a chronic lung disease, CF also affects the pancreas and the gastrointestinal tract early in the course of the disease, leading to the development of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, maldigestion and malabsorption, especially of fat-soluble nutrients [2]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - September 5, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Pauline L éveillé, Inga-Sophia Knoth, Marie-Hélène Denis, Geneviève Morin, Fanny Barlaam, Carine Nyalendo, Caroline Daneault, Jacques-Edouard Marcotte, Christine Des Rosiers, Guylaine Ferland, Sarah Lippé, Geneviève Mailhot Source Type: research

Temperature and time-dependent effects of delayed blood processing on oxylipin concentrations in human plasma
Oxidized derivatives of 18, 20, and 22 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, collectively known as oxylipins, are increasingly recognized as bioactive mediators with diverse roles in human physiology and pathology [1 –3]. Oxylipins can be divided into three general functional classes: (1) autacoids are labile signaling molecules that act locally and are rapidly inactivated or degraded; (2) pathway precursors are intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway leading to generation of more labile, bioactive autacoids ; and (3) inactivation products are downstream metabolic derivatives that are often more stable than their aut...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - September 4, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Christopher E. Ramsden, Zhi-Xin Yuan, Mark S. Horowitz, Daisy Zamora, Sharon F. Majchrzak-Hong, Beverly S. Muhlhausler, Ameer Y. Taha, Maria Makrides, Robert A. Gibson Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - September 1, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Docosahexaenoic acid varies in rat skeletal muscle membranes according to fibre type and provision of dietary fish oil
Skeletal muscles vary according to their different contractile roles, physiological and metabolic characteristics which enables a vast array of tasks [1]. For that reason, based upon contractile function, skeletal muscle fibres are often termed slow oxidative (SO), fast oxidative glycolytic (FOG) or fast glycolytic (FG) fibres, reflecting the range of contractile fatigue resistance [2]. Comparative physiology studies have demonstrated that certain animals have a propensity for rapid and powerful force production or prolonged endurance capacity [3]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - August 29, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: M.J. Macartney, G.E. Peoples, T.M. Treweek, P.L. McLennan Source Type: research

Influence of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) intake on fatty acid composition in erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids and serum metabolites in women with Rheumatoid Arthritis
Negative associations between intake of omega-3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFAs) and risk or risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and inflammation are generally seen [1-3]. Seafood, especially fatty fish, is the main dietary source of the bioactive n-3 LC PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA). Fish as a source of n-3 LC PUFAs is not economically nor environmentally sustainable [4]. In contrast, blue mussel farming is beneficial for the environment since excessive nitrogen is removed at harvest and eutrophication of the sea is reduced [5]. (Source: ...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - August 24, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Helen M Lindqvist, Inger Gjertsson, Sofia Andersson, Philip C Calder, Linnea B ärebring Source Type: research

Effects of the rs3834458 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in FADS2 on Levels of n-3 Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Meta-analysis
The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content in blood and tissue lipids is closely related to numerous health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease as well as mental health and psychiatric disorders [1]. In particular, LC-PUFA play a range of critical roles, from regulation of immunity and inflammation to brain and eye development and function [2]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - August 24, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Xueyan Chen, Yixia Wu, Zilin Zhang, Xiaolei Zheng, Yan Wang, Miao Yu, Guoliang Liu Source Type: research

Influence of iron-deficient diets during gestation and lactation on cerebral fatty acids and eicosanoids in guinea pig offspring – comparison of studies with different sources of dietary lipids
The developmental and health consequences of iron deficiency an æmia (IDA), the most common worldwide nutrient disorder, are not yet completely elucidated. Pregnant women and their foetuses are particularly vulnerable when dietary iron intake does not meet increased requirements in response to this strong anabolic period. IDA during pregnancy is estimated to af fect 56% and 18% of women in developing and industrialized countries, respectively [1]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - August 9, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jean-Luc Jougleux, France M. Rioux, Sylvain Fiset, Luc H. Boudreau, Marc E. Surette Source Type: research

Involvement of H+-gradient dependent transporter in PGE2 release from A549 cells
Prostaglandins (PGs) are lipid mediators synthesized from 20-carbon essential fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (AA) [1,2]. PGs produced in the intracellular space are released and bind their specific receptors on the cell surface to exert their biological effects [3]. Among them, PGE2 is a predominant product and exerts diverse biological effects by binding to specific receptors (EP1 - EP4) [4] Moreover, PGE2 is associated with several diseases such as inflammation, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases [5 –8], such that EP receptors and PGE synthase could serve as therapeutic targets for drug discovery [9–12...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - August 8, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Nobuaki Tanaka, Hiroaki Yamaguchi, Nariyasu Mano Source Type: research

Evaluation of commonly used tests to measure the effect of single-dose aspirin on mouse hemostasis
Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA or aspirin) at low dose is broadly used for its antiplatelet effect in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases [1]. ASA irreversibly acetylates the Ser529 residue of COX1, thereby leading to a steric hindrance of the COX channel that prevents access of the substrate to the catalytic site of the enzyme [2]. COX1 is responsible for the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins, that are precursors of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) in platelets [3]. By binding the thromboxane and prostanoid receptor (TP receptor), platelet-secreted TXA2 enhances platelet activation initially trig...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - August 8, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Benoit Decouture, Alexandre Leuci, Blandine Dizier, Tiphaine Belleville-Rolland, Alexandre Mansour, Fanny Martin, Dominique Pidard, Pascale Gaussem, Christilla Bachelot-Loza Source Type: research

The effects of storage conditions on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, lipid mediators, and antioxidants in donor human milk – a review
Mother's own breast milk is the accepted best practice for feeding neonates [1] and exclusive breast feeding for the first six months of life is recommended [2] for term infants. For preterm infants as well, mother's own breast milk is the favoured feeding choice. However, it may need to be fortified to accommodate the preterm infant's requirements [3]. Producing an inadequate milk supply is nearly three times more likely in preterm mothers than in term mothers [4]. Underlying reasons can be physiological, such as incomplete development of the mammary glands, or poor hormonal response, as well as psychological [5]. (Source...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - July 13, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Isabell Nessel, Minesh Khashu, Simon C Dyall Source Type: research

Survey of the Erythrocyte EPA+DHA Levels in the Heart Attack/Stroke Belt
There is a clear geographical disparity in risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the US, with a “heart attack/stroke belt” (hereafter the CVD belt) located primarily in the south east/central region (Figure 1). Low omega-3 fatty acid levels in the blood are known to be a risk factor for CVD independent of traditional lipid and inflammatory biomarkers, blood pressure, diabetes and smoking s tatus [1-6]. The extent to which a relatively low omega-3 levels contributes to this increased risk in this region is unknown. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - July 13, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: W.S. Harris, K.H. Jackson, J.T. Brenna, J.C. Rodriguez, N.L. Tintle, L. Cornish Source Type: research

High dietary n6/n3 ratio decreases eicosapentaenoic to arachidonic acid ratios and upregulates NF κB/p50 expression in short-term low-dose streptozotocin and high-fructose rat model of diabetes
Metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) affect all aspects of lipid metabolism. Among others, the bioconversion (desaturation, elongation, β-oxidation) of fatty acids is also affected [1]. Bioconversion of fatty acids is a highly regulated process controlled by the activity of desaturases and elongases, metabolites, transcriptional factors, substrate availability (dietary fatty acids and dietary n6/n3 ratio), microRNA and β-oxidation (mitochondrial and peroxisomal) [2]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - July 12, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kristina Star čević, Petra Roškarić, Marcela Šperanda, Mislav Đidara, Andrea Gudan Kurilj, Maja Maurić, Tomislav Mašek Source Type: research

Degenerative rotator cuff tears are associated with a low Omega-3 Index
: The etiology of degenerative rotator cuff tears is multifactorial but chronic inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis. Some polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) can modulate inflammation and marine n-3 (Omega-3) PUFA have anti-inflammatory effects. We hypothesized that the Omega-3 Index is lower in patients with degenerative rotator cuff tears when compared to controls without rotator cuff tendinopathy. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - July 9, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Robert Hudek, Clemens von Schacky, Adrian Passow, Ayman F. Abdelkawi, Birgit Werner, Frank Gohlke Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - July 5, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Effect of weight loss on neutrophil resolvins in the metabolic syndrome
There is increasing evidence for a positive association between low-grade inflammation and obesity and insulin resistance [1 –6]. The ongoing low-grade inflammation could in part be due to failed resolution to an inflammatory challenge. The inflammatory response requires recruitment of neutrophils as the first line of host defence to a pathogen and is controlled by prostaglandins and leukotrienes that derive from arachi donic acid (AA). Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and chemokines cause neutrophil aggregation, adhesion, and degranulation. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - July 3, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: A. Barden, S. Shinde, I-J. Tsai, K.D. Croft, L.J. Beilin, I.B. Puddey, T.A. Mori Tags: Original research article Source Type: research

Perinatal and postweaning diets high in omega-3 fatty acids have age- and sex-specific effects on the fatty acid composition of the cerebellum and brainstem of C57BL/6 mice
The brain is a highly sophisticated and complex organ that is organized into several regions governing specific functions. The caudocranial developmental timeline of the brain is marked by morphological, structural, and cellular changes [1]. Approximately 60% of the brain's white and gray matter structural component is lipid [2]. In addition, the white and gray matter of the cerebellum and brainstem has a specific fatty acid composition, which has been shown to change during development [3]. The white matter, which contains myelinated axons, is highly enriched in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids ...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - July 3, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Bradley A. Feltham, Kayode A. Balogun, Sukhinder K. Cheema Source Type: research

Evaluation of plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids C15:0, t-C16:1n-7 and C17:0 as biomarkers of dairy fat consumption in adolescents
Participant compliance to an intervention in randomized controlled trials (RCT) significantly affects the interpretation of the outcome [1]. Traditional measures to estimate dietary intake involve self-reported methods such as food frequency questionnaires, multiple-day food records, 24 h dietary recalls, or a combination of these methods [2]. Such methods are susceptible to forgetfulness, bias and inaccuracies in reporting actual intake [3, 4]. The accurate assessment of dietary intakes, particularly during adolescence, is challenging since adolescents have difficulty estimating portion sizes, often eat take-out foods and...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - July 3, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: M. Slim, C. Ha, C.A. Vanstone, S.N. Morin, E. Rahme, H.A. Weiler Source Type: research

Association between PLA2G6 gene polymorphism for calcium-independent phospholipase A2 and nicotine dependence among males with schizophrenia
Patients with schizophrenia smoke at an estimated prevalence of 70 – 80%, significantly higher than the prevalence of smoking in the general population [1–3]. Smoking may be an attempt by patients to self-medicate, as it alleviates both negative and positive symptoms, the extrapyramidal side effects of antipsychotic medications, and the cognitive deficits that are suggested to be associated with hypodopaminergia in the prefrontal cortex [4–6]. High comorbidity between schizophrenia and smoking may also be due to pleiotropy, or shared genetic liability, and such pleiotropic associations are likely to invol...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - July 3, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sergej Nadalin, Jelena Rebi ć, Vesna Šendula Jengić, Vjekoslav Peitl, Dalibor Karlović, Alena Buretić-Tomljanović Source Type: research

Aging and FADS1 polymorphisms decrease the biosynthetic capacity of long-chain PUFAs: A human trial using [U-13C]linoleic acid
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have 20 –22 carbons with 3–6 double bonds. They are important components of biomembranes in most cells, and they have numerous cellular functions, including modulation of membrane fluidity, membrane enzyme activities, and physiological responses, some of which are induced by the formation of lipid media tors from LCPUFAs themselves and the regulatory effects on transcription factors [1–4]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - July 3, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hideyuki Sasaki, Toshiaki Sueyasu, Hisanori Tokuda, Mika Ito, Yoshihisa Kaneda, Tomohiro Rogi, Hiroshi Kawashima, Sayaka Horiguchi, Terue Kawabata, Hiroshi Shibata Source Type: research

Serum polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of psychiatric disorder at 6 months after acute coronary syndrome: A prospective cohort study
Humans need some fat in their diet to stay healthy. The 2003 Joint World Health Organization (WHO)/Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases [1] has recommended that, for the general population, the average total fat intake should provide 15% to 30% of total calories, including less than 10% of total calories from saturated fatty acids, 5% –8% of total calories from n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), 1%–2% of total calories from n-3 PUFAs, and less than 1% of total calories from trans-fatty acids. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotri...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - July 3, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hiroko Noguchi, Ryo Okubo, Kei Hamazaki, Akihiro Yamashita, Tomomi Narisawa, Yutaka J. Matsuoka Source Type: research

Effect of weight loss on neutrophil resolvins in the metabolic syndrome.
There is increasing evidence for a positive association between low-grade inflammation and obesity and insulin resistance [1-6]. The ongoing low-grade inflammation could in part be due to failed resolution to an inflammatory challenge. The inflammatory response requires recruitment of neutrophils as the first line of host defence to a pathogen and is controlled by prostaglandins and leukotrienes that derive from arachidonic acid (AA). Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and chemokines cause neutrophil aggregation, adhesion, and degranulation. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - July 3, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: A. Barden, S. Shinde, I-J. Tsai, K.D. Croft, L.J. Beilin, I.B. Puddey, T.A. Mori Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - June 9, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research