Safety and Efficacy of Evacetrapib in Patients with Inadequately-controlled Hypercholesterolemia and High Cardiovascular Risk; A meta-analysis of Randomized Placebo-controlled Trials
Hypercholesterolemia is a condition characterized by the augmentation of cholesterol levels in the blood and considered as a form of hyperlipidemia. Cholesterol is a water-insoluble molecule that is transported in the circulation by protein particles (lipoproteins), such as very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) [1,2]. In familial hypercholesterolemia, the levels of LDL and non-HDL cholesterol in the plasma are markedly elevated [3]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - April 12, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Eshak I. Bahbah, Mohamed S. Ahmed, Safwat Ibrahim Alnahrawi, Ahmed Sayed, Amr Menshawey, Ahmed Fisal, Mahmoud Morsi, Mohamed Essam Gabr, Mohamed Salah Abd Elbasit Source Type: research

Analysis of major fatty acids from matched plasma and serum samples reveals highly comparable absolute and relative levels
Fasted blood draw samples of plasma and serum were acquired from 98 participants in the Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study. Matched plasma and serum samples underwent the same organic solvent extraction, separation and identification by gas liquid chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GLC-FID). Individual FA were analyzed in both absolute ( μg/mL) and relative percentage (%) terms. Investigation of the relationship and differences between plasma and serum were by Pearson Correlation, Bland-Altman analysis and t-test. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - March 30, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Connor D.C. Buchanan, Cody A.C. Lust, Jessie L. Burns, Lyn M. Hillyer, Sean A. Martin, Gary A. Wittert, David W.L Ma Source Type: research

Palmitoleic acid ameliorates palmitic acid-induced proinflammation in J774A.1 macrophages via TLR4-dependent and TNF- α-independent signallings
Obesity, defined by excess body fat accumulation, is an important public health issue. The increased prevalence of obesity, and its related economic burden from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers [1-3], has causes global health concerns over the past decades [4, 5]. Studies have shown that adipose tissue can secrete various adipokines that affect the immune modulation of target organs, especially in an inflammatory state [6, 7]. Adipose tissue resident macrophages (ATMs) are recruited by adipocyte-secreted monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) [8], which plays an important ...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - March 24, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yi-Wen Tsai, Chieh-Hua Lu, Richard Cheng-An Chang, Yung-Pei Hsu, Low-Tone Ho, Kuang-Chung Shih Source Type: research

Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates Bovine Endometrium Explants through Toll ‑like Receptor 4 Signaling and PGE2 Synthesis
Bovine endometrium infection with gram-negative bacteria commonly causes uterine diseases. Previous studies indicate that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an inflammatory mediator in bacterial endometritis. However, the mechanism underlying lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response regulation in bovine endometrial explants remains elusive. In the present study, bovine explants were pre-treated with 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) inhibitors before LPS stimulation. PGE2 secretion, prostaglandin synthetase, pro-inflammatory factor, damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP), and related signaling pathw...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - March 24, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yang Deng, Bo Liu, Changqi Fu, Long Gao, Yuan Shen, Kun Liu, Qianru Li, Jinshan Cao, Wei Mao Source Type: research

N-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acid ethyl esters decrease the invasion, but not the proliferation, of human colorectal cancer cells via a PI3K-dependent mechanism in vitro
Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and cause of cancer death in the United States [1]. Just over 4% of individuals diagnosed with CRC will develop invasive CRC and those with distant metastases have a 5-year survival rate of just 14%. Consequently, safe, effective treatments that decrease not only the proliferation but the metastasis of CRC are needed. There is an inverse association between the consumption of both fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), the bioactive ingredient in fish oil, and CRC risk. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - March 24, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Eric Pfister, Rebecca Smith, Michelle A. Lane Source Type: research

Plasma fatty acid abnormality in Sudanese Drug-Resistant Epileptic Patients
Epilepsy is a group of common chronic neurological disorders characterised by sudden, unprovoked seizures due to abnormal excessive neuronal activity in the brain [1,2]. Epileptic seizures are transient episode of symptoms, which last from seconds to a few minutes, caused by abnormal brain electrical activity. The disorder is associated with a higher risk of premature death due to seizure-related accidents and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases [3,4]. Epilepsy affects over 65 million people worldwide [5] and accounts for about 1% of the global burden of diseases [6]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - March 23, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: NR Abuknesha, FAS Ibrahim, IN Mohamed, MAM Salih, AA Daak, MI Elbashir, K Ghebremeskel Source Type: research

Oxylipin patterns in human colon adenomas
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide [1]. Alteration in lipid metabolism is a hallmark of cancer [2]. In the context of CRC development a pro-tumorigenic role for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is well established and downstream signaling pathways for PGE2-mediated pro-tumorigenic effects were identified [3-5]. Despite a lack of large randomized prospective trials, numerous epidemiological and observational studies show that long-term low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) intake reduces the incidence of CRC and that even post-CRC-diagnosis ASA therapy exerts positive effects on CRC overal...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - March 23, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Christoph Schm öcker, Heike Gottschall, Katharina M. Rund, Laura Kutzner, Fabian Nolte, Annika I. Ostermann, Dirk Hartmann, Nils Helge Schebb, Karsten H. Weylandt Source Type: research

FACS 2019: Fatty Acid Metabolism and Oxidation
Writing in early 2021, the 14th Fatty Acids and Cell Signaling workshop held Sept/Oct 2019 in Austin, Texas, USA seems a long long time ago in a place far far away. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - March 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: J. Thomas Brenna, Ameer Y. Taha Source Type: research

Comparison of human and rodent cell models to study myocardial lipid-induced insulin resistance.
The enduring availability of sufficient chemical energy, in the form of ATP, is vital for proper cardiac function. Energy is needed not only for rhythmic contraction of the cardiomyocytes but also for ion homeostasis, and for the functioning of enzymes, proteins and organelles involved in the selection, uptake, and utilization of fuels used to produce ATP. The energy needs of the heart cannot be overestimated as, for instance, the human heart is responsible for approximately 10% of whole-body fuel consumption [1]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - March 12, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Li-yen Wong, Jan F.C. Glatz, Shujin Wang, Ilvy M.E. Geraets, Sabina Vanherle, Arthur van den Wijngaard, Han Brunner, Joost J.F.P. Luiken, Miranda Nabben Source Type: research

Editorial Board
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Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - March 1, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Polymorphisms rs2745557 in PTGS2 and rs2075797 in PTGER2 are associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease development in a Tunisian cohort
COPD (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - January 28, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Salma MANI, Xavier Norel, Mathilde Varret, Sarra Bchir, Amel ben Anes, Abdelahamid Garrouch, Zouhair Tabka, Dan Longrois, Karim Chahed Source Type: research

Plasma oxylipin levels associated with preterm birth in preterm labor ✰
Preterm labor is a common clinical problem in obstetrics. Since the majority of women with preterm labor eventually deliver at full term, biomarkers are needed to more accurately predict who will deliver preterm. Oxylipins, given their importance in inflammation regulation, are highly interesting in this respect since labor is an inflammatory process. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - January 23, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: M. Svenvik, J. Raffetseder, L. Brudin, R. Lindberg, M. Blomberg, D. Axelsson, M.C. Jenmalm, J. Ernerudh, M.L. Nording Tags: Original research article Source Type: research

Plasma oxylipin levels associated with preterm birth in preterm labor
Preterm labor is a common clinical problem in obstetrics. Since the majority of women with preterm labor eventually deliver at full term, biomarkers are needed to more accurately predict who will deliver preterm. Oxylipins, given their importance in inflammation regulation, are highly interesting in this respect since labor is an inflammatory process. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - January 23, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: M. Svenvik, J. Raffetseder, L. Brudin, R. Lindberg, M. Blomberg, D. Axelsson, M.C. Jenmalm, J. Ernerudh, M.L. Nording Source Type: research

Blood omega-3 fatty acids and death from COVID-19: A Pilot Study
COVID-19, the illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been diagnosed in over 80 million people worldwide as of the end of 2020, and over 1.8 million have died [1]. Although 81% of symptomatic individuals have relatively mild disease, 14% will develop severe disease characterized by dyspnea, hypoxia, or>50 percent lung involvement by imaging, with the remaining 5% developing critical disease characterized by respiratory failure, shock, and/or multiorgan dysfunction [2]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - January 20, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Arash Asher, Nathan L. Tintle, Michael Myers, Laura Lockshon, Heribert Bacareza, William S. Harris Source Type: research

Polyunsaturated fatty acids as predictors of future suicide attempt
Every year, almost 800,000 people die by suicide, and 10 to 20 times more individuals attempt suicide, indicating that both suicide and non-fatal suicidal behaviors are prevalent problems that need to be addressed [1]. More than two-thirds of suicide decedents die on the first attempt [2], suggesting a need for early detection and prevention of suicide attempts. The study of suicidal behaviors is highly relevant to the reduction of suicide mortality since a history of suicide attempt confers a 42-fold increased risk for suicide [3]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - January 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Federico M. DARAY, Leandro N. GRENDAS, Demi án E. RODANTE, Andrea E. ERRASTI, Gabriel G. CASES, Claudio F. MOIX, Raúl E. UICICH, María I. GIMÉNEZ, Soledad PUPPO, Gerardo H. FASOLINO, Alicia PORTELA, Hanga C. GALFALVY, M. Elizabeth SUBLETTE Source Type: research

Baseline Red Blood Cell and Breast Milk DHA Levels Affect Responses to Standard Dose of DHA in Lactating Women on a Controlled Feeding Diet
The importance of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in human development is well-documented [1-3]. Both the brain and retina are exceptionally rich in DHA, where it is an integral part of their respective tissue structures. As such, a significant amount of DHA is provided to the fetus/infant from the third trimester through the first 18 months of life via several mechanisms [4]. While there is evidence that the fetus can elongate precursor fatty acids to make DHA [5], the amount of DHA available to the fetus is primarily determined by the amount in maternal circulation during pregnancy and t...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - January 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kristina H. Jackson, Kevin C. Klatt, Marie A. Caudill, Melissa Q. McDougall, Allyson A. West, Cydne A. Perry, Olga V. Malysheva, William S. Harris Source Type: research

Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on muscle mass and function with aging: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
The gradual loss of age-related muscle mass and muscle function are responsible for the impairment of quality of life and activity in the elderly [1]. With the improvement of the methodology and technology for measuring body composition and health status of the elderly, scientific communities give increasing attention to muscle mass and muscle function [2]. It has been reported that about 10% of muscles have disappeared at the age of 50, and muscle function will decline by 12% - 14% every ten years from the age of 50. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - January 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Wen-jun Ma, Hui Li, Wei Zhang, Jie Zhai, Jun Li, He Liu, Xiao-fei Guo, Duo Li Source Type: research

Dietary Fat Content and Adipose Triglyceride Lipase and Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Gene Expressions in Adults ’ Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat Tissues
Adipose triglyceride lipase (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - January 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Rahim Zareie, Emad Yuzbashian, Hamed Rahimi, Golaleh Asghari, Maryam Zarkesh, Mehdi Hedayati, Abolghassem Djazayery, Ariyo Movahedi, Parvin Mirmiran, Alireza Khalaj Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - January 1, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Effects of uric acid on oxidative and nitrosative stress and other related parameters in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.
Uric acid (UA) is the end -product of purine catabolism in humans and higher primates and comprises about 65% of the total antioxidant capacity of plasma [1]. Urate circulates in humans at concentrations that are near its limit of solubility and many times higher than those in most other mammals. In patients with ischemic stroke, the most common type of stroke which is a leading cause of disability and the second most common cause of dementia, UA reduces the incidence of early clinical deterioration and improves outcomes compared to placebo [2]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - December 30, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Frederic M ármol, Juan Sanchez, Albert Martínez-Pinteño Source Type: research

The effect of a 6-month Ketogenic Medium-Chain Triglyceride Supplement on Plasma Cardiometabolic and Inflammatory Markers in Mild Cognitive Impairment.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) with an reported annualized conversion rate ranging from 5-17% per person-year [1] depending on the MCI subtypes and the presence of the APOE4 allele [2]. By definition, cognitive decline in MCI does not significantly affect daily functioning but does involve below normal results in at least one cognitive domain compared to healthy age-matched older people. MCI is often accompanied by metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and comorbidities such as dyslipidemia and hypertension [3, 4]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and E...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - December 23, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Étienne Myette-Côté, Valérie St-Pierre, Sandrine Beaulieu, Christian-Alexandre Castellano, Mélanie Fortier, Mélanie Plourde, Christian Bocti, Tamas Fulop, Stephen C. Cunnane Source Type: research

Feeding regulation by oleoylethanolamide synthesized from dietary oleic acid
Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs), lipid mediators in both plant and animal tissues, are involved in a variety of biological functions. Among the members of the FAE family, arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide) is known to serve as an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors, and plays important roles in neuroprotection, hypotension, pain relief, and feeding stimulation [1-3]. Other members of the FAE family, such as oleoylethanolamide (OEA; Fig. 1) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), are not ligands of cannabinoid receptors but are instead involved in specific biological effects through receptors such as GPR119, peroxisome ...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - December 21, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Miki Igarashi, Kensuke Iwasa, Keisuke Yoshikawa Source Type: research

Deletion of the Gene Encoding Prostamide/Prostaglandin F synthase Reveals an Important Role in Regulating Intraocular Pressure
The prostaglandin F2 α (PGF2α) analogs are established as first line therapies for treating glaucoma. The selective FP receptor agonists were designed by virtue of the need to attenuate the ocular side effects produced by the naturally occurring prostanoid PGF2α [1-3]. Similarly, bimatoprost is an analog of PGF2α et hanolamide (prostamide F2α) [4, 5]. Both PGF2α and prostamide F2α are the products of identical biosynthetic pathways but differ with respect to their cyclo-oxygenase substrate. Thus, arachidonic acid is the primary precursor for PGF2α, whereas prostamide F2&alpha...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - December 21, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jacques A Bertrand, David F Woodward, Joseph M Sherwood, Alice Spenlehauer, Cristoforo Silvestri, Fabiana Piscitelli, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Maya Yamazaki, Kenji Sakimura, Yoko Inoue, Kikuko Watanabe, Darryl R Overby Source Type: research

The effect of polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency on allergic response in ovalbumin-immunized mice
This study examined the effect of a PUFA-deficient diet on food-allergy symptoms in ovalbumin (OVA)-immunized mice. The exacerbation of immune responses after OVA-sensitization was not observed in mice fed a PUFA-deficient diet. There were no differences in serum PUFA levels between OVA-immunized and non-immunized mice fed a PUFA-deficient diet. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - December 20, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yuri Hayashi, Yuka Yokomizo, Yoko Fujiwara, Ikuyo Ichi Source Type: research

Lipids in the origin of intracellular detail and speciation in the Cambrian epoch and the significance of the last double bond of docosahexaenoic acid in cell signaling.
Our hypothesis starts with events which took place with the oxidative metabolism in the Vendian-Cambrian epochs with the appearance for the first time, of intracellular detail in living systems and the origin of vision, the nervous system and the brain. For the first 2.5 to 3 billion years of living systems on the planet life systems were largely anaerobic; converting sunlight into carbohydrates and proteins. There is no fossil evidence of intracellular detail during that period. After billions of years, atmospheric oxygen from photosynthesis and water photolysis increased in concentration to breach the Pasteur Point, at w...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - December 19, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Michael A. Crawford, Walter F. Schmidt, C. Leigh Broadhurst, Yiqun Wang Source Type: research

In vitro dissolution behaviour and absorption in humans of a novel mixed L-lysine salt formulation of EPA and DHA
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are available in oily formulations containing either their triacylglycerols, ethyl-esters, phospholipids or free fatty acids. Recently, a L-lysine salt formulation of (carboxylic) EPA and DHA became available (Lys-FFA), offering favourable stability and technical properties. Lys-FFA showed complete dissolution in vitro under simulated gastric (12hr) and intestinal (3hr) conditions, supporting the hypothesis that it will release free fatty acids in the upper GI tract. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - December 19, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Koen Manusama, Michiel Balvers, Marlies Diepeveen-de Bruin, Laura Headley, Roberta Bosi, Michael Schwarm, Renger Witkamp Source Type: research

Associations of Umbilical Cord Fatty Acid Profiles and Desaturase Enzyme Indices with Birth Weight for Gestational Age in Japanese Infants
The rate of low-birth-weight infants who are less than 2500 g reached 9.6% in 2010 in Japan [1], which is high among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries [2]. Factors related to low-birth-weight infants include preterm birth and intrauterine growth retardation. Intrauterine growth retardation can also refer to infants born full-term but small for gestational age (SGA). Epidemiological studies have shown that SGA infants have a high risk of lifestyle diseases [3]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - December 17, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Azusa MATSUMOTO, Terue KAWABATA, Yasuo KAGAWA, Kumiko SHOJI, Fumiko KIMURA, Teruo MIYAZAWA, Nozomi TATSUTA, Takahiro ARIMA, Nobuo YAEGASHI, Kunihiko NAKAI Source Type: research

Associations between red blood cells fatty acids, desaturases indices and metabolism of Platelet Activating Factor in healthy volunteers
arachidonic acid (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - December 17, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: E. Fragopoulou, P Detopoulou, E. Alepoudea, T. Nomikos, N. Kalogeropoulos, S. Antonopoulou Source Type: research

Regulation of the cytochrome P450 epoxyeicosanoid pathway is associated with distinct histologic features in pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
arachidonic acid (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - December 16, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Laura Kalveram, Wolf-Hagen Schunck, Michael Rothe, Birgit Rudolph, Christoph Loddenkemper, Hermann-Georg Holzh ütter, Stephan Henning, Philip Bufler, Marten Schulz, David Meierhofer, Ingrid W. Zhang, Karsten H. Weylandt, Susanna Wiegand, Christian A. Hud Source Type: research

Palmitic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibits Cardiac Arrest-Induced Neuroinflammation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction
We previously discovered that palmitic acid methyl ester (PAME) is a potent vasodilator released from the sympathetic ganglion with vasoactive properties. Post-treatment with PAME can enhance cortical cerebral blood flow and functional learning and memory, while inhibiting neuronal cell death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus under pathological conditions (i.e. cerebral ischemia). Since mechanisms underlying PAME-mediated neuroprotection remain unclear, we investigated the possible neuroprotective mechanisms of PAME after 6 min of asphyxia cardiac arrest (ACA, an animal model of global cerebral ischemia). (Source: Prost...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - December 16, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Celeste Yin-Chieh Wu, Alexandre Couto e Silva, Cristiane T. Citadin, Garrett A. Clemons, Christina H Acosta, Brianne A Knox, Mychal S. Grames, Krista M Rodgers, Reggie Hui-Chao Lee, Hung Wen Lin Source Type: research

Dose- and time-dependent increase in circulating anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators following eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in patients with major depressive disorder and chronic inflammation
AA (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - December 4, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Stefania Lamon-Fava, Jisun So, David Mischoulon, Thomas R. Ziegler, Boadie W. Dunlop, Becky Kinkead, Pamela J. Schettler, Andrew A. Nierenberg, Jennifer C. Felger, Krishna Rao Maddipati, Maurizio Fava, Mark Hyman Rapaport Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - December 1, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Altered Tissue Specialized Pro-Resolving Mediators in Chronic Rhinosinusitis
Small-subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 25, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Thad W. Vickery, Michael Armstrong, Jennifer M. Kofonow, Charles E. Robertson, Miranda E. Kroehl, Nichole A. Reisdorph, Vijay R. Ramakrishnan, Daniel N. Frank Source Type: research

Prostaglandins as potential targets for the treatment of polycystic kidney disease
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) encompasses a group of disorders characterized by the proliferation of fluid-filled renal cysts. These cysts cause progressive damage to the normal renal parenchyma, which ultimately leads to progressive renal failure. The most common form of PKD and the most common monogenetic cause of any renal disease is autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD), which in the past was referred to as adult PKD, since renal failure typically occurs later in life. Another form of the disease, which is much less common but more severe, is autosomal recessive PKD that affects the pediatric population. (Source: Prostaglan...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 25, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Harold M. Aukema Source Type: research

The role of peripheral fatty acids as biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and brain inflammation
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the leading causes of dementia worldwide and it is seen frequently in the elderly. AD is characterized by amyloid beta (Ab) plaques burden, neurofibrillary tangles, neuroinflammation and neuronal loss with memory impairment being one of the first signs of the disease [1, 2]. Some people experience mild cognitive impairment (MCI) which is often considered a transition phase from normal aging to AD, and subjects diagnosed with MCI have an increased risk of developing AD. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 19, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Giulia Cisbani, Richard P. Bazinet Source Type: research

Effect of parenteral lipid emulsion on preterm infant PUFAs and their downstream metabolites
Intravenous lipid emulsions form an important component of parenteral nutrition for infants unable to tolerate full enteral feeds, by providing essential fatty acids and a low volume energy source. Parenteral lipid emulsions available for use in preterm infants contain the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic acid (LA, omega-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3). Some lipid preparations also contain long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) including the omega-6 LCPUFA arachidonic acid (AA), and the omega-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [1]. (Source: Pros...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 18, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hiroki Suganuma, Carmel T Collins, Andrew J McPhee, Shalem Leemaqz, Ge Liu, Chad C Andersen, Dennis Bonney, Robert A Gibson Source Type: research

Effect of fasting status and other pre-analytical variables on quantitation of long-chain fatty acids in red blood cells
As a source of energy, constituents of membranes and precursors to numerous bioactive molecules, long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) play essential roles in health maintenance and outcomes [1]. Insufficient intake or the inability to absorb LCFAs from the diet can cause a number of health problems, such as dermatitis, liver and immune system dysfunction, or impaired growth in children. Factors contributing to development of fatty acid deficiencies include genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis and inborn errors of metabolism, receiving parenteral nutrition, or severe malabsorption [2,3,4,5]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotri...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 18, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: BK. Lozier, RN. Kim, LM. Zuromski, E. Kish-Trier, I. De Biase, T. Yuzyuk Source Type: research

Fish oil supplementation enhances colon recovery after experimental colitis
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis is an immunological disease of the gastrointestinal tract (GI). IBD patients experience periods of clinical remission and relapsing active phase, with severe clinical symptoms such as rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, fever, and diarrhea that significantly impoverish the quality of life [1]. IBD pathogenesis provokes disturbances in the GI physiology with relevant disorders of the intestinal mucus whose role is to protect mucosal cells from luminal microorganisms and also from alterations in the inflammatory background of the GI tissues that w...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 18, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Igor Pedroso Soares, Bruna A.C. Oliveira, Suelen C.S. Baal, Lucelia Donatti, Max Ingberman, Breno C.B. Beir ão, Marcia H. Appel, Luiz C. Fernandes Source Type: research

Regulative effect of maternal serum fatty acid-binding protein 4 on insulin resistance and the development of gestational diabetes mellitus
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a severe pregnancy syndrome affecting 9.8% –25.5% of the pregnant women worldwide [1]. For normal pregnant women, during pregnancy, the insulin sensitivity significantly decreases, and glucose production increases to ensure the fetal energy supply [2]. However, in GDM patients, insufficient insulin production caused by pancreatic β cell d ysfunction, is a main cause of insulin resistance [2a], leading to disturbed metabolism. Women with a history of GDM have higher risks of developing obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases [3]. (Source: Prostag...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 18, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Bide Duan, Yuan Li, Kun Dong, Yuan Sun, Airong Ma, Xiuzhi Yang Source Type: research

Assessment of polyunsaturated fatty acids: A self-report and biomarker assessment with a racially and ethnically diverse sample of women
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 18, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Reigada LC, Storch B, Alku D, Hazeltine DB, Heppelmann PG, Polokowski AR Source Type: research

Long chain omega-3 fatty acids and their oxidized metabolites are associated with reduced prostate tumor growth
Effects of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from omega-3 ( ω-3) on prostate cancer incidence and progression is controversial. A positive association between high plasma level of LC-ω-3PUFA and prostate cancer risk have been reported in some observational studies in humans [1, 2]. In contrast, fats derived marine products were indirectly associated with a lower incidence of prostate cancer in Inuit populations [3, 4]. A reduction of the ratio ω-3/ω-6 LC-PUFA in the prostate has been correlated with the increased incidence of prostate cancer in comparison to a benign hyperplasia contr...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 18, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jean-Fran çois Bilodeau, Nikunj Gevariya, Jessica Larose, Karine Robitaille, Jérôme Roy, Camille Oger, Jean-Marie Galano, Alain Bergeron, Thierry Durand, Yves Fradet, Pierre Julien, Associate Professor Vincent Fradet Source Type: research

Differences in erythrocyte phospholipid membrane long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and the prevalence of fatty acid desaturase genotype among African Americans and European Americans.
African Americans have a higher burden of chronic diseases [1, 2, 3]. The cause of these disparities are not fully known but likely due to a combination of environmental, genetic, socioeconomic and cultural factors. Another possible contributing factor could be related to higher levels of arachidonic acid and other omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs), which have been associated with inflammation and chronic diseases including diabetes and several cancers [4 –7]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 18, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: SB Rifkin, MJ Shrubsole, Q Cai, WE Smalley, RM Ness, LL Swift, G Milne, W Zheng, HJ Murff Source Type: research

Effect of parenteral lipid emulsion on preterm infant PUFAs and their downstream metabolites.
Intravenous lipid emulsions form an important component of parenteral nutrition for infants unable to tolerate full enteral feeds, by providing essential fatty acids and a low volume energy source. Parenteral lipid emulsions available for use in preterm infants contain the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic acid (LA, omega-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3). Some lipid preparations also contain long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) including the omega-6 LCPUFA arachidonic acid (AA), and the omega-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [1]. (Source: Pros...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 18, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hiroki Suganuma, Carmel T Collins, Andrew J McPhee, Shalem Leemaqz, Ge Liu, Chad C Andersen, Dennis Bonney, Robert A Gibson Source Type: research

Exploring the role of LC-PUFA metabolism in pregnancy complications
Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy influences pregnancy outcomes. In pregnancy, the nutritional demand of the mother and fetus increases and a balanced nutrition is important for their well-being [1 –3]. Emerging evidence suggests that inadequate nutritional status contributes to pregnancy complications like preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and downregulates fetal growth leading to adverse birth outcomes like low birth weights and preterm births [4–6]. Maternal nutrition al deficiency during pregnancy may lead to long-term effects increasing the risk of cardiovascular and neurodeve...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Aditi A. Godhamgaonkar, Nisha S. Wadhwani, Sadhana R. Joshi Source Type: research

Dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid rich fish oil increases circulating levels of testosterone in overweight and obese men
Percent body fat (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kylie Abbott, Tracy L Burrows, Shamasunder Acharya, Rohith N Thota, Manohar L Garg Source Type: research

Higher Omega-3 Index is Associated with More Rapid Heart Rate Recovery in Healthy Men and Women
Omega-3 Index (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Stephen W. Farrell, Laura F. DeFina, Nathan Tintle, Carolyn E. Barlow, David Leonard, William L. Haskell, Jarett D. Berry, Benjamin L. Willis, Andjelka Pavlovic, William S. Harris Source Type: research

The influence of DHA supplementation during pregnancy on language development across childhood: follow-up of a randomised controlled trial
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n −3) is an omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid that is concentrated in neural tissues, and is actively accumulated in the fetal brain during pregnancy [1,2]. The rapid growth period of the brain during the last trimester of pregnancy is matched by a peak in the accumulation of DHA in neur al tissues, contributing to the hypothesis that prenatal DHA exposure is crucial for supporting brain development [1,2]. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: N.R. Gawlik, M. Makrides, L. Kettler, L.N. Yelland, S. Leemaqz, J.F. Gould Source Type: research

In pregnancy, maternal HDL is specifically enriched in, and carries the highest proportion of, DHA in plasma
ALA, 18:3n-3 (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Nicola Zamai, Colin H. Cortie, Eleanor M. Jarvie, Christopher C. Onyiaodike, Amaal Alrehaili, Monique Francois, Dilys J. Freeman, Barbara J. Meyer Source Type: research

Prostaglandin F2 α in vitro can affect basic inflammatory parameters of mesenchymal stem cells and slight modulating some of their immunomodulatory properties
Mesenchymal stem cells  (MSCs), the major stem cells for cell therapy, have been studied for more than a decade including investigations into their mechanisms of immunoregulatory modulation. The immunomodulatory role of MSCs is well established; MSCs are able to regulate cells involved in adaptive and innate immune resp onses [1], including T and B lymphocytes, natural killer cells, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils [2,3]. These immunomodulatory properties could be used in maintenance of peripheral tolerance, transplantation tolerance, and autoimmunity. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - November 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Andressa Cristina Antunes Santos, Talita Sartori, Primavera Borelli, Ricardo Ambrosio Fock Source Type: research