A paradigm shift in imaging biomarkers in the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration
Publication date: Available online 22 August 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth, Sebastian M. Waldstein Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has undergone substantial break-throughs in diagnostic as well as therapeutic respect, with optical coherence tomography (OCT) allowing to identify disease morphology in great detail, and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy providing unprecedented benefit. However, these two paths have yet not been combined in an optimal way, real-world outcomes are inferior to expectations, and disease manageme...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - August 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The progress in understanding and treatment of diabetic retinopathy
Publication date: Available online 18 August 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Alan W. Stitt, Tim M. Curtis, Mei Chen, Reinhold J. Medina, Gareth J. McKay, Alicia Jenkins, Thomas A. Gardiner, Timothy J. Lyons, Hans-Peter Hammes, Rafael Simó, Noemi Lois In most countries, diabetic retinopathy is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes mellitus and remains a leading cause of vision loss globally. Its etiology and pathology have been extensively studied for half a century, yet there are disappointingly few therapeutic options. Although some new treatments have been ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - August 19, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Clinical impact of migraine for the management of glaucoma patients
Publication date: Available online 29 July 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Bao N. Nguyen, Jia Jia Lek, Algis J. Vingrys, Allison M. McKendrick Migraine is a common and debilitating primary headache disorder that affects 10-15% of the general population, particularly people of working age. Migraine is relevant to providers of clinical eye-care because migraine attacks are associated with a range of visual sensory symptoms, and because of growing evidence that the results of standard tests of visual function necessary for the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucoma (visual fields, electrophysio...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - August 2, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Proliferative vitreoretinopathy: a new concept of disease pathogenesis and practical consequences
Publication date: Available online 21 July 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): J.Carlos Pastor, Jimena Rojas, Salvador Pastor-Idoate, Salvatore Di Lauro, Lucia Gonzalez-Buendia, Santiago Delgado-Tirado During the last four decades, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) has defied the efforts of many researchers to prevent its occurrence or development. Thus, PVR is still the major complication following retinal detachment (RD) surgery and a bottle-neck for advances in cell therapy that require intraocular surgery. In this review we tried to combine basic and clinical knowledge, as an example...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Progress in corneal wound healing
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Alexander V. Ljubimov, Mehrnoosh Saghizadeh Corneal wound healing is a complex process involving cell death, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Many similarities are observed in the healing processes of corneal epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells, as well as cell-specific differences. Corneal epithelial healing largely depends on limbal stem cells and remodeling of the basement membrane. During stromal healing, keratocytes get transformed to motile and contractile myo...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 18, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Ocular surface reconstruction using stem cell and tissue engineering
Publication date: Available online 15 July 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Takahiro Nakamura, Tsutomu Inatomi, Chie Sotozono, Noriko Koizumi, Shigeru Kinoshita Most human sensory information is gained through eyesight, and integrity of the ocular surface, including cornea and conjunctiva, is known to be indispensable for good vision. It is believed that severe damage to corneal epithelial stem cells results in devastating ocular surface disease, and many researchers and scientists have tried to reconstruct the ocular surface using medical and surgical approaches. Ocular surface reconstruc...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Advances in Understanding the Molecular Basis of the First Steps in Color Vision
Publication date: Available online 15 July 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Lukas Hofmann, Krzysztof Palczewski Serving as one of our primary environmental inputs, vision is the most sophisticated sensory system in humans. Here, we present recent findings derived from energetics, genetics and physiology that provide a more advanced understanding of color perception in mammals. Energetics of cis−trans isomerization of 11−cis−retinal accounts for color perception in the narrow region of the electromagnetic spectrum and how human eyes can absorb light in the near infrared (IR) ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 17, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Corneal Structure and Transparency
Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Keith M. Meek , Carlo Knupp The corneal stroma plays several pivotal roles within the eye. Optically, it is the main refracting lens and thus has to combine almost perfect transmission of visible light with precise shape, in order to focus incoming light. Furthermore, mechanically it has to be extremely tough to protect the inner contents of the eye. These functions are governed by its structure at all hierarchical levels. The basic principles of corneal structure and transparency have been known for some time, but in re...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 3, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Evidence for an enduring ischaemic penumbra following central retinal artery occlusion, with implications for fibrinolytic therapy
Publication date: Available online 22 June 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): David McLeod , Stephen Beatty The rationale behind hyperacute fibrinolytic therapy for cerebral and retinal arterial occlusion is to rescue ischaemic cells from irreversible damage through timely restitution of tissue perfusion. In cerebral stroke, an anoxic tissue compartment (the “infarct core”) is surrounded by a hypoxic compartment (the “ischaemic penumbra”). The latter comprises electrically-silent neurons that undergo delayed apoptotic cell death within 1–6 h unless salvaged...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - June 28, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Pharmacological approaches to retinitis pigmentosa: A laboratory perspective
Publication date: Available online 22 June 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Viviana Guadagni , Elena Novelli , Ilaria Piano , Claudia Gargini , Enrica Strettoi Retinal photoreceptors are highly specialized and performing neurons. Their cellular architecture is exquisitely designed to host a high concentration of molecules involved in light capture, phototransduction, electric and chemical signaling, membrane and molecular turnover, light and dark adaption, network activities etc. Such high efficiency and molecular complexity require a great metabolic demand, altogether conferring to photorecept...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - June 28, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Stem cell based therapies for age-related macular degeneration: The promises and the challenges
Publication date: Available online 23 June 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Hossein Nazari , Lily Zhang , Danhong Zhu , Gerald J. Chader , Paulo Falabella , Francisco Stefanini , Teisha Rawland , Dennis O. Clegg , Amir H. Kashani , David R. Hinton , Mark S. Humayun Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly in developed countries. AMD is classified as either neovascular (NV-AMD) or non-neovascular (NNV-AMD). Cumulative damage to the retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane, and choriocapillaris leads to dysfunction and loss of RPE cells. This ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - June 28, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Molecular pathogenesis of retinal and choroidal vascular diseases
Publication date: Available online 23 June 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Peter A. Campochiaro There are two major types of ocular neovascularization that affect the retina, retinal neovascularization (NV) and subretinal or choroidal NV. Retinal NV occurs in a group of diseases referred to as ischemic retinopathies in which damage to retinal vessels results in retinal ischemia. Most prevalent of these are diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusions. Subretinal and choroidal NV occur in diseases of the outer retina and Bruch's membrane, the most prevalent of which is age-related macular d...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - June 28, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Glia–neuron interactions in the mammalian retina
Publication date: Available online 23 June 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Elena Vecino , F.David Rodriguez , Noelia Ruzafa , Xandra Pereiro , Sansar C. Sharma The mammalian retina provides an excellent opportunity to study glia–neuron interactions and the interactions of glia with blood vessels. Three main types of glial cells are found in the mammalian retina that serve to maintain retinal homeostasis: astrocytes, Müller cells and resident microglia. Müller cells and astrocytes and microglia not only provide structural support but they are also involved in metabolism, the pha...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - June 25, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Glia-Neuron Interactions in the Mammalian Retina
Publication date: Available online 23 June 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Elena Vecino , F.David Rodriguez , Noelia Ruzafa , Xandra Pereiro , Sansar C. Sharma The mammalian retina provides an excellent opportunity to study glia-neuron interactions and the interactions of glia with blood vessels. Three main types of glial cells are found in the mammalian retina that serve to maintain retinal homeostasis: astrocytes, Müller cells and resident microglia. Müller cells and astrocytes and microglia not only provide structural support but they are also involved in metabolism, the phagocyto...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - June 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Central serous chorioretinopathy: Recent findings and new physiopathology hypothesis
Publication date: Available online 27 May 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Alejandra Daruich , Alexandre Matet , Ali Dirani , Elodie Bousquet , Min Zhao , Nicolette Farman , Frédéric Jaisser , Francine Behar-Cohen Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a major cause of vision threat among middle-aged male individuals. Multimodal imaging led to the description of a wide range of CSCR manifestations, and highlighted the contribution of the choroid and pigment epithelium in CSCR pathogenesis. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of CSCR have remained uncertain. The aim of this...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - May 28, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Functional outcome of macular edema in different retinal disorders
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Oren Tomkins-Netzer , Filis Ismetova , Asaf Bar , Sophie Seguin-Greenstein , Michal Kramer , Sue Lightman Macular edema accompanies many ocular pathologies, affecting visual function and is an important factor in treatment decisions and disease outcome. Though visual acuity is commonly used to evaluate patient vision it does not always provide a complete estimate of their visual abilities or reflect their own visual perception. Furthermore, different pathologies result in macular edema causing a variable effect on visual...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - May 27, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Oxidative Stress and Epigenetic Modifications in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Renu A. Kowluru , Anjan Kowluru , Manish Mishra , Binit Kumar Diabetic retinopathy remains the major cause of blindness among working age adults. Although a number of metabolic abnormalities have been associated with its development, due to complex nature of this multi-factorial disease, a link between any specific abnormality and diabetic retinopathy remains largely speculative. Diabetes increases oxidative stress in the retina and its capillary cells, and overwhelming evidence suggests a bidirectional relationship betw...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - May 12, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The pros and cons of vertebrate animal models for functional and therapeutic research on inherited retinal dystrophies
Publication date: Available online 1 May 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Ralph W.N. Slijkerman , Fei Song , Galuh D.N. Astuti , Martijn A. Huynen , Erwin van Wijk , Knut Stieger , Rob W.J. Collin Over the last decade, huge progress has been made in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying inherited retinal dystrophy (IRD), as well as in the development and implementation of novel therapies, especially in the field of gene therapy. The use of mutant animal models, either naturally occurring or generated by genetic modification, have contributed greatly to our knowledge on IRD. Y...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - May 1, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Novel approaches for treating diabetic retinopathy based on recent pathogenic evidence
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Rafael Simó , Cristina Hernández Diabetic retinopathy remains as a leading cause of blindness in developed countries. Current treatments target late stages of DR when vision has already been significantly affected. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of DR would permit the development of more efficient preventional/interventional strategies against early stages of DR. In this article a critical review of the state of the art of this issue is provided along with a discussion of problems which have y...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - April 30, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Moving Epithelia: Tracking the Fate of Mammalian Limbal Epithelial Stem Cells
Publication date: Available online 25 April 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Nick Di Girolamo Lineage tracing allows the destiny of a stem cell (SC) and its progeny to be followed through time. In order to track their long-term fate, SC must be permanently marked to discern their distribution, division, displacement and differentiation. This information is essential for unravelling the mysteries that govern their replenishing activity while they remain anchored within their niche microenvironment. Modern-day lineage tracing uses inducible genetic recombination to illuminate cells within embryon...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - April 25, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Fixation strategies for retinal immunohistochemistry
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Tyler W. Stradleigh , Andrew T. Ishida Immunohistochemical and ex vivo anatomical studies have provided many glimpses of the variety, distribution, and signaling components of vertebrate retinal neurons. The beauty of numerous images published to date, and the qualitative and quantitative information they provide, indicate that these approaches are fundamentally useful. However, obtaining these images entailed tissue handling and exposure to chemical solutions that differ from normal extracellular fluid in composi...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - April 24, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Neuropeptide Y system in the retina: From localization to function
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Ana Santos-Carvalho , António Francisco Ambrósio , Cláudia Cavadas The retina is a highly complex structure where several types of cells communicate through countless different molecules to codify visual information. Each type of cells plays unique roles in the retina, presenting a singular expression of neurotransmitters. Some neurotransmitter systems in the retina are well understood, while others need to be better explored to unravel the intricate signaling system involved. Neuropeptide Y (NPY),...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - March 28, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Autophagy in axonal degeneration in glaucomatous optic neuropathy
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Yasunari Munemasa , Yasushi Kitaoka The role of autophagy in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is still controversial. Several studies focused on RGC body death, although the axonal degeneration pathway in the optic nerve has not been well documented in spite of evidence that the mechanisms of degeneration of neuronal cell bodies and their axons differ. Axonal degeneration of RGCs is a hallmark of glaucoma, and a pattern of localized retinal nerve fiber layer defects in glaucoma patients indicates that axonal degenerat...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - March 27, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Crystalline lens and refractive development
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Rafael Iribarren Individual refractive errors usually change along lifespan. Most children are hyperopic in early life. This hyperopia is usually lost during growth years, leading to emmetropia in adults, but myopia also develops in children during school years or during early adult life. Those subjects who remain emmetropic are prone to have hyperopic shifts in middle life. And even later, at older ages, myopic shifts are developed with nuclear cataract. The eye grows from 15 mm in premature newborns to approximate...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 14, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Adult-onset Foveomacular Vitelliform Dystrophy: A Fresh Perspective
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Itay Chowers , Liran Tiosano , Isabelle Audo , Michelle Grunin , Camiel J.F. Boon Adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AFVD) was first described by Gass four decades ago. AFVD is characterized by subretinal vitelliform macular lesions and is usually diagnosed after the age of 40 years. The lesions gradually increase and then decrease in size over the years, leaving an area of atrophic outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium. This process is accompanied by a loss of visual acuity. Vitelliform lesions m...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 13, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Facts and myths of cerebrospinal fluid pressure for the physiology of the eye
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Jost B. Jonas , Ning Li Wang , Diya Yang , Robert Ritch , Songhomitra Panda-Jonas The orbital cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) represents the true counter-pressure against the intraocular pressure (IOP) across the lamina cribrosa and is, therefore, one of the two determinants of the trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLPD). From this anatomic point of view, an elevated TLPD could be due to elevated IOP or abnormally low orbital CSFP. Both experimental and clinical studies have suggested that a low CSFP cou...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 8, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Peptide therapies for ocular surface disturbances based on fibronectin–integrin interactions
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Teruo Nishida , Makoto Inui , Motoyoshi Nomizu The condition of the corneal epithelium is a critical determinant of corneal transparency and clear vision. The corneal epithelium serves as a barrier to protect the eye from external insults, with its smooth surface being essential for its optical properties. Disorders of the corneal epithelium include superficial punctate keratopathy, corneal erosion, and persistent epithelial defects (PEDs). The prompt resolution of these disorders is important for minimization of fur...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 8, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Vision from next generation sequencing: Multi-dimensional genome-wide analysis for producing gene regulatory networks underlying retinal development, aging and disease
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Hyun-Jin Yang , Rinki Ratnapriya , Tiziana Cogliati , Jung-Woong Kim , Anand Swaroop Genomics and genetics have invaded all aspects of biology and medicine, opening uncharted territory for scientific exploration. The definition of "gene" itself has become ambiguous, and the central dogma is continuously being revised and expanded. Computational biology and computational medicine are no longer intellectual domains of the chosen few. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, together with novel methods of ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 8, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Cellular strategies for retinal repair by photoreceptor replacement
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Sujatha A. Jayakody , Anai Gonzalez-Cordero , Robin R. Ali , Rachael A. Pearson Loss of photoreceptors due to retinal degeneration is a major cause of blindness in the developed world. While no effective treatment is currently available, cell replacement therapy, using pluripotent stem cell-derived photoreceptor precursor cells, may be a feasible future treatment. Recent reports have demonstrated rescue of visual function following the transplantation of immature photoreceptors and we have seen major advances in our ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 8, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Retinal microglia: Just bystander or target for therapy?
Publication date: Available online 1 December 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Marcus Karlstetter , Rebecca Scholz , Matt Rutar , Wai T. Wong , Jan M. Provis , Thomas Langmann Resident microglial cells can be regarded as the immunological watchdogs of the brain and the retina. They are active sensors of their neuronal microenvironment and rapidly respond to various insults with a morphological and functional transformation into reactive phagocytes. There is strong evidence from animal models and in situ analyses of human tissue that microglial reactivity is a common hallmark of various retinal ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 4, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Dynamics and function of the tear film in relation to the blink cycle
Publication date: Available online 3 December 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): R.J. Braun , P.E. King-Smith , C.G. Begley , Longfei Li , N.R. Gewecke Great strides have recently been made in quantitative measurements of tear film thickness and thinning, mathematical modeling thereof and linking these to sensory perception. This paper summarizes recent progress in these areas and reports on new results. The complete blink cycle is used as a framework that attempts to unify the results that are currently available. Understanding of tear film dynamics is aided by combining information from differe...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 4, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Complement activation and choriocapillaris loss in early AMD: Implications for pathophysiology and therapy
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): S. Scott Whitmore , Elliott H. Sohn , Kathleen R. Chirco , Arlene V. Drack , Edwin M. Stone , Budd A. Tucker , Robert F. Mullins Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common and devastating disease that can result in severe visual dysfunction. Over the last decade, great progress has been made in identifying genetic variants that contribute to AMD, many of which lie in genes involved in the complement cascade. In this review we discuss the significance of complement activation in AMD, particularly with respect ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 4, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The unfolded protein response in retinal vascular diseases: Implications and therapeutic potential beyond protein folding
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Sarah X. Zhang , Jacey H. Ma , Maulasri Bhatta , Steven J. Fliesler , Joshua J. Wang Angiogenesis is a complex, step-wise process of new vessel formation that is involved in both normal embryonic development as well as postnatal pathological processes, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Aberrant blood vessel growth, also known as neovascularization, in the retina and the choroid is a major cause of vision loss in severe eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 4, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The immunopathogenesis of birdshot chorioretinopathy; a bird of many feathers
This article revisits the HLA-A29 peptidome using insights from recent studies and discusses why HLA-A29 can be considered a canonical antigen presenting molecule. The first genome-wide association study facilitated novel concepts into a disease mechanism beyond HLA-A29 that includes strong genetic predisposition for the ERAP2 gene that affects antigen processing for HLA class I. Furthermore, patients manifest with pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles and pathogenic T cell subsets that are associated with IL-17-linked inflammation. We are beginning to understand that the underlying biology of BSCR comprises various pathologi...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 4, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

βA3/A1-crystallin: More than a lens protein
Publication date: January 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 44 Author(s): J. Samuel Zigler Jr. , Debasish Sinha Crystallins, the highly abundant proteins of the ocular lens, are essential determinants of the transparency and refractivity required for lens function. Initially thought to be lens-specific and to have evolved as lens proteins, it is now clear that crystallins were recruited to the lens from proteins that existed before lenses evolved. Crystallins are expressed outside of the lens and most have been shown to have cellular functions distinct from their roles as structural elements in the...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 4, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Matching for Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) in corneal transplantation – To do or not to do
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): T.H. van Essen , D.L. Roelen , K.A. Williams , M.J. Jager The benefit of matching the donor and recipient of corneal allografts for Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) has often been debated. Currently, patients receiving their first corneal allograft are hardly ever matched for HLA antigens and even patients undergoing a regraft usually do not receive an HLA-matched graft. The great success of primary corneal transplantations is based on the ocular immune privilege. Although this indeed seems to render HLA-matching super...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 4, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Facts and Myths of Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure for the Physiology of the Eye
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Jost B. Jonas , Ning Li Wang , Diya Yang , Robert Ritch , Songhomitra Panda-Jonas The orbital cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) represents the true counter-pressure against the intraocular pressure (IOP) across the lamina cribrosa and is, therefore, one of the two determinants of the trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLPD). From this anatomic point of view, an elevated TLPD could be due to elevated IOP or abnormally low orbital CSFP. Both experimental and clinical studies have suggested that a low CSFP cou...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 4, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Peptide therapies for ocular surface disturbances based on fibronectin-integrin interactions
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Teruo Nishida , Makoto Inui , Motoyoshi Nomizu The condition of the corneal epithelium is a critical determinant of corneal transparency and clear vision. The corneal epithelium serves as a barrier to protect the eye from external insults, with its smooth surface being essential for its optical properties. Disorders of the corneal epithelium include superficial punctate keratopathy, corneal erosion, and persistent epithelial defects (PEDs). The prompt resolution of these disorders is important for minimization of fur...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 2, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Molecular chaperones and photoreceptor function
Publication date: July 2008 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 27, Issue 4 Author(s): Maria Kosmaoglou , Nele Schwarz , John S. Bett , Michael E. Cheetham Molecular chaperones facilitate and regulate protein conformational change within cells. This encompasses many fundamental cellular processes: including the correct folding of nascent chains; protein transport and translocation; signal transduction and protein quality control. Chaperones are, therefore, important in several forms of human disease, including neurodegeneration. Within the retina, the highly specialized photoreceptor cell presents a fasci...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Mitochondrial optic neuropathies – Disease mechanisms and therapeutic strategies
Publication date: March 2011 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 30, Issue 2 Author(s): Patrick Yu-Wai-Man , Philip G. Griffiths , Patrick F. Chinnery Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and autosomal-dominant optic atrophy (DOA) are the two most common inherited optic neuropathies in the general population. Both disorders share striking pathological similarities, marked by the selective loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and the early involvement of the papillomacular bundle. Three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations; m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A, and m.14484T>C account for ov...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye
Publication date: November 2011 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 30, Issue 6 Author(s): Michael Pircher , Christoph K. Hitzenberger , Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become a well established imaging tool in ophthalmology. The unprecedented depth resolution that is provided by this technique yields valuable information on different ocular tissues ranging from the anterior to the posterior eye segment. Polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) extends the concept of OCT and utilizes the information that is carried by polarized light to obtain additional information on the tissue....
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Understanding glaucomatous damage: Anatomical and functional data from ocular hypertensive rodent retinas
Publication date: January 2012 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 31, Issue 1 Author(s): Manuel Vidal-Sanz , Manuel Salinas-Navarro , Francisco M. Nadal-Nicolás , Luis Alarcón-Martínez , F. Javier Valiente-Soriano , Jaime Miralles de Imperial , Marcelino Avilés-Trigueros , Marta Agudo-Barriuso , Maria P. Villegas-Pérez Glaucoma, the second most common cause of blindness, is characterized by a progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons, with a concomitant loss of the visual field. Although the exact pathogenesis of glaucoma is not completely understood, a...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

X-linked juvenile retinoschisis: Clinical diagnosis, genetic analysis, and molecular mechanisms
Publication date: May 2012 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 31, Issue 3 Author(s): Robert S. Molday , Ulrich Kellner , Bernhard H.F. Weber X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS, MIM 312700) is a common early onset macular degeneration in males characterized by mild to severe loss in visual acuity, splitting of retinal layers, and a reduction in the b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG). The RS1 gene (MIM 300839) associated with the disease encodes retinoschisin, a 224 amino acid protein containing a discoidin domain as the major structural unit, an N-terminal cleavable signal sequence, and regions resp...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Optical superresolution and visual hyperacuity
Publication date: September 2012 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 31, Issue 5 Author(s): Gerald Westheimer Classically, diffraction theory sets a boundary for the resolving capacity of optical instruments. Yet some visual thresholds have values much better than the traditional resolution limit. Recent developments in superresolution, an area of optical physics and engineering with claims of transcending the stated resolution limits of optical instruments, are reviewed and their possible relevance to visual spatial processing and to the exploration of the eye's structure are assessed. In optical or diff...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Macular telangiectasia type 2
Publication date: May 2013 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 34 Author(s): Peter Charbel Issa , Mark C. Gillies , Emily Y. Chew , Alan C. Bird , Tjebo F.C. Heeren , Tunde Peto , Frank G. Holz , Hendrik P.N. Scholl Macular telangiectasia type 2 is a bilateral disease of unknown cause with characteristic alterations of the macular capillary network and neurosensory atrophy. Its prevalence may be underestimated and has recently been shown to be as high as 0.1% in persons 40 years and older. Biomicroscopy may show reduced retinal transparency, crystalline deposits, mildly ectatic capillaries, blunted venule...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Evolution of phototransduction, vertebrate photoreceptors and retina
Publication date: September 2013 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 36 Author(s): Trevor D. Lamb Evidence is reviewed from a wide range of studies relevant to the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors and phototransduction, in order to permit the synthesis of a scenario for the major steps that occurred during the evolution of cones, rods and the vertebrate retina. The ancestral opsin originated more than 700 Mya (million years ago) and duplicated to form three branches before cnidarians diverged from our own lineage. During chordate evolution, ciliary opsins (C-opsins) underwent multiple stages of...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Photodynamic therapy for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy
Publication date: November 2013 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 37 Author(s): Patrycja Nowak-Sliwinska , Hubert van den Bergh , Michel Sickenberg , Adrian H.C. Koh The first effective therapy for exudative macular degeneration (AMD) was Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). Diagnosis of the disease was to a large extent by fluorescein angiography (FA). Distinguishing between the leaky choroidal neovessels (CNV) associated with exudative AMD, and the polypoidal structures associated with Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy (PCV) is not always easy using FA alone. The switch to Indocyanine Green angiography helped ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Using human induced pluripotent stem cells to treat retinal disease
We describe the relevance and routes to establishing hiPSCs in selected models of human retinal disease. Additionally, we define pathways for applying hiPSC technology in treating currently incurable, progressive and blinding retinal disease. (Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research)
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Retinal connectomics: Towards complete, accurate networks
Publication date: November 2013 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 37 Author(s): Robert E. Marc , Bryan W. Jones , Carl B. Watt , James R. Anderson , Crystal Sigulinsky , Scott Lauritzen Connectomics is a strategy for mapping complex neural networks based on high-speed automated electron optical imaging, computational assembly of neural data volumes, web-based navigational tools to explore 1012–1015 byte (terabyte to petabyte) image volumes, and annotation and markup tools to convert images into rich networks with cellular metadata. These collections of network data and associated metadata, analyze...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Photoreceptor cell death and rescue in retinal detachment and degenerations
Publication date: November 2013 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 37 Author(s): Yusuke Murakami , Shoji Notomi , Toshio Hisatomi , Toru Nakazawa , Tatsuro Ishibashi , Joan W. Miller , Demetrios G. Vavvas Photoreceptor cell death is the ultimate cause of vision loss in various retinal disorders, including retinal detachment (RD). Photoreceptor cell death has been thought to occur mainly through apoptosis, which is the most characterized form of programmed cell death. The caspase family of cysteine proteases plays a central role for inducing apoptosis, and in experimental models of RD, dying photoreceptor...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research