Detection and measurement of clinically meaningful visual field progression in clinical trials for glaucoma
Publication date: Available online 20 October 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): C. Gustavo De Moraes, Jeffrey M. Liebmann, Leonard A. Levin Glaucomatous visual field progression has both personal and societal costs and therefore has a serious impact on quality of life. At the present time, intraocular pressure (IOP) is considered to be the most important modifiable risk factor for glaucoma onset and progression. Reduction of IOP has been repeatedly demonstrated to be an effective intervention across the spectrum of glaucoma, regardless of subtype or disease stage. In the setting of approval of IO...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - October 30, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Advances in bone marrow stem cell therapy for retinal dysfunction
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Susanna S. Park, Elad Moisseiev, Gerhard Bauer, Johnathon D. Anderson, Maria B. Grant, Azhar Zam, Robert J. Zawadzki, John S. Werner, Jan A. Nolta The most common cause of untreatable vision loss is dysfunction of the retina. Conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma remain leading causes of untreatable blindness worldwide. Various stem cell approaches are being explored for treatment of retinal regeneration. The rationale for using bone marrow stem cells to treat retinal ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - October 30, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Significance of optineurin mutations in glaucoma and other diseases
Publication date: Available online 29 September 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Yuriko Minegishi, Mao Nakayama, Daisuke Iejima, Kazuhide Kawase, Takeshi Iwata Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of bilateral blindness, affecting nearly 57 million people worldwide. Glaucoma is characterized by a progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and is often associated with intraocular pressure (IOP). Normal tension glaucoma (NTG), marked by normal IOP but progressive glaucoma, is incompletely understood. In 2002, Sarfarazi et al. identified FIP-2 gene mutations responsible for hereditary NTG, renamin...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - September 30, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Steroid-induced ocular hypertension/glaucoma: Focus on pharmacogenomics and implications for precision medicine
This article concludes with a discussion of how the Precision Medicine Initiative®, announced by U.S. President Obama in his 2015 State of the Union address, is beginning to touch the practice of ophthalmology. It is argued that SIOH/SIG may provide one of the next opportunities for effective application of precision medicine. (Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research)
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - September 24, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The neural retina in retinopathy of prematurity
Publication date: Available online 23 September 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Ronald M. Hansen, Anne Moskowitz, James D. Akula, Anne B. Fulton Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a neurovascular disease that affects prematurely born infants and is known to have significant long term effects on vision. We conducted the studies described herein not only to learn more about vision but also about the pathogenesis of ROP. The coincidence of ROP onset and rapid developmental elongation of the rod photoreceptor outer segments motivated us to consider the role of the rods in this disease. We used non...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - September 24, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Caveolins and caveolae in ocular physiology and pathophysiology
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Xiaowu Gu, Alaina M. Reagan, Mark E. McClellan, Michael H. Elliott Caveolae are specialized, invaginated plasma membrane domains that are defined morphologically and by the expression of signature proteins called, caveolins. Caveolae and caveolins are abundant in a variety of cell types including vascular endothelium, glia, and fibroblasts where they play critical roles in transcellular transport, endocytosis, mechanotransduction, cell proliferation, membrane lipid homeostasis, and signal transduction. Given these c...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - September 23, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

In  vivo genome editing as a potential treatment strategy for inherited retinal dystrophies
Publication date: Available online 10 September 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Mert Yanik, Brigitte Müller, Fei Song, Jacqueline Gall, Franziska Wagner, Wolfgang Wende, Birgit Lorenz, Knut Stieger In vivo genome editing represents an emerging field in the treatment of monogenic disorders, as it may constitute a solution to the current hurdles in classic gene addition therapy, which are the low levels and limited duration of transgene expression. Following the introduction of a double strand break (DSB) at the mutational site by highly specific endonucleases, such as TALENs (transcrip...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - September 20, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The physiological optics of the lens
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Paul J. Donaldson, Angus C. Grey, Bianca Maceo Heilman, Julie C. Lim, Ehsan Vaghefi The optical properties of the ocular lens are important to overall vision quality. As a transparent biological tissue, the lens contributes to the overall and dynamic focussing power of the eye, and corrects for optical errors introduced by the cornea. The optical properties of the lens change throughout life. Alterations to the refractive properties and transparency of the lens result in presbyopia and cataract, respectively. Howeve...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - September 14, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

In vivo genome editing as a potential treatment strategy for inherited retinal dystrophies
Publication date: Available online 10 September 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Mert Yanik, Brigitte Müller, Fei Song, Jacqueline Gall, Franziska Wagner, Wolfgang Wende, Birgit Lorenz, Knut Stieger In vivo genome editing represents an emerging field in the treatment of monogenic disorders, as it may constitute a solution to the current hurdles in classic gene addition therapy, which are the low levels and limited duration of transgene expression. Following the introduction of a double strand break (DSB) at the mutational site by highly specific endonucleases, such as TALENs (transcription ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - September 11, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Retinal regeneration mechanisms linked to multiple cancer molecules: A therapeutic conundrum
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Patrice D. Smith, Amanda Barber, Kyle Farmer, Keith R. Martin Over the last decade, a large number of research articles have been published demonstrating regeneration and/or neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells following manipulation of specific genetic and molecular targets. Interestingly, of the targets that have been identified to promote repair following visual system damage, many are genes known to be mutated in different types of cancer. This review explores recent literature on the potential for modulating ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - August 31, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Autophagy in the eye: Development, degeneration, and aging
We describe the role of autophagy in retinal development and cell differentiation, and discuss the implications of autophagy dysregulation both in physiological aging and in important diseases such as age-associated macular degeneration and glaucoma. We also address the putative role of autophagy in promoting photoreceptor survival and discuss how selective autophagy could provide alternative means of protecting retinal cells. The findings reviewed here underscore the important role of autophagy in maintaining proper retinal function and highlight novel therapeutic approaches for blindness and other diseases of the eye. (S...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - August 24, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Genomic control of neuronal demographics in the retina
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Benjamin E. Reese, Patrick W. Keeley The mature retinal architecture is composed of various types of neuron, each population differing in size and constrained to particular layers, wherein the cells achieve a characteristic patterning in their local organization. These demographic features of retinal nerve cell populations are each complex traits controlled by multiple genes affecting different processes during development, and their genetic determinants can be dissected by correlating variation in these traits with the...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - August 2, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

24-h monitoring devices and nyctohemeral rhythms of intraocular pressure
The objective of this article is to present the contributions of these new 24-h monitoring devices for the study of the nyctohemeral rhythms. In healthy subjects and untreated glaucoma subjects, a nyctohemeral rhythm is consistently found and frequently characterized by a mean diurnal IOP lower than the mean nocturnal IOP, with a diurnal bathyphase – usually in the middle or at the end of the afternoon – and a nocturnal acrophase, usually in the middle or at the end of the night. (Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research)
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 29, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The Argus ® II Retinal Prosthesis System
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 50 Author(s): Yvonne Hsu-Lin Luo, Lyndon da Cruz The Argus® II Retinal Prosthesis System (Second Sight Medical Products) is the first prosthetic vision device to obtain regulatory approval in both Europe and the USA. As such it has entered the commercial market as a treatment for patients with profound vision loss from end-stage outer retinal disease, predominantly retinitis pigmentosa. To date, over 100 devices have been implanted worldwide, representing the largest group of patients currently treated with visual prostheses. The sys...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

MRI of rod cell compartment-specific function in disease and treatment in  vivo
Publication date: March 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 51 Author(s): Bruce A. Berkowitz, David Bissig, Robin Roberts Rod cell oxidative stress is a major pathogenic factor in retinal disease, such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Personalized, non-destructive, and targeted treatment for these diseases remains elusive since current imaging methods cannot analytically measure treatment efficacy against rod cell compartment-specific oxidative stress in vivo. Over the last decade, novel MRI-based approaches that address this technology gap have been developed. This...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Glia –neuron interactions in the mammalian retina
Publication date: March 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 51 Author(s): Elena Vecino, F.David Rodriguez, Noelia Ruzafa, Xandra Pereiro, Sansar C. Sharma The mammalian retina provides an excellent opportunity to study glia–neuron interactions and the interactions of glia with blood vessels. Three main types of glial cells are found in the mammalian retina that serve to maintain retinal homeostasis: astrocytes, Müller cells and resident microglia. Müller cells, astrocytes and microglia not only provide structural support but they are also involved in metabolism, the phagocytosis ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Aldose reductase, ocular diabetic complications and the development of topical Kinostat ®
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Peter F. Kador, Milton Wyman, Peter J. Oates Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem with devastating effects on ocular health in both industrialized and developing countries. The control of hyperglycemia is critical to minimizing the impact of DM on ocular tissues because inadequate glycemic control leads to ocular tissue changes that range from a temporary blurring of vision to permanent vision loss. The biochemical mechanisms that promote the development of diabetic complications have been extensively st...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 21, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The role of dinucleoside polyphosphates on the ocular surface and other eye structures
Publication date: Available online 14 July 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Gonzalo Carracedo, Almudena Crooke, Ana Guzman-Aranguez, Maria J. Pérez de Lara, Alba Martin-Gil, Jesús Pintor Dinucleoside polyphosphates comprises a group of dinucleotides formed by two nucleosides linked by a variable number of phosphates, abbreviated NpnN (where n represents the number of phosphates). These compounds are naturally occurring substances present in tears, aqueous humour and in the retina. As the consequence of their presence, these dinucleotides contribute to many ocular physiologic...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 15, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Retinal venous pulsation: Expanding our understanding and use of this enigmatic phenomenon
We describe in some detail the mathematical and physical models of Starling resistors and how their results can be applied to understand the physiology of retinal vein pulsation. We discuss various techniques for measuring retinal venous pulsation, including a novel modified photo-plethysmographic technique developed in our laboratory. With these techniques, non-invasive measurement of CSFP is beginning to look feasible. Venous pulsation properties also have significant prognostic value in predicting long-term outcomes for both glaucoma and central retinal vein occlusion, as well as utility in other retinal vasculopathies ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 13, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Structural and molecular bases of rod photoreceptor morphogenesis and disease
Publication date: Available online 22 June 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Theodore G. Wensel, Zhixian Zhang, Ivan A. Anastassov, Jared C. Gilliam, Feng He, Michael F. Schmid, Michael A. Robichaux The rod cell has an extraordinarily specialized structure that allows it to carry out its unique function of detecting individual photons of light. Both the structural features of the rod and the metabolic processes required for highly amplified light detection seem to have rendered the rod especially sensitive to structural and metabolic defects, so that a large number of gene defects are pri...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - June 23, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Next generation sequencing technology and genomewide data analysis: Perspectives for retinal research
Publication date: Available online 11 June 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Vijender Chaitankar, Gökhan Karakülah, Rinki Ratnapriya, Felipe O. Giuste, Matthew J. Brooks, Anand Swaroop The advent of high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) has accelerated the pace of discovery of disease-associated genetic variants and genomewide profiling of expressed sequences and epigenetic marks, thereby permitting systems-based analyses of ocular development and disease. Rapid evolution of NGS and associated methodologies presents significant challenges in acquisition, management, an...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - June 11, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Molecular basis for photoreceptor outer segment architecture
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Andrew F.X. Goldberg, Orson L. Moritz, David S. Williams To serve vision, vertebrate rod and cone photoreceptors must detect photons, convert the light stimuli into cellular signals, and then convey the encoded information to downstream neurons. Rods and cones are sensory neurons that each rely on specialized ciliary organelles to detect light. These organelles, called outer segments, possess elaborate architectures that include many hundreds of light-sensitive membranous disks arrayed one atop another in precise regi...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - June 1, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Retinal stimulation strategies to restore vision: Fundamentals and systems
Publication date: Available online 26 May 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Lan Yue, James D. Weiland, Botond Roska, Mark S. Humayun Retinal degeneration, a leading cause of blindness worldwide, is primarily characterized by the dysfunctional/degenerated photoreceptors that impair the ability of the retina to detect light. Our group and others have shown that bioelectronic retinal implants restore useful visual input to those who have been blind for decades. This unprecedented approach of restoring sight demonstrates that patients can adapt to new visual input, and thereby opens up opportuni...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - May 26, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Genome engineering in ophthalmology: Application of CRISPR/Cas to the treatment of eye disease
Publication date: Available online 13 May 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Sandy S.C. Hung, Tristan McCaughey, Olivia Swann, Alice Pébay, Alex W. Hewitt The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system has enabled an accurate and efficient means to edit the human genome. Rapid advances in this technology could results in imminent clinical application, and with favourable anatomical and immunological profiles, ophthalmic disease will be at the forefront of such work. There have been a number of breakthroughs improving th...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - May 13, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Differentiating drusen: Drusen and drusen-like appearances associated with ageing, age-related macular degeneration, inherited eye disease and other pathological processes
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Kamron N. Khan, Omar A. Mahroo, Rehna Khan, Moin D. Mohamed, Martin McKibbin, Alan Bird, Michel Michaelides, Adnan Tufail, Anthony T. Moore Drusen are discussed frequently in the context of their association with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Some types may, however, be regarded as a normal consequence of ageing; others may be observed in young age groups. They also occur in a number of inherited disorders and some systemic conditions. Whilst drusen are classically located external (sclerad) to the ret...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - May 10, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Risk factors and biomarkers of age-related macular degeneration
This article will discuss known risk factors and novel, potential biomarkers of AMD in addition to their application in both academic and clinical settings. (Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research)
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - May 6, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Modeling intraocular bacterial infections
Publication date: Available online 3 May 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Roger A. Astley, Phillip S. Coburn, Salai Madhumathi Parkunan, Michelle C. Callegan Bacterial endophthalmitis is an infection and inflammation of the posterior segment of the eye which can result in significant loss of visual acuity. Even with prompt antibiotic, anti-inflammatory and surgical intervention, vision and even the eye itself may be lost. For the past century, experimental animal models have been used to examine various aspects of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial endophthalmitis, to further...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - May 4, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Lid wiper epitheliopathy
Publication date: Available online 14 April 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Nathan Efron, Noel A. Brennan, Philip B. Morgan, Tawnya Wilson Some recent research has resulted in a hypothesis that there is a common 'lid wiper' region that is apposite to the ocular surface or anterior lens surface (where contact lenses are worn), responsible for spreading tears during blinking. In the upper eyelid, it extends about 0.6 mm from the crest of the sharp posterior (inner) lid border (i.e. the mucocutaneous junction, or line of Marx) to the subtarsal fold superiorly and from the medial upper pu...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - May 2, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Asians
Publication date: Available online 14 April 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Chee Wai Wong, Yasuo Yanagi, Won-Ki Lee, Yuichiro Ogura, Ian Yeo, Tien Yin Wong, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in elderly people globally. It is estimated that there will be more Asians with AMD than the rest of the world combined by 2050. In Asian populations, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is a common subtype of exudative AMD, while choroidal neovascularization secondary to AMD (CNV-AMD) is the typical subtype in Western po...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - May 2, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Goblet cells of the conjunctiva: A review of recent findings
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Ilene K. Gipson Goblet cells within the conjunctival epithelium are specialized cells that secrete mucins onto the surface of the eye. Recent research has demonstrated new characteristics of the cells, including factors influencing their differentiation, their gene products and their functions at the ocular surface. The following review summarizes the newly discovered aspects of the role of Spdef, a member of the Ets transcription factor family in conjunctival goblet cell differentiation, the newly discovered goblet c...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - May 2, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Aldose reductase, ocular diabetic complications and the development of topical Kinostat®
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Peter F. Kador, Milton Wyman, Peter J. Oates Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem with devastating effects on ocular health in both industrialized and developing countries. The control of hyperglycemia is critical to minimizing the impact of DM on ocular tissues because inadequate glycemic control leads to ocular tissue changes that range from a temporary blurring of vision to permanent vision loss. The biochemical mechanisms that promote the development of diabetic complications have been extensively st...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - May 2, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Mathematical and Computational Models of the Retina in Health, Development and Disease
Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Paul A. Roberts, Eamonn A. Gaffney, Philip J. Luthert, Alexander J.E. Foss, Helen M. Byrne The retina confers upon us the gift of vision, enabling us to perceive the world in a manner unparalleled by any other tissue. Experimental and clinical studies have provided great insight into the physiology and biochemistry of the retina; however, there are questions which cannot be answered using these methods alone. Mathematical and computational techniques can provide complementary insight into this inherently complex an...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - April 7, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Heat shock proteins in the retina: focus on HSP70 and alpha crystallins in ganglion cell survival
Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Natik Piri, Jacky MK. Kwong, Lei Gu, Joseph Caprioli Heat shock proteins (HSPs) belong to a superfamily of stress proteins that are critical constituents of a complex defense mechanism that enhances cell survival under adverse environmental conditions. Cell protective roles of HSPs are related to their chaperone functions, antiapoptotic and antinecrotic effects. HSPs’ anti-apoptotic and cytoprotective characteristics, their ability to protect cells from a variety of stressful stimuli, and the possibility of t...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - March 24, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

NRP1 function and targeting in neurovascular development and eye disease
Publication date: Available online 27 February 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Claudio Raimondi, James T. Brash, Alessandro Fantin, Christiana Ruhrberg Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) is expressed by neurons, blood vessels, immune cells and many other cell types in the mammalian body and binds a range of structurally and functionally diverse extracellular ligands to modulate organ development and function. In recent years, several types of mouse knockout models have been developed that have provided useful tools for experimental investigation of NRP1 function and a multitude of therapeutics targeting ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 28, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease: Novel insights into pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Liping Du, Aize Kijlstra, Peizeng Yang Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease is one of the major vision-threatening diseases in certain populations, such as Asians, native Americans, Hispanics and Middle Easterners. It is characterized by bilateral uveitis that is frequently associated with neurological (meningeal), auditory, and integumentary manifestations. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of VKH disease need to be further elucidated, it is widely accepted that the clinical manifestations are caused by an au...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 12, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Heterologous Expression of Melanopsin: Present, Problems and Prospects
Publication date: Available online 2 February 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Nazhat Shirzad-Wasei, Willem J. DeGrip Melanopsin, the photosensory pigment of specialized mammalian retinal ganglion cells, is involved in various non-image forming tasks such as pupillary light reflex, circadian entrainment and irradiance detection. Melanopsin genes have been detected in all vertebrate classes and are resolved in two lineages, Opn4m and Opn4x. In addition, two splice variants have been found in several species leading to a short (Opn4S) and a long (Opn4L) isoform, mainly differing in the length o...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 3, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Updates of Pathologic Myopia
Publication date: Available online 6 January 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Kyoko Ohno-Matsui, Timothy Y.Y. Lai, Chi-Chun Lai, Chiu Ming Gemmy Cheung Complications from pathologic myopia are a major cause of visual impairment and blindness, especially in east Asia. The eyes with pathologic myopia may develop loss of the best-corrected vision due to various pathologies in the macula, peripheral retina and the optic nerve. Despite its importance, the definition of pathologic myopia has been inconsistent. The refractive error or axial length alone often does not adequately reflect the &lsquo...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - January 12, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

PRPH2/RDS and ROM-1: historical context, current views and future considerations
Publication date: Available online 8 January 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Michael W. Stuck, Shannon M. Conley, Muna I. Naash Peripherin2 (PRPH2), also known as RDS (retinal degeneration slow) is a photoreceptor specific glycoprotein which is essential for normal photoreceptor health and vision. PRPH2/RDS is necessary for the proper formation of both rod and cone photoreceptor outer segments, the organelle specialized for visual transduction. When PRPH2/RDS is defective or absent, outer segments become disorganized or fail to form entirely and the photoreceptors subsequently degenerate. M...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - January 12, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Adrenomedullin: a potential therapeutic target for retinochoroidal disease
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2016 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Yasuhiro Iesato, Kentaro Yuda, Kelvin Teo Yi Chong, Xue Tan, Toshinori Murata, Takayuki Shindo, Yasuo Yanagi Adrenomedullin (AM) is a 52-amino acid peptide with anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-oxidative properties discovered in a human pheochromocytoma. It is a member of the calcitonin peptide superfamily, and its signal is mediated by calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR). CLR interacts with receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs), among which RAMP-2 and RAMP-3 carry CLR from the endoplasmi...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - January 12, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Molecular Diagnosis: Implications for Ophthalmology
Publication date: Available online 1 December 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): James T. Rosenbaum, Cailin H. Sibley, Dongseok Choi, Christina A. Harrington, Stephen R. Planck The effort to subdivide diseases and to individualize therapies based on characteristics of the patient has been labelled precision medicine. Jameson and Longo define precision medicine as “treatments targeted to the needs of individual patients on the basis of genetic, biomarker, phenotypic or psychosocial characteristics that distinguish a given patient from other patients with similar clinical presentations&r...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - December 3, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Pathogenesis and treatments of TGFBI corneal dystrophies
Publication date: Available online 28 November 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Kyung Eun Han, Seung-il Choi, Tae-im Kim, Yong-Sun Maeng, R. Doyle Stulting, Yong Woo Ji, Eung Kweon Kim Transforming growth factor beta-induced (TGFBI) corneal dystrophies are a group of inherited progressive corneal diseases. Accumulation of transforming growth factor beta-induced protein (TGFBIp) is involved in the pathogenesis of TGFBI corneal dystrophies; however, the exact molecular mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge of TGFBI corneal dystrophi...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 29, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Sohan Singh Hayreh Optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure was first described in 1853. Ever since, there has been a plethora of controversial hypotheses to explain its pathogenesis. I have explored the subject comprehensively by doing basic, experimental and clinical studies. My objective was to investigate the fundamentals of the subject, to test the validity of the previous theories, and finally, based on all these studies, to find a logical explanation for the pathogenesis. My studies included the foll...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and meso-Zeaxanthin: The Basic and Clinical Science Underlying Carotenoid-based Nutritional Interventions against Ocular Disease
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Paul S. Bernstein, Binxing Li, Preejith P. Vachali, Aruna Gorusupudi, Rajalekshmy Shyam, Bradley S. Henriksen, John M. Nolan The human macula uniquely concentrates three carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin must be obtained from dietary sources such as green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, while meso-zeaxanthin is rarely found in diet and is believed to be formed at the macula by metabolic transformations of ingested carotenoids. Epidemiologi...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 3, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Investigating the Choriocapillaris and Choroidal Vasculature with New Optical Coherence Tomography Technologies
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Daniela Ferrara, Nadia K. Waheed, Jay S. Duker The body of knowledge of in vivo investigation of the choroid has been markedly enhanced by recent technological advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT). New insights elucidating the morphological features of the choriocapillaris and choroidal vasculature, in both physiological and pathological conditions, indicate that the choroid plays a pivotal role in many posterior segment diseases. In this article, a review of the histological characteristics of the choro...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - October 23, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Connexin43 in retinal injury and disease
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Helen V. Danesh-Meyer, Jie Zhang, Monica L. Acosta, Ilva D. Rupenthal, Colin R. Green Gap junctions are specialized cell-to-cell contacts that allow the direct transfer of small molecules between cells. A single gap junction channel consists of two hemichannels, or connexons, each of which is composed of six connexin protein subunits. Connexin43 is the most ubiquitously expressed isoform of the connexin family and in the retina it is prevalent in astrocytes, Müller cells, microglia, retinal pigment epitheliu...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - October 9, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The Argus® II Retinal Prosthesis System
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Yvonne Hsu-Lin Luo, Lyndon da Cruz The Argus® II retinal prosthesis system (Second Sight Medical Products) is the first prosthetic vision device to obtain regulatory approval in both Europe and the USA. As such it has entered the commercial market as a treatment for patients with profound vision loss from end-stage outer retinal disease, predominantly retinitis pigmentosa. To date, over 100 devices have been implanted worldwide, representing the largest group of patients currently treated with visual prosthes...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - September 25, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

MRI of rod cell compartment-specific function in disease and treatment in vivo
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Bruce A. Berkowitz, David Bissig, Robin Roberts Rod cell oxidative stress is a major pathogenic factor in retinal disease, such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Personalized, non-destructive, and targeted treatment for these diseases remains elusive since current imaging methods cannot analytically measure treatment efficacy against rod cell compartment-specific oxidative stress in vivo. Over the last decade, novel MRI-based approaches that address this technology gap have been dev...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - September 9, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

A paradigm shift in imaging biomarkers in neovascular age-related macular degeneration
Publication date: Available online 22 August 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth, Sebastian M. Waldstein Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has undergone substantial break-throughs in diagnostic as well as therapeutic respect, with optical coherence tomography (OCT) allowing to identify disease morphology in great detail, and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy providing unprecedented benefit. However, these two paths have yet not been combined in an optimal way, real-world outcomes are inferior to expectations, and disease manageme...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - September 5, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

MRI of Rod Cell Compartment-specific Function in Disease and Treatment In Vivo
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Bruce A. Berkowitz, David Bissig, Robin Roberts Rod cell oxidative stress is a major pathogenic factor in retinal disease, such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Personalized, non-destructive, and targeted treatment for these diseases remains elusive since current imaging methods cannot analytically measure treatment efficacy against rod cell compartment-specific oxidative stress in vivo. Over the last decade, novel MRI-based approaches that address this technology gap have been develope...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - September 5, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Defects in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Proteolysis and the Pathology Associated with Age-related Macular Degeneration
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Deborah A. Ferrington, Debasish Sinha, Kai Kaarniranta Maintenance of protein homeostasis, also referred to as “Proteostasis”, integrates multiple pathways that regulate protein synthesis, folding, translocation, and degradation. Failure in proteostasis may be one of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the cascade of events leading to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This review covers the major degradative pathways (ubiquitin-proteasome and lysosomal involvement in phagocytosis and autop...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - September 5, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research