Mesostructured crystals: Growth processes and features
Publication date: Available online 20 June 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): Hiroaki Imai Sophisticated architectures consisting of oriented small crystalline blocks are widely observed in biological and biomimetic minerals. Here, mesostructured crystals are categorized in a new family of crystalline states as intermediate between faceted single crystals and polycrystals that are random arrangements of small grains. A variety of hierarchical architectures, such as mesocrystals consisting of isolated nanoblocks, granular textures of biominerals, and helical crystals, are ...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - June 21, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

In-situ liquid phase TEM observations of nucleation and growth processes
Publication date: Available online 20 June 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): James J. De Yoreo Nucleation and growth of crystals is a pervasive phenomenon in the synthesis of man-made materials, as well as mineral formation within geochemical and biological environments. Over the past two decades, numerous ex situ studies of crystallization have concluded that nucleation and growth pathways are more complex than envisioned within classical models. The recent development of in situ liquid phase TEM (LP-TEM) has led to new insights into such pathways by enabling direct, re...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - June 21, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

In-situ observation of crystal growth and the mechanism
Publication date: Available online 17 June 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): Katsuo Tsukamoto The spatial and time resolution in the measurements of growth rates and the observation of surface morphologies and the associated transport phenomena reflecting their growth mechanism have been developed because advanced microscopes and interferometers have attained nano-scale resolution. The first part covers the historical background how in-situ observation of crystal growth at molecular-level by optical and other scanning methods had been developed for understanding of cryst...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - June 17, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Microchannel epitaxy
Publication date: Available online 11 June 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): Shigeya Naritsuka Microchannel epitaxy (MCE) is an outstanding technique for dislocation reduction during heteroepitaxial growth when there is a large lattice mismatch. This paper describes the MCE mechanism in detail together with experimental results. Directional growth is a principal concern of MCE, and is enabled through the assessment and control of the elementary processes of crystal growth. Vertical microchannel epitaxy (V-MCE) involves perpendicular growth relative to a substrate, from m...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - June 11, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

III-V compound semiconductors: Growth and structures
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): Thomas F. Kuech The semiconductors formed from group 13 metals and from group 15 anions, referred to as the III-V semiconductors, have found use in a broad range of technologies. Their versatility arises from the wide range of optical and electronic properties accessed through the formation of multi-component alloys. These alloys can be synthesized using the epitaxial growth techniques for devices consisting of several-to-hundreds of highly controlled individual layers monolithically formed into ...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - June 7, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Thermodynamics -for understanding crystal growth-
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): Tatau Nishinaga To understand what entropy is, thermodynamical entropy was derived from Boltzmann's entropy formula. After defining the Helmholtz and the Gibbs free energies, we calculated the formation Gibbs free energies of an equilibrium and a non-equilibrium nucleus following Toschev's approach taking a water droplet as an example. It is demonstrated that the Gibbs free energy for the formation of a cluster takes the maximum as the cluster radius is increased. The cluster at this maximum is c...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - June 7, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Observing crystal growth processes in computer simulations
Publication date: Available online 3 June 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): Hiroki Nada, Hitoshi Miura, Jun Kawano, Toshiharu Irisawa This paper presents the outline of a practical course on computer simulation that will be given at the 16th International Summer School on Crystal Growth (ISSCG-16). The aim of this course is to understand crystal growth processes from the molecular level to the macroscopic level through computer simulations. We will mainly study molecular-scale crystal growth and nucleation processes by using molecular dynamics simulations and macrosco...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - June 4, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

The role of surface and interface structure in crystal growth
Publication date: Available online 3 June 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): Elias Vlieg Crystal growth occurs at the interface of a crystal and its growth medium. Due to the abrupt termination at the surface, at the interface the properties of the crystal will typically deviate from the bulk and this can affect the growth behaviour. Also the properties of the growth medium at the interface will typically differ from the bulk. In growth from solution, for example, the liquid will show ordering induced by the crystal surface or have a different composition. Here techniques...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - June 4, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

In-situ observation of crystal surfaces by optical microscopy
Publication date: Available online 3 June 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): Gen Sazaki, Ken Nagashima, Ken-ichiro Murata, Yoshinori Furukawa In this experimental course, attendees will learn how to obtain useful information about growth processes of crystals using ordinary optical microscopes, which are usually available in laboratories. We will demonstrate how thicknesses of crystals can be estimated from interference colors. We will also show in-situ observations of spiral steps and strain distributions by differential interference contrast microscopy and polarizing...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - June 4, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Solid-state wetting at the nanoscale
Publication date: Available online 2 June 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): Olivier Pierre-Louis The aim of this lecture is to provide an overview on solid-state wetting, starting from basic concepts, and introducing the useful mathematical paraphernalia. We review and discuss the similarities and the differences between liquid-state and solid-state wetting. Then, we show how wetting concepts provide tools to understand the morphology and stability of solid-state thin films and nano-islands. (Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials)
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - June 3, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

In-situ observation of colloidal crystallization
We report contents of colloidal crystallization experiments in ISSCG-16. The participants produce two kinds of colloidal crystals, i.e., close-packed opal type crystals, and non-close-packed charged colloidal crystals. They can observe the crystallization processes by using optical microscopy and reflection spectroscopy. Graphical abstract (Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials)
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - June 3, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Diamond epitaxy: Basics and applications
Publication date: Available online 2 June 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): Makoto Kasu Diamond has been used as cutting tools, and also has recently attracted extensive attention as a semiconductor. In the review, its properties and prospects of its electronic devices are shown. Then, principles of crystal growth methods, such as high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods, are described. Next, current understanding of defects such as dislocations and stacking faults is described. Further, for the future electronic applications, th...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - June 3, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Assembling interferometers and in-situ observation of ambient environments and solid–liquid interfaces
Publication date: Available online 2 June 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): Yuki Kimura, Kenta Murayama, Tomoya Yamazaki, Takao Maki The principle of interferometers and its applicability to our research on crystal growth can be understood through assembling interferometers. In particular, practical skills such as techniques for assembling interferometers and selecting optical components, which are not covered by general textbooks, can be learned. (Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials)
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - June 3, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Polymorphism of edible fat crystals
Publication date: Available online 2 June 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): Hironori Hondoh, Satoru Ueno The course focuses on the polymorphism and polymorphic transformation of edible fat crystals, such as chocolate. The morphology, crystallization behavior and polymorphic transformation will be observed under optical microscopy, and melting point of each polymorph will be determined. (Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials)
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - June 3, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Nucleation of protein crystals
Publication date: Available online 2 June 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): Peter G. Vekilov Protein crystal nucleation is a central problem in biological crystallography and other areas of science, technology, and medicine. Recent studies have demonstrated that protein crystal nuclei form within crucial precursors. Data for several proteins provided by these methods have demonstrated that the nucleation precursors are clusters consisting of protein dense liquid, which are metastable with respect to the host protein solution. The clusters are several hundred nanometers i...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - June 3, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Development of GaN-based blue LEDs and metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of GaN and related materials
This article combines two papers, “Nobel Lecture: Growth of GaN on sapphire via low-temperature deposited buffer layer and realization of p-type GaN by Mg doping followed by low-energy electron beam irradiation,” Rev. Mod. Phys., 87 (2015) 1133, and “MOCVD of nitrides,” Handbook of Crystal Growth Second Edition, Volume III, Part A, Chapter 16, Elsevier, 683–704, 2015. For more detailed information, please read the two original papers. (Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials)
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - June 3, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Fundamentals and engineering of defects
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): Peter Rudolph An overview of the important defect types, their origins and interactions during the bulk crystal growth from the melt and selected epitaxial processes is given. The equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics, kinetics and interaction principles are considered as driving forces of defect generation, incorporation and assembling. Results of modeling and practical in situ control are presented. Strong emphasis is given to semiconductor crystal growth since it is from this class of ...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - June 2, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Growth and low-energy electron microscopy characterizations of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): H. Hibino, S. Wang, C.M. Orofeo, H. Kageshima Graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials are attracting huge attention due to their wide-range potential applications. Because large-scale, high-quality 2D crystals are prerequisites for many of the applications, crystal growth of 2D materials has been intensively studied. We have also been conducting research to understand the growth mechanism of 2D materials and have been developing growth techniques of high-quality materials based on ...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - June 2, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Introduction to the BCF theory
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): Makio Uwaha Sixty-five years have passed since Burton, Cabrera and Frank (BCF) published the seminal paper (W. K. Burton, N. Cabrera and F. C. Frank, Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London, 243 (1951), 299). Since then, the paper provided us the basic scheme of growth of crystals. In this lecture, the BCF theory is introduced for beginners as the basis of modern crystal growth study. The BCF theory explained the growth of facets with the help of screw dislocations. It introduced the concept of the roughe...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - June 2, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Growth of semiconductor silicon crystals
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): Koichi Kakimoto, Bing Gao, Xin Liu, Satoshi Nakano This paper focuses on the recent developments in Czochralski (CZ) crystal growth of silicon for large-scale integrated circuits (LSIs) and multi-crystalline silicon growth using a directional solidification method for solar cells. Growth of silicon crystals by the CZ method currently allows the growth of high-quality crystals that satisfy the device requirements of LSIs or power devices for electric cars. This paper covers how to obtain high-q...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - May 31, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Three study cases of growth morphology in minerals: Halite, calcite and gypsum
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): Dino Aquilano, Fermín Otálora, Linda Pastero, Juan Manuel García-Ruiz Beyond fundamental aspects of crystal growth and morphology, the growth of minerals is a challenging subject because in most cases we face a problem with unknown growth conditions. Actually, in the field of geological studies, we have to decipher the growth conditions of a crystal using the information contained in the very crystal. One of these characteristics of crystals that contain information about ...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - May 31, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Bulk and epitaxial growth of silicon carbide
Publication date: Available online 27 May 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): Tsunenobu Kimoto Silicon carbide (SiC) is a wide bandgap semiconductor having high critical electric field strength, making it especially attractive for high-power and high-temperature devices. Recent development of SiC devices relies on rapid progress in bulk and epitaxial growth technology of high-quality SiC crystals. At present, the standard technique for SiC bulk growth is the seeded sublimation method. In spite of difficulties in the growth at very high temperature above 2300 °C,...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - May 28, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Fluid dynamics in crystal growth: The good, the bad, and the ugly
Publication date: Available online 27 May 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): Jeffrey J. Derby Fluid dynamics are important in processes that grow large crystals from a liquid phase. This paper presents a primer on fluid mechanics and convection, followed by a discussion of the physics and scaling of flows in such processes. Specific examples of fluid flows in crystal growth systems are presented and classified according to their impact on outcomes, good or bad. Turbulence in crystal growth is discussed within the limited extent of our understanding, which is incomplete, o...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - May 28, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Single crystal growth by the traveling solvent technique: A review
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): S.M. Koohpayeh A description is given of the traveling solvent technique, which has been used for the crystal growth of both congruently and incongruently melting materials of many classes of intermetallic, chalcogenide, semiconductor and oxide materials. The use of a solvent, growth at lower temperatures and the zoning process, that are inherent ingredients of the method, can help to grow large, high structural quality, high purity crystals. In order to optimize this process, careful control of t...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - May 7, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Si–Ge–Sn alloys: From growth to applications
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): S. Wirths, D. Buca, S. Mantl In this review article, we address key material parameters as well as the fabrication and application of crystalline GeSn binary and SiGeSn ternary alloys. Here, the transition from an indirect to a fundamental direct bandgap material will be discussed. The main emphasis, however, is put on the Si–Ge–Sn epitaxy. The low solid solubility of α-Sn in Ge and Si of below 1 at.% along with the large lattice mismatch between α-Sn (6.489 &...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - February 1, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

A Jewel in the Crown: A History of Crystal Growth Research at the RRE Radar Research Establishment/RSRE Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern, UK, Donald T. J. Hurle, Keith G. Barraclough, Aspect Design (2014). 126 p., ISBN: 978-1-908832-66-5
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2015 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): H. Hardtdegen (Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials)
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - November 17, 2015 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Modern chemical synthesis methods towards low-dimensional phase change structures in the Ge–Sb–Te material system
This report centers on different modern chemical synthesis methods suitable for production with which low-dimensional crystalline structures are attainable in the Ge–Sb–Te material system. The general characteristics of the methods are described first. The special challenges are discussed for the Ge–Sb–Te material system. Growth optimization is studied, and the resulting nanostructures are presented. At last a comparison of the methods is given with respect to research scale vapor transport approach on the one hand and the potential described for future application in technology on the other hand. (...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - November 17, 2015 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Metastable cubic zinc-blende III/V semiconductors: Growth and structural characteristics
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2015 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials Author(s): Andreas Beyer, Wolfgang Stolz, Kerstin Volz III/V semiconductors with cubic zinc-blende crystal structure, for example GaAs, GaP or InP, become metastable if atoms with significantly smaller or larger covalent radius than the matrix atoms are alloyed. Examples are the incorporation of Boron, Nitrogen and Bismuth in the above-mentioned materials. The resulting multinary compound semiconductors, like for example (Ga,In)(N,As), Ga(N,As,P) and Ga(As,Bi), are extremely interesting for several n...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - November 17, 2015 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Protein crystallization in a magnetic field
Publication date: March 2015 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 61, Issue 1 Author(s): Da-Chuan Yin The rapid advance in superconducting magnet technology enables more and more applications for the use of high magnetic fields in scientific researches and industrial manufacturing. These applications include material processing, separation, chemical reaction, nuclear fusion, high energy physics, and many more. Generally, a superconducting magnet provides both homogeneous and inhomogeneous magnetic fields simultaneously, and both can affect the samples in the field so that the magnet...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - May 12, 2015 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Manufacturing and characterization of porous titanium components
Publication date: September–December 2014 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 60, Issues 3–4 Author(s): Florencia Edith Wiria , Saeed Maleksaeedi , Zeming He A powder-bed 3D printer (3DP) is investigated to fabricate porous titanium components. The titanium material was 3D printed and subsequently post-processed by thermal debinding and sintering. Characterization work was carried out to investigate the effects of sintering temperature on the internal porosity profile and shrinkage of 3D printed titanium components, the effects of different binder content on the overall...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - December 18, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Study of optical and conducting properties of FeCl3 doped PVA polymers
Publication date: September–December 2014 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 60, Issues 3–4 Author(s): G. Thejas Urs , Radhika V. Hurkadli , R.V. Basavaraj , M. Niranjana , A. Manjunath , R. Somashekar In the present work, PVA and various concentrations of FeCl3 doped PVA polymer were prepared and optical studies like IR and UV/Visible analysis were carried out on them in solution form also the cast films were examined for their conductance. The variation of optical band gap of PVA polymer with the addition of Fe3+ transition metal ion has been determined by the Tauc p...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - December 18, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Magnetic nanocrystals for biomedical applications
Publication date: September–December 2014 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 60, Issues 3–4 Author(s): Sabino Veintemillas-Verdaguer , Marzia Marciello , Maria del Puerto Morales , Carlos J. Serna , Manuel Andrés-Vergés (Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials)
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - December 18, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Electrophoretic deposition of hydroxyapatite coatings on AZ31 magnesium substrate for biodegradable implant applications
Publication date: September–December 2014 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 60, Issues 3–4 Author(s): S. Kaabi Falahieh Asl , S. Nemeth , M.J. Tan (Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials)
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - December 18, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Surface properties of biomimetic nanocrystalline apatites; applications in biomaterials
Publication date: September–December 2014 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 60, Issues 3–4 Author(s): Christian Rey , Christèle Combes , Christophe Drouet , Sophie Cazalbou , David Grossin , Fabien Brouillet , Stéphanie Sarda (Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials)
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - December 18, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Role of transmission electron microscopy in the semiconductor industry for process development and failure analysis
Publication date: September–December 2009 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 55, Issues 3–4 Author(s): Raghaw S. Rai , Swaminathan Subramanian Transmission electron microscope (TEM) based techniques offer superior spatial resolution and highly sensitive elemental analysis capabilities that can be exploited for metrology and materials characterization of sub-nanometer sized device features in advanced semiconductor technologies. TEM based techniques are suited for evaluating interfacial details, dimensions of device structures, and defects or flaws that arise during the...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - October 12, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Ion conducting phosphate glassy materials
We present an overview on silver based fast ion conducting phosphate glasses. Silver phosphate glasses containing chlorides of some metals viz; Li, Na, Mg, Pb and Cu [Ag2O–P2O5–xMCl y , where x =0, 1, 5, 10 and 15wt% and y =1 when M=Li or Na and y =2 when M=Mg, Pb or Cu] have been synthesized by melt quenching technique. Studies on these glassy materials characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetric techniques and ion transport measurements are presented. The FT-IR studies support the formation of P–O–M linkages. The values of glass t...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - October 12, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Modelling the dynamics and control design for Czochralski, Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski and Floating Zone processes
Publication date: March–June 2010 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 56, Issues 1–2 Author(s): Gennadii Satunkin The need for high quality crystals constantly rise. It is especially obvious in connection with the evolution of electronics and optoelectronics. At the present time all the basic methods for crystal growing are known. So the question arises – what further developments are needed to create further advances? Without doubt first of all it is necessary to speak about perfecting crystal growing equipment. Perfecting modern equipment will enhance and accomm...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - October 12, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Germanium: Epitaxy and its applications
Publication date: September–December 2010 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 56, Issues 3–4 Author(s): Matteo Bosi , Giovanni Attolini This paper reviews the most important properties of germanium, gives an insight into the newer techniques and technology for the growth of epitaxial Ge thin layers and focuses on some applications of this material, with a special emphasis on recent achievements in electronics and photovoltaics. We will highlight the recent development of Ge research and will give an account of the most important Ge applications that emerged in the last ...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - October 12, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Gas bubbles in shaped sapphire
Publication date: September–December 2010 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 56, Issues 3–4 Author(s): O.M. Bunoiu , Th. Duffar , I. Nicoara Shaped sapphire single crystals almost always contain a typical defect: small bubbles also known as “micro-voids”. The goal of this paper is to review the existing literature and give a survey of our recent work on this specific defect. As a conclusion to our review we propose a mechanism for bubble formation and its occurrence and distribution in shaped sapphire. The bubbles contain CO which originates as a result of ...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - October 12, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

The growth of mixed alkaline-earth fluorides for laser host applications
Publication date: March 2011 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 57, Issue 1 Author(s): J.T. Mouchovski , K.A. Temelkov , N.K. Vuchkov A comprehensive analysis is implemented concerning the growth, properties, and applications of doped–co-doped single and mixed alkali earth fluoride systems. Calcium–strontium fluoride solid solutions with a Sr content proportion varying widely between 0.007 and 0.675 mol.% are obtained as a batch of axis-symmetrical boules grown by a Bridgman–Stockbarger (BS) method. The crystallization front (CF) can be controlled to retain ...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - October 12, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

An overview on the processing of polymers growth rate data and on the methods to verify the accuracy of the input parameters in crystallization regime analysis
Publication date: June–September 2011 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 57, Issues 2–3 Author(s): Maria Raimo This work reviews criteria for the successful application of regime analysis to polymers and also discusses the influence of accuracy of input variables on the results. Despite that it has often been stated that the uncertainty in the input parameters remarkably affects the trustworthiness of the outcomes of the regime analysis, the literature offers on the subject only a fragmentary information and there is no paper looking over all the effects of accuracy of...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - October 12, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Ordering and magnetostriction in Fe alloy single crystals
Publication date: June–September 2011 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 57, Issues 2–3 Author(s): S. Guruswamy , G. Garside , C. Ren , B. Saha , M. Ramanathan Short-range and long-range ordering in α-Fe terminal solid solution phase (A2 phase with bcc structure) influences its physical, mechanical, magnetic and magnetostrictive behavior. Single crystal sample forms are ideal for examining order in these alloys using X-ray and neutron scattering techniques. Limited structural information available suggests that the lattice of A2 phase at room temperature contains...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - October 12, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Low-temperature wet chemical precipitation of YVO4:Bi3+,Eu3+ nanophosphors via citrate precursors
Publication date: December 2011 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 57, Issue 4 Author(s): Satoru Takeshita , Tetsuhiko Isobe , Tomohiro Sawayama , Seiji Niikura YVO4:Bi3+,Eu3+ nanophosphors are prepared by low-temperature wet chemical precipitations in the presence of citrate ions. Transparently dispersed YVO4:Bi3+,Eu3+ nanophosphors crystallize from amorphous gel precursors through a gel-sol process. The homogeneity of Bi3+ doping process as well as the photoluminescence property are improved by using the homogeneous Bi3+ solution as a Bi3+ source instead of Bi3+ powder. YVO4:Bi3...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - October 12, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Rapid synthesis of tin-doped indium oxide microcrystals in supercritical water using hydrazine as reducing agent
This study demonstrates that due to the unique properties of SCW, the synthesis of doped oxides in SCW is a plausible alternative method. (Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials)
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - October 12, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Hydrothermal epitaxy of BiFeO3 films on SrTiO3 substrates
Publication date: December 2011 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 57, Issue 4 Author(s): A. Huang , A.D. Handoko , G.K.L. Goh , S.R. Shannigrahi , C.K. Tan Epitaxial multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films were grown on SrTiO3 substrates by the hydrothermal method at 200 °C in aqueous solutions of 6–12 M KOH. Films grown at 9 M were the most coalesced with a dense and island-like morphology. It was also the most well aligned film with a full width at half maximum of 0.436. Irrespective of whether the substrates for the 9 M KOH condition were in the face-up an...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - October 12, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Solvothermal synthesis of cerium oxides
Publication date: December 2011 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 57, Issue 4 Author(s): Richard I. Walton A review of the various hydrothermal and solvothermal methods that have been used for the preparation of cerium oxides is presented. Much work has focussed on the preparation of cerium dioxide (ceria) and its doped analogues because of their extensive applications in catalysis, solid-oxide fuel cells and other technologies. It is shown how the solvothermal method offers a number of distinct advantages in the one-step formation of ceria materials, including control of crystal...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - October 12, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Functional one, two, and three-dimensional ZnO structures by solvothermal processing
Publication date: March 2012 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 58, Issue 1 Author(s): Dirk Ehrentraut , Katsushi Fujii , Jürgen Riegler , K. Byrappa , Martin Nikl , Tsuguo Fukuda Crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) has been fabricated by solvothermal techniques under quite different temperature and pressure environment stretching from sub- to supercritical conditions. Among them, one-step processing of inorganic–inorganic hybrid ZnO structures based on ZnO substrate with attached ZnO nanocrystals has been challenged. Combination of doping ions was made to yield ZnO structures...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - October 12, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Synthesis and morphology control of surface functionalized nanoscale yttrium aluminum garnet particles via supercritical hydrothermal method
Publication date: March 2012 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 58, Issue 1 Author(s): Ameneh Sahraneshin , Seiichi Takami , Kimitaka Minami , Daisuke Hojo , Toshihiko Arita , Tadafumi Adschiri Organic-functionalized nanoscale yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) particles were synthesized via a simple rapid supercritical hydrothermal method in the presence of oleylamine and oleic acid as organic surface modifiers. The presence of the organic molecules resulted in the various morphologies of the produced YAG particles, including cubic, spherical and chainlike structures. Because of their...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - October 12, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Novel solution routes of synthesis of metal oxide and hybrid metal oxide nanocrystals
Publication date: March 2012 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 58, Issue 1 Author(s): K. Namratha , K. Byrappa Novel solution routes covering a wide range of processes like hydrothermal, solvothermal and supercritical techniques have been described in detail with reference to the processing of a wide range of advanced inorganic nanocrystalline materials and organic-inorganic hybrid nanocrystalline materials. The significance of the thermochemical calculations, in situ surface modification and the experimental parameters has been discussed. One step in situ fabrication of advanced...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - October 12, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Controlled continuous hydrothermal synthesis of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanoparticles
Publication date: March 2012 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 58, Issue 1 Author(s): Ed Lester , Gabriele Aksomaityte , Jun Li , Sara Gomez , Jose Gonzalez-Gonzalez , Martyn Poliakoff Cubic Co3O4 nanoparticles have been produced hydrothermally by mixing high temperature water (sub-, near to supercritical) with an aqueous cobalt acetate precursor at high pressure. The relationship between operating variables such as synthesis temperature and residence time on particle size and conversion rate was examined. An increasing nanoparticle size was observed when synthesis temperature wa...
Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials - October 12, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research