Foot self-care in diabetes mellitus: Evaluation of patient awareness
Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders in the world, and its prevalence in adults has showed a trend of significant increase in the last few decades [1,2]. Major complications of diabetes mellitus include diabetic foot disease and this problem is an important cause of morbidity. Diabetic foot disease is typically defined to include ulcers or infections in the foot of a person with diabetes [3 –5]. Important risk factors for the development of diabetic foot disease include neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease and poor glycemic control [6]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - July 12, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Fatma Y ılmaz Karadağ, Neşe Saltoğlu, Öznur Ak, Güle Çınar Aydın, Seniha Şenbayrak, Serpil Erol, Duru Mıstanoğlu Özatağ, Ayten Kadanalı, Yaşar Küçükardalı, Şenol Çomoğlu, Gülşen Yörük, Yasemin Akkoyunlu, Meliha Meriç Koç, Arzu Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Impact of diabetes education teams in primary care on processes of care indicators
In 2015, the estimated prevalence of diabetes in Canada was 3.4 million (9.3% of the total population), which is predicted to rise to 5 million (12.1% of the population) by 2025, representing a 44% increase from 2015 to 2025 [1]. When improperly or inadequately managed, diabetes can lead to a variety of health complications, and its complex nature requires a lifelong commitment to lifestyle modifications, regular self-monitoring of blood glucose, and adherence to medications and/or insulin therapy [2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - July 9, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Michele Vitale, Changchang Xu, Wendy Lou, Stacey Horodezny, Linda Dorado, Souraya Sidani, Baiju R. Shah, Enza Gucciardi Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Elucidating factors associated with non-adherence among Type 1 diabetes patients in primary care setting in Southeastern Brazil
Currently, insulin deficient, Type 1 diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a major health issue associated with health care systems escalating costs. The ever-increasing T1DM treatment costs, direct and indirect, are attributed to the ongoing chronic associated complications. Secondly, with ever younger individuals being diagnosed with T1DM the length of financial liability to treat T1DM is increasing worldwide [1]. Thirdly, long-term T1DM complications, associated with cause of death and morbidity, also escalate health-care costs while negatively impacts quality of life [2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 29, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Heverton Alves Peres, Leonardo R égis Leira Pereira, Edson Zangiacomine Martinez, Carlos Manuel Viana, Maria Cristina Foss de Freitas Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Screening for monogenic diabetes in primary care
In the 1960s Fajan came across a mild, asymptomatic variant of diabetes occurring in non-obese children, adolescents, and young adults as part of a study aimed at determining the normal range of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT1) [1]. Tattersall later reported three similar families showing characteristics of atypical non autoimmune diabetes with a dominant familial inheritance pattern. Tattersall went on to describe the difference between classical ‘juvenile-onset’ and ‘maturity-onset’ diabetes, the latter subtype being distinguished by successful management with sulphonylureas [2]. (Source: P...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 25, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Ian Baldacchino, Nikolai Paul Pace, Josanne Vassallo Tags: Review Source Type: research

Editorial Board and Aims & Scopes
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Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 16, 2019 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Contents
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Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 16, 2019 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Trends in global prescribing of antidiabetic medicines in primary care: A systematic review of literature between 2000 –2018
In 2017 globally, 425 million adults were estimated to suffer from diabetes and it is estimated that 90% of all diabetic patients are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [1]. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common type of diabetes among adults. The prevalence of T2DM is associated with obesity and unhealthy lifestyles [2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 15, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Sara Ramzan, Peter Timmins, Syed Shahzad Hasan, Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar Tags: Review Source Type: research

Variability in the clinical diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy
According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), diabetes mellitus (DM) affects 415 million people worldwide, with a prevalence of 8.8%, and these values are expected to rise still further, to 642 million by the year 2040, with a prevalence of 10.4% [1]. One of the most frequent complications of DM is diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). In 2005, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) defined DPN as “the presence of symptoms and/or signs of peripheral nerve dysfunction in people with diabetes, after the exclusion of other causes” [2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 14, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Esther Chicharro-Luna, Francisco J. Pomares-G ómez, Ana Belén Ortega-Ávila, Manuel Coheña-Jiménez, Gabriel Gijon-Nogueron Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Men with impaired glucose tolerance have lower self-rated health than men with impaired fasting glucose
A normal glucose tolerance is characterised by a strictly regulated blood glucose. Prediabetes is defined by either an impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or by impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Individuals with prediabetes face an annual relative risk of 5 –10% of progressing into manifest diabetes [1], as compared to individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), who have an annual risk of 0.5%. Individuals with Combined Glucose Impairment (CGI) have two to three times higher risk to proceed to diabetes than individuals with isolated IFG or IGT [ 2,3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 13, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Sven Diurlin, Maria C.M. Eriksson, Bledar Daka, Ulf Lindblad, Margareta Hellgren Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Development of quality indicators for type 2 diabetes, extractable from the electronic health record of the general physician. A rand-modified Delphi method
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with significant morbidity and mortality and it is a growing worldwide health problem with a substantial physical, social and economic burden [1]. According to the International Diabetes Foundation, an estimated number of 425 million adults currently live with the condition, of whom 90% have type 2 diabetes [2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 13, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Steve A. Van den Bulck, Patrik Vankrunkelsven, Geert Goderis, Lien Broekx, Kathleen Dreesen, Laura Ruijten, Dimitri Mpoukouvalas, Rosella Hermens Tags: Original research Source Type: research

External validation of the Finnish diabetes risk score in Venezuela using a national sample: The EVESCAM
Diabetes and prediabetes affected about 770 million adults worldwide in 2017 [1]. Most of them, especially those with prediabetes, are unaware of their condition, increasing their risk for hyperglycemic-related complication [2]. Blood tests are required to diagnose impaired glucose regulation (type 2 diabetes [T2D] and prediabetes), but at a population level, can be impractical and too expensive, particularly in low-middle income countries. Instead, risk scores emerge as a very useful tool to identify subjects at risk that could subsequently require additional analysis [3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 12, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Ramfis Nieto-Mart ínez, Juan P. González-Rivas, Eunice Ugel, Maria Ines Marulanda, Maritza Durán, Jeffrey I. Mechanick, Pablo Aschner Tags: Original research Source Type: research

The health effects of medical nutrition therapy by dietitians in patients with diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis
The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus, defined as fasting blood glucose equal to or higher than 7mmol/L, among adults over 18years of age has risen from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014 (90 –95% of which is Type 1I). Diabetes has been directly linked to 1.6 million deaths globally. High blood glucose alone was the cause of another 2.2 million deaths in 2015, and is an established risk factor for coronary heart disease, ischaemic stroke, and other vascular diseases [1–3]. Higher hea lth care use, economic burden and associated societal costs have been reported among people with diabetes when compared to their n...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 9, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Jalaledin Mirzay Razaz, Jamal Rahmani, Hamed Kord Varkaneh, Jacqueline Thompson, Cain Clark, Hebatullah M. Abdulazeem Tags: Review Source Type: research

Primary Care Diabetes Europe: Colophon
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 7, 2019 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Society News 13/4
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Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 7, 2019 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Primary Care Diabetes Europe (PCDE): Colophon
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Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 7, 2019 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Society News
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Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 7, 2019 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Improving the structure of diabetes care in primary care: A pilot study
Diabetes care processes are frequently suboptimal, a problem that can lead to inequities in care access and delivery [1,2]. Such inequities exist even in countries like Sweden that mandate equity by law and have good resources, universal primary healthcare, and good quality of care [3]. In Sweden, the percentage of patients with high glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)  > 70 mmol/mol (high HbA1c) at primary healthcare centers (PHCCs) [4] is associated with high scores on a neighborhood social deprivation index (Care Need Index or CNI) [5]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 6, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Nouha Saleh Stattin, Kimberly Kane, Marina Stenb äck, Alexandre Wajngot, Kaija Seijboldt Tags: Original research Source Type: research

HbA1c-testing: Evaluation of two point-of-care analysers
HbA1c is a sub-fraction of haemoglobin A, which in turn is the main fraction of haemoglobin. HbA1c is formed by posttranslational glycation of haemoglobin A. This modification occurs due to binding of a glucose molecule at the N-terminal valin of the β-chain of haemoglobin A. The reaction is spontaneous and non-enzymatic. Therefore, the concentration of glycated haemoglobin depends on the concentration of glucose in the blood and the time erythrocytes are exposed to glucose [reviewed in Ref. [1]]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 4, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Irina L. Dubach, Emanuel R. Christ, Peter Diem Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Liraglutide vs. lixisenatide in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: What effect should we expect in routine clinical practice?
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by progressive hyperglycemia caused by insulin tissue resistance and pancreatic insulin secretion dysfunction [1]. In this process, peripheral insulin action is limited by fatty tissue excess [2]. In fact, current obesity epidemic is the main factor related with T2DM incidence increase [3 –5]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 3, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Jesus Moreno-Fernandez, Jose Alberto Garcia-Seco, Angela Maria Seco Segura, Fernando Garcia-Seco, Pedro Jesus Rozas Moreno, Miguel Aguirre Sanchez-Covisa Tags: Original research Source Type: research

The role of Sudoscan feet asymmetry in the diabetic foot
The prevalence of diabetes is rising more rapidly in recent years. The 8-th edition of the IDF Diabetes Atlas indicated that in 2017 there were about 451 million people with diabetes worldwide (age 20-99 years) [1]. Diabetes is a major cause for non-traumatic lower limb amputation [2]; in fact it is estimated that every 30 seconds someone loses a part of their leg because of complications from diabetes [3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 29, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Tsvetan Gatev, Antoaneta Gateva, Yavor Assyov, Sylvia Nacheva, Julia Petrova, Ivan Poromanski, Zdravko Kamenov Tags: Original research Source Type: research

General practice (GP) level analysis shows that patients ’ own perceptions of support within primary care as reported in the GP patient survey (GPPS) are as important as medication and services in improving glycaemic control
The UK Academy of Medical Sciences recently highlighted that doctors are seeing a clustering of different physical and mental health conditions in a single patient never previously seen together before [1]. While it is known that multi-morbidity is common, we do not know precisely how many people in the UK suffer from multi-morbidity. Specifically the report stated that multi-morbidity affects the quality of life not just of patients but also their families. The way that this is addressed in primary care potentially has a big impact on outcome for specific conditions. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 24, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Adrian Heald, Mike Stedman, Mark Lunt, Mark Livingston, Gabriela Cortes, Roger Gadsby Tags: Original research Source Type: research

We all dream of simple things
We read with great interest the work comparing various modalities of diagnosing peripheral artery disease (PAD) [1]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 21, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Jeanne Hersant, Yannick Bigou, Pierre Abraham, Samir Henni Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Relationship between diabetic neuropathy and sarcopenia
Diabetic Neuropathy (DN), which is characterized with peripheral and autonomic nervous system involvement, is the most common complication of diabetes. Sometimes, clinical DN neurological involvement may be observed, and sometimes it may have a different pattern. It was shown in large-scale cohort studies that ca. 50% of diabetic patients might face DNs in a period of their lives [1]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 21, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Özgür Yasemin, Akın Seydahmet, Keskin Özcan Tags: Original research Source Type: research

High-intensity interval exercise lowers postprandial glucose concentrations more in obese adults than lean adults
Obesity is usually accompanied with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance, potentially actuating early pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) [1]. Compared to normal-weight individuals, obese individuals may exhibit metabolic defects in insulin-sensitive tissues, and reduced glucose uptake and utilization capacity [2,3]. Thus, obese people more commonly exhibit glucose and insulin homoeostasis abnormalities, and have a higher diabetes risk. An amplified blood glucose increase after eating, termed postprandial hyperglycaemia, prompts excessive free radical production that acutely tri...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 17, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Zhaowei Kong, Qingde Shi, Shengyan Sun, Tomas K. Tong, Haifeng Zhang, Jinlei Nie Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Uptake and use of a diabetes management program with a mobile glucometer
Diabetes has major health and financial ramifications in the United States. Nearly 30 million Americans have diabetes, a chronic disease associated with severe, and often life-threatening, complications and co-morbidities [1]. Average medical expenditures for patients with diabetes are 2.3 times higher than patients without diabetes, and it is estimated that the total annual cost of diabetes is $327 billion [2]. Intensive disease management to control blood glucose can significantly reduce the risk of diabetes complications and co-morbidities [3,4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 13, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Laura F. Garabedian, Dennis Ross-Degnan, Robert F. LeCates, James F. Wharam Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Will undocumented migrants contribute to change epidemiology, presentation and pharmacologic treatment of diabetes in Western countries?
The number of people leaving their homeland as either refugees or economic migrants is increasing. As a consequence, migrants, both documented and undocumented, represent a growing proportion of the population in many western countries. Thus, their health status begins to become an important issue for health services of the host countries. The so-called Healthy Migrant Effect (HME), if it exists upon arrival [1], tends to be lost with duration of residence, exposure to pollutants, and adherence to unhealthy life-styles [2 –4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 4, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Gianfrancesco Fiorini, Silvano Milani, Angela I. Pincelli, Damiano Calella, Silvia Galliani, Silvia Badalamenti, Antonello E. Rigamonti, Nicoletta Marazzi, Alessandro Sartorio, Silvano G. Cella Source Type: research

Association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex multiorgan disorder in which subtle interpatient genetic variations and environmental factors interact to determine disease phenotype, progression, and natural history [1]. It is already known that NAFLD increases the risks for the development and/or progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D) [2,3] and cardiovascular disease (CVD) [1,4]. From a clinical standpoint, the bidirectional relationships among NAFLD, T2D, and CVD produce hepatic fibrogenesis, insulin resistance, and CVD manifestations of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) [1]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 1, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Mohsen Afarideh, Zahra Aryan, Alireza Ghajar, Morsaleh Ganji, Fatemeh Ghaemi, Mohammad Saadat, Behnam Heidari, Jeffrey I. Mechanick, Alireza Esteghamati Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Effectiveness of psychoeducational interventions for the treatment of diabetes-specific emotional distress and glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Psychological comorbidity is high in people with T2DM, with extensive research demonstrating that approximately 30% of patients experience depressive affect [1 –3]. More recently linked to T2DM is diabetes-specific emotional distress (DSD), demonstrating similar prevalence (36%) to depression [4], but encapsulates a much wider affective experience than depression, constituting distinctive emotional concerns within the ‘spectrum of patient experience’ for those living with a progressive and chronic condition [5,6]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 27, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: N. Perrin, D.H. Bodicoat, M.J. Davies, N. Robertson, F.J. Snoek, K. Khunti Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Editorial Board and Aims & Scopes
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 26, 2019 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Contents
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Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 26, 2019 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Prevalence and determinants of abnormal glucose metabolism in urban and rural secondary schools in Cameroon: A cross-sectional study in a sub-Saharan Africa setting
Glucose metabolism abnormalities are a group of metabolic disorders characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from lack of secretion and or action of insulin [1]. It is a major cardiovascular risk factor responsible for high morbidity and mortality due to the high number of affected organs [2,3]. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) global statistics published in 2014, diabetes mellitus, like high blood pressure, increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and several types of cancer. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 25, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: F élicité Kamdem, Daniel Lemogoum, Ahmadou Musa Jingi, Stéphane Choupo Guetchuin, Caroline Kenmegne, Marie Solange Doualla, Henry Luma Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Decreased insulin sensitivity and abnormal glucose metabolism start in preadolescence in low-birth-weight children —Meta-analysis and systematic review
Many researchers have focused on the relationship between low birth weight (LBW) and adult diabetes [1 –3]. Studies showed that the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes was higher in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) or LBW people [1–3]. Some meta-analyses have examined birth weight and late-onset diabetes, not early-onset diabetes. However, glucose abnormalities can start in adolescence and res ult in early-onset diabetes [4,5]. Moreover, compared to late-onset diabetes, early-onset diabetes worsens quality of life and health with more complications, higher disability rate and mortality [6]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 25, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Yiwen Xu, Shi Chen, Hongbo Yang, Fengying Gong, Linjie Wang, Yu Jiang, Chengsheng Yan, Huijuan Zhu, Hui Pan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Evaluation of type 2 diabetes prevention through diet modification in people with impaired glucose regulation: A population-based study
Several randomized controlled studies were found to be successful in preventing progression to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in high ‐risk populations. Lifestyle interventions reduce the progression to prediabetes and diabetes. Nevertheless, many questions still need to be answered [1]. A growing body of observational studies have linked dairy intake to a reduced T2D risk [2,3]. Consumption of soft drinks, sweetened-milk bevera ges, and energy from sweetened beverages was associated with higher T2D risk independently of adiposity [4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 22, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Mykola D. Khalangot, Volodymyr A. Kovtun, Vitaly G. Gurianov, Yurii M. Pysarenko, Victor I. Kravchenko Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Levels of cytokines and GADA in type I and II diabetic patients
Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder associated with hyperglycemia [1]. Diabetes cases fall into two broad categories. In one category, type I diabetes, the cause is an absolute deficiency of insulin secretion. Individuals with this type of diabetes can often be identified by genetic markers and by serological evidence of an autoimmune pathologic process occurring in the pancreatic islets. In the other much more prevalent category, type II diabetes, the cause is a combination of resistance to insulin action and an inadequate compensatory insulin secretory response [2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 20, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Kawa Amin, Shnyar Hamid Qadr, Ridha Hassan Hussein, Kosar Muhammad Ali, Heshu Sulaiman Rahman Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Effect of tele-rehabilitation on glucose control, exercise capacity, physical fitness, muscle strength and psychosocial status in patients with type 2 diabetes: A double blind randomized controlled trial
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder in which the patients cannot sufficiently benefit from carbohydrates, fat and protein due to insulin deficiency or impaired insulin effect and which requires continuous patient care. Today, DM has become a health problem with gradually increasing importance worldwide due to its prevalence and related problems [1]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 20, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Neslihan Duruturk, Manolya Acar Özköslü Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Primary Care Diabetes Europe
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Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 4, 2019 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Society News
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Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 4, 2019 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Is there an association between family history of diabetes mellitus and long-term cardiovascular hospitalizations of offspring?
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both [1]. Recent studies in the U.S. show that DM affects nearly 25.8 million people, 8.3% of the U.S. population, with about 7.0 million of them undiagnosed and unaware of the disease [2]. Predictions expect these rates to rise to about 39 million people diagnosed with DM by 2050 in the U.S. alone [3]. DM is a major factor in the development of life-threatening microvascular complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, as well as macrovascular complications s...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 3, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Sapir Bitton, Tamar Wainstock, Eyal Sheiner, Daniella Landau, Laura Avigan ‏, Gali Pariente Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Cost-effectiveness of introducing licensed GP practices to manage diabetes patients in Hungary
Diabetes affects 58 million people in Europe and 425 million worldwide, and this number is expected to rise to 629 million until 2045. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common type of diabetes, accounting for around 90% of all cases [1]. Diabetes reduces life expectancy and affects quality of life through a variety of complications as microvascular and macrovascular diseases [2]. Aging population and the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases such as T2DM causes a massive increase in health service demand. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 27, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: L ászló Szilberhorn, László Kőrösi, Péter Vajer, Balázs Nagy, Zoltán Vokó Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Relationship between number of contacts between previous dropouts with type 2 diabetes and health care professionals on glycaemic control: A cohort study in public primary health care
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major health burden globally [1]. It has been estimated that one in 11 adults has diabetes [1]. The general treatment goal of diabetes is to prevent acute complications, reduce the risk of long-term complications including macro- and micro-vascular complications, and ensure an optimal quality of life [2 –4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 27, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Timo Kauppila, Johan G. Eriksson, Mikko Honkasalo, Marko Raina, Merja K. Laine Tags: Original research Source Type: research

The role of illness schemata in self-care behaviors and glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes in Iran
Iran is a developing country that has rapidly urbanized and industrialized over the past few decades [1]. Lifestyle and demographic changes in Iran have led to a proliferation of chronic conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease [2]. In 2011, the prevalence of diabetes among people aged 25 –70years was 11.4% [3], and by 2016, 85.5% of patients who visited academic tertiary-care diabetes outpatient clinics had type 2 diabetes [4]. Around 86.8% of diabetes patients had uncontrolled hyperglycemia [4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 26, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Taiga Shibayama, Somayeh Tanha, Yoshiki Abe, Hiromi Haginoya, Asadollah Rajab, Kikue Hidaka Tags: Original research Source Type: research

A scoping review of best practice guidelines for the dietary management of diabetes in older adults in residential aged care
Changes to the philosophical approach, scientific recommendations and terminology in the nutritional management of all adults with diabetes have come about since the paper ‘Nutrition Recommendations and Principles for people with diabetes mellitus’ was released by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) in 1994 [1]. The paradigm of the ADA diet based on caloric restriction and macronutrient distribution became obsolete and a new model of medical nutrition therapy that included lifestyle assessment, individualisation of metabolic parameters and nutrition goals for therapeutic outcomes was introduced [1,2]. (Sour...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 11, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Olivia Farrer, Alison Yaxley, Karen Walton, Michelle Miller Tags: Review Source Type: research

Impaired glucose tolerance predicts all-cause mortality among older men at high risk for cardiovascular disease in China
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased dramatically in China and elsewhere [1], and T2DM is associated with a substantial increase in all-cause mortality [2]. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), also known as pre-diabetic state, has been shown to be a significant risk factor for T2DM. Moreover, IGT itself is significantly associated with microvascular and cardiovascular complications [3]. Studies have shown increased prevalence of retinopathy and chronic kidney disease among subjects with IGT [4,5], and reversal of IGT to normal glucose regulation has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of ca...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 9, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Fusheng Fang, Ning Wang, Shuangtong Yan, Liangchen Wang, Yanhui Lu, Jian Li, Huifen Li, Gabriel Pham, Chunlin Li, Sean Xiao Leng, Hui Tian Tags: Original research Source Type: research

The relationship between pulse pressure, insulin resistance, and beta cell function in non-diabetic Korean adults
Diabetes is one of the main factors contributing to cardiovascular events and mortality; it is a common endocrine disease affecting global public health [1,2]. The decrease in β-cell function is an early symptom of diabetes pathogenesis [3], and β-cell dysfunction plays a role in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) [4]. Therefore, restoration of β-cell function is important to prevent the onset of T2DM [5]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 9, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Kyu Su Lee, Mi Young Gi, Ju Ae Cha, Jae Min Lee, Sun Hee Jung, Hyun Yoon Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Sleep duration is a significant predictor of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder which mainly consists of altered glucose metabolism within the body and has a multi-factorial pathophysiology [1]. There are various metabolic and lifestyle risk factors which contribute to its development, of which lifestyle factors are considered to play a major role. Physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and diet have led to an overt increase in the prevalence of diabetes in recent times [2,3]. Apart from these, impaired sleep has come out to be an important risk factor and predictor of T2DM and a growing body of evidence has indicated that sl...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 5, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Pooja Bhati, M. Ejaz Hussain Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Editorial Board and Aims & Scopes
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 4, 2019 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 4, 2019 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Association of age at menopause and type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, with high rates of morbidity and mortality throughout the world [1]. Both the prevalence and incidence of T2DM have increased considerably in recent decades. According to the International Diabetes Federation, the number of people with diabetes is predicted to increase from 415 million in 2015 to 642 million in 2040 in the world [2]. From 2007 to 2017, the all-age disability adjusted life-years (DALYs) rates for T2DM increased by 34.2% and 33.9% for women and men [3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 27, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Chunmei Guo, Quanman Li, Gang Tian, Yu Liu, Xizhuo Sun, Zhaoxia Yin, Honghui Li, Xu Chen, Xuejiao Liu, Dongdong Zhang, Cheng Cheng, Leilei Liu, Feiyan Liu, Qionggui Zhou, Chongjian Wang, Linlin Li, Bingyuan Wang, Yang Zhao, Dechen Liu, Ming Zhang, Dongshe Tags: Review Source Type: research

Diabetes and depression were not associated in Venezuelan adults: The EVESCAM study, a national cross-sectional sample
Diabetes is a chronic complex disease with demanding management strategies that affects about 422 millions of adults worldwide in 2014 [1]. Diabetes has many complications and comorbidities [2], which interfere with daily life activities and shorten life expectancy [3]. Daily self-care requirements, in addition to the ambient social and environmental factors already existing, of adults with diabetes can impose a significant psychological burden on patients and their families [4]. This, in turn, engenders several types of psychological conditions that affect people with diabetes [5]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 25, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Juan Pablo Gonz ález-Rivas, William Polonsky, María María Infante-García, Maritza Duran, Eunice Ugel, María Ines Marulanda, Jeffrey I. Mechanick, Ramfis Nieto-Martínez Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Real-world impact of ongoing regular exercise in overweight and obese US adults with diabetes on health care utilization and expenses
Lifestyle management is the foundation of diabetes care [1]. Physical activity consisting of brisk walking or similar aerobic exercise is one important component of lifestyle management shown to improve blood glucose control and prevent diabetic complications [2 –5]. Diabetes treatment guidelines recommend adults with diabetes engage in at least 150min (min) of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity or 75min of vigorous-intensity physical activity per week [6,7]. Overweight and obese patients with diabetes should aim for higher levels of physica l activity (200–300min per week) to achieve weight loss ...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 23, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Jun Wu, Mary Lynn Davis-Ajami, Zhiqiang K. Lu Tags: Original research Source Type: research