Editorial Board and Aims & Scopes
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 19, 2021 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 19, 2021 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

The psychosocial challenges associated with gestational diabetes mellitus: A systematic review of qualitative studies
One of the most prevalent pregnancy-related complications is Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) [1]. It is defined as inadequate insulin secretory response and hyperglycemia in pregnant women without pre-existing diabetes [1]. The prevalence of GDM varies across countries. In high-income countries, it is reported to be between 1.7 –11.6% [2], while in East and Southeast Asia, this rate is estimated to be 10.1% (6.5%–15.7%) [3]. Age, high body mass index (BMI), strong family history of diabetes in first and second degree relatives, and previous history of gestational diabetes are among the most important risk f...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 15, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Shahla Faal Siahkal, Nahid Javadifar, Mahin Najafian, Mina Iravani, Mehrnoosh Zakerkish, Rasoul Heshmati Tags: Review Source Type: research

Predictors of attendance at diabetic retinopathy screening among people with type 2 diabetes: Secondary analysis of data from primary care
Worldwide, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing due to an aging population and increasing obesity levels [1]. As a consequence, it is estimated that the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, a common microvascular complication of diabetes [2], will grow from 126.6 million in 2011 to 191.0 million by 2030 [3,4]. Diabetic retinopathy can cause vision problems including vitreous haemorrhage, retinal detachment, glaucoma and blindness [2]. Regular diabetic retinopathy screening leads to the earlier detection of retinopathy and treatment that can prevent or delay the development of diabetes-related blindness [5]. (Sour...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 11, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Dara O ’Keeffe, Fiona Riordan, Velma Harkins, Patricia Kearney, Sheena Mc Hugh Tags: Original research Source Type: research

The effect of model-based telephone counseling on HbA1c and self-management for individuals with type 2 diabetes: A randomized controlled trial
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an increasingly important health problem around the world. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) states that approximately 463 million adults in the world live with diabetes, and this rate will rise to 700 million by 2045. Approximately 90% of all diabetes is type 2 diabetes [1]. The prevalence of diabetes is very common in Turkey according to international standards. In 2002, the incidence of diabetes in adults was 7.2%, and in 2010 it increased to 13.7% [2,3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 11, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Kadriye Sayin Kasar, Guler Duru Asiret, Cemile Kutmec Yilmaz, Şule Canlar Tags: Original research Source Type: research

A Scoping Review on adaptations of clinical education for medical students during COVID-19
Despite the profound effects from the COVID-19 pandemic, the medical community has fought to maintain high-quality education by flinging open the doors of technology into teaching and patient care [1]. Recent publications include reviews encompassing the rapid advances in medical education in response to the current pandemic and provided easily accessible summaries to grateful readers [1,2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 8, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Hyunmi Park, Sunhee Shim, Young-Mee Lee Source Type: research

Upcoming events
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 6, 2021 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Optimal Frequency to Screen Celiac Disease amongst Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Multicenter Study
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder with various micro and macro-vascular complications [1]. The link between T1DM and celiac disease (CD) has been confirmed [2], and the rate is estimated to be 4-9% [3]. Hence, the hypothesis is that there might be some immunological similarities between them [4,5]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 6, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Hossein Moravej, Daniel Zamanfar, Fatemeh Aghamahdi, Mahin Hashemipour, Fatemeh Sadat Mirrashidi, Nosrat Ghaemi, Peyman Eshraghi, Homa Ilkhanipoor, Anis Amirhakimi, Negar Yazdani, Samaneh Noroozi Asl, Somayyeh Hashemian, Atefeh Raoofat, Majid Vares Vaziri Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Does C-reactive protein to serum Albumin Ratio correlate with diabEtic nephropathy in patients with Type 2 dIabetes MEllitus? The CARE TIME study
Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) is a complication of Diabetes Mellitus with worst outcomes, and with significant morbidity and mortality. Nearly one of every three diabetic subjects develop DN during the course of their disease [1]. It is associated with prominent, chronic, and low-grade inflammation. Increased levels of glucose may trigger inflammation and oxidative stress, thus, causing nephropathy [2]. Indeed, alleviation of the inflammation decreases oxidative stress and cellular damage in DN [3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 6, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Satilmis Bilgin, Ozge Kurtkulagi, Burcin Meryem Atak Tel, Tuba Taslamacioglu Duman, Gizem Kahveci, Atiqa Khalid, Gulali Aktas Tags: Original research Source Type: research

The epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, and management toward COVID-19 patients with Type 2 diabetes: a systematic review
Diabetes mellitus, defined as a group of diseases characterized by signs and symptoms of chronic hyperglycemia, is one of the most significant public health challenges worldwide [1]. According to the International Diabetes Federation, there were approximately 463 million adults suffering from diabetes in 2019 [2], and this number is expected to rise to 592 million by 2035 [3]. The disease burden of diabetes has now been raised by the prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has been continuously increasing to over 169 million confirmed ...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 5, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Yun Yin, Kristen Rohli, Pengyue Shen, Haonan Lu, Yuenan Liu, Qingyu Dou, Lin Zhang, Xiangyi Kong, Shujuan Yang, Peng Jia Tags: Review Source Type: research

The evaluation of noninferiority for renal composite outcomes between sodium –glucose cotransporter inhibitors in Japan
Cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) have been performed using empagliflozin (EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial) [1,2], dapagliflozin (DECLARE-TIMI58) [3], and canagliflozin (CANVAS/CANVAS-R) [4] to demonstrate improvement in renal and cardiovascular events, yielding significant and strong evidence in meta-analyses. We also retrospectively reported the improvement of the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in clinical practice [5]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 4, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Kazuo Kobayashi, Masao Toyoda, Nobuo Hatori, Kazuyoshi Sato, Masaaki Miyakawa, Kouichi Tamura, Akira Kanamori Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Primary Care Diabetes Europe (PCDE): Colophon
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 3, 2021 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Use of herbal medicine for diabetes mellitus in adults from the central –western region of Mexico
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial chronic disease characterized by various metabolic disorders, involving both genetic and environmental factors, such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and relative impairment of insulin secretion which represents a health challenge worldwide [1]. The prevalence of diabetes has increased faster in middle-income than in high-income countries. Globally, the prevalence of T2DM is estimated to be 9.3% in adults between the ages of 20 and 79 [2]. In Mexico, the prevalence of T2DM is 10.3%, and it is considered the second leading cause of death, only below heart disease [3]. (Sourc...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 27, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Yeniley Ruiz-Noa, Lorena Del Roc ío Ibarra-Reynoso, Alan Joel Ruiz-Padilla, Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro, Marco Antonio Ramírez-Morales, Juan Ramón Zapata-Morales, Luis Manuel Orozco-Castellanos, Cesar Rogelio Solorio-Alvardo, Alfredo Lara-Morales Source Type: research

Barriers and enablers to screening and diagnosing diabetes distress and depression in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A qualitative evidence synthesis
People with diabetes experience an array of diabetes-specific and non-diabetes specific mental health related issues [1]. For instance, diabetes distress and depression negatively affect diabetes self-management [2 –4] and are prevalent among people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) [5,6]. Diabetes distress affects approximately 36% of people with T2DM [6], and depression is twice as prevalent in people with T2DM as in the general population [5]. Therefore, identification and management of these issues is a critic al part of T2DM care. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 23, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Niamh McGrath, Sheena McHugh, Emmy Racine, Patricia M. Kearney, Brenda Lynch, Elaine Toomey Tags: Review Source Type: research

Incidence and characteristics of diabetic foot ulcers in subjects with type 2 diabetes in Catalonian primary care centres: An observational multicentre study
Diabetic foot disease is one of the most severe complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the leading cause of non-traumatic amputation in developed countries [1]. It is estimated that each year, worldwide, more than one million diabetic subjects undergo a lower limb amputation [2]. The diabetic foot has a great economic impact due to the increased morbidity and mortality, and reduced quality of life of these patients [3] and is one of the chronic complications of T2DM where prevention plays an important role [2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 18, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Magdalena Bund ó, Judit Llussà, Marta Serra, Paloma Prats de la Iglesia, Rosa M. Gimbert, Jordi Real, Bogdan Vlacho, Manel Mata-Cases, Xavier Cos, Josep Franch-Nadal, Dídac Mauricio Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Unifying the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus: Introducing the NPRP criteria
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as hyperglycaemia first detected during pregnancy that is neither type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [1,2]. GDM is associated with an increased risk of maternal and fetal complications, increased medical cost [3] and can only be established through biochemical testing, typically between 24 –28 weeks' gestation. Despite wide agreement that any form of hyperglycaemia should be managed during pregnancy, there is still a substantial disagreement on which diagnostic process should be used and which glucose threshold(s) merit a diagnosis of GDM ...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 18, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Suhail A.R. Doi, Mohammed Bashir, Michael T. Sheehan, Adedayo A. Onitilo, Tawanda Chivese, Ibrahim M. Ibrahim, Stephen F. Beer, Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Abdul-Badi Abou-Samra, H. David McIntyre Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Probiotics and synbiotics show clinical efficacy in treating gestational diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy, not clearly defined as overt diabetes before gestation [1]. This description emphasizes hyperglycemia severity and the need to screen metabolism at different trimesters. Severe GDM is associated with hypoglycemia, congenital abnormalities, respiratory disorders, and macrosomia in infants [2]. Generally, between 35 –60% of women are more predisposed to diabetes, particularly in 10 years after contracting GDM. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 17, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Yu Hao, Lushan Zhou, Caifei Ding, Ji Wu, Xiaoling Chen, Derry Minyao Ng, Hezhenrong Wang, Yingying Zhang, Nanjing Shi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Impacts of high-deductible health plans on patients with diabetes: A systematic review of the literature
High deductible health plans (HDHPs) are becoming an increasingly popular insurance plan choice by employers. These plans require greater cost-sharing on the part of consumers and suggest a more cost-effective alternative than traditional health plans. Between 2010 and 2016 alone, enrollment in HDHPs by adults under age 65 increased from 25.3% to 40.0% and, between 2017 and 2018, this percentage rose from 43.7% to 47.0% [1,2]. Consumers enrolled in an HDHP typically have lower monthly premiums coupled with higher deductibles that can range from $1400 for individual coverage to $2800 for family coverage [3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 13, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Ahmad Khanijahani, Nesli Akinci, Shabnam Iezadi, Dreux Priore Tags: Review Source Type: research

Predictive value of HbA1c for in-hospital adverse prognosis in COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Clinical and laboratory predictors of adverse clinical course and death in COVID-19 patients urgently need to be identified. So far, the association between HbA1c and in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 remains a controversial issue. The aim of this study is to analyze predictive value of HbA1c for adverse prognosis in COVID-19. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 10, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Zheng Zhu, Yaqian Mao, Gang Chen Source Type: research

A new Brazilian regional scenario of Type 2 diabetes risk in the next ten years
The objective of the present study was to estimate the risk of developing type 2 DM (T2DM) in the next ten years in Brazilian population. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 4, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: L úbia Guaima Nascimento, Renata Cristina Rezende Macedo do Nascimento, Josélia Cintya Quintão Pena Frade, Eliete Bachrany Pinheiro, Wesley Magno Ferreira, Janice Sepúlveda Reis, Karla Fabiana Santana de Melo, Roberto Pontarolo, Mônica Soares Amaral Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Factors influencing on development of COVID-19 pneumonia and association with oral anti-diabetic drugs in hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are susceptible to various infections and sepsis [1]. Clinical experiences showed that the susceptibility is associated with fatal infections and adverse clinical outcomes due to factors including severe activation of pro-inflammatory cascade, impaired immune response and cellular dysfunction resulting from metabolic disorders and hyperglycemia [2,3,4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 3, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Ay ça Elibol, Didem Eren, Macide Deniz Erdoğan, Merve Elmaağaç, Oguzhan Sıtkı Dizdar, İlhami Çelik, Ali İhsan Günal Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Contribution of obesity in increasing type 2 diabetes prevalence in Iranian urban and rural adults during recent decade
Research in context: (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 2, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Shahin Nosratzehi, Erfan Tasdighi, Farzad Hadaegh, Davood Khalili, Maryam Mahdavi, Majid Valizadeh Source Type: research

Mean platelet volume may not be responsible for increased male mortality in diabetic patients with severe Coronavirus disease
We have carefully read the retrospective study of Hammad and Alseoudy claiming that they found some laboratory abnormalities that predispose to higher mortality in male patients with diabetes mellitus than female patients with severe Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) [1]. The researchers found lower mean platelet volume (MPV) and higher MPV / lymphocyte ratio in male patients compared to women, blaming these results for the higher male mortality rate. We think that there are other factors that may have negatively affected the results of this study. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 2, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Cengiz Beyan, Esin Beyan Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and COVID-19, clinical characteristics and review of the literature
A 20-year-old woman was evaluated at a primary healthcare clinic with a complaint of a productive cough of 6-days evolution without dyspnea or fever. She was referred to our center because of hyperglycemia. The patient had a medical history of obesity (BMI of 31.6  kg/m2 at conception), and she was in her first pregnancy at 30 weeks of gestation with a diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus during her 27th week of pregnancy with a BMI of 34.8 kg/m2 at the time of her evaluation. Her serum glucose levels after a 75 gram-OGTT were 107 mg/dl (baseline) , 195 mg/dl (1 hour) and 164&thinsp...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 2, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Jorge R. Violante-Cumpa, Fernando J. Lavalle-Gonz ález, Leonardo G. Mancillas-Adame, Edmundo D. Ávila-Hipólito, Karla A. Violante-Cumpa Tags: Brief report Source Type: research

Challenges of routine diabetes care during Covid-19 era: A systematic search and narrative review
In December 2019, an unprecedented number of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause presented in adult individuals from Wuhan, China (1). High transmissibility of the virus, especially among asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic carriers (2), alongside with the apparent absence of any cross-protective immunity from related viral infections (3), has now resulted in a worldwide outbreak, now classified as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (4). As of August 13, 2020, there has been more than 20.5 million confirmed cases globally, and around 750,000 fatalities (5). (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 2, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Mohammad Mohseni, Shiler Ahmadi, Saber Azami-Aghdash, Haleh Mousavi Isfahani, Ahmad Moosavi, Mozhgan Fardid, Manal Etemadi, Fatemeh Ghazanfari Source Type: research

Time-varying association between physical activity and risk of diabetes in the early and late adulthood: A longitudinal study in a West-Asian country
Diabetes mellitus counts as one of the most significant health care problems and challenges to human health over the last decades [1]. There is a significant rise in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in both developed and developing countries [2]. According to the International Federation of Diabetes report, T2DM has been diagnosed in 151 –415 million individuals between 2000–2015, which is estimated to be increased by 642 million in 2040 [3]. The highest global prevalence of diabetes has been reported in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region in the adult population (10.9%). (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - July 26, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Parisa Naseri, Parisa Amiri, Hasti Masihay-Akbar, Navideh Sahebi Vaighan, Sajad Ahmadizad, Arash Ghanbarian, Fereidoun Azizi Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Integrating diabetes technologies with team-based primary care for type 2 diabetes: A pilot trial
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is commonly managed in primary care with a reactive care model that relies on periodic office visits and rarely employs a team-based approach [1]. Prior research describes clinical inertia in this setting, with delays intensifying medication regimens and achieving glycemic targets [2]. Prior studies of remote glucose monitoring and smartphone applications suggests that these T2D technologies may accelerate glycemic improvements [3,4]. However, little prior research has integrated these technologies into team-based primary care. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - July 21, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Matthew J. O ’Brien, John J. Stephen, Kristine L. Norton, Thomas P. Meehan, Deneen Vojta, Ronald T. Ackermann Tags: Brief report Source Type: research

The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on self-management in patients with type 2 diabetics
COVID-19 first appeared in China, then became a public health threat to the whole world, and in March 2020 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) [1]. People of all ages are susceptible to COVID-19, but diabetic patients are at greater risk because they have many accompanying chronic illnesses and their immune systems are under pressure [2 –4]. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to more variable blood sugar levels in diabetic patients, and to an increase in HbA1c levels, hospitalization and intensive care needs [5]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - July 18, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Hediye Utli, Birg ül Vural Doğru Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Influence of COVID-19 pandemic and related quarantine procedures on metabolic risk
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As of May 4, 2021, 152,502,868 cases and 3,199,110 deaths have been confirmed globally [1]. SARS-CoV-2 induces mild symptoms in the early stage but has the risk of progression to severe illness, including an acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiorgan failure [2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - July 18, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Soo Lim, Alice Pik-Shan Kong, Jaakko Tuomilehto Tags: Review Source Type: research

The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on self-management in type 2 diabetics
COVID-19 first appeared in China, then became a public health threat to the whole world, and in March 2020 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) [1]. People of all ages are susceptible to COVID-19, but diabetic patients are at greater risk because they have many accompanying chronic illnesses and their immune systems are under pressure [2 –4]. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to more variable blood sugar levels in diabetic patients, and to an increase in HbA1c levels, hospitalization and intensive care needs [5]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - July 18, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Hediye Utli, Birg ül Vural Doğru Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Improving frequency of urinary albumin testing in type 2 diabetes in primary care — An analysis of cross-sectional studies in Denmark
In Denmark, as in many western European countries, the majority of individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are cared for in general practice. Prevention of acute and chronic complications is the main purpose of the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Landmark studies as the Steno 2 study [1 –3] demonstrated the importance of addressing all risk factors, to ensure multi-organ protection. Therefore, multifactorial interventions, focusing on other factors than lowering of blood glucose, are essential [4]. For every risk factor to be addressed, there is a corresponding necessary clinical or biochemical measure to be recorded. (...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - July 17, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Frederik Persson, Morten Charles, Johan Vestergaard Povlsen, S øren Tang Knudsen Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Patterns and risk factors associated with index Lower Extremity Amputations (LEA) among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients in Fiji
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is defined as a metabolic condition that results from decreased insulin secretion and function [1,2]. It is the most common type of diabetes, constituting more than 90% of all diabetic patients [3 –6]. T2DM currently affects 463 million adults worldwide [7]. The Western Pacific region has the highest diabetes burden in the world, and it is estimated that up to 1 in 3 adults in Pacific island populations have T2DM [8]. The estimated prevalence of T2DM in Fiji from the 2002 STEPS Survey was 1 6% [9], which is twice the global average [10] and it was estimated to be 19.3% by 2020 [11]. (S...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - July 17, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Sabiha Khan, Masoud Mohammadnezhad, Anaseini Ratu, Anamica Ghosh, Wahed Ali, Devina Nand, Tamara Mangum Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Beyond BMI: Pregnancy-related weight stigma increases risk of gestational diabetes
Accompanying rising global obesity rates is an increasing shadow pandemic: weight stigma [1]. Weight stigma refers to negative stereotypes associated with body weight that result in weight-based biases and discrimination [2]. Reproductive-aged women are particularly vulnerable to experiencing weight stigma given the focus on weight during pregnancy and the postpartum period [3]. Moreover, there is a positive relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the frequency of weight stigmatization, positioning women with obesity at the highest risk for exposure to weight stigma [4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - July 15, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Taniya S. Nagpal, A. Janet Tomiyama, Angela C. Incollingo Rodriguez Tags: Brief report Source Type: research

Effectiveness of mobile applications in diabetic patients ’ healthy lifestyles: A review of systematic reviews
The International Diabetes Federation estimates some 425 million people are diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) worldwide, whose prevalence will rise to 693 million by 2045 [1]. It is well-known that DM significantly increases cardiovascular risk and is usually associated with unhealthy lifestyle; e.g. being overweight, obesity, smoking, unbalanced diet, sedentary lifestyle [2,3]. For these reasons, DM is currently a major public health problem worldwide [4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - July 15, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Francisco Jes ús Represas-Carrera, Ángel Alfredo Martínez-Ques, Ana Clavería Tags: Review Source Type: research

COVID-19 Precautionary Measures and Type 1 Diabetes Patients in Saudi Arabia
Much of the global concern at present is focused on coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), the highly infectious respiratory disease which originated in Wuhan, China [1]. From a small cluster of Chinese cases of pneumonia with unknown cause to a global pandemic in a short span of time, it made sense that drastic measures were implemented to prevent the rapid spread of the disease; most of which were deemed necessary but very challenging. Among the mitigation strategies implemented by many countries were the closure of non-essential businesses and the implementation of stay-at-home orders. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - July 15, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Abdullah Alguwaihes, Mohammed E. Al-Sofiani, Ebtihal Alyusuf, Aeshah Almutairi, Eman Ibrahim, Sarah S. Albunyan, Saad Alzahrani, Rana Hasanto, Anwar A. Jammah Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Glycemic control and management of cardiovascular risk factors among adults with diabetes in the Eastern Caribbean Health Outcomes Research Network (ECHORN) Cohort Study
The world-wide burden of diabetes continues to grow at an alarming rate, with 463-million adults with diabetes in 2019 and a projected 700-million in 2045. [1] Diabetes and diabetes-related complications led to 4.2 million deaths in 2019 with almost half (46.2%) of this mortality occurring in young adults under the age of 60 [1]. These sobering statistics are associated with significant financial implications – in 2019, diabetes resulted in an estimated $760 billion dollars in health expenditure world-wide [1]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - July 10, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Saria Hassan, Cherlie Magny-Normilus, Deron Galusha, Oswald P. Adams, Rohan G. Maharaj, Cruz M. Nazario, Maxine Nunez, Marcella Nunez-Smith, on behalf of the ECHORN Writing Group Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Changes in the level of knowledge of diabetes among elderly with diabetes in Slovenia in the period 2011 –2020
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease and a leading cause of mortality and reduced life expectancy. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has estimated that 463 million adults live with diabetes worldwide in 2019 with a projected increase to 578 million by 2030 and 700 million by 2045 if no effective prevention methods are adopted [1]. Diabetes prevalence among adults 20 –79 (diagnosed and age-standardised) was 6.2% on average in EU countries in 2019. The rates varied from 9% or more in Cyprus, Portugal, and Germany to less than 4% in Ireland and Lithuania, while Slovenia was slightly below EU average wit...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - July 10, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Valentina Prevolnik Rupel, Marko Divjak, Eva Turk Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Editorial Board and Aims & Scopes
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - July 4, 2021 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - July 4, 2021 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Towards a better understanding of self-management interventions in type 2 diabetes: A meta-regression analysis
Diabetes mellitus (DM), particularly type 2 DM (T2D), is a growing pandemic that poses a significant health burden on most countries around the globe, and has financial, social, and developmental consequences especially in low and middle-income countries [1]. Due to the chronic and complex nature of the disease, T2D management does not depend on pharmacotherapy alone, but requires a comprehensive management strategy that includes diabetes self-management (DSM) skills to ensure good glycemic control and effective management of associated atherosclerotic risk factors [2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 30, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Manal M. Othman, Hanan Khudadad, Ragae Dughmosh, Asma Syed, Justin Clark, Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Abdul-Badi Abou-Samra, Suhail A.R. Doi Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Serum uric acid and its change with the risk of type 2 diabetes: A prospective study in China
There is growing long-term disease burden caused by diabetes worldwide and diabetes has become the 20th leading cause of death and ranked 8th leading cause of disability and injury in China in 2017 [1]. Diabetes is associated with cardiovascular disease and premature death [2]. Therefore, early detection on modifiable risk factors of diabetes is very important to reduce the enormous economic costs and improve the public health. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 30, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Haiyan Su, Tong Liu, Yupeng Li, Yuxin Fan, Baoping Wang, Ming Liu, Gang Hu, Zhaowei Meng, Qing Zhang Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Comparing the effect of individual counseling with counseling on social application on self-care and quality of life of women with gestational diabetes
Gestational diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a growing health problem all over the world and one of the most common complications of pregnancy [1,2]. In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) stated that high blood sugar at any time of pregnancy along with high blood sugar before pregnancy is considered as GDM [3]. So, American Diabetes Association recommended fasting blood sugar test for all pregnant women at the first pregnancy visit. If fasting blood sugar is 126  mg/dl or more, a repeated test is recommended one week later. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 29, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Fatemeh Ghasemi, Katayon Vakilian, Zohre Khalajinia Tags: Original research Source Type: research

COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in young people with type 1 diabetes: positive results of an unprecedented challenge for patients through telemedicine and change in use of continuous glucose monitoring
A few reports focused on the impact of lockdown (resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic) on adolescents and young people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) [1]. We aimed to measure glucose control changes through the first French lockdown, focusing on telemedicine's role. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 29, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Claire Salabelle, Khadijatou Ly Sall, Juliette Eroukhmanoff, Sylvia Franc, Hamida Oumbiche, Wael Salem Zrafi, Thanh Lan Dang Duy, Clarisse Valentim, Floriane Gastond, Sylvie Fernandes, Marie Faucherand, Alfred Penfornis, Coralie Amadou Tags: Brief report Source Type: research

Control of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic condition requiring maintenance of glucose levels. The age-adjusted prevalence of adult Americans with diabetes mellitus (DM) is 9.2%, the majority of whom have T2DM [1]. The American Diabetes Association recommends adults with T2DM to engage in self-care behaviors to manage their T2DM and prevent complications, including regular glucose monitoring, healthy eating, controlling weight, being physically active, and regularly seeing a healthcare provider [2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 26, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Holly C. Felix, Jennifer A. Andersen, Don E. Willis, Joseph R. Malhis, James P. Selig, Pearl A. McElfish Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Real-world use of once-weekly semaglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes: Results from the SURE Denmark/Sweden multicentre, prospective, observational study
Approximately 7 ‒9% of adults in Denmark and Sweden have diabetes [1], with type 2 diabetes (T2D) accounting for 85–91% of cases [2,3]. T2D is a substantial healthcare challenge, profoundly impacting affected individuals and placing a heavy burden on society [4,5]. Diabetes and primary care guidelines recommend a patient-centred approach to T2D treatment, considering factors including patient preference, impact on body weight (BW), cardiovascular and hypoglycaemia risk, and drug efficacy [6,7]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 25, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Neda Rajamand Ekberg, Ulrik Bodholdt, Andrei-Mircea Catarig, Sergiu-Bogdan Catrina, Katrine Grau, Cecilia Nagorny Holmberg, Boris Klanger, S øren Tang Knudsen Tags: Original research Source Type: research

COVID-19-specific diabetes worries amongst diabetic patients: The role of social support and other co-variates
The recent emergence of COVID-19 has had a greater impact on people with comorbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, obesity, cancer and HIV/AIDS [1,2]. Diabetes has been the second most common comorbidity (9.7%) among COVID-19 patients after cardio-metabolic disorders (12.5%) [1,3]. In 2019, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) reported that 465 million (9.3%) people in the world were diagnosed with diabetes, and by 2045 the figure is predicted to grow to 700 million [4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 24, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Md. Safaet Hossain Sujan, Rafia Tasnim, Md. Saiful Islam, Most. Zannatul Ferdous, Md. Abdur Rahman Apu, Md. Miftah Musfique, Shahina Pardhan Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Attitudes and beliefs of South African primary healthcare practitioners on initiating insulin in people with type 2 diabetes: Findings from the Tshwane Insulin Project (TIP)
In recent years, Africa has seen a significant increase in the number of people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Diabetes is increasing due to urbanisation, increasing life expectancy and ageing, lifestyle changes, and the growing consumption of processed foods coupled with increasing levels of obesity [1 –3]. In Africa, diabetes affects approximately 19.4 million adults aged 20–79 years, and this number is estimated to grow to 47.1 million (142.9% increase) by 2045 [4]. South Africa is one of the African countries most affected by this global epidemic with the highest number of diabetes-related deaths recorded on t...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 22, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Patrick Ngassa Piotie, Paola Wood, Jane W. Muchiri, Elizabeth M. Webb, Paul Rheeder Tags: Original research Source Type: research

COVID-19 pandemic: effects of national lockdown on the state of health of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Moroccan population
The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease known as COVID-19 has arisen and spread very quickly around all the world, becoming pandemic [1]. Currently, it has led to more than 100 million cases of infection and more than 2 million deaths by the 20th February 2021. Towards the beginning of the pandemic, one of the measures adopted by the governments of different countries (especially the most affected ones) was the complete lockdown nationwide. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 20, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Hamid Farhane, Majida Motrane, Fatima-Ezzahra Anaibar, A ïcha Motrane, Said Nassor Abeid, Nourdin Harich Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Early detection of cutaneous complications of insulin therapy in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus
The number of patients with diabetes mellitus being treated with insulin has risen dramatically over recent decades. This is attributed to increase in incidence of diabetes mellitus and earlier initiation of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes in order to reduce the long term complications associated with uncontrolled glycemia. A correct injection technique is crucial for optimal functioning of insulin and prevention of local complications associated with insulin therapy [1]. However, healthcare professionals seldom educate patients adequately on the proper techniques including correct method of rotation of si...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 19, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Saurabh Arora, Neeraj Kumar Agrawal, Dhananjaya Melkunte Shanthaiah, Ashish Verma, Sanjay Singh, Shashikant C.U. Patne, Sanjay Kalra, Parminder Singh, Saloni Goyal Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Gestational diabetes and progression to type two diabetes mellitus: missed opportunities of follow up and prevention?” [Prim. Care Diabetes 14 (6) (2020) 698–702]
The authors wish to add the following (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - June 17, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Emma Walker, Orla Flannery, Lucy Mackillop Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research