Warning signals of elevated prediabetes prevalence in the modern Iranian urban population
According to a report by the World Health Organization (WHO), about 422 million people the world over suffer from diabetes mellitus (DM), with Eastern Mediterranean countries accounting for the highest prevalence (43 million people) [1]. DM is among the 10 highest lethal diseases worldwide and caused 1.6 million deaths in 2016 [1]. DM significantly leads to cardiovascular complications, which are the main reasons for morbidity and mortality; consequently, 52% of deaths in Type 2 DM are attributed to cardiovascular mortality [2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 13, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Somayyeh Barati, Parham Sadeghipour, Zahra Ghaemmaghami, Bahram Mohebbi, Mohammadreza Baay, Mohammad Javad Alemzadeh-Ansari, Zahra Hosseini, Yeganeh Karimi, Mojtaba Malek, Majid Maleki, Feridoun Noohi, Yasaman Khalili, Azin Alizadehasl, Nasim Naderi, Maed Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Patients are unaware of clinical recommendations and resources
Provider-patient communication is vital to good clinical outcomes [1,2]; however, providers and patients have been shown to have different perspectives on effective communication strategies [3,4]. Although shared-decision making is a burgeoning field of research with general support by physicians [5] and the creation of a wide range of medical decision aids [6], there is a remarkable dearth of information on how patients would like their providers to communication with them outside of the face-to-face clinical visit. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 12, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Ebonee Harris, Susana A. Alfonso, Belinda Stewart, Miranda A. Moore Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Association between serum uric acid levels and cardiovascular events in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes
Uric acid (UA) is the end product of purine catabolism in the body. Animal studies have found that hyperuricemia is associated with atherosclerosis [1]. There is currently no evidence that UA-lowering therapy can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia [2]. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at high risk for cardiovascular disease [3,4]. The prevalence of hyperuricemia is higher in patients with T2DM than in the general population [5,6]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 10, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Zhan Chang, Xiang-hai Zhou, Xin Wen Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Effects of sleep intervention on glucose control: A narrative review of clinical evidence
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of adults that contracted diabetes in 2014 was approximately two times that of 1980 (from 4.7% to 8.5%) [1]. Various lifestyle factors have been shown to influence an individual ’s risk of developing diabetes and disease progression. Among them, sleep deprivation is an emerging risk factor leading to insulin resistance as well as Type 2 diabetes (T2D) [2]. Several hours of sleep per night is recommended by the joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Med icine and Sleep Research Society for optimal health [3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 10, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Ranjit Tiwari, Dao Ngoc Hien Tam, Jaffer Shah, Michiko Moriyama, Joseph Varney, Nguyen Tien Huy Tags: Review Source Type: research

Insulin Resistance in COVID-19 and Diabetes
In December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) was notified of several rare cases of coronavirus related pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Since then the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has devastated the world with an emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic [1]. This pandemic is a colossal public health and economic challenge, since it has to-date resulted in more than 117 million infections and over 2.6 million deaths [2]. High infection and mortality rates highlight the interplay of poor healthcare, poverty, geographical disparity, economic and social risk factors [3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 8, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Nalini Govender, Olive P. Khaliq, Jagidesa Moodley, Thajasvarie Naicker Tags: Review Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Comparison of glucagons like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptide-4 inhibitors regarding cardiovascular safety and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A network meta-analysis” [Prim. Care Diabetes 15 (April (2)) (2021) 227–233]
The authors correct the title of their article which should read ‘Comparison of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and dipeptidyl peptide-4 inhibitors regarding cardiovascular safety and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a network meta-analysis’ (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 7, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Jing Hu, Liyun Chen Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Overcoming psychological insulin resistance: A practical guide for healthcare professionals
Guidelines recommend a step-wise approach to pharmacotherapy for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), beginning with oral antihyperglycemic agents followed by sequential addition(s) of injectable medications and/or insulin as needed [1,2]. Timely initiation of insulin — which is associated with better glycemic control among people not adequately controlled on other antihyperglycemic medications — can significantly lower the risks of long-term complications [3–5]. However, approximately 30% of people with T2D are initially reluctant to start insulin upon rec ommendation by their healthcare provider (HCP) [...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 27, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Frank J. Snoek, Lawrence Fisher, William H. Polonsky, Heather Stuckey, Danielle Hessler, Tricia Tang, Norbert Hermanns, Xavier Mundet, Maria Silva, Jackie Sturt, Kentaro Okazaki, Irene Hadjiyianni, Urvi Desai, Magaly Perez-Nieves Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Long-term outcomes of lifestyle intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes in people at high risk in primary health care
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease associated with many co-morbidities and premature mortality. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality in people with type 2 diabetes [1]. According to a meta-analysis, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality risk is much higher in people with type 2 diabetes compared with non-diabetic people [2]. Prevention of type 2 diabetes and its complications is essential in order to reduce the global burden of type 2 diabetes. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 23, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Reeta Rintam äki, Nina Rautio, Markku Peltonen, Jari Jokelainen, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Heikki Oksa, Timo Saaristo, Hannu Puolijoki, Juha Saltevo, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Matti Uusitupa, Leena Moilanen Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Use of contraception before and after a diabetes diagnosis: An observational matched cohort study
Diabetes affects over 3% of reproductive-age women in the United States (U.S.), with increasing prevalence over time [1] and even higher prevalence among Black, Asian, Hispanic, and low-income populations [1,2]. Over the last decade, an increasing number of pregnancies have been complicated by pre-existing diabetes [1] and gestational diabetes [3,4]. Diabetes is now the most common medical condition complicating pregnancy [5,6]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 17, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Mara E. Murray Horwitz, Lydia E. Pace, Eleanor Bimla Schwarz, Dennis Ross-Degnan Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Editorial Board and Aims & Scopes
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 3, 2021 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 3, 2021 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Microvascular and macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes in a multi-ethnic population based in Amsterdam. The HELIUS study
Globally, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is rising [1]. T2D increases the risk of macrovascular complications, such as coronary heart disease (CHD), peripheral artery disease (PAD), and stroke, and microvascular complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy [2,3]. These microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes contribute to repeated hospitalization, disability, and early mortality [4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 3, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Gina Dom ínguez Armengol, Charles F. Hayfron-Benjamin, Bert-Jan H. van den Born, Henrike Galenkamp, Charles Agyemang Tags: Original research Source Type: research

The significant interaction between age and diabetes mellitus for colorectal cancer: Evidence from NHANES data 1999 –2016
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is increasing in prevalence in the United States, affecting nearly 10% of the adult population [1], and colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second cause of cancer death in women, and the third for men [2]. According to cancer statistics in the United States in 2017, there were estimated to be 135,430 individuals newly diagnosed with CRC and 50,260 deaths from the disease [3]. These two diseases are life threatening and huge burdens to patients and society. Diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the United States in 2015, and after adjusting for age group and sex, the average medical expenditur...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 2, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Feng Yang, Hong Liang, Raul J. Rosenthal, Steven D. Wexner Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Do adult patients with diabetes mellitus living in rural part of Ethiopia and having poor social support have disproportionately poor self-care practice? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic chaos of glucose homeostasis that linked with short and long-term vascular and nonvascular complications leading to other chronic illnesses and death [1 –3]. It’s the rapid mounting of non-communicable disease throughout the world [4,5]. DM characterized by hyperglycemia attributed to poor performance of anabolic hormone (insulin), which regulates the body’s ability to metabolize and uptake glucose to generate energy [6–8]. Its extent has re ached epidemic; the World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that developing countries will bear the brunt of this...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 2, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Fikadu Ambaw Yehualashet, Eleni Tesfaye Tegegne, Amare Demsie Ayele, Wubet Worku Takele Tags: Review Source Type: research

The effect of education given to type 2 diabetic individuals on diabetes self-management and self-efficacy: Randomized controlled trial
Research reports that diabetes education contributes to the self-management and self-efficacy of individuals with diabetes. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 2, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Nermin Eroglu, Necmiye Sabuncu Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Nationwide prevalence and clinical characteristics of inpatient diabetic foot complications: A Peruvian multicenter study
Diabetic foot ulcers (DF) are the primary cause of non-traumatic amputation among diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, which occurs every 20 s, and an ulcer is present in 85% of the cases [1,2]. Six percent of DM patients worldwide have an active ulcer, and up to 34% of them would have this condition at least once during their lifetime [2,3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 1, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Marlon Yovera-Aldana, Sofia S áenz-Bustamante, Yudith Quispe-Landeo, Rosa Agüero-Zamora, Julia Salcedo, Carolina Sarria, Nancy Gonzales-Grandez, Manolo Briceño-Alvarado, Augusto Antezana-Román, Helard Manrique, David G. Armstrong Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Basic types of the first-day glycemia in acute myocardial infarction: Prognostic, diagnostic, threshold and target glycemia
The importance of stress hyperglycemia (SH) in critical illnesses (including acute myocardial infarction (AMI)) has been increasingly recognized. This importance stems from the significance of AMI itself, as the major global cause of death [1]; and importance of other critical illnesses, including acute heart failure (AHF) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) [2]; from the significance of glucose, as a very important (basic) fuel for many organs and tissues; from the high prevalence of SH in AMI [3]; from recognized prognosticator capabilities of glycemia; and from the possibility to treat glycemic abnormalities acutely and...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 26, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Goran Koracevic, Milan Djordjevic Tags: Brief report Source Type: research

A review on current advances in machine learning based diabetes prediction
Diabetes is one of the major health problem of both developed and developing countries [1]. As stated by the National Diabetes Statistics Report 2020, 34.2 million people (or 10.5%) of U.S. population are suffering from diabetes. There are 26.9 million people who are diagnosed with diabetes and 7.3 million people are unaware of this condition (21.4% people who have diabetes are unaware) [2]. In 2019, around 77 million people were diagnosed with diabetes in India, which was ranked as second country with highest numbers of diabetic people in the world [3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 25, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Varun Jaiswal, Anjli Negi, Tarun Pal Tags: Review Source Type: research

Primary Care Diabetes Europe (PCDE): Colophon
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 23, 2021 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Upcoming events
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 23, 2021 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Referral rates of patients with diabetes to secondary care are inversely related to the prevalence of diabetes in each primary care practice and confidence in treatment, not to HbA1c level
In the UK, the number of patients diagnosed with diabetes has doubled over the last two decades (1.4 million diagnosed cases in 1996 versus 3.8 million in 2019) [1], and currently, one in every 15 people in the UK population has diabetes. Management of diabetes in the UK is predicted to cost more than £39.8 billion by 2035–36 (estimated at £23.7 billion in 2014) [1], posing serious public health challenges to the UK. In Wales, around 10% (£500 million) of the annual NHS Wales budget is used for patients with diabetes managed in primary and secondary care [2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 20, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Q.Z. Siah, N.H. Ubeysekara, P.N. Taylor, S.J. Davies, F.S. Wong, C.M. Dayan, M. Alhadj Ali Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Evaluation of the metformin initiation rate in veterans with newly identified type 2 diabetes
In 2018, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated nearly 35 million individuals (10.5% of the population) in the United States have diabetes [1]. In asymptomatic patients, the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes can be made based upon an abnormal fasting plasma glucose, two-hour plasma glucose, or hemoglobin A1C. In clinical practice in the United States, A1C is the most common method of diagnosis as it does not require a fasting lab draw and tends to be more feasible for patients. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 15, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Kelsey J. Zenti, Meaghan M. Meyer, Nancee V. Waterbury, Jason A. Egge Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Neck circumference and metabolic syndrome: A cross-sectional population-based study
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as a cluster of several metabolic risk factors, including obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia [1,2]. MetS is known to be associated with increased odds for developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and a recent report showed that majority of global disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to diabetes and CVDs can be attributed to metabolic risk factors, including impaired fasting glucose and hypertension [3,4]. Diagnosis of MetS can lead to recognizing patients possibly at risk of these complications and provides the opportunity to prevent these o...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 15, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Hooman Ebrahimi, Payam Mahmoudi, Farhad Zamani, Sedighe Moradi Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Evaluation of clinical and antidiabetic treatment characteristics of different sub-groups of patients with type 2 diabetes: Data from a Mediterranean population database
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world, which is likely to increase the incidence of complications associated with the disease [1]. This situation calls for improved treatment of hyperglycaemia and other risk factors associated with T2DM in order to lower the risk of both micro- and macrovascular complications and their related economic costs, as proposed by all international and national consensus documents and guidelines [2 –6]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 15, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Manel Mata-Cases, Josep Franch-Nadal, Jordi Real, Bogdan Vlacho, Ant ón Gómez-García, Dídac Mauricio Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Glucose regulation and pain in older people —The Helsinki Birth Cohort Study
In the general population, pain is a common problem and an important reason for seeking medical attention [1]. The prevalence of chronic pain in European countries at population level has been estimated to be around 12 –30% [2], but studies from individual countries have reported an even higher prevalence of more than 50% [3,4]. In Finland, chronic pain affects approximately 19–35% of the population [2,5] and pain is the primary symptom in nearly one third of the visits to health care centres [6]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 10, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Max J. Åström, Mikaela B. von Bonsdorff, Maija Haanpää, Minna K. Salonen, Hannu Kautiainen, Johan G. Eriksson Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Association of health literacy and other risk factors with glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes in Kuwait: A cross-sectional study
Health literacy (HL) is defined as the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions [1]. Limited HL is associated with the development of poor control of health outcomes like glycemic control [2]. Specifically, HL is an essential factor among chronic disease patients who have to manage their health conditions and related complications for the rest of their lives [3,4]. In general, it has been shown that chronic disease patients with inadequate HL knew less about their disease than those with adequate HL [5]...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 8, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Shaimaa H. Hussein, Ahmed N. Albatineh, Abdullah Almajran, Ali H. Ziyab Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Estimating the burden of type 2 diabetes in the UK prison environment for the next decade
Using health data collected from a current prison sample, this cross-sectional study estimated that in the next decade 6.4 individuals (aged 25 –84) per 100 would develop type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and this value increased to 16.4 individuals per 100 in the oldest age group (50 years and older). (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 8, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Benjamin J. Gray, Christie Craddock, Zoe Couzens, Evie Bain, Gareth J. Dunseath, Ananda Giri Shankar, Stephen D. Luzio, Stephanie E. Perrett Tags: Brief report Source Type: research

Effectiveness of intervention program on the change of glycaemic control in diabetes with depression patients: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies
Diabetes is an endocrine disorder with high prevalence in every region of the world. Depression is common to both type 1 and 2 diabetes [1]. Studies reported that the prevalence of type 2 diabetes comorbid depression is about twice much than the general population [2]. According to cross-sectional studies, there was 24% –30% for depression in type 2 diabetes [3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 5, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Xiaobing Lu, Dongying Yang, Jiaquan Liang, Guojun Xie, Xuesong Li, Caixia Xu, Hairong Liao, Hui Zhou, Zhenyu Xu, Chan Ye, Haixia Chen, Meihong Liang, Qi Shen, Ting Sun, Yutong Hu, Weizhi Zhang, Yuping Ning Tags: Review Source Type: research

Knowledge of ocular complications of diabetes in community-based people with type 2 diabetes: The Fremantle Diabetes Study II
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common diabetes complication and leading cause of vision loss globally [1,2]. Early stage DR is usually asymptomatic with significant vision loss occurring late in the disease process [3], but screening and early intervention reduce the risk of severe visual impairment and blindness by up to 90% [4]. Diabetes is also associated with cataracts, maculopathy and glaucoma [5 –7]. Lack of awareness of the ocular effects of diabetes may prevent people with diabetes from attending ophthalmic screening, while those who have vision loss and are worried about their eyesight are more likely to att...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 4, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Jocelyn J. Drinkwater, Fred K. Chen, Wendy A. Davis, Timothy M.E. Davis Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Relationship between diabetic retinopathy microalbuminuria and other modifiable risk factors
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a rapidly evolving global pandemic with Asia being its epicentre [1]. Hyperglycemia affects the entire vascular tree giving rise to both macrovascular and microvascular complications that increase both morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is an important microvascular complication affecting the retina leading to irreversible blindness among working age individuals around the world [2]. However, the prevalence of DR has been reported to be lower in Asians compared to their western counterparts [3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 4, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Shubhaa Chawla, Siddhant Trehan, Aastha Chawla, Shalini Jaggi, Rajeev Chawla, Vinay Kumar, Depender Singh Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Effectiveness of a Patient-Centre Medical Home model on diabetes and other clinically relevant outcomes among primary care patients diagnosed with type-2 diabetes in Sydney, Australia
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) continues to rise worldwide, and its strong association with increased morbidity and mortality is well documented [1,2]. In Australia, it is reported that the prevalence rates have tripled over the last 25 years despite pharmaceutical and technological advancements in medicine [3]. The National Health Survey (NHS) 2018 reported that diabetes accounted for 11% of all deaths in Australia, and that there are currently 1.3 million self-reported diabetes cases and an additional estimated 0.5 million undiagnosed cases [4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 2, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: James Rufus John, W. Kathy Tannous, Amanda Jones Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Micro-controlled thermal stimulator for detecting fine fiber changes in patients with diabetes mellitus: a diagnostic accuracy study
According to the World Health Organization and the International Diabetes Federation [1], diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered a chronic non-communicable disease that occurs when there is insufficient insulin production or resistance to the action of this hormone. The increase in the morbidity and mortality rates of DM is related to the development of chronic complications, which can be classified as micro- or macro-vascular complications. Micro-vascular complications of DM include retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy; whereas, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are characterized as chronic macro-vascular comp...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 1, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Jo ão Corrêa Paixão, Fábio Ricardo de Oliveira, Nathalia Sernizon Guimarães, José Augusto Nogueira Machado, Maria Regina Calsolari Pereira de Souza Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Remote patient monitoring sustains reductions of hemoglobin A1c in underserved patients to 12 months
Diabetes mellitus affects approximately 30 million people in the U.S. [1], where it is estimated to contribute to over 7 million hospitalizations per year and is associated with $245 billion in annual direct and indirect costs [2]. Despite this enormous spending, the U.S. has a higher prevalence of diabetes and poorer health outcomes than other nations worldwide [3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - January 25, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Elizabeth B. Kirkland, Justin Marsden, Jingwen Zhang, Samuel O. Schumann, John Bian, Patrick Mauldin, William P. Moran Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Integrated quality assessment for diabetes care in Portuguese primary health care using prevention quality indicators
Contemporary challenges and pressures have shown us the importance of establishing quality in healthcare as a priority, essential in the planning of health systems worldwide not as a generic or intangible discourse, but as a tool for systematic and consistent evaluation. In a world that tendentially evolves towards universal health coverage [1] many factors affect the quality of healthcare and the way patients seek it and are treated [2 –4]. Perfect health systems do not exist but achieving established goals in a responsible manner is crucial and requires the efforts of those involved [5,7]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - January 10, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: A. Ramalho, P. Castro, M. Lobo, J. Souza, P. Santos, A. Freitas Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Importance of hyperglycemia in COVID-19 intensive-care patients: Mechanism and treatment strategy
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that has affected more than 57,000,000 cases and caused about 1,700,000 deaths as of 29 December 2020 [1]. Studies also showed that the rate of hospital admission among COVID-19 infected subjects is very variable ranged from 3% to 100% of confirmed cases. Studies showed that COVID-19 hospitalization rate in United States is above 15% [1]. Among those who are hospitalized, more than one fourth requires intensive care unit (ICU) admission, representing about 5% to 10 % of the total infected cases [2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - January 9, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Fatemeh Mirzaei, Iraj Khodadadi, Alireza Vafaii, Ebrahim Abbasi-Oshaghi, Heidar Tayebinia, Farhad Farahani Tags: Review Source Type: research

Impact of Lockdown COVID-19 on Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Healthy People
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to SARS-CoV-2 viral infection, outbreak forced Turkey to begin lockdown on 20 March 2020. Schools, hospitals, universities, restaurants, and most public entertainment areas, including sports arenas, cafes, and swimming pools were closed in this period. Travel ban has been applied between cities. There had been a nearly complete lockdown for under 18, over 65 aged people, and people who had chronic diseases (diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, cancer, etc.). (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - January 9, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Savas Karatas, Tijen Yesim, Selvihan Beysel Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Incidence of antiepileptic drug therapy and factors associated with their prescribing in outpatients with diabetic polyneuropathy
The prevalence of diabetes in adults is around 9.3% worldwide, and this number is projected to increase to 10.2% by 2030 and 10.9% by 2045, underscoring the large and growing burden associated with this chronic condition [1]. One of the most frequent complications of diabetes is diabetic polyneuropathy, and it is estimated that up to 51% of people with diabetes are affected by peripheral neuropathy [2]. Diabetic polyneuropathy has a negative impact on physical functioning [3], mental health (e.g., depression [4] and anxiety disorders [5]), and quality of life [6] and is associated with major health-related costs [7] and de...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - January 6, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Louis Jacob, Marcel Kaiser, Karel Kostev Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Observational study on Effect of Lock Down due to COVID 19 on HBA1c levels in patients with Diabetes: Experience from Central India
As world is facing the pandemic due to COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019) which has high infection rate, several measures are being taken to prevent its spread. And a major step taken by government of India in order to prevent its spread is temporary lock down of country along with all precautions advised like social distancing and social isolation [1]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - January 1, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Jaideep Khare, Sushil Jindal Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Effect of remote management on comprehensive management of diabetes mellitus during the COVID-19 epidemic
A novel coronavirus pathogen was found through sequencing analysis of lower respiratory tract samples in December 2019. It was named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the disease caused by the novel coronavirus was called COVID-19 [1,2]. On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 outbreak a public health emergency of international concern and a global disaster. On March 11, 2020, the outbreak escalated into a pandemic and spread across the globe [3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - January 1, 2021 Category: Primary Care Authors: Jing Kang, Yan Chen, Ying Zhao, Chuan Zhang Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Editorial Board and Aims & Scopes
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - December 29, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - December 29, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Health care service use and costs for a cohort of high-needs elderly diabetic patients
Globally, the number of people with diabetes mellitus has quadrupled in the past three decades and diabetes mellitus is the ninth major cause of death [1]. The WHO estimates that over 422 million adults now have diabetes, with a growth in the disease ’s global prevalence from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014 [2], which especially involves people aged>65 years [3]. A previous study also found that almost the totality (97.5%) of diabetes patients had at least one comorbid condition and almost 9 in 10 had at least two [4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - December 25, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Alessandra Buja, Riccardo Caberlotto, Carlo Pinato, Simona Fortunata Mafrici, Umberto Bolzonella, Giulia Grotto, Tatjana Baldovin, Stefano Rigon, Roberto Toffanin, Vincenzo Baldo Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Relationship between uric acid and lipid accumulation product index by gender in Korean adults: The 2016 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Adipose tissue, composed of adipocytes, pre-adipocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and macrophages, is recognized as a major player in metabolic regulation [1]. Adipose tissue can cause glucose and lipid metabolism disorders by several mechanisms, such as adipose tissue hypoxia and inhibition of adiponectin expression [2,3]. Visceral fat, also known as intra-abdominal fat, is located inside the peritoneal cavity, packed in between internal organs and the torso, as opposed to subcutaneous fat, which is found underneath the skin, and intramuscular fat, which is found interspersed in skeletal muscle [4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - December 21, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Jeong Min Seong, Chang Eun Park, Mi Young Gi, Ju Ae Cha, Eun Young Jung, Jun Ho Lee, Hyun Ho Sung, Seung Bum Yang, Bae Lee, Jae Heon Lim, Hyun Yoon Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Diabetes care quality according to facility setting: A cross-sectional analysis in six Peruvian regions
Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major public health problem, with about 422 million cases in 2014 worldwide, of which 46% are not aware of their diagnosis [1]. Diabetes care includes glycaemic and metabolic control in order to diminish morbidity and mortality from diabetic complications [2], and guidelines recommend that nonpregnant adults with diabetes have regular assessments of fasting glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), plasma serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), creatinine or microalbumin, foot evaluation, and eye evaluation [3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - December 20, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Jorge R. Calderon-Ticona, Alvaro Taype-Rondan, Georgina Villamonte, L. Max Lab án-Seminario, Luis M. Helguero-Santín, J. Jaime Miranda, Maria Lazo-Porras Source Type: research

Variation between general practitioners in type 2 diabetes processes of care
Type 2 diabetes is a complex disease placing high demands on both patients and health care professionals. General practitioners are supposed to counsel patients in self-management and lifestyle modifications, monitor risk factors, screen for and treat complications, pursue individualized treatment targets and manage medications for hyperglycemia, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. A gap in the quality between the recommended and actual care for type 2 diabetes patients is well documented [1,2], as well as variations in quality within provider levels, regions and countries [3 –9]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - December 19, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Kjersti N økleby, Tore Julsrud Berg, Ibrahimu Mdala, Anh Thi Tran, Åsne Bakke, Bjørn Gjelsvik, Tor Claudi, John G. Cooper, Karianne F. Løvaas, Geir Thue, Sverre Sandberg, Anne K. Jenum Source Type: research

Primary Care Diabetes Europe (PCDE): Colophon
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - December 17, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Happy new year
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - December 17, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Burning sensation in the feet and glycosylated haemoglobin levels in Swedish- and non –Swedish-born primary healthcare patients
A painful burning sensation in the feet (BSF) is a common problem, especially in older adults [1,2]. The most usual cause is small fibre neuropathy, a type of peripheral neuropathy [2]. Small fibre neuropathy is often a consequence of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes [2 –4]. Other risk factors are chronic alcohol abuse [5,6], vitamin B12 deficiency and individual components of the metabolic syndrome [1]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - December 15, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Marina Taloyan, Shakila Momtaz, Kristin Steiner, Claes-G öran Östenson, Helena Salminen Source Type: research

Patterns in the prevalence of diabetes and incidence of diabetic complications in people with and without an intellectual disability in Dutch primary care: Insights from a population-based data-linkage study
Approximately 1.5% of the population in Western countries has an intellectual disability (ID), defined by having significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, affecting everyday social and practical skills, and originating before the age of 18 [1 –3]. Multimorbidity is common in people with ID, with diabetes among its prominent contributors [4]. Many countries, including The Netherlands, promote community living arrangements for people with ID and offer them the same primary and community care as available to the general population, includ ing for the purpose of diabetes managemen...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - December 12, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Maarten Cuypers, Martijn Leijssen, Esther J. Bakker-van Gijssel, Katrien P.M. Pouls, Mathilde M. Mastebroek, Jenneken Naaldenberg, Geraline L. Leusink Source Type: research

Chronic kidney disease prevalence and cardiovascular risk in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes followed for 10 years in Badajoz (Spain). An observational study
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents the most frequent form of diabetes (90 –95% of cases) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of its most common and devastating complications. CKD and T2DM are highly prevalent chronic diseases that represent a significant public health problem and require multidisciplinary management. Patients with T2DM and CKD are a special risk gro up as they have higher morbidity and mortality and are at a higher risk of hypoglycaemia than individuals with diabetes and normal renal function [1,2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - December 12, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Juan Ignacio Calvo-Hueros, Mar ía Victoria Martín-Hidalgo-Barquero, José Antonio Morales-Gabardino, Francisco Buitrago Source Type: research