Beyond the virus: Ensuring continuity of care for people with diabetes during COVID-19
The current COVID-19 pandemic is a major concern for the diabetes community. A meta-analysis in China found that the proportions of people with COVID-19 and diabetes was 9.7% and that having diabetes resulted in a two-fold increased risk of having a severe case. Global guidance on confinement measures for the prevention of COVID-19 have a particular emphasis on vulnerable populations which include people with diabetes. These recommendations are coherent to avoid the spread of SARSCoV-2 infection, but are in contradiction with comprehensive diabetes care, which requires regular patient –provider interactions for patie...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 30, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: David Beran, Sigiriya Aebischer Perone, Montserrat Castellsague Perolini, Fran çois Chappuis, Pierre Chopard, Dagmar M. Haller, Frédérique Jacquerioz Bausch, Hubert Maisonneuve, Nicolas Perone, Giacomo Gastaldi Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Falls in older people with diabetes: Identification of simple screening measures and explanatory risk factors
Diabetes mellitus affects approximately 8.5% of people aged over 18 years [1] and more than 16% of people aged over 65 years [2] The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is projected to increase from 366 million in 2011 to 553 million in 2030 [3]. Diabetes mellitus is now a worldwide pandemic, with two thirds of the global diabetes population living in the developing countries [4]. In Sri Lanka the diabetes mellitus prevalence has increased dramatically over the past 15 years in both urban and rural districts with major impacts on sufferers and the health care system [4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 27, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Asha H. Wettasinghe, Dilshani W.N. Dissanayake, Lara Allet, Prasad Katulanda, Stephen R. Lord Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Obesity and risk of COVID-19: analysis of UK Biobank
Whilst emerging evidence has suggested that those with cardiometabolic diseases are at higher risk of severe COVID-19 and resulting complications, less is known about the relative importance of related lifestyle factors. Obesity in particular is associated with impaired pulmonary function, a suppressed immune system and has been identified as a risk factor in previous infectious outbreaks [1]. Obesity also appears to be prevalent in subjects with COVID-19 [1,2]. However, as recently highlighted, there is a lack of information regarding the nature of association between body mass index (BMI) and COVID-19 [3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 27, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Thomas Yates, Cameron Razieh, Francesco Zaccardi, Melanie J. Davies, Kamlesh Khunti Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

SGLT-2 inhibitors for COVID-19 — A miracle waiting to happen or just another beat around the bush?
In the absence of an effective drug or vaccine against novel severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus (SARS-Cov-2) till date, “repurposing approach” of old pharmaceuticals has been applied to combat against 2019-coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Hydroxychloroquine, anti-retrovirals, type-1 angiotesin receptor blockers, statin, vitamin D, melatonin etc are being tried with questionable benefits [1]. While there are intens ive debates regarding safety of different classes of antidiabetics at the advent of COVID-19 [2,3], multiple ongoing studies are evaluating the adjuvant role of various antidiaetics like di...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 27, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Subhankar Chatterjee Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to sugar sweetened beverages and taxation among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Caribbean island of Barbados – A cross sectional survey in primary care
Barbados, a small Caribbean island with a population of 280,000 [1] is classified as having a high income economy by the World Bank [2]. The diabetes mellitus prevalence in people 25 years of age and over is estimated to be 18.7% [3]. Management of this condition and its complications place a significant demand on the island's health care system with 42.5% of beds in the island's main hospital being occupied by people with diabetes [4]. A high lower limb amputation rate has been reported [5] and approximately 10% of the budget of the island's main hospital is spent on renal dialysis services [6]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 26, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Khatija A.S. Mangera, O. Peter Adams Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Screening and follow-up of pregestational diabetes and gestational diabetes mellitus: A survey of primary care physicians in Belgium
Parallel with the rise of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the western world, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing, occurring in 8 –26% of pregnancies [1,2]. While GDM may lead to complications related to macrosomia and increases the postpartum risk for T2DM, women with pregestational T2DM are at increased risk of congenital anomalies [1,3]. Therefore, timely detection of overt diabetes in pregnancy, GDM and postpartum glucos e intolerance is critical. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 26, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Eveline Vercammen, Lucas Van Hoof, Chris Vercammen, Geert Goderis, Katrien Benhalima Tags: Original research Source Type: research

The effect of diabetes education and short message service reminders on metabolic control and disease management in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) by its ever-increasing prevalence, is a real serious public health problem for Turkey and all over the world [1,2]. Patients with DM, the number of whom is increasing day by day, need to have sufficient knowledge and skills about diabetes management in order to live their lives healthily and comfortably. For these reasons, it is recommended that diabetes education to be a cornerstone of diabetes treatment; however, fewer than half of patients with diabetes have access to diabetes education programs [1]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 26, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: T ürkan Akyol Güner, Gülhan Coşansu Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Improving compliance with diabetes care using a novel mnemonic: A quality improvement project in an urban primary care clinic
Diabetes ranks as the seventh leading cause of death in the United States [1]. With 30 million Americans (1 in 10) diagnosed with diabetes, medical and related costs now stand at $327 billion —a 26% increase from 2012 to 2017 alone [2]. From 2003 to 2010 up to 50% of adults with diabetes did not receive preventive education, vaccinations, and examinations, or meet goals for hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) [3]. A follow up study through 2014 showed no improvement in HbA1C goals [4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 24, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Neander Tabingo, Ana Verzone Source Type: research

Editorial Board and Aims & Scopes
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Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 19, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Contents
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Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 19, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Potentially inappropriate medications in older individuals with diabetes: A population-based study in Quebec, Canada
Older individuals with diabetes have an average of five comorbidities [1], which inevitably increases the burden of medications they face. Diabetes is indeed associated with a higher risk of polypharmacy [2]. As large numbers of medications increase the risk of using potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) [3], older individuals with diabetes are susceptible to PIM exposure [3 –5]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 10, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Marie-Eve Gagnon, Caroline Sirois, Marc Simard, Barbara Roux, C éline Plante Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Primary Care Diabetes Europe: Colophon
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Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 6, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Primary Care Diabetes Europe (PCDE): Colophon
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Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 6, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Society News
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Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 5, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Investigation on the association between diabetes distress and productivity among patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus in the primary healthcare institutions
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease that affects different aspects of patients ’ lives clinically, psychologically and economically [1]. Many studies have highlighted the clinical consequences of uncontrolled T2DM [2] and the economic impacts of long-term management, specifically via the reporting of direct costs [3]. However, psychological impacts such as diabetes distress and T2DM’s impact on the indirect costs, specifically work and life productivity losses, are understated [4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 27, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Yingqi Xu, Gabrielle Yin Yern Tong, Joyce Yu-Chia Lee Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Screening for depression in diabetes in an Indian primary care setting: Is depression related to perceived quality of life?
The rising global prevalence of diabetes has made it a burgeoning public health problem. Estimates predict a 69% rise in diabetes prevalence in developing countries as against 20% in developed nations by 2030 [1]. Currently, 80% of people with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries out of which only 50% receive some form of care [2]. Prevalence of depression in patients with diabetes is three times the rates in non-diabetic population which further complicates the healthcare needs of this population [3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 25, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Suravi Patra, Binod Kumar Patro, Manaswini Mangaraj, Soumya Swaroop Sahoo Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Association between intensive glycemic control and mortality in elderly diabetic patients in the primary care: A retrospective cohort study
Hyperglycemia imparts elevated risk of developing micro- and macro-vascular complications. These complications explain the substantially increased risk of morbidity and mortality seen in diabetic patients with poorly controlled haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level [1,2]. However, over-aggressive efforts of glycemic control to lower the HbA1c level had been met with some controversy as to whether attaining low levels of HbA1c ( (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 12, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Derek GC Ying, SH Ko, YC Li, Catherine XR Chen Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Advances in glucose monitoring: Improving diabetes management through evidence-based medicine
When continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was introduced it was greeted in the same manner as self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) 30 years earlier. In the 1970 ’s and 1980’s papers questioned SMBG accuracy and reliability, the same occurred in the period following the introduction of CGM [1–4]. This review examines the fate of glucose monitoring over the past 40 years with an emphasis on the latest developments. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - April 6, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Roger Mazze Tags: Review Source Type: research

Total and partial clinical inertia of general physicians with type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Central Bosnia Canton
According to the literature indexed in MEDLINE, Phillips provided the first definition of clinical inertia (CI) in 2001, stating that if a physician does not initiate or intensify treatment when it is necessary, it is a case of CI [1]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 13, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Marijan Marjanovi ć, Valerija Bralić Lang, Vedran Đido Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Identifying Africans with undiagnosed diabetes: Fasting plasma glucose is similar to the hemoglobin A1C updated Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities diabetes prediction equation
Seventy percent of Africans living with diabetes are undiagnosed [1]. Therefore, assessing the ability of diabetes prediction equations, as well as single variables to identify who should be referred for testing, is critical [2]. Diabetes prediction equations summarize the probability of diabetes based on multiple common risk criteria. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 13, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Regine Mugeni, Thomas Hormenu, Ars ène Hobabagabo, Elyssa M. Shoup, Christopher W. DuBose, Anne E. Sumner, Margrethe F. Horlyck-Romanovsky Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Higher patient assessed quality of chronic care is associated with lower diabetes distress among adults with early-onset type 2 diabetes: Cross-sectional survey results from the Danish DD2-study
The increasing number of high-risk younger adults with type 2 diabetes poses a significant challenge for health care systems worldwide [1]. Adults with early-onset (age approximately 20 –45 years) type 2 diabetes are characterised by higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors [2–4] and worse psychosocial outcomes [5,6] than older people with type 2 diabetes. This underlines the need for high quality and lifelong chronic care in this group. However, recent studies have fou nd low screening [7] and inadequate treatment of risk factors [8], as well as insufficient adherence to medication [9] and to eye scree...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 10, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Anne Bo, Nanna Husted Jensen, Flemming Bro, Sia Kromann Nicolaisen, Helle Terkildsen Maindal Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and Modified Asian FINDRISC (ModAsian FINDRISC) for screening of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus and dysglycaemia in primary care
Diabetes mellitus is a major health care problem globally and it leads to multiple complications that burden the health care systems worldwide [1]. The Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMS) showed that the prevalence of diabetes in adults had risen from 11.6% in 2006 to 17.5% in 2015 [2,3]. The increasing trend could be due to the increasing obesity, population aging, increasing urbanization and unhealthy lifestyles [4]. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) 2015 recommended screening of diabetes in all adults aged ≥45 years old and those younger if at risk. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 7, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Hooi Min Lim, Yook Chin Chia, Zhong Lin Koay Source Type: research

Association between community outpatient clinic care accessibility and the uptake of diabetic retinopathy screening: A multi-level analysis
Diabetes is one of the most prevalent non-communicable diseases, affecting approximately 425 million people worldwide. It is expected to affect 629 million people by 2045 [1]. Diabetes and diabetes-related complications have significant effects on the healthcare system and have become major public health concerns [2,3]. Among numerous complications, diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major microvascular disease that is a leading cause of vision impairment and blindness in the working population (aged 20 –65 years). (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 3, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Hin Moi Youn, Doo Woong Lee, Eun-Cheol Park Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Clinical update: The important role of dual kidney function testing (ACR and eGFR) in primary care: Identification of risk and management in type 2 diabetes
Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with increased morbidity and mortality [1], primarily due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) [2 –6]. Diabetes is also a key risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), such as diabetic nephropathy, also known as diabetic kidney disease (DKD), and affects people with both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) [7,8]. Although short-term hyperglycaemia does not result in serious clinical complications, extended hyperglycaemia, a hallmark of diabetes, is a major causative factor in initiating kidney damage [9]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - March 2, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Samuel Seidu, Jonathan Barrat, Kamlesh Khunti Tags: Review Source Type: research

Editorial Board and Aims & Scopes
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Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 29, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Contents
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Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 29, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Prevalence, risk factors, and management of uncontrolled hypertension among patients with diabetes: A hospital-based cross-sectional study
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a globally chronic condition that currently affects over 422 million people worldwide, a number that has been estimated to grow to 552 million by 2030 [1,2]. Saudi Arabia is one of the nations with the highest DM prevalence regionally and internationally [3]. Hypertension (HT) is more common in patients with diabetes than in those without diabetes [4,5]. The co-occurrence of HT has a substantial clinical effect of producing a poor outcome for patients with diabetes. Complications such as renal failure, stroke, heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and mortality are the most adverse outcomes ...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 27, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Ziyad S. Almalki, Ahmad A. Albassam, Noura Saleh Alhejji, Badriah Shujaa Alotaibi, Lama Abdullah Al-Oqayli, Nehad Jaser Ahmed Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Evaluation of the relationship among foot wound risk, foot self-care behaviors, and illness acceptance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
In 2013, it was estimated that approximately 382 million adults worldwide were living with diabetes mellitus (DM). This number is expected to increase by 55% to reach 592 million by 2035 [1]. The Turkey Diabetes Epidemiology Research Project (TURDEP-I study) conducted in 1997 –1998 reported a national Type 2 DM prevalence of 7.2%. Subsequently, the TURDEP-II study conducted in 2010 reported that this prevalence has increased to 13.7% [2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 27, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Selma Şahin, Dilek Cingil Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Upcoming events
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Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 21, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Primary Care Diabetes Europe (PCDE): Colophon
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Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 20, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Associations between self-management behavior and sociodemographic and disease-related characteristics in elderly people with type 2 diabetes — New results from the population-based KORA studies in Germany
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a widespread chronic metabolic disease affecting approximately 425 million people globally [1,2]. In Germany, the prevalence of diabetes ranges between 7 and 10% and constitutes the fifth leading cause of death [3,4]. T2D is associated with severe long-term micro- and macrovascular complications, an increased risk of premature mortality, lower quality of life, lower productivity, and higher health care costs [5 –7]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 19, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Jana Becker, Karl M.F. Emmert-Fees, Gregory Gordon Greiner, Wolfgang Rathmann, Barbara Thorand, Annette Peters, Florian M. Karl, Michael Laxy, Lars Schwettmann Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Intermediate hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome among obese Arab children (12 –17 years old) in Kuwait
In Kuwait, about 50% of schoolchildren are obese or overweight based on the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, with higher prevalence of obesity in boys [1]. Thus, a large proportion of children can be considered at risk of developing non-communicable diseases later in life. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 18, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Lena Davidsson, Emma Alkhabbaz, Vidya Vijayan, Asma Alhubail, Azza Shaltout, Hessa Alkandari Tags: Brief report Source Type: research

Association between mean arterial pressure and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Rural Chinese Cohort Study
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a considerable risk factor of cardiovascular disease, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and mortality [1 –4]. Diabetes caused 4 million deaths in 2017, with more than 0.84 million in China [5]. The prevalence of T2DM is increasing in many countries with the speeding up of urbanization and change in lifestyle. The International Diabetes Federation estimated that approximately 425 million adults (20– 79 years) were living with diabetes in 2017, 79% were from low- and middle-income countries, and this number would rise to 629 million by 2045 [5]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 16, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Chunmei Guo, Pei Qin, Quanman Li, Dongdong Zhang, Gang Tian, Dechen Liu, Leilei Liu, Cheng Cheng, Xu Chen, Ranran Qie, Minghui Han, Shengbing Huang, Qionggui Zhou, Feiyan Liu, Xiaoyan Wu, Yang Zhao, Yongcheng Ren, Yu Liu, Xizhuo Sun, Honghui Li, Bingyuan Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Review of the renal endpoints used in cardiovascular safety clinical trials in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and their importance in primary care” [Primary Care Diabetes 13 (6) (2019) 485–494]
The authors would like to inform the readers that errors were made in the original article. The authors wish to revise the following contents: (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 14, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Jose Luis G órriz, Francesc Xavier Cos Claramunt, Natalia Duque, Arantxa Matali Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Challenges in insulin initiation among Hispanics/Latinos with diabetes in the United States
In the U.S., the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes is particularly high among people of Hispanic ethnicity. Insulin is pivotal for maintaining glycemic control, but its initiation is often delayed due to a variety of patient and physician factors. We conducted a systematic literature review to understand and communicate the current gaps and disparities regarding insulin initiation among the Hispanic/Latino population in the U.S. Frequently reported barriers to initiating diabetes treatment are related to socioeconomic and sociocultural factors. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 13, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Puneet Kaushik, Beverly Reed, Samaneh Kalirai, Magaly Perez-Nieves Source Type: research

Associations between depressive symptoms and being employed or retired in older adults with type 2 diabetes
Diabetes and mental illness are two morbidities that have increased in recent years around the world and in particular in Europe [1,2]. The World Health Organization estimates that the proportion of people with diabetes aged 25 years and over in the European region is around 10% (10.3% of men and 9.6% of women) [3]. Although diabetes is increasing at all ages, it remains a risk condition for older adults. If nothing is done to counteract the increasing trend of this morbidity, the number of deaths from this cause between 2005 and 2030 can double [3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 11, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Maria Piedade Brand ão, Margarida Fonseca Cardoso Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Diabetes control in Asian Americans — Disparities and the role of acculturation
Asian Americans (AA) are more likely to develop diabetes (DM) [1] and its complications than non-Hispanic whites (whites) [2]. Racial/ethnic minorities such as non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics with DM were less likely to achieve the recommended goals for glycemic, cholesterol and blood pressure (BP), collectively known as ‘ABCs of DM’, than whites [3]; however, less is known on DM control in AA with diagnosed DM. Acculturation has been associated with improved health service unitization, disease screening and management practices, and may be related to better DM control [4,5]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 11, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Yilin Yoshida, Vivian A. Fonseca Tags: Brief report Source Type: research

Perceptions of health care professionals towards clinical practice guidelines: The case of Diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Arabia
There is an international concern in the health field regarding the management, detection and control of Diabetes Mellitus. This is due mainly to two reasons, namely, the dramatic increase in the prevalence of the disease and its complications, and its social and economic impact, especially in developing countries [1 –3]. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated that the number of adults who were living with diabetes in 2011 was 366 million and it is expected to reach 693 million by 2045 [4,5]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 11, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Nouf Sahal Alharbi, Musaad Alnashmi Alanazi Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Dry eyes in patients with diabetes mellitus
The eyes are affected in Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and diabetic retinopathy is one of the most feared complications of this disease [1]. Dry eyes may also occur in these patients and it contributes to loss of quality of life [2]; they cause blurred vision, photophobia and pruritus favoring the appearance of corneal ulcers [2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 10, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Gabriela Roncholeta De Freitas, Giovana Aparecida Moura Ferraz, Marcelo Gehlen, Thelma L. Skare Tags: Brief report Source Type: research

Oral health status among Spanish adults with diabetes: National Health Survey, 2017
It has been described that prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is steadily increasing. DM is an important health problem because worldwide prevalence estimate is 451 million of subjects in year 2017 with relevant social and economic repercussion [1]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 10, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Bel én Gomez-Aguilar, Rodrigo Jiménez-Garcia, Maria A. Palomar-Gallego, Valentín Hernández-Barrera, David Carabantes-Alarcón, Ana López-de Andres Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Middle –East: Systematic review & meta-analysis
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder described>by elevated levels of plasma glucose (or plasma sugar). It has become one of the major public health emergencies in the current century with more than 400 million adults are now living with diabetes worldwide. Over the past three decades, the global prevalence of diabetes has been doubled from 4.7% in 1980 (108 million) to 8.5% in 2014 (422 million) [1]. Interestingly, it has been increasing rapidly in low and middle income countries including the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region where the world witnessed the greatest escalation over the same span of time. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 7, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: K.H. Kalan Farmanfarma, A. Ansari-Moghaddam, I. Zareban, H.A. Adineh Tags: Review Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) for diabetes screening in Kayseri, Turkey
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a serious epidemic healthcare problem worldwide [1]. Clinical studies have shown that type 2 DM can be prevented or delayed by effective strategies [1 –3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - February 3, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: A. Timucin Atayoglu, Neriman Inanc, Eda Ba şmisirli, Aslı Gizem Çapar Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in patients with diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important public health issues worldwide. As the incidence of diabetes increases, the incidence of complications is expected to increase accordingly [1]. DPN is one of the most common complications of DM and it is caused by persistent high glucose levels. This problem is an important cause of disability and poor quality of life in diabetic patients [2]. It is also associated with an increased incidence of foot ulcers [3]. It has been reported that amputation in people with DPN is 10 –20 times more common than the group without diabetes. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - January 13, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Juan Sun, Ya Wang, Xiaoyi Zhang, Shengze Zhu, Hong He Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Seasonal variation of diabetes with hyperosmolarity hospitalizations and its characteristics in mainland Portugal
Diabetes is a chronic disease associated with multiple complications. Achievement of an adequate glycemic control is crucial for preventing complications. In Portugal, most type 2 diabetic patients are treated by family doctors in the primary care [1]. Portuguese guidelines suggest that HbA1c shall be tested every 6 months when glycemic targets are met or more frequently when metabolic control is inadequate [2]. Hospitalization of diabetic patients may occur due to comorbid states and/or inadequate metabolic control. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - January 13, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Carlos Gomes, D ébora Fonseca, Alberto Freitas Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Metabolic syndrome is not associated with erectile dysfunction in apparently healthy men
Both erectile dysfunction (ED) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are common conditions in the general population, and strongly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) [1] and diabetes mellitus [2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - January 13, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Susanna Kuneinen, Risto J. Kaaja, Tero J. Vahlberg, P äivi E. Korhonen Source Type: research

Impacts of gestational diabetes on quality of life in Chinese pregnant women in urban Tianjin, China
In the recent three decades, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has experienced a rapid increase in the world, in particular in Asian countries, due to rapid urbanization and increasing prevalence of sedentary lifestyles [1,2]. The increased prevalence of GDM and its associated long-term health outcomes in the mother and offspring has become a high global medical burden [3]. Women with GDM are at higher risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia during the index pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes [4,5], and at markedly increased risk of diabetes [6] and cardiovascular diseases [7] late...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - January 13, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Jinnan Liu, Shuting Wang, Junhong Leng, Jing Li, Xiaoxu Huo, Liang Han, Jin Liu, Cuiping Zhang, Juliana C.N. Chan, Zhijie Yu, Gang Hu, Xilin Yang Tags: Original research Source Type: research

The impact of pharmacist care on diabetes outcomes in primary care settings: An umbrella review of published systematic reviews
Diabetes is a chronic, debilitating illness of an increasing prevalence that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide [1]. In 2017, diabetes affected 8.8% of individuals between 20 –79 years of age globally [2], and will affect about 592 million people by 2035 [3,4]. Similarly, diabetes-related complications (e.g. nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, stroke, and cardiovascular diseases) are on the rise due to uncontrolled diabetes [5], resulting in high healthcare costs [6– 8]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - January 13, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Sara Abdulrhim, Sowndramalingam Sankaralingam, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim, Ahmed Awaisu Tags: Review Source Type: research

Inhibition of sodium glucose cotransporter-2 affects HbA1c levels in people with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and differing levels of glucagon
We compared outcomes of several people with different prescriptions in an attempt to determine the effects of diabetes-related treatments on HbA1c levels. The first clinical case involved an 82-year-old Japanese female who received a total pancreatectomy 6 years ago because of an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. She had not been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus before total pancreatectomy and was recently prescribed a sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i; Ipragliflozin) at 50 mg/day in addition to insulin preparations. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - January 13, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Junichi Okada, Eijiro Yamada, Shuichi Okada, Masanobu Yamada Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Glycemic control in Kuwaiti diabetes patients treated with glucose-lowering medication
Diabetes is a growing worldwide health concern and prevalence is particularly high in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). According to International Diabetes Federation, diabetes prevalence is 8.8% globally and 10.8% in the MENA region [1]. In Kuwaiti adults aged 18 –69 years, the age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes is 18.8% according to the latest survey [2]. The prevalence of diabetes-associated disorders in Kuwait such as obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia is also high [3,4]. Additionally, the socioeconomic burden of diabetes in Kuwait is high; the est imated cost of treating diabetes and its complication...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - January 5, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Ameera Abdullah, Abdullah Alkandari, Joseph C. Longenecker, Sriraman Devarajan, Ahmad Alkhatib, Rihab Al-Wotayan, Qais Al-Duwairi, Jaakko Tuomilehto Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Prevalence of comorbidities in patients with type –2 diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus (DM) by its ever-increasing prevalence, is a real serious public health problem for Turkey and all over the world [1,2]. TURDEP-1 and TURDEP-2 studies reveal an emerging epidemic of type 2 diabetes in Turkey [3,4]. Although more and more therapeutic options are becoming available day by day, there is still long way to go on terms of reaching treatment goals. One of the most important reasons for difficulties in management is comorbidity. Most diabetic patients have at least one co-morbidity, 40% of them have a minimum of 3 co-morbidities [5]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - January 2, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Seydahmet Ak ın, Cem Bölük Source Type: research