Characteristics of patients with hypertension in a population with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results from the Turkish Nationwide SurvEy of Glycemic and Other Metabolic Parameters of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (TEMD Hypertension Study)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common and a serious public health problem with chronic complications and a leading cause of cardiovascular disease [1]. T2DM and hypertension are interrelated diseases and diabetic complications are significantly increased with the coexistence of hypertension [2,3]. Not only hypertension prevalence is increased among patients with diabetes, but also hypertensive patients are more prone to develop T2DM [4 –6]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - December 1, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Tevfik Sabuncu, Alper Sonmez, Mehmet Ali Eren, Ibrahim Sahin, Demet Çorapçioğlu, Rıfkı Üçler, Şafak Akin, Cem Haymana, İbrahim Demirci, Ayşegül Atmaca, Halil Önder Ersöz, Ilhan Satman, Fahri Bayram, on behalf of the TEMD Study Group Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Utilizing continuous glucose monitoring in primary care practice: What the numbers mean
During the past five years, there has been an upsurge in use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) among individuals with type 1 diabetes [1]. The clinical benefits of CGM has been demonstrated in numerous studies of individuals with T1D regardless of insulin delivery method [2 –17]. The benefits of CGM use in this population include reductions in A1C [2,4,6,12,13,18–22], fewer severe hypoglycemia events [19,20,23], increased time within target glucose range (TIR) [6,13,14,24] and reductions in time below range [TBR] [6,13]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - November 28, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Steven V. Edelman, Tricia Santos Cavaiola, Schafer Boeder, Jeremy Pettus Tags: Review Source Type: research

Disparities in availability of services and prediction of the readiness of primary healthcare to manage diabetes in Tanzania
The burden of Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes is substantial and increasing globally, killing many people than all other causes combined [1]. However, the trend of this burden is disproportionally and rapidly affecting more Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) [2] due to epidemiological transition resulted from urbanization, and changes in demographics, lifestyle, and population structure in this region [3,4]. It is expected that by 2045 there will be 40.7 million adults aged 20 –79 years in SSA living with diabetes, more than double the number estimated in 2017 [5]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - November 28, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Deogratius Bintabara, Festo K. Shayo Source Type: research

1 h post-load plasma glucose: Should it be re-examined as a diagnostic criterion of diabetes?
According to the current American Diabetes Association guidelines, diagnosis of both pre-diabetes and diabetes in asymptomatic individuals is based on the measurements of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2-h PG) during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) [1]. Pre-diabetes is intermediate glucose metabolism abnormality, encompassing impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance, and borderline HbA1c [1]. Moreover, 1-h plasma glucose (1-h PG) during OGTT is used exclusively for diagnosing gestational diabetes [1]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - November 26, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Djordje S. Popovic, Nikolaos Papanas Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Cardiovascular events and mortality among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients newly prescribed first-line blood glucose-lowering drugs monotherapies: A population-based cohort study in the Catalan electronic medical record database, SIDIAP, 2010-2015
In T2DM na ïve patients, in first-line monotherapy, compared with metformin: (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - November 25, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Raquel Herrera Comoglio, Xavier Vidal Guitart Source Type: research

Editorial Board and Aims & Scopes
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - November 20, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - November 20, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Serum Uric Acid concentration is associated with insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion in adults at risk for Type 2 Diabetes
The pandemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has gradually increased over the last decades which has contributed to the global burden of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality [1 –3]. In addition, as one of the leading causes of disability worldwide, diabetes places massive global efforts to decrease its incidence in high-risk patients, including those with obesity [2,4]. Therefore, primary prevention of T2DM reduces the overwhelming costs to global health economies and mi nimizes the progression to micro and macrovascular complications [4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - November 17, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Froylan D. Mart ínez-Sánchez, Valerie Paola Vargas-Abonce, Anna Paula Guerrero-Castillo, Manuel De los Santos-Villavicencio, Jocelyn Eseiza-Acevedo, Clara Elena Meza-Arana, Alfonso Gulias-Herrero, Miguel Ángel Gómez-Sámano Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Diabetes care innovation in the Mexican Institute for Social Insurance: Scaling up the preventive chronic disease care model to address critical coverage constraints
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects 9.4 million adults aged 20 years and over in Mexico, equivalent to 13.7% of the total adult population and is the second leading cause of death, contributing with 9% of the total deaths that occur in the country — 100,000 per year [1,2]. Public and private institutions and providers make up the Mexican health system, and the Mexican Institute of Social Insurance (IMSS) covers 31.5 million adults over 20 years, –38% of the country’s total. IMSS covers private sector employees and their families through compulsory affiliation and employs 17,561 general practitioner and 90,587 n...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - November 14, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Miguel Ángel González Block, Sandra Patricia Díaz Portillo, Hortensia Reyes Morales, Joel Rodríguez Saldaña, Emilio Gutiérrez Calderón Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Integrated personalized diabetes management goes Europe: A multi-disciplinary approach to innovating type 2 diabetes care in Europe
In 2019, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated that worldwide approximately 463 million adults between 20 and 79 years of age were living with diabetes, (59 million in Europe), of whom roughly 90% had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [1]. The IDF further estimated that in the same year diabetes resulted in a global healthcare expenditure exceeding 760 billion USD, comprising approximately 10% of the total healthcare expenditure for adults worldwide, again with a large proportion due to the burden of T2DM. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - November 9, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Allan Jones, Jakob Eyvind Bardram, Per B ækgaard, Claus Lundgaard Cramer-Petersen, Timothy Skinner, Karsten Vrangbæk, Laila Starr, Kirsten Nørgaard, Nanna Lind, Merete Bechmann Christensen, Charlotte Glümer, Rui Wang-Sattler, Michael Laxy, Erik Brande Tags: Review Source Type: research

Determinants of successful diabetes self-management behaviors among women of Arab descent with Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) continues to be an escalating public health problem that contributes to increased morbidity and mortality worldwide [1]. T2D requires life-long self-management and daily decision making. If not treated and managed wisely, diabetes can cause serious health problems such as neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy [2]. Diabetes self-management (DSM) behaviors include healthy diet, physical exercise, blood glucose level monitoring, foot care, healthy coping, and medication taking [3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - November 8, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Mona Alanazi Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Primary Care Diabetes Europe (PCDE): Colophon
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - November 7, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Higher values of fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin are not associated with mortality in Covid-19 Mexican patients
The SARS-CoV-2 has left a huge impact on death balance associated with COVID-19 around the world. There is a high proportion of these patients with diabetes, who have been documented to have more significant mortality and serious complications [1]. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most frequent among this disease spectrum. T2DM is characterized by β-cell dysfunction, insulin resistance, and a chronic pro-inflammatory process that culminates in micro and macrovascular complications. Diabetes is a capital health problem in México, where approximately one out of ten adults older than 20 years has this diseas...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - November 5, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Jos é María Gastélum-Cano, María A. Islas-Osuna, José Adán Arízaga-Berber Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Upcoming events
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - November 3, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Physical activity levels by glycemia status: A population-based cross-sectional study in Peru
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major cause of morbidity (i.e. complications) and mortality in the world [1]. The prevalence of T2DM has doubled over the past 30 years becoming a public health concern, especially in low- and middle-income countries [2]. Thus, in 2017, the International Diabetes Federation estimated the global prevalence of T2DM at 8.8% [3], whereas the prevalence in Peru has been estimated in 7% [4], varying from 3.5% in the jungle to 8.4% in Lima, the capital. However, the highest prevalence has been described in the north of Peru, reaching 11% [5]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - November 2, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Antonelhla M. Ganoza-Calero, Milagros Cuadros-Torres, Antonio Bernab é-Ortiz Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor Regarding ‘COVID-19 and diabetes: What does the clinician need to know?’
We are writing with reference to recent article published in your journal by Papadokostaki et al [1]. Certainly, we agree with the association of diabetes with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the proposed mechanisms and its relationship with pneumonia are not fully presented. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - November 2, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Ebrahim Abbasi-Oshaghi, Fatemeh Mirzaei, Iraj Khodadadi Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Effect of CGM in the HbA1c and Coefficient of Variation of glucose in a pediatric sample
There are two steps to maintain blood glucose within optimal range for a Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus patient: (1) To know the value in real time and (2) to provide the necessary insulin. The main advantages of Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) are the continuous measurement of glucose, which shows all the peaks in values not seen with discontinuous measures, as well as decreasing the number of skin punctures [1], and increasing patient satisfaction [2]. The main disadvantage is a lack of accuracy which has been noted in several articles [3], although new models and algorithms have improved precision [4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - October 29, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Graciela Lou, Gemma Larramona, Teresa Montaner, Sara Barbed Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Self-perceived risk for diabetes among non-diabetic adolescents with overweight/obesity: Findings from NHANES
The prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (referred to hereinafter as diabetes) among adolescents has risen significantly over the last 2 decades [1], and experts have predicted further increases in the next 20 years [2]. There is considerable evidence indicating that the increasing prevalence of diabetes may be due to the ongoing childhood obesity epidemic in the United States (U.S.) [3]. Individuals with obesity are greater than 3 times more likely to develop diabetes in their lifetime, and that risk increases for individuals who gain excess weight earlier in life [4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - October 28, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: John P. Twarog, Brittany N. Russo, Ashley T. Russo, Alex F. Krichevsky, Elizabet Peraj, Kendrin R. Sonneville Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Efficacy, renal safety and tolerability of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: A real-world experience
The number of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is dramatically increasing worldwide, especially among people over the age of 65 years [1 –3]. Treatment of T2DM in older adults requires careful consideration, since the risk of comorbidities and hypoglycemic events increases with age [4]. Moreover, older diabetic patients are also prone to cognitive impairment, depression, frailty, and adverse events from polypharmacy that can furthe r complicate their management. For these reasons recent guidelines recommend an individualized approach to treating T2DM in older adults that balances achieving glycemic contr...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - October 28, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Andrea Tumminia, Marco Graziano, Federica Vinciguerra, Andrea Lomonaco, Lucia Frittita Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Review: Type 2 diabetes in Latin America and the Caribbean: Regional and country comparison on prevalence, trends, costs and expanded prevention
Diabetes is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally, affecting around 463 million adults, with 79% of them living in low and middle-income countries; approximately, the 90 % of all cases are type 2 diabetes [1]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - October 16, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: H éctor Gallardo-Rincón, Alejandra Cantoral, Alejandro Arrieta, Carlos Espinal, Marcia H. Magnus, Cristina Palacios, Roberto Tapia-Conyer Tags: Review Source Type: research

Evidence-based early stage type 2 diabetes follow-up in Belgian primary care practices: Impact of multi-professional teams and care protocols
The consequences of late detected or poorly diagnosed and monitored diabetes are considerable. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term dysfunction, and failure of the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Individuals with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) are also at significantly higher risk for stroke, coronary heart disease, and peripheral vascular disease [1]. These consequences increase the importance of early detection and a qualitative follow-up. Fortunately, the evidence on optimal care provision for people diagnosed with T2D is numerous. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - October 12, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Evi Matthys, Peter Van Bogaert, Sabrina Blommaert, Liesbeth Verdonck, Roy Remmen Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Effects of a health education program to promote healthy lifestyle and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized controlled trial
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects more than 450 million people worldwide and have been projected to increase to 650 million by 2040 [1]. This metabolic disorder is characterized by a chronic increase in blood sugar and other metabolic dysfunctions due to lack of insulin or insulin resistance [2]. If this condition could be managed and controlled better, the affected person would be less likely to experience a range of complications associated with disorder, including retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and cardiovascular disease [3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - October 11, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Hormoz Sanaeinasab, Mohsen Saffari, Davoud Yazdanparast, Aliakbar Karimi Zarchi, Faten Al-Zaben, Harold G. Koenig, Amir H. Pakpour Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Effects of perceived competence, negative appraisal, and motivation orientation on glycemic stability in individuals with type 2 diabetes :A prospective cohort study
Perceived competence to manage diabetes, diabetes appraisal, and motivation are psychological factors that target three important domains of diabetes self-care: patient competence, adjustment to diabetes, and patient autonomy (Table 1) [1 –3]. Perceived competence contributes to goal pursuit and attainment, by promoting behavioral engagement, learning and skill acquisition. Williams et al. found that change in perceived competence predicted diabetes self-care behaviors (diet, exercise, and glucose monitoring) and sustained glycemic change, concluding that enhanced patient competence could benefit chronic disease mana...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - October 9, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Emelia Mellerg ård, Per Johnsson, Frida Eek Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Real-world evaluation of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus in the German health care system
Hyperglycaemia with onset during pregnancy, also known as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), is a condition linked to short and long-term health burden for mother and child [1 –4]. To lower the morbidity burden of the disease in Germany, a guideline was developed first in 2011 and updated in 2018 [5,6]. In addition to treatment guidelines, a new screening algorithm was implemented into the German health care system in accordance with the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - October 4, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: P Reinders, Y Zoellner, U Schneider Source Type: research

Risk factor management of type 2 diabetic patients in primary care in the Scandinavian countries between 2003 and 2015
The major part of the population with type 2 diabetes in the Scandinavian countries (Sweden, Denmark, Norway) is managed in primary care. Many are diagnosed and followed for a length of time in primary care, and only the fraction that develops diabetic complications or treatment-resistant hyperglycemia are typically referred to secondary and tertiary centers for specialist treatment. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - October 4, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: S øren Tang Knudsen, Johan Bodegård, Kåre I. Birkeland, Kristian Furuseth, Marcus Thuresson, Anders Lindh, Peter M. Nilsson, Michael Alvarsson, Marit Eika Jørgensen, Jens Søndergaard, Frederik Persson Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Single prognostic cut-off value for admission glycemia in acute myocardial infarction has been used although high-risk stems from hyperglycemia as well as from hypoglycemia (a narrative review)
Admission blood glucose (ABGlu) concentration is very good, universally available and cheap prognostic parameter in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), both with ST elevation (STEMI) and without it (NSTEMI) [1]. To our knowledge, the good prognostic characteristics of admission glycemia are demonstrated in every published paper on the topic [2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 24, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Goran Kora ćević, Slađana Mićić, Milovan Stojanović, Miloje Tomašević, Tomislav Kostić, Maja Koraćević, Irena Janković Tags: Review Source Type: research

Use of pain relieving drugs in community-dwelling older people with and without type 2 diabetes
The proportion of people aged 65 years and older will double during the next decades [1]. With its increasing prevalence, diabetes will accumulate in the older population. Chronic pain is an important comorbid condition linked to diabetes [2,3], and frequent use of analgesics is common among older people [4,5]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 22, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Merja Karjalainen, Hannu Kautiainen, Juha Saltevo, Maija Haanp ää, Pekka Mäntyselkä, Miia Tiihonen Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Prevalence of urinary system, pelvic organ, and genital tract disorders among women with type 1 diabetes in Germany
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a lifelong disorder caused by an autoimmune reaction and the consequent destruction of pancreatic beta cells, leading to an absolute insulin deficiency in the body. To date, the only therapeutic option is insulin therapy, which is administered either as an MDI (multiple daily injection) or by means of an insulin pump [1]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 22, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Louisa van den Boom, Matthias Kalder, Karel Kostev Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Editorial Board and Aims & Scopes
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 15, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 15, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Triglyceride-glucose index predicts independently type 2 diabetes mellitus risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a non-communicable chronic disease with a high incidence in the world, which can lead to premature morbidity and mortality [1]. Currently, 422 million adults have diabetes [1] and the projections indicate an increase in the number for the year 2045, corresponding to 963 million people [2]. Due to the socio-economic impacts attributed to T2D with severe consequences for subjects, families, communities, and overloading health systems, developing measures to prevent and control T2D is one of the main challenges of the 21st century [3,4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 11, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Alessandra da Silva, Ana Paula Silva Caldas, Daniela Mayumi Usuda Prado Rocha, Josefina Bressan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Self-care in Iranian patients with diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Diabetes is one of the most common chronic metabolic disorders in the world and has been observed in nine percent of the world ’s population. In 2011, there were 366 million patients with diabetes in the world and this number will reach 552 million people by 2030 [1]. With a high prevalence in Iran, it is estimated that more than 4.6 million people will be diagnosed with diabetes by 2030 in this country [2]. Diabetes is a ssociated with various complications caused by damage to body organs such as renal failure, vision impairments, cardiovascular disease, diabetic foot ulcer, and mortality [3,4]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 9, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Fazel Dehvan, Farah Qasim Nasif, Sahar Dalvand, Davide Ausili, Ali Hasanpour Dehkordi, Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh Source Type: research

Unawareness of having hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes among medicated individuals
Hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes are the most common risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and frequently occur simultaneously in an individual. Moreover, these diseases are well known in the general population. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 8, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Kazuhiro Ohwaki Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Preexisting prediabetes and the severity of COVID-19
The emergence of a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, is spreading rapidly across the globe. A frequent preexisting comorbidity in COVID-19 patients is type 2 diabetes [1]. Several reports published in Primary Care Diabetes and elsewhere have consistently shown that preexisting type 2 diabetes is associated with the disease severity of COVID-19. This includes increased episodes of acute respiratory distress syndrome, intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality [2,3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 8, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Thirunavukkarasu Sathish, Yingting Cao, Nitin Kapoor Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Management of chronic cardiometabolic conditions and mental health during COVID-19
A novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) originated in Wuhan, China December 2019 and quickly became a global pandemic. The elderly and those with underlying health conditions may show more severe manifestations and poorer outcomes associated with COVID-19. The most prevalent underlying diseases in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 include hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [1]. Comorbidities are often also associated with depression, which can worsen outcomes [2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 7, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: A.T. Farooqi, F.J. Snoek, K. Khunti Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Comparison of the effects of 10 GLP-1 RA and SGLT2 inhibitor interventions on cardiovascular, mortality, and kidney outcomes in type 2 diabetes: A network meta-analysis of large randomized trials
Large cardiovascular and kidney outcome trials have proven that most members of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are effective in reducing critical cardiorenal events in type 2 diabetic adults. However, the relative efficacy of different SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 RAs in reducing cardiorenal events in type 2 diabetes is unclear. To our knowledge, identifying the most efficacious drugs is meaningful for the prevention of cardiorenal events in type 2 diabetes. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 6, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Xu-Bin Wei, Wei Wei, Liang-Liang Ding, Shu-Yan Liu Tags: Brief report Source Type: research

Report from an effort to prevent type 2 diabetes development in primary care
It is well known that an intervention with diet and physical activity is effective in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [1 –3]. Still, these lifestyle interventions require large resources, and the question remains as to how to implement an effective lifestyle intervention in clinical practice with limited resources. Another unanswered question concerns the effect of physical activity per se. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 5, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Margareta I. Hellgren, Per-Anders Jansson, Ulf Lindblad Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Primary Care Diabetes Europe
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 2, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Society News
(Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - September 2, 2020 Category: Primary Care Source Type: research

Coded diagnoses from general practice electronic health records are a feasible and valid alternative to self-report to define diabetes cases in research
Accurate information on the exposure, confounding factors and participants ’ health outcomes is crucial in epidemiological and clinical research. Methods such as questionnaires, medical registries and interviews can be used to define the case status. Self-report is a method that is often used for the definition of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) cases in research [1–3]. Previous studies have reported a high agreement between self-reported diagnoses of DM and medical records (kappa ranging between 0.71 and 0.92) [4–8]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 31, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: A.W. de Boer, J.W. Blom, M.W.M. de Waal, R.C.A. Rippe, E.J.P. de Koning, I.M. Jazet, F.R. Rosendaal, M. den Heijer, M.E. Numans, R. de Mutsert Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Comparison of glucagons like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptide-4 inhibitors regarding cardiovascular safety and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A network meta-analysis
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is a worldwide health problem with increased morbidity, [1] is expected to reach 592 million patients by 2035 [2]. Among the severe complication of T2DM, Cardiovascular (CV) disease can lead to excess mortality and morbidity in diabetic patients [3]. For the mortality rate of patients with CV disease is about 80% [4], it is crucial to reduce the overall risk level of the CV system in patients with T2DM. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 31, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Jing Hu, Liyun Chen Tags: Original research Source Type: research

COVID-19 and Diabetes; possible role of polymorphism and rise of telemedicine
The pandemic corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which originated from Wuhan, China is caused by a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome containing enveloped virus [1,2]. Till 6th August 2020, globally 18614177 people have been infected with an unprecedented mortality of 702642 [3]. Diabetes, one of the biggest leading cause of death world-wide with a 463 million patient burden, is a metabolic disorder caused by insulin de ficiency and/or insulin resistance characterized by hyperglycemia, polyphagia and polydipsia [4,5]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 30, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Shomoita Sayed Tags: Review Source Type: research

Diabetes and COVID-19: A pooled analysis related to disease severity and mortality
Ever since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the number of infected cases and associated mortalities due to COVID-19 are growing. Studies have linked fatal outcomes in COVID-19 to the associated comorbidities. Evidence reported in the Journal of Diabetes and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) showed diabetes as the most important comorbidity associated with a 50% higher risk of fatal outcomes in COVID-19 cases with diabetes than their non-diabetic counterparts [1 –3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 28, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Seshadri Reddy Varikasuvu, Naveen Dutt, Balachandar Thangappazham, Saurabh Varshney Source Type: research

Professional flash glucose monitoring and health service utilisation in type 2 diabetes: A secondary analysis of the GP-OSMOTIC study
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) affects over one million Australians and costs over $14 billion dollars annually [1]. Most T2D care takes place in primary care where complications, and their associated costs, can be reduced with evidence-based interventions to achieve glycaemic targets [2,3]. Emerging evidence suggests that HbA1c, traditionally used to monitor glycaemia and guide treatment decisions, has limitations as it does not capture parameters such as time in range and glycaemic variability [4], which are increasingly seen as key measures associated with progression to complications [5,6]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 27, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Rita McMorrow, Sharmala Thuraisingam, John Furler, Jo-Anne Manski-Nankervis Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Association and relative importance of multiple risk factor control on cardiovascular disease, end-stage renal disease and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes: A population-based retrospective cohort study
Type 2 diabetes is a complex chronic condition characterised by increased blood glucose levels and associated with microvascular and macrovascular complications [1]. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of higher mortality rates in people with diabetes, accounting for 70% of all deaths [2]. Type 2 diabetes accounts for approximately 90% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes and affects nearly 20% of persons over the age of 65 years [3]. The International Diabetes Federation, the American Diabetes Association and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) encouraged the optimal management of multi...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 26, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Muhammad Usman, Kamlesh Khunti, Melanie J Davies, Clare L Gillies Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Fit for purpose? Footwear for patients with and without diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A cross-sectional study
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a physiological disorder provoked by endogenous insulin deficiency and impaired insulin efficiency, or both. It is characterised by hyperglycaemia and is associated with chronic complications that can affect nearly all organs in the body [1]. According to the International Diabetes Federation, 425 million people worldwide, or 8.8% of adults aged 20 –79 years, had DM in 2017, four times more than in 1980. This figure is expected to increase to 642 million by 2040 [2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 26, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Esther Chicharro-Luna, Ana Belen Ortega-Avila, Aranzazu Requena-Mart ínez, Gabriel Gijon-Nogueron Tags: Original research Source Type: research

The clinical outcomes of patients with diabetes and hypertension in a peri-urban area, Johannesburg, South Africa
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are on the increase and are known to be a leading cause of death worldwide [1]. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that NCDs account for 71% of the 57 million deaths globally, and 78% of these deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) [2]. Non-communicable diseases are included in the Sustainable Development Goals that aim to reduce the premature mortality rate by one third by 2030 [3]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 26, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Leisha P. Genade, Elizabeth M. Webb, Jacqueline E. Wolvaardt, Charl Janse Van Rensburg Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Newly diagnosed diabetes in COVID-19 patients
The article by Papadokostaki et al. in the recent issue of Primary Care Diabetes has highlighted several critical issues related to the bi-directional relationship between coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) and diabetes [1]. These are highly relevant for clinicians to optimize care for patients with diabetes that are inflicted with COVID-19. The authors briefly pointed out the possibility of COVID-induced new-onset diabetes. With respect to this, we would like to add that in addition to precipitating new-onset diabetes, COVID-19 may also unmask previously undiagnosed diabetes by causing pleiotropic alterations in glucose me...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 26, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Thirunavukkarasu Sathish, Yingting Cao, Nitin Kapoor Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Rabson –Mendenhall Syndrome in a brother-sister pair in Kuwait: Diagnosis and 5 year follow up
Rabson –Mendenhall Syndrome (RMS) is a rare autosomal, recessive disorder characterized by severe insulin resistance due to mutations in the insulin receptor (INSR) gene. Patients with RMS survive early childhood but have a significantly reduced life expectancy and may die during adolescence or early adu lthood. However, one case study from Spain reports on long-term survival in a patient with RMS [1]. The factors contributing to the progression of RMS have not been elucidated but it has been suggested that a progressive fall in the extremely high compensatory insulin concentrations is likely to be a major factor [2]...
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 21, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Hessa Al-Kandari, Dalia Al-Abdulrazzaq, Fahed Al-Jaser, Fahd Al-Mulla, Lena Davidsson Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Time trends of diabetes in Colombia from 1998 to 2015: the recent stagnation in mortality, and educational inequities
Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), like cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM), are an important cause of morbidity and mortality triggering a growing demand on health services throughout the world. Diabetes, in addition, is an independent risk factor for the development of CVD and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Impaired glucose tolerance and increased glycemia are the two most important categories for the future development of diabetes and CVD. In 2008, diabetes was responsible for 1.3 million deaths worldwide [1,2]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - August 20, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Yessica Giraldo-Castrillon, Uriel Palacios-Barahona, Ivan Arroyave Tags: Original research Source Type: research