Effects of Pioglitazone on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in the Absence of Constitutive Androstane Receptor Expression.
In this study, we investigated the effects of pioglitazone on NAFLD by absence of CAR activity under high-fat (HF)-fed conditions. CAR-/- mice showed significant improvement in NALFD after 12 weeks of pioglitazone treatment compared to wild-type mice. This improvement in NAFLD persisted in CAR-/- mice regardless of blood pioglitazone concentration. The expression of lipogenesis genes in the liver, sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 was decreased after pioglitazone treatment in HF-fed CAR-/- mice. In addition, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated recep...
Source: PPAR Research - October 27, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

A Reduction in ADAM17 Expression Is Involved in the Protective Effect of the PPAR- α Activator Fenofibrate on Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy.
This study aimed to determine whether ADAM17 is involved in the protective action of fenofibrate against cardiac hypertrophy. Abdominal artery constriction- (AAC-) induced hypertensive rats were used to observe the effects of fenofibrate on cardiac hypertrophy and ADAM17 expression. Primary cardiomyocytes were pretreated with fenofibrate (10 μM) for 1 hour before being stimulated with angiotensin II (100 nM) for another 24 hours. Fenofibrate reduced the ratios of left ventricular weight to body weight (LVW/BW) and heart weight to body weight (HW/BW), left ventricular anterior wall thickness (LVAW), left ventricular post...
Source: PPAR Research - August 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Combined Rosiglitazone and Forskolin Have Neuroprotective Effects in SD Rats after Spinal Cord Injury.
Authors: Meng QQ, Lei W, Chen H, Feng ZC, Hu LQ, Zhang XL, Li S Abstract The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist rosiglitazone inhibits NF-κB expression and endogenous neural stem cell differentiation into neurons and reduces the inflammatory cascade after spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms underlying rosiglitazone-mediated neuroprotective effects and regulation of the balance between the inflammatory cascade and generation of endogenous spinal cord neurons by using a spinal cord-derived neural stem cell culture system as well as S...
Source: PPAR Research - July 25, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Treatment with Lobeglitazone Attenuates Hepatic Steatosis in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.
Authors: Choung S, Joung KH, You BR, Park SK, Kim HJ, Ku BJ Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is strongly associated with insulin resistance. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activators, thiazolidinediones, (TZDs), are insulin sensitizers used as a treatment for NAFLD. However, TZDs are a controversial treatment for NAFLD because of conflicting results regarding hepatic steatosis and fibrosis. To evaluate a possible effective drug for treatment of NAFLD, we investigated the effects of a newly developed TZD, lobeglitazone, with an emphasis on hepatic lipid metabolism. Lobeglitazo...
Source: PPAR Research - July 18, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Expression of GPR43 in Brown Adipogenesis Is Enhanced by Rosiglitazone and Controlled by PPAR γ/RXR Heterodimerization.
In this study, we investigated the effects of the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone on GPR43 expression in brown adipogenesis. The results demonstrated that GPR43 was expressed during the late phase of brown adipocyte differentiation, which could be further augmented by adipogenic agent rosiglitazone treatment. The PPARγ/RXR heterodimerization was found to be the key transcription factor for this enhancing effect of rosiglitazone on GPR43 expression. Taken together, these results suggested GPR43 levels might be regulated by PPARγ-activated events during brown adipocytes differentiation and reflect the adipogene...
Source: PPAR Research - June 7, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Cellular and Biophysical Pipeline for the Screening of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Beta/Delta Agonists: Avoiding False Positives.
In conclusion, our results suggested that we developed a cheaper and more robust pipeline that goes beyond the single activation screening, as it also evaluates PPARß/δ tertiary structure stabilization and the ligand affinity constant, selecting only molecules that directly bind to the receptor. Moreover, this approach might improve the effectiveness of the screening for agonists that target PPARß/δ for drug development. PMID: 29849537 [PubMed] (Source: PPAR Research)
Source: PPAR Research - June 1, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effects of a Novel PPAR- γ Agonist MEKT1 on Pomc Expression/ACTH Secretion in AtT20 Cells.
Inhibitory Effects of a Novel PPAR-γ Agonist MEKT1 on Pomc Expression/ACTH Secretion in AtT20 Cells. PPAR Res. 2018;2018:5346272 Authors: Parvin R, Noro E, Saito-Hakoda A, Shimada H, Suzuki S, Shimizu K, Miyachi H, Yokoyama A, Sugawara A Abstract Although therapeutic effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists rosiglitazone and pioglitazone against Cushing's disease have been reported, their effects are still controversial and inconsistent. We therefore examined the effects of a novel PPAR-γ agonist, MEKT1, on Pomc expression/ACTH secretion using ...
Source: PPAR Research - June 1, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

The Hepatoprotection by Oleanolic Acid Preconditioning: Focusing on PPAR α Activation.
Conclusion: OA exhibits anti-inflammatory properties during ConA-induced acute liver injury by attenuating apoptosis and autophagy through activation of PPARα and downregulation of JNK signaling. PMID: 29805439 [PubMed] (Source: PPAR Research)
Source: PPAR Research - May 30, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Treatment of Diabetic Mice with a Combination of Ketogenic Diet and Aerobic Exercise via Modulations of PPARs Gene Programs.
Authors: Zhang Q, Xu L, Xia J, Wang D, Qian M, Ding S Abstract Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent chronic disease arising as a serious public health problem worldwide. Diet intervention is considered to be a critical strategy in glycemic control of diabetic patients. Recently, the low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet is shown to be effective in glycemic control and weight loss. However, hepatic lipid accumulation could be observed in mice treated with ketogenic diet. On the other hand, exercise is a well-known approach for treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We thus hypothesize that the combination of ketogenic diet ...
Source: PPAR Research - May 12, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

PPAR γ Antagonizes Hypoxia-Induced Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cell through Cross Mediating PI3K/AKT and cGMP/PKG Signaling.
Conclusion: sGC/cGMP/PKG and PI3K/AKT signals act on PPARγ synergistically to attenuate hypoxia-induced HSC activation. PMID: 29686697 [PubMed] (Source: PPAR Research)
Source: PPAR Research - April 26, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

High Glucose Induces Autophagy through PPAR γ-Dependent Pathway in Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells.
High Glucose Induces Autophagy through PPARγ-Dependent Pathway in Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells. PPAR Res. 2018;2018:8512745 Authors: Jiang C, Liu S, Cao Y, Shan H Abstract Diabetes mellitus is a multiorgan disorder affecting many types of connective tissues, including bone and cartilage. High glucose could accelerate the autophagy in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. In our present study, we investigated whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) pathway is involved into autophagy regulation in NP cells under high glucose condition. After NP cells were treated with diffe...
Source: PPAR Research - April 26, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ and PGC-1α in Cancer: Dual Actions as Tumor Promoter and Suppressor.
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ and PGC-1α in Cancer: Dual Actions as Tumor Promoter and Suppressor. PPAR Res. 2018;2018:6727421 Authors: Yun SH, Han SH, Park JI Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is part of a nuclear receptor superfamily that regulates gene expression involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, immune/inflammation response, and lipid metabolism. PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), initially identified as a PPARγ-interacting protein, is an important regulator of diverse metabolic pathways, such as o...
Source: PPAR Research - April 1, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Vascular Remodeling, Oxidative Stress, and Disrupted PPAR γ Expression in Rats of Long-Term Hyperhomocysteinemia with Metabolic Disturbance.
Vascular Remodeling, Oxidative Stress, and Disrupted PPARγ Expression in Rats of Long-Term Hyperhomocysteinemia with Metabolic Disturbance. PPAR Res. 2018;2018:6738703 Authors: Huo Y, Wu X, Ding J, Geng Y, Qiao W, Ge A, Guo C, Lv J, Bao H, Fan W Abstract Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for vascular disease, is associated with metabolic syndrome. Our study was aimed at exploring the effect of long-term hyperhomocysteinemia with metabolic disturbances on vascular remodeling. We also studied oxidative stress and expression of PPARγ in the coronary arteriole as a possible mechanism underlyi...
Source: PPAR Research - March 20, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Research Advances in the Correlation between Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor- γ and Digestive Cancers.
Research Advances in the Correlation between Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ and Digestive Cancers. PPAR Res. 2018;2018:5289859 Authors: Xu S, Xu X Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a class of ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors, which is a member of type II nuclear receptor superfamily. Previous studies demonstrate that PPARγ is expressed in a variety of tumor tissues and is closely associated with the proliferation and prognosis of digestive system tumors by its roles in mediation of cell differentiation, induction of cell...
Source: PPAR Research - February 28, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Portulaca Extract Attenuates Development of Dextran Sulfate Sodium Induced Colitis in Mice through Activation of PPAR γ.
In conclusion, Portulaca extract can alleviate colitis in mice through regulation of inflammatory reaction, apoptosis, and PPAR-γ level; therefore, Portulaca extract can be a potential candidate for the treatment of IBD. PMID: 29483924 [PubMed] (Source: PPAR Research)
Source: PPAR Research - February 28, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
Authors: Wang N, Kong R, Luo H, Xu X, Lu J Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rapidly becoming a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Concurrent to an increase in NAFLD prevalence, there is an increase in the obesity epidemic and the correlated insulin-resistant state. It is a challenge to diagnose NAFLD because many patients are asymptomatic until the later stages of disease. The most common symptoms include fatigue, malaise, and discomfort in the right upper quadrant. The major and most accurate tool to clinically diagnose NAFLD is a liver biopsy, followed by histological analysis. Ho...
Source: PPAR Research - January 25, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

PPAR- γ Agonists and Their Role in Primary Cicatricial Alopecia.
PPAR-γ Agonists and Their Role in Primary Cicatricial Alopecia. PPAR Res. 2017;2017:2501248 Authors: Harnchoowong S, Suchonwanit P Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that regulates the transcription of various genes. PPAR-γ plays roles in lipid homeostasis, sebocyte maturation, and peroxisome biogenesis and has shown anti-inflammatory effects. PPAR-γ is highly expressed in human sebaceous glands. Disruption of PPAR-γ is believed to be one of the mechanisms of primary cicatricial alopecia (PCA) pathoge...
Source: PPAR Research - January 16, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

New Transcriptional Reporters to Quantify and Monitor PPAR γ Activity.
This study demonstrates their usage to monitor PPARγ activity in different cell types and screen for PPARγ's potential ligands. PMID: 29225614 [PubMed] (Source: PPAR Research)
Source: PPAR Research - December 13, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Fluid Retention Caused by Rosiglitazone Is Related to Increases in AQP2 and αENaC Membrane Expression.
Fluid Retention Caused by Rosiglitazone Is Related to Increases in AQP2 and αENaC Membrane Expression. PPAR Res. 2017;2017:8130968 Authors: Xu J, Pan M, Wang X, Xu L, Li L, Xu C Abstract Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. The decreased phosphorylation of PPARγ due to rosiglitazone (ROS) is the main reason for the increased insulin sensitivity caused by this antidiabetic drug. However, there is no clear evidence whether the nuclear translocation of p-PPARγ stimulated by...
Source: PPAR Research - December 13, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Caffeoylquinic Acid-Rich Extract of Aster glehni F. Schmidt Ameliorates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver through the Regulation of PPAR δ and Adiponectin in ApoE KO Mice.
This study was performed to investigate the effects of A. glehni on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in atherosclerotic condition, by determining the levels of biomarkers related to lipid metabolism and inflammation in serum, liver, and adipose tissue. Body and abdominal adipose tissue weights and serum triglyceride level decreased in all groups treated with A. glehni. Serum adiponectin concentration and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ, 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, superoxide dismutase, and PPARγ coactivator 1-alpha in liver ...
Source: PPAR Research - December 6, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Crosstalk between the Androgen Receptor and PPAR Gamma Signaling Pathways in the Prostate.
Authors: Olokpa E, Moss PE, Stewart LV Abstract Nuclear receptors are a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that play critical roles in the regulation of normal biological processes and several disease states. Of the nuclear receptors expressed within the prostate, the androgen receptor (AR) promotes the differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells and stimulates production of enzymes needed for liquefaction of semen. Multiple forms of AR also promote the growth of both early and late stage prostate cancers. As a result, drugs that target the AR signaling pathway are routinely used to treat patie...
Source: PPAR Research - November 30, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Myocardial Expression of PPAR γ and Exercise Capacity in Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery.
Myocardial Expression of PPARγ and Exercise Capacity in Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery. PPAR Res. 2017;2017:1924907 Authors: Wojtkowska I, Bonda TA, Wolszakiewicz J, Osak J, Tysarowski A, Seliga K, Siedlecki JA, Winnicka MM, Piotrowicz R, Stępińska J Abstract Activation of PPARs may be involved in the development of heart failure (HF). We evaluated the relationship between expression of PPARγ in the myocardium during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and exercise tolerance initially and during follow-up. 6-minute walking test was performed before CABG, after 1, 12, 24 ...
Source: PPAR Research - November 3, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Chiglitazar Preferentially Regulates Gene Expression via Configuration-Restricted Binding and Phosphorylation Inhibition of PPAR γ.
Chiglitazar Preferentially Regulates Gene Expression via Configuration-Restricted Binding and Phosphorylation Inhibition of PPARγ. PPAR Res. 2017;2017:4313561 Authors: Pan DS, Wang W, Liu NS, Yang QJ, Zhang K, Zhu JZ, Shan S, Li ZB, Ning ZQ, Huang L, Lu XP Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus is often treated with insulin-sensitizing drugs called thiazolidinediones (TZD), which improve insulin resistance and glycemic control. Despite their effectiveness in treating diabetes, these drugs provide little protection from eminent cardiovascular disease associated with diabetes. Here we demonstrate how ch...
Source: PPAR Research - October 24, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Mediating Roles of PPARs in the Effects of Environmental Chemicals on Sex Steroids.
Authors: Huang Q, Chen Q Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear receptors that are widely involved in various physiological functions. They are widely expressed through the reproductive system. Their roles in the metabolism and function of sex steroids and thus the etiology of reproductive disorders receive great concern. Various kinds of exogenous chemicals, especially environmental pollutants, exert their adverse impact on the reproductive system through disturbing the PPAR signaling pathway. Chemicals could bind to PPARs and modulate the transcription of downstr...
Source: PPAR Research - August 20, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Association of PPAR Alpha Intron 7 G/C, PPAR Gamma 2 Pro12Ala, and C161T Polymorphisms with Serum Fetuin-A Concentrations.
Authors: Márkus B, Vörös K, Supák D, Melczer Z, Cseh K, Kalabay L Abstract BACKGROUND: Both peroxisome activator proteins (PPARs) and fetuin-A play a role in lipid and glucose metabolism. AIMS: We investigated whether PPARα intron 7 G2468/C and PPARγ2 Pro12Ala and PPARγ exon 6 C161T polymorphisms are associated with serum fetuin-A concentrations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The PPARα intron 7 G/C polymorphism was studied in cohort 1 (79 reference individuals, 165 postinfarction patients). The two PPARγ polymorphisms were investigated in cohort 2 (162 reference...
Source: PPAR Research - August 8, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

2,4-Thiazolidinedione Treatment Improves the Innate Immune Response in Dairy Goats with Induced Subclinical Mastitis.
The objectives of the present experiment were to test if treatment with the putative PPARγ agonist 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) improves (1) the response to subclinical mastitis and (2) milk fat production. Lactating goats received daily injections of 8 mg/kg BW of TZD or saline for 3 weeks. After one week of TZD injection, half of the goats in each group received intramammary infusion of Strep. uberis or saline in both halves for a total of 4 groups (n = 6/group). TZD treatment did not affect milk fat but had positive effect on milk somatic cells count, blood nonesterified fatty acids, inflammatory markers, an...
Source: PPAR Research - July 26, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Discovery of Novel Insulin Sensitizers: Promising Approaches and Targets.
Authors: Chen Y, Ma H, Zhu D, Zhao G, Wang L, Fu X, Chen W Abstract Insulin resistance is the undisputed root cause of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is currently an unmet demand for safe and effective insulin sensitizers, owing to the restricted prescription or removal from market of certain approved insulin sensitizers, such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs), because of safety concerns. Effective insulin sensitizers without TZD-like side effects will therefore be invaluable to diabetic patients. The specific focus on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ- (PPARγ-) based agents in the past de...
Source: PPAR Research - July 1, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Puerarin Protects against Cardiac Fibrosis Associated with the Inhibition of TGF- β1/Smad2-Mediated Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition.
CONCLUSION: Puerarin protected against TAC-induced cardiac fibrosis, and this protective effect may be attributed to the upregulation of PPAR-γ and the inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad2-mediated EndMT. PMID: 28638404 [PubMed - in process] (Source: PPAR Research)
Source: PPAR Research - June 25, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

The Interplay between Metabolism, PPAR Signaling Pathway, and Cancer.
Authors: Fanale D, Amodeo V, Caruso S PMID: 28529521 [PubMed - in process] (Source: PPAR Research)
Source: PPAR Research - May 23, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Fatty Acids of CLA-Enriched Egg Yolks Can Induce Transcriptional Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.
In conclusion, we propose that EFA-CLA-mediated regulation of PPAR-responsive genes is most likely facilitated by cis9,trans11CLA isomer incorporated in egg yolk. Notably, EFA-CLA activated PPAR more efficiently than nonenriched FA as well as synthetic CLA isomers. We also propose that this regulation, at least in part, can be responsible for the observed reduction in the proliferation of MCF-7 cells treated with EFA-CLA. PMID: 28458685 [PubMed - in process] (Source: PPAR Research)
Source: PPAR Research - May 3, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Fimasartan Ameliorates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease through PPAR δ Regulation in Hyperlipidemic and Hypertensive Conditions.
Fimasartan Ameliorates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease through PPARδ Regulation in Hyperlipidemic and Hypertensive Conditions. PPAR Res. 2017;2017:8048720 Authors: Lee YJ, Jang YN, Han YM, Kim HM, Jeong JM, Seo HS Abstract To investigate the effects of fimasartan on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in hyperlipidemic and hypertensive conditions, the levels of biomarkers related to fatty acid metabolism were determined in HepG2 and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells treated by high fatty acid and liver and visceral fat tissue samples of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) given high-fat diet. In HepG2...
Source: PPAR Research - April 9, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Deciphering the Roles of Thiazolidinediones and PPAR γ in Bladder Cancer.
Deciphering the Roles of Thiazolidinediones and PPARγ in Bladder Cancer. PPAR Res. 2017;2017:4810672 Authors: Chiu M, McBeth L, Sindhwani P, Hinds TD Abstract The use of thiazolidinedione (TZD) therapy in type II diabetic patients has proven useful in the lowering of blood glucose levels. However, recent investigations have shown that there may be potential health concerns associated, including the risk of developing bladder cancer as well as complications in the cardiovasculature. TZDs are ligands for the nuclear receptor PPARγ, and activation causes lipid uptake and insulin sensitization,...
Source: PPAR Research - March 31, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effect and Mechanism of Thiazolidinedione on Dopaminergic Neurons In Vivo and In Vitro in Parkinson's Disease.
Authors: Wang Y, Zhao W, Li G, Chen J, Guan X, Chen X, Guan Z Abstract The aim of the present study was to gain insight into the neuroprotection effects and mechanism of thiazolidinedione pioglitazone in both in vitro and in vivo MPP(+)/MPTP induced PD models. In vivo experimental results showed that oral treatment of pioglitazone resulted in significant improvements in behavior symptoms damaged by MPTP and increase in the survival of TH positive neurons in the pioglitazone intervention groups. In addition, oral treatment of pioglitazone increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ...
Source: PPAR Research - March 31, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Investigations on Binding Pattern of Kinase Inhibitors with PPAR γ: Molecular Docking, Molecular Dynamic Simulations, and Free Energy Calculation Studies.
Investigations on Binding Pattern of Kinase Inhibitors with PPARγ: Molecular Docking, Molecular Dynamic Simulations, and Free Energy Calculation Studies. PPAR Res. 2017;2017:6397836 Authors: Mazumder M, Ponnan P, Das U, Gourinath S, Khan HA, Yang J, Sakharkar MK Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a potential target for the treatment of several disorders. In view of several FDA approved kinase inhibitors, in the current study, we have investigated the interaction of selected kinase inhibitors with PPARγ using computational modeling, docking, and molecu...
Source: PPAR Research - March 24, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

PPAR Agonists for the Prevention and Treatment of Lung Cancer.
Authors: Lakshmi SP, Reddy AT, Banno A, Reddy RC Abstract Lung cancer is the most common and most fatal of all malignancies worldwide. Furthermore, with more than half of all lung cancer patients presenting with distant metastases at the time of initial diagnosis, the overall prognosis for the disease is poor. There is thus a desperate need for new prevention and treatment strategies. Recently, a family of nuclear hormone receptors, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), has attracted significant attention for its role in various malignancies including lung cancer. Three PPARs, PPARα, PPAR&b...
Source: PPAR Research - March 22, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Interactions between PPAR Gamma and the Canonical Wnt/Beta-Catenin Pathway in Type 2 Diabetes and Colon Cancer.
Authors: Lecarpentier Y, Claes V, Vallée A, Hébert JL Abstract In both colon cancer and type 2 diabetes, metabolic changes induced by upregulation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) may help account for the frequent association of these two diseases. In both diseases, PPAR gamma is downregulated while the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is upregulated. In colon cancer, upregulation of the canonical Wnt system induces activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and deactivation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. A...
Source: PPAR Research - March 17, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

PPAR γ and Its Role in Cardiovascular Diseases.
PPARγ and Its Role in Cardiovascular Diseases. PPAR Res. 2017;2017:6404638 Authors: Chandra M, Miriyala S, Panchatcharam M Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Gamma (PPARγ), a ligand-activated transcription factor, has a role in various cellular functions as well as glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and prevention of oxidative stress. The activators of PPARγ are already widely used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The cardioprotective effect of PPARγ activation has been studied extensively over the years making them potential therapeutic targets in dis...
Source: PPAR Research - March 3, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Quercetin and Quercetin-Rich Red Onion Extract Alter Pgc-1 α Promoter Methylation and Splice Variant Expression.
Quercetin and Quercetin-Rich Red Onion Extract Alter Pgc-1α Promoter Methylation and Splice Variant Expression. PPAR Res. 2017;2017:3235693 Authors: Devarshi PP, Jones AD, Taylor EM, Stefanska B, Henagan TM Abstract Pgc-1α and its various isoforms may play a role in determining skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations in response to diet. 8 wks of dietary supplementation with the flavonoid quercetin (Q) or red onion extract (ROE) in a high fat diet (HFD) ameliorates HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/J mice while upregulating Pgc-1α and increasing skeletal mus...
Source: PPAR Research - February 15, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Potential Role of ANGPTL4 in the Cross Talk between Metabolism and Cancer through PPAR Signaling Pathway.
Authors: La Paglia L, Listì A, Caruso S, Amodeo V, Passiglia F, Bazan V, Fanale D Abstract The angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) protein belongs to a superfamily of secreted proteins structurally related to factors modulating angiogenesis known as angiopoietins. At first, ANGPTL4 has been identified as an adipokine exclusively involved in lipid metabolism, because of its prevalent expression in liver and adipose tissue. This protein regulates lipid metabolism by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and stimulating lipolysis of white adipose tissue (WAT), resulting in increased levels of plasma triglyceri...
Source: PPAR Research - February 11, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

MicroRNAs-Dependent Regulation of PPARs in Metabolic Diseases and Cancers.
Authors: Portius D, Sobolewski C, Foti M Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of ligand-dependent nuclear receptors, which control the transcription of genes involved in energy homeostasis and inflammation and cell proliferation/differentiation. Alterations of PPARs' expression and/or activity are commonly associated with metabolic disorders occurring with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and fatty liver disease, as well as with inflammation and cancer. Emerging evidence now indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small noncoding RNAs, which fine-tune gene expression, play a sig...
Source: PPAR Research - February 10, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Bezafibrate Attenuates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fibrosis.
Conclusions. BZA could attenuate pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. PMID: 28127304 [PubMed - in process] (Source: PPAR Research)
Source: PPAR Research - January 29, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Induces the Expression of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor-1 (TFPI-1) in Human Macrophages.
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Induces the Expression of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor-1 (TFPI-1) in Human Macrophages. PPAR Res. 2016;2016:2756781 Authors: Chinetti-Gbaguidi G, Copin C, Derudas B, Marx N, Eechkoute J, Staels B Abstract Tissue factor (TF) is the initiator of the blood coagulation cascade after interaction with the activated factor VII (FVIIa). Moreover, the TF/FVIIa complex also activates intracellular signalling pathways leading to the production of inflammatory cytokines. The TF/FVIIa complex is inhibited by the tissue factor pathway inhibitor-1 (TFPI-1). Peroxi...
Source: PPAR Research - January 26, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Modulation during Metabolic Diseases and Cancers: Master and Minions.
Authors: Vitale SG, Laganà AS, Nigro A, La Rosa VL, Rossetti P, Rapisarda AM, La Vignera S, Condorelli RA, Corrado F, Buscema M, D'Anna R Abstract The prevalence of obesity and metabolic diseases (such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and cardiovascular diseases) has increased in the last decade, in both industrialized and developing countries. This also coincided with our observation of a similar increase in the prevalence of cancers. The aetiology of these diseases is very complex and involves genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. Much evidence indicates the central role undertaken by...
Source: PPAR Research - January 26, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

PPARs and Mitochondrial Metabolism: From NAFLD to HCC.
Authors: Mello T, Materozzi M, Galli A Abstract Metabolic related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are widespread threats which bring about a significant burden of deaths worldwide, mainly due to cardiovascular events and cancer. The pathogenesis of these diseases is extremely complex, multifactorial, and only partially understood. As the main metabolic organ, the liver is central to maintain whole body energetic homeostasis. At the cellular level, mitochondria are the metabolic hub connecting and integrating all the main biochemical, hormonal, and...
Source: PPAR Research - January 26, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

PPAR δ as a Metabolic Initiator of Mammary Neoplasia and Immune Tolerance.
PPARδ as a Metabolic Initiator of Mammary Neoplasia and Immune Tolerance. PPAR Res. 2016;2016:3082340 Authors: Glazer RI Abstract PPARδ is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that regulates the transcription of genes associated with proliferation, metabolism, inflammation, and immunity. Within this transcription factor family, PPARδ is unique in that it initiates oncogenesis in a metabolic and tissue-specific context, especially in mammary epithelium, and can regulate autoimmunity in some tissues. This review discusses its role in these processes and how it ultimately impacts breast c...
Source: PPAR Research - January 13, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Natalizumab Treatment Modulates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors Expression in Women with Multiple Sclerosis.
Authors: Ferret-Sena V, Maia E Silva A, Sena A, Cavaleiro I, Vale J, Derudas B, Chinetti-Gbaguidi G, Staels B Abstract Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPAR) are transcription factors suggested to be involved in inflammatory lesions of autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis (MS). Our objective was to assess whether Natalizumab (NTZ) therapy is associated with alterations of PPAR expression in MS patients. We analyzed gene expression of PPAR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as blood inflammatory markers in women with MS previously medicated with first-line immunomodulator...
Source: PPAR Research - January 13, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Nutrigenomic Functions of PPARs in Obesogenic Environments.
Authors: Chung S, Kim YJ, Yang SJ, Lee Y, Lee M Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that mediate the effects of several nutrients or drugs through transcriptional regulation of their target genes in obesogenic environments. This review consists of three parts. First, we summarize current knowledge regarding the role of PPARs in governing the development of white and brown/beige adipocytes from uncommitted progenitor cells. Next, we discuss the interactions of dietary bioactive molecules, such as fatty acids and phytochemicals, with PPARs for the mo...
Source: PPAR Research - January 5, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Transcriptome-Wide Analysis Reveals the Role of PPAR γ Controlling the Lipid Metabolism in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells.
Transcriptome-Wide Analysis Reveals the Role of PPARγ Controlling the Lipid Metabolism in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells. PPAR Res. 2016;2016:9195680 Authors: Shi H, Zhao W, Zhang C, Shahzad K, Luo J, Loor JJ Abstract To explore the large-scale effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC), an oligonucleotide microarray platform was used for transcriptome profiling in cells overexpressing PPARG and incubated with or without rosiglitazone (ROSI, a PPARγ agonist). A total of 1143 differentially expressed genes (DEG) due to treatmen...
Source: PPAR Research - November 9, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

PPAR Gamma in Neuroblastoma: The Translational Perspectives of Hypoglycemic Drugs.
Authors: Vella S, Conaldi PG, Florio T, Pagano A Abstract Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common and aggressive pediatric cancer, characterized by a remarkable phenotypic diversity and high malignancy. The heterogeneous clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to fatal metastatic disease, is attributable to NB biology and genetics. Despite major advances in therapies, NB is still associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Thus, novel diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approaches are required, mainly to improve treatment outcomes of high-risk NB patients. Among neuroepithelial cancers, NB is th...
Source: PPAR Research - November 3, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

PPAR γ in Bacterial Infections: A Friend or Foe?
PPARγ in Bacterial Infections: A Friend or Foe? PPAR Res. 2016;2016:7963540 Authors: Reddy AT, Lakshmi SP, Reddy RC Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is now recognized as an important modulator of leukocyte inflammatory responses and function. Its immunoregulatory function has been studied in a variety of contexts, including bacterial infections of the lungs and central nervous system, sepsis, and conditions such as chronic granulomatous disease. Although it is generally believed that PPARγ activation is beneficial for the host during bacterial infect...
Source: PPAR Research - October 25, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research