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New Transcriptional Reporters to Quantify and Monitor PPAR γ Activity.
This study demonstrates their usage to monitor PPARγ activity in different cell types and screen for PPARγ's potential ligands. PMID: 29225614 [PubMed] (Source: PPAR Research)
Source: PPAR Research - December 13, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Fluid Retention Caused by Rosiglitazone Is Related to Increases in AQP2 and αENaC Membrane Expression.
Fluid Retention Caused by Rosiglitazone Is Related to Increases in AQP2 and αENaC Membrane Expression. PPAR Res. 2017;2017:8130968 Authors: Xu J, Pan M, Wang X, Xu L, Li L, Xu C Abstract Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. The decreased phosphorylation of PPARγ due to rosiglitazone (ROS) is the main reason for the increased insulin sensitivity caused by this antidiabetic drug. However, there is no clear evidence whether the nuclear translocation of p-PPARγ stimulated by...
Source: PPAR Research - December 13, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Caffeoylquinic Acid-Rich Extract of Aster glehni F. Schmidt Ameliorates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver through the Regulation of PPAR δ and Adiponectin in ApoE KO Mice.
This study was performed to investigate the effects of A. glehni on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in atherosclerotic condition, by determining the levels of biomarkers related to lipid metabolism and inflammation in serum, liver, and adipose tissue. Body and abdominal adipose tissue weights and serum triglyceride level decreased in all groups treated with A. glehni. Serum adiponectin concentration and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ, 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, superoxide dismutase, and PPARγ coactivator 1-alpha in liver ...
Source: PPAR Research - December 6, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Crosstalk between the Androgen Receptor and PPAR Gamma Signaling Pathways in the Prostate.
Authors: Olokpa E, Moss PE, Stewart LV Abstract Nuclear receptors are a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that play critical roles in the regulation of normal biological processes and several disease states. Of the nuclear receptors expressed within the prostate, the androgen receptor (AR) promotes the differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells and stimulates production of enzymes needed for liquefaction of semen. Multiple forms of AR also promote the growth of both early and late stage prostate cancers. As a result, drugs that target the AR signaling pathway are routinely used to treat patie...
Source: PPAR Research - November 30, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Myocardial Expression of PPAR γ and Exercise Capacity in Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery.
Myocardial Expression of PPARγ and Exercise Capacity in Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery. PPAR Res. 2017;2017:1924907 Authors: Wojtkowska I, Bonda TA, Wolszakiewicz J, Osak J, Tysarowski A, Seliga K, Siedlecki JA, Winnicka MM, Piotrowicz R, Stępińska J Abstract Activation of PPARs may be involved in the development of heart failure (HF). We evaluated the relationship between expression of PPARγ in the myocardium during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and exercise tolerance initially and during follow-up. 6-minute walking test was performed before CABG, after 1, 12, 24 ...
Source: PPAR Research - November 3, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Chiglitazar Preferentially Regulates Gene Expression via Configuration-Restricted Binding and Phosphorylation Inhibition of PPAR γ.
Chiglitazar Preferentially Regulates Gene Expression via Configuration-Restricted Binding and Phosphorylation Inhibition of PPARγ. PPAR Res. 2017;2017:4313561 Authors: Pan DS, Wang W, Liu NS, Yang QJ, Zhang K, Zhu JZ, Shan S, Li ZB, Ning ZQ, Huang L, Lu XP Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus is often treated with insulin-sensitizing drugs called thiazolidinediones (TZD), which improve insulin resistance and glycemic control. Despite their effectiveness in treating diabetes, these drugs provide little protection from eminent cardiovascular disease associated with diabetes. Here we demonstrate how ch...
Source: PPAR Research - October 24, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Mediating Roles of PPARs in the Effects of Environmental Chemicals on Sex Steroids.
Authors: Huang Q, Chen Q Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear receptors that are widely involved in various physiological functions. They are widely expressed through the reproductive system. Their roles in the metabolism and function of sex steroids and thus the etiology of reproductive disorders receive great concern. Various kinds of exogenous chemicals, especially environmental pollutants, exert their adverse impact on the reproductive system through disturbing the PPAR signaling pathway. Chemicals could bind to PPARs and modulate the transcription of downstr...
Source: PPAR Research - August 20, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Association of PPAR Alpha Intron 7 G/C, PPAR Gamma 2 Pro12Ala, and C161T Polymorphisms with Serum Fetuin-A Concentrations.
Authors: Márkus B, Vörös K, Supák D, Melczer Z, Cseh K, Kalabay L Abstract BACKGROUND: Both peroxisome activator proteins (PPARs) and fetuin-A play a role in lipid and glucose metabolism. AIMS: We investigated whether PPARα intron 7 G2468/C and PPARγ2 Pro12Ala and PPARγ exon 6 C161T polymorphisms are associated with serum fetuin-A concentrations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The PPARα intron 7 G/C polymorphism was studied in cohort 1 (79 reference individuals, 165 postinfarction patients). The two PPARγ polymorphisms were investigated in cohort 2 (162 reference...
Source: PPAR Research - August 8, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

2,4-Thiazolidinedione Treatment Improves the Innate Immune Response in Dairy Goats with Induced Subclinical Mastitis.
The objectives of the present experiment were to test if treatment with the putative PPARγ agonist 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) improves (1) the response to subclinical mastitis and (2) milk fat production. Lactating goats received daily injections of 8 mg/kg BW of TZD or saline for 3 weeks. After one week of TZD injection, half of the goats in each group received intramammary infusion of Strep. uberis or saline in both halves for a total of 4 groups (n = 6/group). TZD treatment did not affect milk fat but had positive effect on milk somatic cells count, blood nonesterified fatty acids, inflammatory markers, an...
Source: PPAR Research - July 26, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Discovery of Novel Insulin Sensitizers: Promising Approaches and Targets.
Authors: Chen Y, Ma H, Zhu D, Zhao G, Wang L, Fu X, Chen W Abstract Insulin resistance is the undisputed root cause of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is currently an unmet demand for safe and effective insulin sensitizers, owing to the restricted prescription or removal from market of certain approved insulin sensitizers, such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs), because of safety concerns. Effective insulin sensitizers without TZD-like side effects will therefore be invaluable to diabetic patients. The specific focus on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ- (PPARγ-) based agents in the past de...
Source: PPAR Research - July 1, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Puerarin Protects against Cardiac Fibrosis Associated with the Inhibition of TGF- β1/Smad2-Mediated Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition.
CONCLUSION: Puerarin protected against TAC-induced cardiac fibrosis, and this protective effect may be attributed to the upregulation of PPAR-γ and the inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad2-mediated EndMT. PMID: 28638404 [PubMed - in process] (Source: PPAR Research)
Source: PPAR Research - June 25, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

The Interplay between Metabolism, PPAR Signaling Pathway, and Cancer.
Authors: Fanale D, Amodeo V, Caruso S PMID: 28529521 [PubMed - in process] (Source: PPAR Research)
Source: PPAR Research - May 23, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Fatty Acids of CLA-Enriched Egg Yolks Can Induce Transcriptional Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.
In conclusion, we propose that EFA-CLA-mediated regulation of PPAR-responsive genes is most likely facilitated by cis9,trans11CLA isomer incorporated in egg yolk. Notably, EFA-CLA activated PPAR more efficiently than nonenriched FA as well as synthetic CLA isomers. We also propose that this regulation, at least in part, can be responsible for the observed reduction in the proliferation of MCF-7 cells treated with EFA-CLA. PMID: 28458685 [PubMed - in process] (Source: PPAR Research)
Source: PPAR Research - May 3, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Fimasartan Ameliorates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease through PPAR δ Regulation in Hyperlipidemic and Hypertensive Conditions.
Fimasartan Ameliorates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease through PPARδ Regulation in Hyperlipidemic and Hypertensive Conditions. PPAR Res. 2017;2017:8048720 Authors: Lee YJ, Jang YN, Han YM, Kim HM, Jeong JM, Seo HS Abstract To investigate the effects of fimasartan on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in hyperlipidemic and hypertensive conditions, the levels of biomarkers related to fatty acid metabolism were determined in HepG2 and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells treated by high fatty acid and liver and visceral fat tissue samples of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) given high-fat diet. In HepG2...
Source: PPAR Research - April 9, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Deciphering the Roles of Thiazolidinediones and PPAR γ in Bladder Cancer.
Deciphering the Roles of Thiazolidinediones and PPARγ in Bladder Cancer. PPAR Res. 2017;2017:4810672 Authors: Chiu M, McBeth L, Sindhwani P, Hinds TD Abstract The use of thiazolidinedione (TZD) therapy in type II diabetic patients has proven useful in the lowering of blood glucose levels. However, recent investigations have shown that there may be potential health concerns associated, including the risk of developing bladder cancer as well as complications in the cardiovasculature. TZDs are ligands for the nuclear receptor PPARγ, and activation causes lipid uptake and insulin sensitization,...
Source: PPAR Research - March 31, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effect and Mechanism of Thiazolidinedione on Dopaminergic Neurons In Vivo and In Vitro in Parkinson's Disease.
Authors: Wang Y, Zhao W, Li G, Chen J, Guan X, Chen X, Guan Z Abstract The aim of the present study was to gain insight into the neuroprotection effects and mechanism of thiazolidinedione pioglitazone in both in vitro and in vivo MPP(+)/MPTP induced PD models. In vivo experimental results showed that oral treatment of pioglitazone resulted in significant improvements in behavior symptoms damaged by MPTP and increase in the survival of TH positive neurons in the pioglitazone intervention groups. In addition, oral treatment of pioglitazone increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ...
Source: PPAR Research - March 31, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Investigations on Binding Pattern of Kinase Inhibitors with PPAR γ: Molecular Docking, Molecular Dynamic Simulations, and Free Energy Calculation Studies.
Investigations on Binding Pattern of Kinase Inhibitors with PPARγ: Molecular Docking, Molecular Dynamic Simulations, and Free Energy Calculation Studies. PPAR Res. 2017;2017:6397836 Authors: Mazumder M, Ponnan P, Das U, Gourinath S, Khan HA, Yang J, Sakharkar MK Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a potential target for the treatment of several disorders. In view of several FDA approved kinase inhibitors, in the current study, we have investigated the interaction of selected kinase inhibitors with PPARγ using computational modeling, docking, and molecu...
Source: PPAR Research - March 24, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

PPAR Agonists for the Prevention and Treatment of Lung Cancer.
Authors: Lakshmi SP, Reddy AT, Banno A, Reddy RC Abstract Lung cancer is the most common and most fatal of all malignancies worldwide. Furthermore, with more than half of all lung cancer patients presenting with distant metastases at the time of initial diagnosis, the overall prognosis for the disease is poor. There is thus a desperate need for new prevention and treatment strategies. Recently, a family of nuclear hormone receptors, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), has attracted significant attention for its role in various malignancies including lung cancer. Three PPARs, PPARα, PPAR&b...
Source: PPAR Research - March 22, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Interactions between PPAR Gamma and the Canonical Wnt/Beta-Catenin Pathway in Type 2 Diabetes and Colon Cancer.
Authors: Lecarpentier Y, Claes V, Vallée A, Hébert JL Abstract In both colon cancer and type 2 diabetes, metabolic changes induced by upregulation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) may help account for the frequent association of these two diseases. In both diseases, PPAR gamma is downregulated while the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is upregulated. In colon cancer, upregulation of the canonical Wnt system induces activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and deactivation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. A...
Source: PPAR Research - March 17, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

PPAR γ and Its Role in Cardiovascular Diseases.
PPARγ and Its Role in Cardiovascular Diseases. PPAR Res. 2017;2017:6404638 Authors: Chandra M, Miriyala S, Panchatcharam M Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Gamma (PPARγ), a ligand-activated transcription factor, has a role in various cellular functions as well as glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and prevention of oxidative stress. The activators of PPARγ are already widely used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The cardioprotective effect of PPARγ activation has been studied extensively over the years making them potential therapeutic targets in dis...
Source: PPAR Research - March 3, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Quercetin and Quercetin-Rich Red Onion Extract Alter Pgc-1 α Promoter Methylation and Splice Variant Expression.
Quercetin and Quercetin-Rich Red Onion Extract Alter Pgc-1α Promoter Methylation and Splice Variant Expression. PPAR Res. 2017;2017:3235693 Authors: Devarshi PP, Jones AD, Taylor EM, Stefanska B, Henagan TM Abstract Pgc-1α and its various isoforms may play a role in determining skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations in response to diet. 8 wks of dietary supplementation with the flavonoid quercetin (Q) or red onion extract (ROE) in a high fat diet (HFD) ameliorates HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/J mice while upregulating Pgc-1α and increasing skeletal mus...
Source: PPAR Research - February 15, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Potential Role of ANGPTL4 in the Cross Talk between Metabolism and Cancer through PPAR Signaling Pathway.
Authors: La Paglia L, Listì A, Caruso S, Amodeo V, Passiglia F, Bazan V, Fanale D Abstract The angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) protein belongs to a superfamily of secreted proteins structurally related to factors modulating angiogenesis known as angiopoietins. At first, ANGPTL4 has been identified as an adipokine exclusively involved in lipid metabolism, because of its prevalent expression in liver and adipose tissue. This protein regulates lipid metabolism by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and stimulating lipolysis of white adipose tissue (WAT), resulting in increased levels of plasma triglyceri...
Source: PPAR Research - February 11, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

MicroRNAs-Dependent Regulation of PPARs in Metabolic Diseases and Cancers.
Authors: Portius D, Sobolewski C, Foti M Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of ligand-dependent nuclear receptors, which control the transcription of genes involved in energy homeostasis and inflammation and cell proliferation/differentiation. Alterations of PPARs' expression and/or activity are commonly associated with metabolic disorders occurring with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and fatty liver disease, as well as with inflammation and cancer. Emerging evidence now indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small noncoding RNAs, which fine-tune gene expression, play a sig...
Source: PPAR Research - February 10, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Bezafibrate Attenuates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fibrosis.
Conclusions. BZA could attenuate pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. PMID: 28127304 [PubMed - in process] (Source: PPAR Research)
Source: PPAR Research - January 29, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Induces the Expression of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor-1 (TFPI-1) in Human Macrophages.
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Induces the Expression of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor-1 (TFPI-1) in Human Macrophages. PPAR Res. 2016;2016:2756781 Authors: Chinetti-Gbaguidi G, Copin C, Derudas B, Marx N, Eechkoute J, Staels B Abstract Tissue factor (TF) is the initiator of the blood coagulation cascade after interaction with the activated factor VII (FVIIa). Moreover, the TF/FVIIa complex also activates intracellular signalling pathways leading to the production of inflammatory cytokines. The TF/FVIIa complex is inhibited by the tissue factor pathway inhibitor-1 (TFPI-1). Peroxi...
Source: PPAR Research - January 26, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Modulation during Metabolic Diseases and Cancers: Master and Minions.
Authors: Vitale SG, Laganà AS, Nigro A, La Rosa VL, Rossetti P, Rapisarda AM, La Vignera S, Condorelli RA, Corrado F, Buscema M, D'Anna R Abstract The prevalence of obesity and metabolic diseases (such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and cardiovascular diseases) has increased in the last decade, in both industrialized and developing countries. This also coincided with our observation of a similar increase in the prevalence of cancers. The aetiology of these diseases is very complex and involves genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. Much evidence indicates the central role undertaken by...
Source: PPAR Research - January 26, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

PPARs and Mitochondrial Metabolism: From NAFLD to HCC.
Authors: Mello T, Materozzi M, Galli A Abstract Metabolic related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are widespread threats which bring about a significant burden of deaths worldwide, mainly due to cardiovascular events and cancer. The pathogenesis of these diseases is extremely complex, multifactorial, and only partially understood. As the main metabolic organ, the liver is central to maintain whole body energetic homeostasis. At the cellular level, mitochondria are the metabolic hub connecting and integrating all the main biochemical, hormonal, and...
Source: PPAR Research - January 26, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

PPAR δ as a Metabolic Initiator of Mammary Neoplasia and Immune Tolerance.
PPARδ as a Metabolic Initiator of Mammary Neoplasia and Immune Tolerance. PPAR Res. 2016;2016:3082340 Authors: Glazer RI Abstract PPARδ is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that regulates the transcription of genes associated with proliferation, metabolism, inflammation, and immunity. Within this transcription factor family, PPARδ is unique in that it initiates oncogenesis in a metabolic and tissue-specific context, especially in mammary epithelium, and can regulate autoimmunity in some tissues. This review discusses its role in these processes and how it ultimately impacts breast c...
Source: PPAR Research - January 13, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Natalizumab Treatment Modulates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors Expression in Women with Multiple Sclerosis.
Authors: Ferret-Sena V, Maia E Silva A, Sena A, Cavaleiro I, Vale J, Derudas B, Chinetti-Gbaguidi G, Staels B Abstract Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPAR) are transcription factors suggested to be involved in inflammatory lesions of autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis (MS). Our objective was to assess whether Natalizumab (NTZ) therapy is associated with alterations of PPAR expression in MS patients. We analyzed gene expression of PPAR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as blood inflammatory markers in women with MS previously medicated with first-line immunomodulator...
Source: PPAR Research - January 13, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Nutrigenomic Functions of PPARs in Obesogenic Environments.
Authors: Chung S, Kim YJ, Yang SJ, Lee Y, Lee M Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that mediate the effects of several nutrients or drugs through transcriptional regulation of their target genes in obesogenic environments. This review consists of three parts. First, we summarize current knowledge regarding the role of PPARs in governing the development of white and brown/beige adipocytes from uncommitted progenitor cells. Next, we discuss the interactions of dietary bioactive molecules, such as fatty acids and phytochemicals, with PPARs for the mo...
Source: PPAR Research - January 5, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Transcriptome-Wide Analysis Reveals the Role of PPAR γ Controlling the Lipid Metabolism in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells.
Transcriptome-Wide Analysis Reveals the Role of PPARγ Controlling the Lipid Metabolism in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells. PPAR Res. 2016;2016:9195680 Authors: Shi H, Zhao W, Zhang C, Shahzad K, Luo J, Loor JJ Abstract To explore the large-scale effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC), an oligonucleotide microarray platform was used for transcriptome profiling in cells overexpressing PPARG and incubated with or without rosiglitazone (ROSI, a PPARγ agonist). A total of 1143 differentially expressed genes (DEG) due to treatmen...
Source: PPAR Research - November 9, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

PPAR Gamma in Neuroblastoma: The Translational Perspectives of Hypoglycemic Drugs.
Authors: Vella S, Conaldi PG, Florio T, Pagano A Abstract Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common and aggressive pediatric cancer, characterized by a remarkable phenotypic diversity and high malignancy. The heterogeneous clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to fatal metastatic disease, is attributable to NB biology and genetics. Despite major advances in therapies, NB is still associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Thus, novel diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approaches are required, mainly to improve treatment outcomes of high-risk NB patients. Among neuroepithelial cancers, NB is th...
Source: PPAR Research - November 3, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

PPAR γ in Bacterial Infections: A Friend or Foe?
PPARγ in Bacterial Infections: A Friend or Foe? PPAR Res. 2016;2016:7963540 Authors: Reddy AT, Lakshmi SP, Reddy RC Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is now recognized as an important modulator of leukocyte inflammatory responses and function. Its immunoregulatory function has been studied in a variety of contexts, including bacterial infections of the lungs and central nervous system, sepsis, and conditions such as chronic granulomatous disease. Although it is generally believed that PPARγ activation is beneficial for the host during bacterial infect...
Source: PPAR Research - October 25, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

IL-15 Mediates Mitochondrial Activity through a PPAR δ-Dependent-PPARα-Independent Mechanism in Skeletal Muscle Cells.
IL-15 Mediates Mitochondrial Activity through a PPARδ-Dependent-PPARα-Independent Mechanism in Skeletal Muscle Cells. PPAR Res. 2016;2016:5465804 Authors: Thornton SM, Krolopp JE, Abbott MJ Abstract Molecular mediators of metabolic processes, to increase energy expenditure, have become a focus for therapies of obesity. The discovery of cytokines secreted from the skeletal muscle (SKM), termed "myokines," has garnered attention due to their positive effects on metabolic processes. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a myokine that has numerous positive metabolic effects and is linked to the ...
Source: PPAR Research - October 17, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

PPAR γ as a Novel Therapeutic Target in Lung Cancer.
PPARγ as a Novel Therapeutic Target in Lung Cancer. PPAR Res. 2016;2016:8972570 Authors: Reddy AT, Lakshmi SP, Reddy RC Abstract Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death, with more than half the patients having advanced-stage disease at the time of initial diagnosis and thus facing a poor prognosis. This dire situation poses a need for new approaches in prevention and treatment. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Its involvement in adipocyte differentiati...
Source: PPAR Research - October 6, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Commonalities in the Association between PPARG and Vitamin D Related with Obesity and Carcinogenesis.
Authors: Bandera Merchan B, Tinahones FJ, Macías-González M Abstract The PPAR nuclear receptor family has acquired great relevance in the last decade, which is formed by three different isoforms (PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPAR ϒ). Those nuclear receptors are members of the steroid receptor superfamily which take part in essential metabolic and life-sustaining actions. Specifically, PPARG has been implicated in the regulation of processes concerning metabolism, inflammation, atherosclerosis, cell differentiation, and proliferation. Thus, a considerable amount of literature has emerged ...
Source: PPAR Research - September 2, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Female Reproduction and Fertility.
Authors: Vitti M, Di Emidio G, Di Carlo M, Carta G, Antonosante A, Artini PG, Cimini A, Tatone C, Benedetti E Abstract Reproductive functions may be altered by the exposure to a multitude of endogenous and exogenous agents, drug or environmental pollutants, which are known to affect gene transcription through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activation. PPARs act as ligand activated transcription factors and regulate metabolic processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and cell proliferation and differentiation. All PPARs isotypes are expressed along the...
Source: PPAR Research - August 27, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

PPAR Ligands Function as Suppressors That Target Biological Actions of HMGB1.
Authors: Ying S, Xiao X, Chen T, Lou J Abstract High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which has become one of the most intriguing molecules in inflammatory disorders and cancers and with which ligand-activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are highly associated, is considered as a therapeutic target. Of particular interest is the fact that certain PPAR ligands have demonstrated their potent anti-inflammatory activities and potential anticancer effects. In this review article we summarize recent experimental evidence that PPAR ligands function as suppressors that target biological actions of HMGB1...
Source: PPAR Research - August 27, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

PPAR in Cardiovascular Disorders.
Authors: Orekhov AN, Mukhamedova N, Ivanova EA, Rizzo M PMID: 27528863 [PubMed] (Source: PPAR Research)
Source: PPAR Research - August 17, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

HDAC Inhibition Modulates Cardiac PPARs and Fatty Acid Metabolism in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy.
Authors: Lee TI, Kao YH, Tsai WC, Chung CC, Chen YC, Chen YJ Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate cardiac glucose and lipid homeostasis. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor has anti-inflammatory effects which may play a key role in modulating PPARs and fatty acid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HDAC inhibitor, MPT0E014, can modulate myocardial PPARs, inflammation, and fatty acid metabolism in diabetes mellitus (DM) cardiomyopathy. Electrocardiography, echocardiography, and western blotting were used to evaluate the electrophysiological activity, cardiac...
Source: PPAR Research - July 26, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Testosterone Replacement Modulates Cardiac Metabolic Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction by Upregulating PPARα.
Testosterone Replacement Modulates Cardiac Metabolic Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction by Upregulating PPARα. PPAR Res. 2016;2016:4518754 Authors: Yang J, Wang F, Sun W, Dong Y, Li M, Fu L Abstract Despite the importance of testosterone as a metabolic hormone, its effects on myocardial metabolism in the ischemic heart remain unclear. Myocardial ischemia leads to metabolic remodeling, ultimately resulting in ATP deficiency and cardiac dysfunction. In the present study, the effects of testosterone replacement on the ischemic heart were assessed in a castrated rat myocardial infarction model es...
Source: PPAR Research - July 15, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

A Citrus bergamia Extract Decreases Adipogenesis and Increases Lipolysis by Modulating PPAR Levels in Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Adipose Tissue.
Authors: Lo Furno D, Graziano AC, Avola R, Giuffrida R, Perciavalle V, Bonina F, Mannino G, Cardile V Abstract The aim of this research was to assess the impact of a well-characterized extract from Citrus bergamia juice on adipogenesis and/or lipolysis using mesenchymal stem cells from human adipose tissue as a cell model. To evaluate the effects on adipogenesis, some cell cultures were treated with adipogenic medium plus 10 or 100 μg/mL of extract. To determine the properties on lipolysis, additional mesenchymal stem cells were cultured with adipogenic medium for 14 days and after this time added with Ci...
Source: PPAR Research - July 14, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Pioglitazone Attenuates Drug-Eluting Stent-Induced Proinflammatory State in Patients by Blocking Ubiquitination of PPAR.
Conclusion. PIO treatment attenuated DES-induced PPAR loss, NF-κB activation, and proinflammation, indicating that PIO may have a novel direct protective role in modulating proinflammation in DES era. PMID: 27403152 [PubMed] (Source: PPAR Research)
Source: PPAR Research - July 14, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

PPARγ Agonists as an Anti-Inflammatory Treatment Inhibiting Rotavirus Infection of Small Intestinal Villi.
PPARγ Agonists as an Anti-Inflammatory Treatment Inhibiting Rotavirus Infection of Small Intestinal Villi. PPAR Res. 2016;2016:4049373 Authors: Gómez D, Muñoz N, Guerrero R, Acosta O, Guerrero CA Abstract Rotavirus infection has been reported to induce an inflammatory response in the host cell accompanied by the increased expression or activation of some cellular molecules including ROS, NF-κB, and COX-2. PPARγ stimulation and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment have been found to interfere with viral infections including rotavirus infection. Small intestinal villi isolated...
Source: PPAR Research - July 8, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Pioglitazone Effect on Glioma Stem Cell Lines: Really a Promising Drug Therapy for Glioblastoma?
Authors: Cilibrasi C, Butta V, Riva G, Bentivegna A Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents one of the most frequent malignant brain tumors. Current therapies do not provide real solutions to this pathology. Their failure can be ascribed to a cell subpopulation with stem-like properties called glioma stem cells (GSCs). Therefore, new therapeutic strategies GSC-targeted are needed. PPARγ, a nuclear receptor involved in lipid metabolism, has already been indicated as a promising target for antineoplastic therapies. Recent studies have reported that synthetic PPARγ agonists, already in clinical u...
Source: PPAR Research - June 18, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Current Advances in the Biochemical and Physiological Aspects of the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Thiazolidinediones.
Authors: Alemán-González-Duhart D, Tamay-Cach F, Álvarez-Almazán S, Mendieta-Wejebe JE Abstract The present review summarizes the current advances in the biochemical and physiological aspects in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) with thiazolidinediones (TZDs). DM2 is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, triggering the abnormal activation of physiological pathways such as glucose autooxidation, polyol's pathway, formation of advance glycation end (AGE) products, and glycolysis, leading to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proinflammatory...
Source: PPAR Research - June 18, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Is Critical to Cardiac Fibrosis.
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Is Critical to Cardiac Fibrosis. PPAR Res. 2016;2016:2198645 Authors: Liu HJ, Liao HH, Yang Z, Tang QZ Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, which plays a central role in regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. However, accumulating evidence demonstrates that PPARγ agonists have potential to reduce inflammation, influence the balance of immune cells, suppress oxidative stress, and improve endothelial function, which are a...
Source: PPAR Research - June 15, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

15-Deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 Induces Apoptosis and Upregulates SOCS3 in Human Thyroid Cancer Cells.
In conclusion, 15d-PGJ2 shows the potential to become a new therapeutic approach for thyroid tumors. PMID: 27190500 [PubMed] (Source: PPAR Research)
Source: PPAR Research - May 19, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

Timcodar (VX-853) Is a Non-FKBP12 Binding Macrolide Derivative That Inhibits PPARγ and Suppresses Adipogenesis.
In this study, we used macrolide drugs such as FK506, rapamycin, and macrolide derived, timcodar (VX-853), to determine their effects on lipid accumulation during adipogenesis. Rapamycin and FK506 bind to FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs), such as FKBP12, which causes suppression of the immune system and inhibition of mTOR. Rapamycin has been previously reported to inhibit the adipogenic process and lipid accumulation. However, rapamycin treatment in rodents caused immune suppression and glucose resistance, even though the mice lost weight. Here we show that timcodar (1 μM), a non-FKBP12-binding drug, significantly (p
Source: PPAR Research - May 19, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research

PPARgene: A Database of Experimentally Verified and Computationally Predicted PPAR Target Genes.
Authors: Fang L, Zhang M, Li Y, Liu Y, Cui Q, Wang N Abstract The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Upon ligand binding, PPARs activate target gene transcription and regulate a variety of important physiological processes such as lipid metabolism, inflammation, and wound healing. Here, we describe the first database of PPAR target genes, PPARgene. Among the 225 experimentally verified PPAR target genes, 83 are for PPARα, 83 are for PPARβ/δ, and 104 are for PPARγ. Detailed information including ti...
Source: PPAR Research - May 6, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: PPAR Res Source Type: research