Studying chemical reaction rate using a difference algebraic converging method— A study on the thermal decomposition of poly-α-methyl styrene
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Weiguo Sun, Yi Zhang, Jia Fu, Zhanwen Zhang, Weidong Wu, Yongjian TangAbstractA difference algebraic converging method for rate problem (DACMr) is proposed to study the rate function of a simple chemical reaction that is the function of activation energy and rate constant. The applications of this method to the thermal decomposition reactions of solid poly-α-methyl styrene (PαMS) indicate that: 1) All experimental thermal decomposition reaction rate functions W(T) are excellently reproduced using converged DACM...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - October 23, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Hydrothermal ageing of graphene/carbon nanotubes/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): C. Arribas, M.G. Prolongo, M. Sánchez-cabezudo, R. Moriche, S.G. ProlongoAbstractThe hydrothermal ageing of hybrid nanocomposites formed by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) incorporated into an epoxy matrix was studied. In order to avoid the weak interface, amine functionalized GNPs were used which are reactive with the epoxy matrix. The content of CNTs was 0.1 wt% and the GNPs content ranged from 5 to 12 wt%. The isothermal water absorption was measured until very long times (almost two...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - October 23, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Application of small punch test to lifetime prediction of plasticized polyvinyl chloride wire
In this study, it was investigated that the validity of small punch (SP) test for the lifetime prediction of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin used as an electric insulation material for the electric cable. The degradation behavior of PVC resin under the accelerated high-temperature condition was analyzed using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), tensile testing, and SP testing. The activation energies and estimated lifetime obtained from the Arrhenius method were compared. The peak ratio of the carbonyl group obtained by FT-IR, the elastic modulus obtained by tensile testing, and the apparent elastic modulus obt...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - October 23, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Hydrolytic kinetic model predicting embrittlement in thermoplastic elastomers
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): A. Bardin, P.Y. Le Gac, Stéphane Cérantola, Gaëlle Simon, Hervé Bindi, B. FayolleAbstractA hydrolytic kinetic model predicting chains scissions of a polyurethane elastomer (TPU) containing an anti-hydrolysis agent (stabilization via carbodiimide) was developed. This model is based on four components: uncatalysed hydrolysis, acid-catalysed hydrolysis, carboxylic acid dissociation and competitive carbodiimide-based deactivation of acid. Protons were considered as the key catalyst responsible for the...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - October 20, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Flame retardant, mechanical and thermal insulating properties of rigid polyurethane foam modified by nano zirconium amino-tris-(methylenephosphonate) and expandable graphite
Publication date: December 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 170Author(s): Lei Liu, Zhengzhou Wang, Menghe ZhuAbstractA novel phosphorus-nitrogen flame retardant, nano zirconium amino-tris-(methylenephosphonate) (Zr-AMP), successfully synthesized by allowing amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (AMP) to react with ZrOCl·8H2O, was incorporated into rigid polyurethane (RPU) foam with expandable graphite (EG) to prepare flame retarded composites. A synergistic effect between nano Zr-AMP and EG on flame retarded and physical-mechanical properties of RPU foam was observed. The RPU foam containing 3 wt...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - October 20, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Nanobiocatalyst from lipase non-covalently immobilized on multiwalled carbon nanotubes for copolymerization of ε-caprolactone and trimethylene carbonate
This study explored Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) non-covalently immobilized on multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the preparation of metal-free (co)polymers ofε-caprolactone (CL) and trimethylene carbonate (TMC). The novel initiating/catalytic system based on nanobiocatalyst and 1,5-pentanediol allows for the control over the molar mass (Mn) of the obtained homopolymers and copolymers. Mn of polymers, ranged from 5.0 to 50 kg/mol, was controlled by monomer to initiator ratio. Their microstructure was investigated by 13C NMR, while thermal properties by DSC. In addition, the recycling studies indicate that nan...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - October 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Effect of radiation-induced oxidative degradation on the non-isothermal crystallization of ethylene-butene copolymer
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): V.A. Alvarez, M.D. Failla, C.J. PérezAbstractA random ethylene–butene copolymer was irradiated with high ionizing energy in environments with different oxygen concentration. The non-isothermal crystallization process of the materials was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. When the polymer was exposed to radiation under free oxygen ambient, the temperature and the crystallinity degree decreased almost linearly with dose because chain-linking reaction prevails. On the contrary, those thermal parameter...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - October 16, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

A synthesized multifunctional rubber additive and its improvements on the curing and antioxidative properties of styrene-butadiene rubber/silica composites
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Yangkun Sun, Jingwei He, Bangchao Zhong, Lixin Zhu, Fang LiuAbstractA multifunctional additive (1-allyl-3-(4-(phenylamino)phenyl)thiourea, APPT) with amine, thiourea and allyl groups was synthesized by reacting N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (PPD) with allyl isothiocyanate (AITC). The chemical structure of APPT was confirmed by FTIR, UV–Vis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and elemental analysis. When employed in styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/silica composites, APPT endowed the composites with much better antioxidative properties than...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - October 16, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Flame retardant polyester fabric from nitrogen-rich low molecular weight additives within intumescent nanocoating
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Igor Jordanov, Eva Magovac, Abbas Fahami, Simone Lazar, Thomas Kolibaba, Ryan J. Smith, Sandra Bischof, Jaime C. GrunlanAbstractAn intumescent nanocoating composed of chitosan (CH) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP), with and without low-molecular weight nitrogen and nitrogen/sulphur based derivatives, was deposited on polyester fabric using the layer-by-layer technique. Guanidine sulfamate (GSM), urea and thiourea were added to the aqueous chitosan deposition solution in an effort to improve flame retardancy. Exceptional se...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - October 16, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Flame retardant, mechanical and thermal insulating properties of rigid polyurethane foam modified by nano zirconium amino-tris-(methylenephosphonate) and expandable graphite
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Lei Liu, Zhengzhou Wang, Menghe ZhuAbstractA novel phosphorus-nitrogen flame retardant, nano zirconium amino-tris-(methylenephosphonate) (Zr-AMP), successfully synthesized by allowing amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (AMP) to react with ZrOCl·8H2O, was incorporated into rigid polyurethane (RPU) foam with expandable graphite (EG) to prepare flame retarded composites. A synergistic effect between nano Zr-AMP and EG on flame retarded and physical-mechanical properties of RPU foam was observed. The RPU foam containing...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - October 11, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Novel succinimide-based ionic liquids as efficient and sustainable media for methanolysis of polycarbonate to recover bisphenol A (BPA) under mild conditions
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Fusheng Liu, Jiao Guo, Penghui Zhao, Mingkai Jia, Mengshuai Liu, Jun GaoAbstractIn this paper, several succinimide-based ionic liquids (SIILs) were developed and structurally characterized. They were used as multifunctional and sustainable media for selective conversion of polycarbonate (PC) into bisphenol A (BPA) via methanolysis method. The catalytic behaviors of SIILs to the reaction, including the effects of SIIL structures, effects of reaction parameters, catalyst reusability, and interaction between SIIL and CH3OH wer...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - October 10, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Innovative 3D printed design to conceive highly fire-retardant multi-material
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Laura Geoffroy, Fabienne Samyn, Maude Jimenez, Serge BourbigotAbstractIn this work, instead of changing the formulation of materials, modification of their design has been investigated as an alternative approach to reach optimized fire performance. Technic of choice for such purpose, fused polymer deposition has been used to create innovative flame retarded sandwich structures with two skins completely filled and a partially filled grid patterned core. In the first part, different grid patterned cores were prepared by varyi...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - October 10, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Controlled biodegradability of functionalized thermoplastic starch based materials
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Martina Nevoralová, Marek Koutný, Aleksandra Ujčić, Pavel Horák, Jana Kredatusová, Jana Šerá, Lubomír Růžek, Michaela Růžková, Sabina Krejčíková, Miroslav Šlouf, Zdeněk KrulišAbstractThe present work focuses on the preparation and characterization of biodegradable materials based on plasticized and chemically modified starch. During the experiments, the morphology, properties and biodegradability of the starch materials were influenc...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - October 10, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Effect of elevated in-service temperature on the mechanical properties and microstructure of particulate-filled epoxy polymers
Publication date: Available online 4 October 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Mojdeh Mehrinejad Khotbehsara, Allan Manalo, Thiru Aravinthan, Kakarla Raghava Reddy, Wahid Ferdous, Hong Wong, Ali NazariAbstractIn civil engineering applications, epoxy-based polymers are subject to different environmental conditions including in-service temperature, which might accelerate their degradation and limit their application ranges. Recently, different particulate fillers were introduced to enhance the mechanical properties and reduce the cost of epoxy-based polymers. This paper addresses the effect of in-servic...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - October 5, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Matrix matters: Hyperbranched flame retardants in aliphatic and aromatic epoxy resins
Publication date: Available online 5 October 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Alexander Battig, Jens C. Markwart, Frederik R. Wurm, Bernhard SchartelAbstractWe synthesized a library of phosphorus-based flame retardants (phosphates and phosphoramides of low and high molar mass) and investigated their behavior in two epoxy resins (one aliphatic and one aromatic). The pyrolytic and burning behavior of the two resins (via TGA, TG-FTIR, Hot stage FTIR, Py-GC/MS, PCFC, DSC, LOI, UL-94, Cone calorimeter) are analyzed and compared to the results of flame retardant (FR)-containing composites. A decomposition ...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - October 5, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Superior flame retardancy of cotton by synergetic effect of cellulose-derived nano-graphene oxide carbon dots and disulphide-containing polyamidoamines
Publication date: Available online 30 September 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Jenny Alongi, Paolo Ferruti, Amedea Manfredi, Federico Carosio, Zhaoxuan Feng, Minna Hakkarainen, Elisabetta RanucciAbstractLinear polyamidoamines containing disulphide groups (SS-PAAs) were prepared by polyaddition of L-cystine with 2,2-bisacrylamidoacetic acid (B-CYSS), N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide (M-CYSS) and 1,4-bisacryloylpiperazine (BP-CYSS). They were evaluated as flame retardants for cotton, alone or with cellulose-derived nano-graphene oxide (nGO) carbon dots, to assess whether, due to their potential as r...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - October 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Characterization and laser-induced degradation of a medical grade polylactide
In this study, we carried out the structural and thermal characterization of a medical-grade poly (lactide) (PLA) by SEC, TGA, DSC, NMR, ICP-MS and Py-GC/MS. Moreover, we investigated the laser-induced degradation occurring when ultrashort laser pulses (ULP) were employed to cut extremely thin polymer films prepared by solvent-casting. ULP polymer cutting technology is an interesting manufacturing process for its advantages in potential medical applications. In fact, heat transmission to the region surrounding the cuts is limited, so that the incisions are precise and the effects on the regions around them are small. In th...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 30, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Investigation on fatigue behavior and damage mechanism of C/BMI composites under hygrothermal environment
Publication date: Available online 27 September 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Yu Gao, Chenhao Li, Jin Wang, Baichen Wang, Xu CuiAbstractIn this paper, the fatigue behavior and damage mechanism of C/BMI composites in hygrothermal environment were studied. T700/HT280 composite and its matrix resin were subjected to the hygrothermal aging treatment of 80 °C/85% RH. Moisture absorption rate, FTIR, DMA, Static tensile properties and fatigue properties of materials were tested before and after hygrothermal aging, respectively. The results show that the moisture absorption rate of composite and res...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 28, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

On the entanglement-based mechanism in thermal degradation of vinyl polymers
Publication date: Available online 27 September 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Takashi Sawaguchi, Daisuke Sasaki, Atsushi TakamuraAbstractIn thermal degradation of the main-chain-scission type of vinyl polymers as a polymer reaction in melt, we propose that each subsequent elementary reaction of terminal macroradicals generated by the initiation is significantly influenced by entanglement constraint of molten polymer chain which is a reaction field. First, the intermolecular hydrogen abstraction followed by β-scission occurs dominantly at other molecules forming the entanglement constraint tub...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 28, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Mesoporous silica as nanocarrier of antioxidant for highly anti-aging elastomer composites
Publication date: Available online 26 September 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Dechao Hu, Yuanfang Luo, Yongjun Chen, Jing Lin, Demin JiaAbstractMesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were firstly utilized as the delivery vehicles of antioxidant 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (MB) to fabricate highly anti-aging styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) composites. The thermo-oxidative aging behaviour of SBR composites was systematically evaluated by mechanical testing, FTIR and XPS. For the composites with MSNs-MB and free MB, though some of free MB were consumed or migrated to the elastomer surface, the released MB...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 27, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

A preliminary study of the decline in solubility of ancient silk protein
This study provides basic data to improve the solubility of ancient silk and contribute to the analysis and conservation of ancient silk artifacts. (Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability)
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 27, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Plasticizer loss in a complex system (polyamide 12): Kinetics, prediction and its effects on mechanical properties
Publication date: Available online 24 September 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Xin-Feng Wei, Kai J. Kallio, Stefan Bruder, Martin Bellander, Mikael S. HedenqvistAbstractPlasticizer migration is a major concern for plasticized polymers because it leads to unwanted changes in mechanical properties and, in many cases, contamination of the environment. In cases of slow migration, it is of practical importance to be able to perform accelerated testing and estimate migration rates from high temperature experiments. Despite the importance, a critical evaluation of different ways of extrapolating mass loss...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 26, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Novel high Tg fully biobased poly(hexamethylene-co-isosorbide-2,5-furan dicarboxylate) copolyesters: Synergistic effect of isosorbide insertion on thermal performance enhancement
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Nejib Kasmi, Nina Maria Ainali, Elena Agapiou, Lazaros Papadopoulos, George Z. Papageorgiou, Dimitrios N. BikiarisAbstractHere an effective solution for overcoming the low glass transition temperature (Tg) of poly(hexamethylene 2,5-furan dicarboxylate) (PHF), a fully biobased polyester derived from dimethylfuran-2,5-furan-dicarboxylate (DMFD) and 1,6-hexanediol (1,6-HD), is proposed that uses isosorbide (Is) as a bicyclic rigid diol comonomer. Incorporating this sugar-derived diol with a broad scope content (3–90...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 26, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Intumescent flame retardant behavior of charring agents with different aggregation of piperazine/triazine groups in polypropylene
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Wei Tang, Lijun Qian, Yajun Chen, Yong Qiu, Bo XuAbstractTo explore the structure mode of charring agent with higher flame retardant efficiency, two charring agents (PT-Cluster and PT) with different aggregation structure of piperazine/triazine groups were synthesized and characterized, and then were applied to preparing intumescent flame retardant polypropylene (PP) composites with ammonium polyphosphate (APP). Both PT-Cluster/APP/PP and PT/APP/PP composites performed excellent intumescent flame retardant effects. The v...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 26, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Kinetic, thermal, structural and degradation studies on the effect of meta-substituted aromatic-aliphatic polyesters built through ring-opening polymerisation
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Vishalkumar A. Makwana, Aitor Larrañaga, José Luis Vilas, Erlantz LizundiaAbstractHere we synthesise and characterise novel aromatic-aliphatic polyesters based on poly(2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)benzoate) (P2HEB). The polyesters were a product of the ring-opening polymerisation of their respective substituted benzodioxepinones catalysed by an aluminium salen catalyst. The electronic effects of the substituents on the polymerisation and thermal behaviour were investigated. The polymerisation and depolymerisation kin...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 26, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Synthesis of a novel phosphorus-nitrogen flame retardant and its application in epoxy resin
Publication date: Available online 23 September 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Zong-Min Zhu, Luo-Xin Wang, Xue-Bao Lin, Liang-Ping DongAbstractA novel phosphorus-nitrogen flame retardant named as melamine phenyl phosphate (MAPPO) was synthesized successfully via the neutralization reaction between phenylphosphonic acid (PPOA) and melamine (MA). The chemical structure of MAPPO was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and element analysis (EA). MAPPO was introduced into epoxy resin by blending to improve the flame retardancy. Flame retardancy a...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 24, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: October 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 168Author(s): (Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability)
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 21, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Publisher's note
Publication date: October 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 168Author(s): (Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability)
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 21, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Manufacturing, thermochemical characterization and ablative performance evaluation of carbon-phenolic ablative material with nano-Al2O3 addition
Publication date: Available online 17 September 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): L. Paglia, V. Genova, F. Marra, M.P. Bracciale, C. Bartuli, T. Valente, G. PulciAbstractCarbon-phenolic ablative materials represent the most effective solution as thermal shield for a broad kind of space missions which require a ballistic reentry in atmosphere. These materials were successfully employed for shielding probes during the reentry from the Moon and landing on Mars. Nowadays further improvements are required and the addition of nano-fillers is a promising innovation strategy. In this work a carbon-phenolic ab...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 18, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

New multi-block copolyester of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid containing PEG-like sequences to form flexible and degradable films for sustainable packaging
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Giulia Guidotti, Michelina Soccio, Nadia Lotti, Valentina Siracusa, Massimo Gazzano, Andrea Munari (Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability)
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 15, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

TG-MS-FTIR study on pyrolysis behavior of phthalonitrile resin
This study firstly reports the thermal pyrolysis behavior of phthalonitrile resin under argon atmosphere. The thermal stability and volatile products analysis were investigated by thermogravimetry coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (TG-MS-FTIR). It is found that the main gas species detected were H2O, NH3, HCN, CH4, CO2, CO. In addition, the most probable pyrolysis mechanism was intensively discussed, proposing that the pyrolysis process of PN resin can be divided into two main stages. Firstly, the labile bonds removal from matrix. Secondly, the thermally stable chars in bulk were ge...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 13, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Boron nitride nanosheets decorated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles as a magnetic bifunctional catalyst for post‐consumer PET wastes recycling
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Mohammad Reza Nabid, Yasamin Bide, Mahsa JafariAbstractDue to its enormous consumption in various fields and also the non-degradability, recycling of polyethylene terephthalate is critical for waste management causing reduction in disposal, oil use, and carbon dioxide emissions. Among various recycling methods, glycolysis of PET was carried out because of milder reaction conditions and yielding bis(hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET) as valuable versatile monomer. To conduct an efficient PET glycolysis, a recyclable bifun...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 11, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Influence of the degrees of polymerization of cellulose on the water absorption performance of hydrogel and adsorption kinetics
Publication date: October 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 168Author(s): Heng-Xiang Li, Qun Wang, Luming Zhang, Xin Tian, Qing Cao, Li'e JinAbstractThe cellulose with different degrees of polymerization (DPs) was successfully prepared and applied to synthesize a series of superabsorbent hydrogel (SAH) by grafting polymerization. Cellulose could be partly degraded by the combined effect of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). The DPs of cellulose decreased by 21% under this pretreatment method. The quantity of water absorption (Q) of SAH derived from the cellulose with different...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 10, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Simultaneously enhance both the flame retardancy and toughness of polylactic acid by the cooperation of intumescent flame retardant and bio-based unsaturated polyester
Publication date: Available online 9 September 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): De-Fu Li, Xi Zhao, Yun-Wan Jia, Lu He, Xiu-Li Wang, Yu-Zhong WangAbstractDespite the excellent biodegradable and competitive comprehensive properties, the application of biobased polylactic acid (PLA) lags far behind due to the defects of inherent flammability and brittleness, which are difficult to overcome simultaneously. In this work, the reactive blending of PLA and flexible biobased unsaturated polyester (BUP) enhances the toughness of PLA, and improves the melt viscosity of PLA matrix, which is conducive for intumes...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 10, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Chemical aging and impacts on hydrophilic and hydrophobic polyether sulfone (PES) membrane filtration performances
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Wanyi Fu, Wen ZhangAbstractTo better understand the effect of chemical aging processes on membrane filtration performance, this study assessed chemical aging of hydrophobic and hydrophilic polyether sulfone (PES) membranes via static immersion in and dynamic filtration with a sodium hypochlorite solution. After chemical aging, the membrane's physicochemical characteristics (i.e., surface porosity, roughness, surface charge and hydrophobicity, modifiers distribution) and mechanical properties (i.e., tensile strength and el...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 6, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Mechanism investigation of thermal degradation of CO2-based poly(cyclohexene carbonate caprolactone)
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Yonghang Xu, Tao Zhang, Yiluan Zhou, Danmin Zhou, Zixin Shen, Limiao LinAbstractThe thermal degradation behaviors and mechanisms of CO2-based poly(cyclohexene carbonate caprolactone)s (PCHCCLs) were deeply studied taking advantage of thermogravimetric analysis/Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (TG/FTIR) and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) techniques. The experimental results indicate that the decomposition temperatures of PCHCCLs increase with the increasing contents of polycaprolactone (PC...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 5, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Atomic oxygen-resistant polyimide composite fibers based on wet spinning of polyamic Acid-POSS ammonium salts
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Fangfang Liu, Haiquan Guo, Yong Zhao, Xuepeng Qiu, Lianxun Gao, Yanna ZhangAbstractAs a vital component of flexible cables in aerospace vehicles, outstanding atomic oxygen (AO) resistance is in demand for polyimide (PI) fibers. Herein, a series of PI composite fibers with different polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) ammonium salt contents (0–20 wt%) is prepared by adding diethylamino-POSS into polyamic acid (PAA) solution followed by spinning via wet process. The average silicon contents of the fibers by ...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 5, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Influence of the degree of polymerization of cellulose on the water absorption performance of hydrogel and adsorption kinetics
Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Heng-Xiang Li, Qun Wang, Luming Zhang, Xin Tian, Qing Cao, Li'e JinAbstractThe cellulose with different degrees of polymerization (DPs) was successfully prepared and applied to synthesize a series of superabsorbent hydrogel (SAH) by grafting polymerization. Cellulose could be partly degraded by the combined effect of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). The DP of cellulose decreased by 21% under this pretreatment method. The quantity of water absorption (Q) of SAH derived from the cellulose with d...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 4, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

GSH and light dual stimuli-responsive supramolecular polymer drug carriers for cancer therapy
Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Jianbing Li, Xiufang Li, Hui Liu, Tao Ren, Ling Huang, Zhiwei Deng, Yanjing Yang, Shian ZhongAbstractGlutathione (GSH)/light dual-responsive supramolecular drug carriers (abbreviated as CPAP) based on CD-PEG⊃Azo-PCL were fabricated for intracellular delivery of doxorubicin (DOX). The carriers were spherical with a diameter of 70–90 nm and exhibited GSH/light sensitivity. The GSH response attributed to disulfide bonds between PEG and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), and the light response was achieved by a simp...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 4, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Evaluation of corrugated cardboard biochar as reinforcing fiber on properties, biodegradability and weatherability of wood-plastic composites
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Xiaoqian Wang, Farid Sotoudehniakarani, Zhiming Yu, Jeffrey J. Morrell, Jed Cappellazzi, Armando G. McDonaldAbstractCorrugated cardboard (CCB) was pyrolyzed at different temperatures (350, 400 and 450 °C) to produce biochar fibers. The biochar and CCB control fibers were then compounded with high density polyethylene (HDPE) and maleated polyethylene (MAPE) to prepare wood plastic composites (WPC). The effect of different pyrolysis temperature biochars on the WPC's mechanical, thermal and viscoelastic properties, water...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - September 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

A novel double agent of triazole-based zinc-containing complex which constituted Zn/Zn stabilizer system with zinc stearate as thermal stabilizer for poly(vinyl chloride)
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Biao Ma, Xu Wang, Songyan Lu, Huiwen He, Meng Ma, Yanqin Shi, Si ChenAbstractAn effectively Zn/Zn stabilizer system instead of traditional Ca/Zn stabilizer system was put forward, which contained a new triazole-based zinc-containing complex (abbreviated as [Zn(ttr)(St)]) and Zinc stearate (ZnSt2). Without Ca soap in the system, [Zn(ttr)(St)] itself could effectively absorb HCl and provided PVC with higher transparency and better thermal stability without “zinc burning” than commercial CaSt2/ZnSt2 stabilizer syst...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - August 31, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: September 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 167Author(s): (Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability)
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - August 29, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Identification of the degradation products of a crosslinked polyester using LC-MS
Publication date: October 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 168Author(s): Jesus B. Tapia, Jason Haines, Janet P. Yapor, Melissa M. ReynoldsAbstractIn the process of developing new biomedical devices, in addition to meeting the required criteria for their intended applications, it is imperative to also identify the degradation products over the lifetime of their intended use. Determining the major degradation products from a device is an important consideration when completing the biological evaluation of medical devices under the ISO 10993 series guidelines. Furthermore, adequate identification of the d...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - August 26, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Investigation and modelling of the water transport properties in unfilled EPDM elastomers
Publication date: Available online 23 August 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Maxime Lacuve, Xavier Colin, Lara Perrin, Lionel Flandin, Petru Notingher, Christophe Tourcher, Mouna Ben Hassine, Houssam TanzeghtiAbstractThe water sorption properties (i.e. diffusivity and solubility) of three unfilled vulcanized EPDMs were investigated in wet atmosphere (typically between 0 and 95% RH) and in pure distilled water (denoted as 100% RH) at 70 °C with an IGAsorp dynamic sorption analyzer. In the 0–0.5 activity range, all EPDMs obey to the usual Fick and Henry's laws. In contrast, at activities h...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - August 25, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Degradation markers and plasticizer loss of cellulose acetate films during ageing
Publication date: Available online 23 August 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Liu Liu, Decai Gong, Lukasz Bratasz, Zhanyun Zhu, Chengming WangAbstractCellulose acetate (CA) was widely used by the film industry as well as by artists to create fine and decorative art. CA films plasticized with different content of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) were aged in different conditions for the study of the degradation markers and the plasticizer loss by means of optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffusion (XRD), Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), Fourie...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - August 25, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

How to estimate cellulose condition in insulation transformers papers? Combined chromatographic and spectroscopic study
This study focuses on the temporal stability of insulation paper used in power transformers and intends to provide reliable and comprehensive estimators for the assessment of paper degradation state. To achieve the objectives artificially aged model papers were investigated along with power transformers insulation papers, by means of Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) reflectance spectroscopy. The results of the UV–Vis analysis were compared to quantum chemical calculations performed by using time-dependent-Density Functional ...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - August 25, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Layer-by-layer self-assembly of Ce-doped titanate nanotube-based hybrid coating on bamboo fibre materials for flame retardancy and thermostability
In this study, Ce ions were doped into the crystal lattice of TNTs and bonded to O, which resulted in the generation of CeO2 and expansion of the lattice defects of TNTs. Then, TNTs and Ce doped TNTs (Ce-TNTs) were coated on the surface of bamboo fibre materials by layer-by-layer self-assembly to refine the flame retardant performance of the materials. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) and energy disperse spectrum (EDS) analysis indicated that the TNTs and Ce-TNTs were uniformly distributed on the surface of the bamboo fibre materials, and the Ti content reached ∼3.90 wt% and ∼3.70 wt%, respectively. Results ...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - August 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

The morphological changes upon cryomilling of cellulose and concurrent generation of mechanoradicals
Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Özge Laçin, Joanna Kwiczak-Yiğitbaşı, Meltem Erkan, Şevki Can Cevher, Bilge BaytekinAbstractWith mechanical input, chemical bonds in polymers can be broken. Recently, it was shown that reactive ends formed by homolytic cleavage, so-called mechanoradicals, can be used in driving further chemical reactions or in making new composite materials. Cellulose, the most abundant polymer on earth, can also be subjected to mechanical input via ball-milling to produce mechanoradicals. Despite many reports on morphologic...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - August 20, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Physical ageing of epoxy in a wet environment: Coupling between plasticization and physical ageing
Publication date: Available online 18 August 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): A. Le Guen-Geffroy, P.-Y. Le Gac, B. Habert, P. DaviesAbstractThis paper shows how physical ageing and plasticization processes are coupled in an amine-based epoxy. The study combines several ageing conditions including thermal ageing in the dry state (from 40 to 60 °C), ageing in a humid environment (RH 50% and RH 75%) as well as immersion in seawater at several temperatures from 15 to 40 °C. First results are presented to highlight that the two processes (physical ageing and plasticization) both occur when the...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - August 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Identification of the degradation products of a biodegradable crosslinked polyester using LC-MS
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Jesus B. Tapia, Jason Haines, Janet P. Yapor, Melissa M. ReynoldsAbstractIn the process of developing new biomedical devices, in addition to meeting the required criteria for their intended applications, it is imperative to also identify the degradation products over the lifetime of their intended use. Determining the major degradation products from a device is an important consideration when completing the biological evaluation of medical devices under the ISO 10993 series guidelines. Furthermore, adequate identification o...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - August 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research