Effect of biphenyl biimide structure on the thermal stability, flame retardancy and pyrolysis behavior of PET
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Zhi-Zheng Wu, Yan-Peng Ni, Teng Fu, Bo-Wen Liu, Wan-Shou Wu, Lin Chen, Xiu-Li Wang, Yu-Zhong WangAbstractAt present, developing a flame-retardant unit to solve the flammability and melt-dripping of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) still is a key issue. To endow PET with good flame retardancy and low smoke releasing, a third monomer, N, N′-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-biphenyl-3,4,3′,4′-tetracarboxylic diimide (BPDI) containing biphenyl biimide and without any traditional flame-retardant elements, is synthesized and...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 20, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Comparison of biodegradable poly(glycolide-ɛ-caprolactone) and poly(glycolide-ɛ-caprolactone-d,l-lactide) coatings enriched with ciprofloxacin formed on Ti6Al4V alloy
Publication date: September 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 155Author(s): J. Jaworska, K. Jelonek, W. Kajzer, J. Szewczenko, B. Kaczmarczyk, A. Marcinkowski, H. Janeczek, M. Pastusiak, M. Basiaga, J. KasperczykAbstractBiodegradable coatings containing caprolactone units additionally enriched with ciprofloxacin formed on Ti6Al4V alloys have been developed. The polymer coatings were investigated as a carrier for ciprofloxacin-antibacterial drug. Coatings have been obtained according to the dip-coating method. Two kinds of polymers containing caprolactone units have been used: poly(glycolide-ɛ-caprolact...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 20, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Accelerated weathering study of extruded polyethylene/poly (lactic acid)/chitosan films
Publication date: September 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 155Author(s): L.L. Lizárraga-Laborín, J.M. Quiroz-Castillo, J.C. Encinas-Encinas, M.M. Castillo-Ortega, S.E. Burruel-Ibarra, J. Romero-García, J.A. Torres-Ochoa, D. Cabrera-Germán, D.E. Rodríguez-FélixAbstractPolyethylene/poly (lactic acid)/chitosan films, with and without poly (ethylene-g-maleic anhydride) (PEgMA) as compatibilizer, were prepared by extrusion and the degradation behavior under different times of standard weathering conditions was analyzed. The materials were characterized by means of...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 20, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Perspectives in the design of zein-based polymeric delivery systems with programmed wear down for sustainable agricultural applications
Publication date: September 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 155Author(s): Tímea Kacsó, Ioan O. Neaga, Arnold Erincz, Carlos E. Astete, Cristina M. Sabliov, Radu Oprean, Ede BodokiAbstractDesign of nanostructured systems for pesticide delivery allows the implementation of a rational and sustainable use of these chemicals. Zein nanoparticles (ZNPs) enable extended foliar adhesion, as well as prolonged and controlled release of the entrapped agrochemical. The present study aimed to investigate degradation of ZNPs with various surface properties under environmentally relevant conditions. Acc...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 20, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation studies of aliphatic 10-undecenoic acid-based polyesters
Publication date: September 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 155Author(s): Carmen Valverde, Gerard Lligadas, Juan C. Ronda, Marina Galià, Virginia CádizAbstractThe hydrolytic and enzymatic degradations of aliphatic polyesters: poly (10,11-epoxyundecanoic acid) (PEAU) bearing hydroxyl groups along the main chain and poly (11-hydroxyundecanoate)diol (PHU), were studied and compared to that of commercial poly (ε-caprolactone)diol (PCL). Changes taking place after polyester degradation in sample weight, molecular weight (Mn), chemical constitution, thermal properties, crystallinity an...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 20, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Long-term effect of silk paper used for wrapping of plasticized PVC objects: Comparison between ancient and model PVC
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Adeline Royaux, Isabelle Fabre-Francke, Nathalie Balcar, Gilles Barabant, Clémentine Bollard, Bertrand Lavédrine, Sophie CantinAbstractThe degradation kinetics of ancient and model plasticized PVC films placed in contact with silk paper as wrapping material used for PVC heritage objects was investigated during an artificial thermal aging consisting in a temperature cycle and under controlled relative humidity. The studied PVC had close plasticizer content at the beginning of the artificial aging treatment and bo...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 19, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

In-situ investigation of temperature evolution of drippings via an optimized UL-94 instrumentation: Application to flame retarded polybutylene succinate
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Chi Hu, Gaëlle Fontaine, Pauline Tranchard, Thierry Delaunay, Marion Collinet, Sophie Marcille, Serge BourbigotAbstractIncorporation of 10 wt% 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) in polybutylene succinate (PBS) showed a significant improvement of fire behavior at the UL-94 test (3.2 mm): (i) V-0 rating and no ignition of the bar for PBS/DOPO with dripping but with no ignition of the cotton whereas (ii) no classification for neat PBS with dripping and with ignition of the cotton. To fully underst...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 18, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Synthesis of fully bio-based and solvent free non-isocyanate poly (ester amide/urethane) networks with improved thermal stability on the basis of vegetable oils
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Abdolreza Farhadian, Abbas Ahmadi, Ismail Omrani, Ahmad Babaei Miyardan, Mikhail A. Varfolomeev, Mohammad Reza NabidAbstractThe purpose of this study is to synthesize non-isocyanate poly (ester amide/urethane) networks, based entirely on vegetable oil through a green method, i.e., without solvent and having any rigid and aromatic structures to improve their thermal stability. For this purpose, first, three amines were synthesized from castor oil and oleic acid. Second, carbonated sunflower oil (CSFO) was obtained by reaction ...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 12, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

A review of experimental studies of the role of free-radicals in polyethylene oxidation
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Pierangiola Bracco, Luigi Costa, Maria Paola Luda, Norman BillinghamAbstractThis paper reviews current understanding of the role of free radicals in the oxidation of polyethylene induced by high-energy irradiation (gamma or e-beam). To evaluate the reactivity, stability and mobility of different macroradicals, their reactions after gamma irradiation of different polyethylenes (LDPE, LLDPE, VLLDPE, HDPE, UHMWPE) are considered. Macroradicals are formed in all phases of PE (crystalline, amorphous and interphase). Their overall ...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 12, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Partial discharge behaviour of biaxially orientated PET films: The effect of crystalline morphology
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Rong Tang, John J. Liggat, Wah H. SiewAbstractThe relation between PD induced breakdown behaviour and crystalline and amorphous morphology of PET films used in photovoltaic devices has been explored and discussed in this work for the first time. Biaxially orientated PET films with and without BaSO4 filler were isothermally annealed at various temperatures before partial discharge (PD) breakdown tests of the films to investigate the crystalline morphology effect. Attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared spectr...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 12, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Poly-etherimide epoxy diamine blends: Conductivity and breakdown voltage measurements at room temperature
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): N. Halawani, J.L. Augé, O. Gain, V. Griseri, G. Teyssèdre, S. PruvostAbstractThis paper presents an investigation on the current and breakdown voltage measurements in thermoset-thermoplastic blends based on an epoxy-amine/poly-etherimide phase separated material. Thermoset-thermoplastic separated blends could be a novel material for insulation applications and can be compared to epoxy/inorganic composites systems. Pure epoxy network as well as the blends with 10 wt% of PEI were studied in terms of conduction an...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Effect of hydrolytic degradation on the mechanical property of a thermoplastic polyether ester elastomer
Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Cody M. Diaz, Xiang Gao, Agathe Robisson, Miranda Amarante, S. Sherry ZhuAbstractPolymers with a finite lifetime are of great interest for oil and gas industry. Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) combine the strength of thermoplastics with the flexibility of elastomers, a characteristic also potentially useful in oil and gas applications. We studied the hydrolytic degradation of a TPE of interest at elevated temperatures from both a mechanical and chemical perspective, and have demonstrated that the chemical degradation rates, th...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Macromolecular modifications of Poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) copolymer at the melting state
Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): T. Choupin, B. Fayolle, G. Régnier, C. Paris, J. Cinquin, B. BruléAbstractMacromolecular modifications of poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) copolymer prepared from diphenyl ether (DPE), terephthalic acid (T) and isophthalic acid (I) with a T/I ratio of 60/40 have been investigated above its melting temperature by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and rheological measurements to assess the evolution of PEKK matrix during composite consolidation step. We mainly focused in thi...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Improving the resistance to hydrothermal ageing of flame-retarded PLA by incorporating miscible PMMA
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): R. Mangin, H. Vahabi, R. Sonnier, C. Chivas-Joly, J.-M. Lopez-Cuesta, M. CochezAbstractThree flame-retarded systems based on PLA, PMMA and PLA/PMMA blend have undergone hydrothermal ageing. The miscibility of the blend as well as the crystallization behaviour of PLA were studied by DSC. The impact of ageing in terms of weight variations, melt viscosity, molecular weight distribution, morphology, and thermal degradation was investigated. Results showed that crystallization of PLA and significant hydrolysis phenomenon occurred d...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Effect of nano-TiO2 immobilized antioxidant on ageing resistance behavior of thermoplastic vulcanizate exposed to UV/O3
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): Hao Yang, Hui Zhang, Henglun Cheng, Baoqing ShentuAbstractNano-TiO2 immobilized antioxidant was prepared to improve the ageing resistance of thermoplastic vulcanizate (TPV) exposed to UV/O3. TiO2 nanoparticles were firstly modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH550) and then reacted with the antioxidant, 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (AG), through the acyl chloride reaction followed by the amidation. FT-IR, XPS and TGA measurements confirmed that the antioxidant (AG) was chemically immobilized ont...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Accelerated weathering study of extruded polyethylene/poly (lactic acid)/chitosan films
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and StabilityAuthor(s): L.L. Lizárraga-Laborín, J.M. Quiroz-Castillo, J.C. Encincas-Encinas, M.M. Castillo-Ortega, S.E. Burruel-Ibarra, J. Romero-García, J.A. Torres-Ochoa, D. Cabrera-German, D.E. Rodríguez-FélixAbstractPolyethylene/poly (lactic acid)/chitosan films, with and without poly (ethylene-g-maleic anhydride) (PEgMA) as compatibilizer, were prepared by extrusion and the degradation behavior under different times of standard weathering conditions was analyzed. The materials were characterized by means of in...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Highly effective flame retarded polystyrene by synergistic effects between expandable graphite and aluminum hypophosphite
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Zong-Min Zhu, Wen-Hui Rao, A-Hui Kang, Wang Liao, Yu-Zhong WangAbstractHerein, expandable graphite (EG) and aluminum hypophosphite (AP) are used to prepare flame-retardant polystyrene (PS) composites. The flame-retardant properties of the PS composites are investigated by the limiting oxygen index (LOI) test, vertical burning test (UL-94) and cone calorimetry test (CC). With 15 wt% EG or AP incorporated alone, the PS composites show limited improvement in LOI, and fail to pass the UL-94 test. In contrast, with 10 wt% EG and 5...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Development of a relationship between kinetic triplets and heating rates to improve pyrolysis kinetic modeling of polymer
The objective of this work is to improve the reliable kinetic parameter analyses for polymers by introducing a new idea of the linear dependence of kinetic triplets on the heating rates in Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) experiments. The virtual kinetic triplets are also introduced for the case with the infinitely slow heating rate. Pyrolysis kinetic analyses are conducted by Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimization for the TGA data based on the single-scan, multi-scan and the new method here with the modified kinetic triplet series. The results show that the fitting errors for the independent case based on the single-scan met...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Improving fire safety of epoxy filled with graphene hybrid incorporated with zeolitic imidazolate framework/layered double hydroxide
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Wenzong Xu, Xiaoling Wang, Yucheng Liu, Wu Li, Rui ChenAbstractIn this work, a novel graphene (RGO) hybrid added with Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework/Layered Double Hydroxide (ZIF/LDH) was prepared to obtain a synergistic system (RGO-LDH/ZIF-67). Subsequently, RGO-LDH/ZIF-67 was mixed into epoxy resin (EP) by physical blending for the purpose of improving its fire safety. Based on a series of tests and analyses, it was found that RGO-LDH/ZIF-67 was beneficial to reducing the heat release of EP during its burning process. The peak he...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Simultaneous improvement of mechanical and fire retardant properties of synthesised biodegradable guar gum-g-poly(butyl acrylate)/montmorillonite nanocomposite
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Dharmendra K. Jena, Prafulla K. SahooAbstractA novel multicomponent biopolymer based nanocomposite was synthesised via graft copolymerization of butyl acrylate (BA) onto guar gum (GG) and montmorillonite (MMT) by using ammonium persulfate (APS) as a free radical initiator, in the presence of N,N′-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent. BA had been grafted onto GG chains and the participation of -OH groups of MMT in polymerization reaction was confirmed by FTIR spectra. XRD and TEM observations revealed that MMT...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Enhancing the biodegradation rate of poly(lactic acid) films and PLA bio-nanocomposites in simulated composting through bioaugmentation
In this study, we evaluated the effect of bioaugmentation on the biodegradation of PLA and PLA bio-nanocomposites (BNCs) in simulated composting conditions. PLA, PLA with 5% organo-modified montmorillonite (PLA-OMMT5), and PLA with 0.4% surfactant (PLA-QAC0.4) films were produced and fully characterized. PLA-degrading bacteria were isolated through an enrichment technique with PLA as the sole carbon source at 58 °C. Isolates were identified as Geobacillus using 16 S rRNA gene sequencing and the NCBI database, and further used to study the effect of bioaugmentation on the biodegradation rate of PLA and BNCs in solid...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Low molecular weight hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) intercalated MgAl-Layered double hydroxides: Preparation and anti-aging performance in polypropylene nanocomposites
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Qian Zhang, Fabrice Leroux, Pinggui Tang, Dianqing Li, Yongjun FengAbstractA low molecular weight hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS), contains 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethyl piperidine functional group has been successfully prepared and intercalated into the interlayer region of Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) via a co-precipitation method to produce HALS-LDH. Furthermore, a series of HALS-LDH/PP nanocomposites were fabricated by dispersing HALS-LDH in poly(propylene) (PP) in a solvent casting route. Through the accelerated aging...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

High performance nano-zinc amino-tris-(methylenephosphonate) in rigid polyurethane foam with improved mechanical strength, thermal stability and flame retardancy
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Lei Liu, Zhengzhou WangAbstractA novel phosphorus and nitrogen-based flame retardant, zinc amino-tris-(methylenephosphonate) (Zn-AMP) was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopies, transmission electronic microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Zn-AMP was introduced into rigid polyurethane (RPU) foam with the aim of enhancing flame retardant, mechanical and thermal properties. The incorporation of 10 wt% Zn-AMP into RPU foam was found to increase the compressive str...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Diffusion-limited oxidation of polyamide: Three stages of fracture behavior
In this study, the reduced extensibility/embrittlement of unstabilized PA6 under DLO conditions was understood by revealing DLO-induced fracture behavior. The DLO was induced by thermally ageing PA6 samples at 180 °C; the built-up of the thin oxidized layer by ageing was revealed by infrared microscopy. Notably, the formation of the thin oxidized layer significantly reduced the strain-at-break. Depending on whether the oxidized layer was brittle, two types of surface behavior (voiding and cracking) occurred during the tensile tests, which in turn lead to three types (stages) of tensile fracture behavior. In particula...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

A new insight into morphological, thermal, and mechanical properties of melt-processed polylactide/poly(ε-caprolactone) blends
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Orebotse Joseph Botlhoko, James Ramontja, Suprakas Sinha RayAbstractBiodegradable polylactide (PLA)/poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) blend is a well-studied immiscible polymer blend system; however, there is no fundamental understanding of how the dispersed phase morphology controls the thermal stability, and the thermal and mechanical properties of the blend systems. Addressing this research question, a series of PLA/PCL blends were processed using melt-blending technique. The results show that the unique thermal stability of t...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Biobased copolyesters: Synthesis, structure, thermal and mechanical properties of poly(ethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate-co-ethylene 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate)
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Xiansong Wang, Qingyin Wang, Shaoying Liu, Gongying WangAbstractA series of bio-based copolyesters, poly(ethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate-co-ethylene 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate)s (PEFCs) were synthesized from ethylene glycol (EG), 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) and 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid (CHDA) through a two-step melt polycondensation procedure. The chemical structure, compositions and sequence distributions were determined by 1H NMR. The molecular weight, thermal properties, thermal stabilities, crystal structure and...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Oxidation reactions in kink banded regions of UHMMPE fiber-based laminates used in body armor: A mechanistic study
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Zois Tsinas, Amanda L. Forster, Mohamad Al-SheikhlyAbstractThis work demonstrates the synergy between the thermo-mechanical and humidity induced degradation as well as the oxidation reactions in the kink-banded areas of ultra-high molar mass polyethylene (UHMMPE) fiber-based laminates used in body armor. For aged materials, the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results reveal high concentrations of oxygen containing products, and the EPR results demonstrate the presence of...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Fire-resistant natural fibre-reinforced composites from flame retarded textiles
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): W. Pornwannachai, J.R. Ebdon, B.K. KandolaAbstractThermoplastic composites were prepared by melt pressing fabrics from commingled natural (flax) –thermoplastic (polypropylene (PP) and polylactic acid (PLA)) polymeric fibres. Fabrics were treated with a number of commercial flame retardants (FRs) used for textiles prior to composite preparation. Their flammabilities and mechanical performances have been evaluated in terms of FR types effective on each fibre type. The fire performances of the composite laminates evaluated using...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Biodegradable PHBH/PVA blend nanofibers: Fabrication, characterization, in vitro degradation, and in vitro biocompatibility
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Rina Afiani Rebia, Sélène Rozet, Yasushi Tamada, Toshihisa TanakaAbstractElectrospinning was used to fabricate the different ratio of poly [(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate] (PHBH)/Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blend nanofibers. These nanofibers of ratio PHBH/PVA 100/0, 90/10, 70/30, and 50/50 were prepared by using HFIP as solvent. Mixed solvent of HFIP/water was used to prepare for PHBH/PVA 30/70, 10/90 and water was used for pure PVA. The characteristic of morphology, thermal properties, miscibility, we...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Anti-aging behavior of amino-containing co-condensed nanosilica in polyethylene
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Ming Lu, Peng Liu, Shimin Zhang, Wenjing Yuan, Siyin Ding, Feng Wang, Yanfen Ding, Mingshu YangAbstractPhysical loss of stabilizers by migration and extraction accelerates the degradation of polymer materials. In this work, amino-containing nanosilica with anti-aging properties was prepared simply by the co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane and N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminoproply-trimethoxysilane (AEAPS). AEAPS was used to introduce amino groups into silica nanoparticles and to act as a catalyst in this process. The co-condensed nanosil...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Influences of diantimony trioxide on laser-marking properties of thermoplastic polyurethane
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Junfeng Cheng, Hao Li, Jiaqi Zhou, Zheng Cao, Dun Wu, Chunlin LiuAbstractThe influences of diantimony trioxide (Sb2O3) on the laser-marking properties of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) are studied. The TPU/Sb2O3 composites are prepared by melt blending in a HAAKE mixer. A neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) pulsed laser beam of a wavelength of 1064 nm is used to scan the surfaces of the composites to create markings. Visual and microscopic analyses of the TPU/Sb2O3 composites after laser treatment show high-contras...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Facile synthesis of a novel hyperbranched poly(urethane-phosphine oxide) as an effective modifier for epoxy resin
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Chao Ma, Shuilai Qiu, Junling Wang, Haibo Sheng, Yi Zhang, Weizhao Hu, Yuan HuAbstractIn this work, a novel hyperbranched poly (urethane-phosphine oxide) (HPUPO) was facilely synthesized from 4,4′-diphenylmethane diisocyanate and trihydroxymethylphosphine oxide at room temperature. When HPUPO was incorporated, flame retardancy and toughness of epoxy resin are improved with maintained Tg and increased modulus and strength. The gas and condensed phase flame retardant mechanisms and toughening mechanisms are provided. The poor c...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Enhanced crystallization kinetics of bacterially synthesized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanate) with structural optimization of oxalamide compounds as nucleators
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Pengwu Xu, Ying Cao, Pei Lv, Piming Ma, Weifu Dong, Huiyu Bai, Wei Wang, Mingliang Du, Mingqing ChenAbstractBacterially synthesized poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanate) (PHBH) has attracted much attention as biodegradable plastics and potential biomaterials. However, the crystallization rate of PHBH is very low, which limits its application in plastic field. Herein, oxalamide compounds (OXAn) with a formula of C6H5NHCOCONH(CH2)nNHCOCONHC6H5 (n = 2, 4, 8, 12) were tailor-made as nucleators to improve the crystallization...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

A novel organic-inorganic hybrid SiO2@DPP for the fire retardance of polycarbonate
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Yun-Xia Wei, Cong Deng, Ze-Yong Zhao, Yu-Zhong WangAbstractTo enhance the fire retardance of polycarbonate (PC), a novel organic-inorganic hybrid particle containing phosphorus and silicon (SiO2@DPP) was synthesized through a facile hydrothermal reaction. Different measurements verified that the SiO2@DPP was prepared successfully. After incorporation of the SiO2@DPP into PC, it was found that the flame retardancy of PC was greatly affected by only small amount of SiO2@DPP. The PC containing only 0.8 wt% SiO2@DPP passed the UL-94 ...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Purification, characterization, and gene cloning of an Aspergillus fumigatus polyhydroxybutyrate depolymerase used for degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate, polyethylene succinate, and polybutylene succinate
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Hsin-Wei Jung, Mei-Kwei Yang, Ruey-Chih SuAbstractAspergillus fumigatus strain 76T-3 formed clear zones on agar plates containing emulsified polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), polyethylene succinate (PES), polybutylene succinate (PBS), polycaprolactone (PCL), or polylactide (PLA). The strain grew well at 40 °C in Sabouraud Dextrose Broth. Solution-casted PHB films were almost completely degraded after incubation with 76T-3 at 45 °C for 17 h. An extracellular polyester-degrading enzyme was purified from the supernatant of 76...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Water ageing of urethane dimethacrylate networks
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Benjamin Pomes, Isabelle Derue, Albert Lucas, Jean-François Nguyen, Emmanuel RichaudAbstractThis work explores the process of water ageing of high-temperature high-pressure polymerized urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) networks. UDMA samples polymerized under several pressures (0.1–300 MPa) and differing by the conversion degree of polymerization were aged in water at 37, 50 and 70 °C and followed by gravimetry. Diffusion was observed to obey Fick's law. The diffusion coefficient and water maximal uptake were obse...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

UV degradation model for polymers and polymer matrix composites
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): T. Lu, E. Solis-Ramos, Y. Yi, M. KumosaAbstractWe are proposing in this work a new model of ultraviolet (UV) damage for polymers and Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs). Flat and sinusoidal polymer surfaces were numerically simulated for their UV damage as a function of UV intensity, surface topography, and exposure time. Experimentally determined UV degradation rates for a unidirectional glass/epoxy composite were used to predict numerically the local rates of material degradation on sinusoidal epoxy surfaces subjected to UV. This al...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Effect of mesoporous SBA-15 silica on the thermal stability of isotactic polypropylene based nanocomposites prepared by melt extrusion
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): R. Barranco-García, M.L. Cerrada, J.A. Ressia, E.M. Vallés, A. García-Peñas, E. Pérez, J.M. Gómez-ElviraAbstractThe influence of mesoporous SBA-15 on the thermal stability of nanocomposites with isotactic polypropylene has been evaluated in detail, both under inert and air conditions, by performing dynamic weight loss measurements and by tracking the evolution of degradation species in materials prepared by melt extrusion. A superior thermal stability has been found in the composites, both ...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Situ preparation of SiO2 on graphene-assisted anti-oxidation for resol phenolic resin
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): You Lv, Jian Li, Zixuan Lei, Ziqi Li, Xinli Jing, Yuhong LiuAbstractEasily oxidized group of traditional phenolic resin (PF) results in poor oxidation resistance at high temperature, which is unable to satisfy the requirements of advanced aerospace vehicles for high-performance application, especially ablation resistance. In order to improve the oxidation resistance of PF, a SiO2/RGO binary hybrid nanomaterial assisted anti-oxidation for PF was designed. Here, we reported a simple sol-gel process and high temperature reduction for ...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Thermal properties of polyetherimide/polycarbonate blends for advanced applications
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Ignazio Blanco, Gianluca Cicala, Giulia Ognibene, Mario Rapisarda, Antonino ReccaAbstractPolyetherimide (PEI)/Polycarbonate (PC) blends were prepared and their thermal behaviour was evaluated in the perspective of an improved processability, thus favouring the use as feeding material for a Fusion Deposition Modelling (FDM) 3D printing machine. PEI/PC blends obtained with a batch mixer were characterized by the means of Thermogravimetric (TG) and Differential Thermogravimetric (DTG) analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DS...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Application of self-templated PHMA sub-microtubes in enhancing flame-retardance and anti-dripping of PET
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Chang Wang, Liping Wu, Yamin Dai, Yuxi Zhu, Bijia Wang, Yi Zhong, Linping Zhang, Xiaofeng Sui, Hong Xu, Zhiping MaoAbstractTubular one-dimensional poly (cyclotriphosphazene-melamine) (PHMA) sub-microtubes were conveniently synthesized from co-polymerization of hexachloro -cyclotriphosphazene and melamine. The SEM and TEM results showed PHMA sub-microtubes were opened at one end with diameters of 100–300 nm and lengths of 1–10 μm. The inner diameters of closed and open end were 10–30 nm and 50–100 ...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Thermal properties, phase morphology and stability of biodegradable PLA/PBSL/HAp composites
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Kartik Behera, Veluri Sivanjineyulu, Yen-Hsiang Chang, Fang-Chyou ChiuAbstractBlends/composites of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with poly(butylene succinate-co-lactate) (PBSL) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) were successfully prepared by a conventional melt-mixing process. The thermal properties, phase morphology, crystal structure, and in vitro hydro-degradability of the prepared samples were characterized and compared. Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that adding HAp increased the thermal stability of PLA/PBSL blends in both air and...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Combined effect of UVA radiation and agrochemicals on the durability of agricultural multilayer films
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Demetres Briassoulis, Miltiadis Hiskakis, Philippos TserotasAbstractNew generation agricultural films combine multilayer technologies, with the latest developments in chemicals resistant UV stabilisers and possibly the incorporation of barrier layers against agrochemicals. The photo-degradation behaviour of a series of experimental multilayer (ML) films exposed to accelerated ageing in combination with agrochemicals, was analysed. It has been shown that the presence of a barrier layer (EVOH or PA) adversely affects the mechanical b...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Improvement of flame retardancy and thermal stability of polypropylene by P-type hydrated silica aluminate containing lanthanum
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Sheng Zhang, Wufei Tang, Jia Guo, Xiaodong Jin, Hongfei Li, Xiaoyu Gu, Jun SunAbstractRaw kaolinite (kaol) was experimentally transformed to P-type hydrated silica aluminate (HSA-P). After treated by LaCl3·7H2O solution, the final product of La-loaded for P-type hydrated silica aluminate (HSA-P-La) was obtained. The middle and final products were characterized using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Kaol, HSA-P, HSA-P-La was introduced into PP with intumescent fla...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Synthesis of an acrylate constructed by phosphaphenanthrene and triazine-trione and its application in intrinsic flame retardant vinyl ester resin
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Xiaoxiao Tao, Huajun Duan, Wenjing Dong, Xin Wang, Shuang YangAbstractAn intrinsic flame retardant vinyl ester TGIC-AA-DOPO constructed by phosphaphenanthrene and triazine-trione groups was successfully synthesized via the reaction between 1,3,5-triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC), acrylic acid and 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO). The structure of TGIC-AA-DOPO was characterized in detail by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and liquid chromatography-hig...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Controlled degradation of polyisoprene and polybutadiene: A comparative study of two methods
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Pierre Berto, Stéphane Grelier, Frédéric PeruchAbstractLow molar mass carbonyl telechelic cis,1–4 polyisoprene (CTPI) and aldehyde telechelic cis, 1–4 polybutadiene (ATPB) were easily prepared by the controlled degradation of high molar mass 1,4-cis polyisoprene (PI) and 1,4-cis polybutadiene (PB) in a molar mass range of 5000–80 000 g mol−1. Two methods are compared: the direct one using only the periodic acid (H5IO6) to randomly cleave the chain and a second one where the chain a...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Characterization of in-flame soot from balsa composite combustion during mass loss cone calorimeter tests
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): G. Okyay, S. Bellayer, F. Samyn, M. Jimenez, S. BourbigotAbstractSoot is one of the degradation products of material burning, having the fingerprints of the conditions in which it is formed. In this work, in-flame soot was probed from flaming combustion of balsa core and its sandwich composite at different heat flux scenarios during mass loss cone calorimeter tests. Soot probing was performed by thermophoresis. Electron microscopy was performed to analyze the size of the particulate media at multiscale. The size of the aggregates a...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Full substitution of petroleum-based polyols by phosphorus-containing soy-based polyols for fabricating highly flame-retardant polyisocyanurate foams
Publication date: August 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 154Author(s): Ming-Jun Chen, Xu Wang, Mei-Cen Tao, Xing-Ya Liu, Zhi-Guo Liu, Yan Zhang, Cheng-Shou Zhao, Jun-Sheng WangAbstractTo obtain a substitute for petroleum-based polyols and simultaneously solve the flammability problem of polyisocyanurate (PIR) foams, a novel phosphorus-containing soy-based polyol (PCSO) was firstly synthesized. Then, PCSO was used to fabricate biomass flame-retardant PIR foam (P-PIR) by fully replacing petroleum-based polyol. The morphology, compressive strength, thermal conductivity, thermal stability, flammability, a...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Enhanced catalytic glycolysis conditions for chemical recycling of glycol-modified poly(ethylene terephthalate)
Publication date: September 2018Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 155Author(s): Linh Nguyet Thi Ho, Dieu Minh Ngo, Jaeyoung Cho, Hyun Min JungAbstractDespite the significant influences of the rigid cyclic ring structure on the good thermal and mechanical characteristics of poly (1,4-cyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate) (PCT), steric hindrance by the cyclohexylene group interferes with glycolysis, an important chemical recycling route for poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) derivatives. To confirm the effects of chemical structure on the reaction, bis(4-hydroxymethyl)cyclohexylmethyl terephthalate (BHCHT)...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Polylactic acid, maleic anhydride and dicumyl peroxide: NMR study of the free-radical melt reaction product
In this study, a detailed characterization was carried out of a product formed in the melt reaction of poly(lactic acid) PLA with maleic anhydride, initiated by dicumyl peroxide under the reaction conditions reported herein. The chemical structure of the reaction product was determined by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy and by DEPT-135 and 13C-1H HSQC techniques. It was found that, under the conditions applied in this study, instead of the well-reported grafting of maleic anhydride onto the PLA, a product was formed from the reaction of two PLA macro-radicals, which probably occurs after the β-scission mechanism. The ...
Source: Polymer Degradation and Stability - July 11, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research