Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A6: A Preliminary Report from Istanbul.
Authors: Ceylan AN, Turel O, Gultepe BS, Inan E, Turkmen AV, Doymaz MZ Abstract Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by various serotypes of Enterovirus genus. Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) were known to be the only responsible agents for these epidemics; however, this opinion was challenged after the detection that coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) was the responsible species for the outbreak in Finland in 2008. HFMD is frequently seen in Turkey, and no detailed study on its clinical and microbiological epidemiology has previously been reported. The present study addresses this questio...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - July 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of a Salmonella Strain Isolated from Honeybee Gut as a Potential Live Oral Vaccine Against Lethal Infection of Salmonella Typhimurium.
Authors: Zafar H, Rahman SU, Ali S, Javed MT Abstract In this research, Salmonella species were isolated from the animal, insect and human enteric sources in Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. These species were characterized by different microbiological and molecular techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Furthermore, sequencing of the amplicons confirmed all ten isolates as Salmonella strains. The antigenic cross-reactivity was found maximum between the HB1 (strain isolated from honeybee) antiserum and its antigen with an antibody titer of 1:128, while the HB1 antis...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - July 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of The Pathogenic Potential of Insecticidal Serratia marcescens Strains to Humans.
Authors: Konecka E, Mokracka J, Krzymińska S, Kaznowski A Abstract We observed the death of insect caterpillars of Spodoptera exigua in the laboratory culture line and identified Serratia marcescens as the bacterial causative agent of the insect death. We confirmed that S. marcescens had insecticidal activity against S. exigua and caused high mortality of larvae. The LC50 values of S. marcescens CFU per 1 cm2 of insect diet surface were similar for all isolates. Our research reports novel strains with high pesticidal activity as candidates for future research on a new bioinsecticide. As bioinsecticides cannot be h...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - July 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Effects of Sodium Tripolyphosphate on Oral Commensal and Pathogenic Bacteria.
Authors: Moon JH, Noh MH, Jang EY, Yang SB, Kang SW, Kwack KH, Ryu JI, Lee JY Abstract Polyphosphate (polyP) is a food additive with antimicrobial activity. Here we evaluated the effects of sodium tripolyphosphate (polyP3, Na5P3O10) on four major oral bacterial species, in both single- and mixed-culture. PolyP3 inhibited three opportunistic pathogenic species: Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. On the contrary, a commensal bacterium Streptococcus gordonii was relatively less susceptible to polyP3 than the pathogens. When all bacterial species were co-cultured, polyP3 (≥...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - July 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

The Joint Effect of pH Gradient and Glucose Feeding on the Growth Kinetics of Lactococcus lactis CECT 539 in Glucose-Limited Fed-Batch Cultures.
Authors: Malvido MC, González EA, Bendaña Jácome RJ, Guerra NP Abstract Two glucose-limited realkalized fed-batch cultures of Lactococcus lactis CECT 539 were carried out in a diluted whey medium (DW) using two different feeding media. The cultures were fed a mixture of a 400 g/l concentrated lactose and a concentrated mussel processing waste (CMPW, 101.72 g glucose/l) medium (fermentation I) or a CMPW medium supplemented with glucose and KH2PO4 up to concentrations of 400 g glucose/l and 3.21 g total phosphorus/l, respectively (fermentation II). For an accurate description and a better underst...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - July 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

The State of Research on Antimicrobial Activity of Cold Plasma.
Authors: Niedźwiedź I, Waśko A, Pawłat J, Polak-Berecka M Abstract Microbiological contamination is a big challenge to the food industry, medicine, agriculture, and environmental protection. For this reason, scientists are constantly looking for alternative methods of decontamination, which ensure the effective elimination of unwanted biological agents. Cold plasma is a new technology, which due to its unique physical and chemical properties becomes a point of interest to a growing group of researchers. The previously conducted experiments confirm its effective action, e.g. in the disinfection of skin wounds, a...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

An Investigation of Petrol Metabolizing Bacteria Isolated from Contaminated Soil Samples Collected from Various Fuel Stations.
Authors: Muccee F, Ejaz S Abstract The present study aimed to isolate the high-efficiency petrol metabolizing thermophilic bacteria from petrol contaminated soil samples. Isolation was carried out through enrichment culture, serial dilution and pour plate methods using the petrol supplemented minimal salt media. The isolated bacteria were analyzed to document growth behavior, petrol removal efficiencies, antibiotic resistance profile, and biochemical characteristics. The 16S rRNA based phylogenetic analysis helped to reveal the identity of isolated bacterial species and construct the phylogenetic trees. Total nine ...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Nigerian Women During the Menstrual Cycle.
This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of LAB with their antimicrobial properties in Nigerian women's vagina during different stages of the menstrual cycle. Microorganisms were isolated from vaginal swabs of ten Nigerian women during different stages of the menstrual cycle and identified by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The antimicrobial properties of the LAB were tested against the multidrug-resistant uropathogens. The prevalence of LAB was higher during ovulation period while during menstruation period, it declined. Twenty-five LAB isolates were identified as three species, namely: Lactobacillus pla...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

In situ Impact of the Antagonistic Fungal Strain, Trichoderma gamsii T30 on the Plant Pathogenic Fungus, Rhizoctonia solani in Soil.
Authors: Anees M, Abid M, Chohan S, Jamil M, Ahmed N, Zhang L, Rha ES Abstract Rhizoctonia solani is a soil-borne fungus causing a wide range of plants diseases. Trichoderma gamsii strain T30 has previously been reported as antagonistic against R. solani. Although there are a few studies about the influence of Trichoderma strains on the R. solani density in a pathosystem in the presence of plant hosts, this report for the first time comprehensively describes in situ effects of a T. gamsii strain on the population density of R. solani in the soil microcosmic conditions. The population dynamics of R. solani were foll...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Campylobacter fetus is Internalized by Bovine Endometrial Epithelial Cells.
This study reports for the first time, the ability of C. fetus to invade bovine endometrial epithelial cells, and actin participation in this phenomenon. Campylobacter fetus is an important venereal pathogen of cattle that causes infertility and abortions. It is transmitted during mating, and it travels from the vagina to the uterus; therefore, an important cell type that interacts with C. fetus are endometrial epithelial cells. Several virulence factors have been identified in the genome of C. fetus, such as adhesins, secretion systems, and antiphagocytic layers, but their expression is unknown. The ability of C. fetu...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Patterns of Drug-Resistant Bacteria in a General Hospital, China, 2011-2016.
We described the trends and changes in antibiotic resistance of important pathogens in a general hospital in Zhengzhou, China from 2011 to 2016, to control antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in hospital and provide support to clinicians and decision-making departments. Five dominant bacteria were enrolled based on the data from the general hospital during 6 years. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing were interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). From 2011 to 2016, a total of 19,260 strains of bacteria were isolated, of which Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphyloc...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Analysis of the Amino Acid Sequence Variation of the 67-72p Protein and the Structural Pili Proteins of Corynebacterium diphtheriae for their Suitability as Potential Vaccine Antigens.
Authors: Brodzik K, Krysztopa-Grzybowska K, Polak M, Lach J, Strapagiel D, Zasada AA Abstract The aim of this study was to identify the potential vaccine antigens in Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains by in silico analysis of the amino acid variation in the 67-72p surface protein that is involved in the colonization and induction of epithelial cell apoptosis in the early stages of infection. The analysis of pili structural proteins involved in bacterial adherence to host cells and related to various types of infections was also performed. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to amplify the genes encod...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Gastric Microbiota Alteration in Klebsiella pneumoniae-Caused Liver Abscesses Mice.
Authors: Chen N, Jin TT, Liu WN, Zhu DQ, Chen YY, Shen YL, Ling ZX, Wang HJ, Zhang LP Abstract Gastric microbiota provides a biological barrier against the invasion of foreign pathogens from the oral cavity, playing a vital role in maintaining gastrointestinal health. Klebsiella spp. of oral origin causes various infections not only in gastrointestinal tract but also in other organs, with Klebsiella pneumoniae serotype K1 resulting in a liver abscess (KLA) through oral inoculation in mice. However, the relationship between gastric microbiota and the extra-gastrointestinal KLA infection is not clear. In our study, a...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Influence of Environmental and Genetic Factors on Proteomic Profiling of Outer Membrane Vesicles from Campylobacter jejuni.
Authors: Godlewska R, Klim J, Dębski J, Wyszyńska A, Łasica A Abstract The proteomes of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) secreted by C. jejuni 81-176 strain, which was exposed to oxygen or antibiotic stress (polymyxin B), were characterized. We also assessed the OMVs production and their content in two mutated strains - ∆dsbI and ∆htrA. OMVs production was significantly increased under the polymyxin B stress and remained unaltered in all other variants. Interestingly, the qualitative load of OMVs was constant regardless of the stress conditions or genetic background. However, certain proteins exhibited notable...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Bacterial Diversity in Soybean Rhizosphere Soil at Seedling and Mature Stages.
Authors: Wang L, Li Z, Liu R, Li L, Wang W Abstract Changes in the structural diversity of bacterial communities in soybean rhizospheres play important roles in plant growth and crop productivity. However, there are only a few studies on different soybean growth stages. Here, we investigated the changes in the bacterial community of soybean rhizosphere soil at two stages using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the bacterial abundance and diversity in the seeding stage were higher than those in the mature stage and that the diversity changed significantly. Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, an...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Antibiotic Susceptibility of Cronobacter spp. Isolated from Clinical Samples.
Authors: Holý O, Alsonosi A, Hochel I, Röderová M, Zatloukalová S, Mlynárčik P, Kolář M, Petrželová J, Alazraq A, Chmelař D, Forsythe S Abstract Cronobacter spp. have been recognized as causative agents of various severe infections in pre-term or full-term infants as well as elderly adults suffering from serious underlying disease or malignancy. A surveillance study was designed to identify antibiotic resistance among clinical Cronobacter spp. strains, which were isolated from patients of two hospitals between May 2007 and August 2013. Altogether, 52 Cronobacter sp...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - May 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Interferon Gamma Release Assays in Patients with Respiratory Isolates of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria - a Preliminary Study.
Authors: Augustynowicz-Kopeć E, Siemion-Szcześniak I, Zabost A, Wyrostkiewicz D, Filipczak D, Oniszh K, Gawryluk D, Radzikowska E, Korzybski D, Szturmowicz M Abstract Interferon gamma releasing assays (IGRAs) are extensively used in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infections. Comparing to tuberculin skin test (TST) they lack false positive results in the populations vaccinated with BCG, and in most non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections. Nevertheless, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium szulgai may induce positive IGRAs due to RD1 homology with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - May 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Emergence of High-level Gentamicin Resistance among Enterococci Clinical Isolates from Burn Patients in South-west of Iran: Vancomycin Still Working.
Authors: Labibzadeh M, Kaydani GA, Savari M, Ekrami A Abstract Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are among the main agents associated with nosocomial infections with high mortality in immunocompromised patients. Antibiotic resistance, especially against gentamicin and vancomycin among Enterococci , is a risk factor that could increase the morbidity and mortality rate. 179 Enterococci isolates from burn patients were included in this study. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using the disk diffusion test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated by agar microdilution. Vancomycin a...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Aspergillus penicillioides Speg. Implicated in Keratomycosis.
Authors: Machowicz-Matejko E, Furmańczyk A, Zalewska ED Abstract The aim of the study was mycological examination of ulcerated corneal tissues from an ophthalmic patient. Tissue fragments were analyzed on potato-glucose agar (PDA) and maltose (MA) (Difco) media using standard laboratory techniques. Cultures were identified using classical and molecular methods. Macro- and microscopic colony morphology was characteristic of fungi from the genus Aspergillus (restricted growth series), most probably Aspergillus penicillioides Speg. Molecular analysis of the following rDNA regions: ITS1, ITS2, 5.8S, 28S rDNA, LSU and ...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Functional and Transcriptomic Characterization of a Dye-decolorizing Fungus from Taxus Rhizosphere.
Authors: Hao DC, Song SM, Cheng Y, Qin ZQ, Ge GB, An BL, Xiao PG Abstract We isolated three laccase-producing fungus strains from Taxus rhizosphere. Myrotheium verrucaria strain DJTU-sh7 had the highest laccase activity of 216.2 U/ml, which was increased to above 300 U/ml after optimization. DJTU-sh7 had the best decolorizing effect for three classes of reactive dyes. The DJTU-sh7-containing fungal consortium displayed the robust decolorizing ability. Both color removal efficiency and chemical oxygen demand were increased in the consortium mediated biotransformation. Transcriptome changes of M. verrucaria elicited ...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

A Novel Approach to Study the Effect of Ciprofloxacin on Biofilms of Corynebacterium spp. Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy.
In this study, the characteristic of the biofilm produced on vascular and urological catheters was determined using a confocal microscopy for the most frequently involved in infections diphtheroid species. They were represented by the reference strains of Corynebacterium striatum ATCC 6940 and C. amycolatum ATCC 700207. The effect of ciprofloxacin on the biofilm produced by the antibiotic-susceptible C. striatum strain was evaluated using three concentrations of the antimicrobial agent (2 ×, 4 ×, and 6 × the MIC - the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration). The basis for the interpretation of results was the s...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Culturable Endophytes Diversity Isolated from Paeonia ostii and the Genetic Basis for Their Bioactivity.
In this study, 56 endophytic bacteria and 51 endophytic fungi were isolated from P. ostii roots in China. Subsequent characterization of 56 bacterial strains by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis revealed that nine families and 13 different genera were represented. All the fungal strains were classed into six families and 12 genera based on ITS gene sequence. The biosynthetic potential of all the endophytes was further investigated by the detection of putative polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes. The PCR screens were successful in targeting thirteen bacterial PKS, five bacterial NRPS, te...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of the Photosensitivity of Biofilms of Different Genera of Cariogenic Bacteria in Tooth Slices.
In conclusion, sensitivity to photosensitization is species-dependent and sessile biofilm cells are affected to the same extent as their planktonic counterparts. This study compared the outcome of photosensitization on the viability of four different cariogens in planktonic form as well as biofilms in human dentine. Photodynamic therapy was carried out with a gallium aluminium arsenide laser (670 nm wavelength) using Toluidine blue O (TBO) as the photosensitizer. Cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus salivarius and Actinomyces viscosus) were exposed to TBO and then to the laser f...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Emodin Reduces the Activity of (1,3)- β-D-glucan Synthase from Candida albicans and Does Not Interact with Caspofungin.
Emodin Reduces the Activity of (1,3)-β-D-glucan Synthase from Candida albicans and Does Not Interact with Caspofungin. Pol J Microbiol. 2018;67(4):463-470 Authors: Janeczko M Abstract Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic yeast infection, with Candida albicans as a paramount causative species. (1,3)- β -D-glucan is one of the three main targets of clinically available antifungal agents used to treat Candida infections. It is one of the most abundant fungal cell wall components. Echinocandins represent the newest class of antifungals affecting cell wall biosynthesis through non-competit...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Primary and Secondary Bacteremia Caused by Proteus spp.: Epidemiology, Strains Susceptibility and Biofilm Formation.
Authors: Kwiecińska-Piróg J, Skowron K, Gospodarek-Komkowska E Abstract Proteus spp. is an etiological factor of urinary tract and bloodstream infections. The aim of this study was the retrospective analysis of susceptibility of Proteus spp. strains isolated from bloodstream infections (BSIs) as well as similarity evaluation of the strains isolated from different clinical samples. Proteus spp. strains were isolated in 2009-2017 from hospital patients. Identification was based on the colony's morphology and biochemical or MALDI-TOF MS analyzes. The antibiotic susceptibility test was done using the diffusion ...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of PCR, Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization and Blood Cultures for Detection of Bacteremia in Children and Adolescents During Antibiotic Therapy.
The objective of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of these methods with respect to blood cultures in the context of antibiotic therapy. Blood samples from 92 children with sepsis were analyzed. Blood cultures were carried out in standard automated systems. Subsequently, FISH (Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization) and nested multiplex-real-time-PCR (PCR) were performed. Blood cultures, FISH and PCR yielded positive results in 18%, 39.1%, and 71.7% of samples, respectively. Significant differences were found between the results obtained through culture before and after induction of antibiotherapy: 25.5% vs. 9.7%. Th...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Drug Susceptibility of Non-tuberculous Strains of Mycobacterium Isolated from Birds from Poland.
Authors: Ledwoń A, Napiórkowska A, Augustynowicz-Kopeć E, Szeleszczuk P Abstract Mycobacterioses are a constant problem in backyard poultry, as well as pet birds. To date, no evidence of direct transmission of atypical bacilli between humans has been demonstrated, but it cannot be ruled out that sick animals can be a source of infection for people in their environment. The aim of the study was to identify mycobacteria isolated from birds with diagnosed mycobacteriosis and to determine the susceptibility of mycobacterial isolates from these animals to antituberculous drugs most commonly used in the treatmen...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of Neisseria meningitidis Carriage with the Analysis of Serogroups, Genogroups and Clonal Complexes among Polish Soldiers.
Authors: Korzeniewski K, Konior M Abstract Neisseria meningitidis is an etiological factor of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). This Gram-negative diplococcus is transmitted from person to person via droplets or through a direct physical contact with secretions of infected patients or asymptomatic carriers. The latter account for 5-10% of the general population. The aim of the study was to estimate the actual N. meningitidis carriage rate in the military environment with identification of serogroups, genogroups, sequence types and clonal complexes of the isolates detected among Polish soldiers. The study was co...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Epilithic Biofilms in Lake Baikal: Screening and Diversity of PKS and NRPS Genes in the Genomes of Heterotrophic Bacteria.
Authors: Sukhanova E, Zimens E, Kaluzhnaya O, Parfenova V, Belykh O Abstract A collection of heterotrophic bacteria consisting of 167 strains was obtained from microbial communities of biofilms formed on solid substrates in the littoral zone of Lake Baikal. Based on the analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments, the isolates were classified to four phyla: Proteobacteria , Firmicutes , Actinobacteria , and Bacteroidetes . To assess their biotechnological potential, bacteria were screened for the presence of PKS (polyketide synthase) and NRPS (non-ribosomal peptide synthetases) genes. PKS genes were detected in 41 strains ...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Microbiology and Drug Resistance of Pathogens in Patients Hospitalized at the Nephrology Department in the South of Poland.
This study was performed to evaluate the etiology of UTI and the antibiotic susceptibility profile of Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) as the main etiological factor in different age groups. Urine samples were examined using standard microbiological methods. Three hundred sixty-three samples (72.9%) were identified as E. coli , of which 29 (8.0%) can produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). E. coli was highly sensitive to imipenem (100.0%), gentamicin (91.0%), nitrofurantoin (89.4%), amikacin (88.2%), piperacillin/ tazobactam (87.0%) and cephalosporins (79.7-89.5%). Low sensitivity was found in relation to fluoroqui...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

A Special Risk Group for Hepatitis E Infection: The First Record of North Cyprus.
Authors: Süer K, Güvenir M, Aykaç A Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is transmitted by a fecal oral route from animals to humans following exposure to the body fluids of infected animals. We investigated the seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis E (anti-HEV) antibodies by monitoring IgG and IgM virus antibodies amongst employees in the animal industry in North Cyprus through a cross-sectional study. Samples were taken from individuals without occupational exposure to animals and from those who worked with animals (doing animal husbandry, veterinary work or butchery). Enzyme-linked immunoassays were used...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection of Coxiella burnetii and Francisella tularensis in Tissues of Wild-living Animals and in Ticks of North-west Poland.
Authors: Bielawska-Drózd A, Cieślik P, Żakowska D, Głowacka P, Wlizło-Skowronek B, Zięba P, Zdun A Abstract This work presents results of the research on the occurrence of Coxiella burnetii and Francisella tularensis in the tissues of wild-living animals and ticks collected from Drawsko County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship. The real-time PCR testing for the pathogens comprised 928 samples of animal internal organs and 1551 ticks. The presence of C. burnetii was detected in 3% of wild-living animals and in 0.45-3.45% (dependent on collection areas) of ticks. The genetic sequences of F. tularensis were pre...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Are Probiotic Really Safe for Humans?
Authors: Zawistowska-Rojek A, Tyski S Abstract Probiotic bacteria have been used as a health-promoting factor for a very long time. Nowadays, products containing probiotic bacteria are becoming more and more popular on the market. The term probiotics refers to the products belonging to the following groups: probiotic drugs (medicinal products - live biotherapeutic products for human use), medical devices, probiotic foods (e.g. foods, food ingredients, dietary supplements or food for special medical purposes), directly fed microorganisms (for animal use) and designer probiotics (genetically modified probiotics). Saf...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - November 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Secondary Metabolites of Actinomycetes and their Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antiviral Properties.
Authors: Jakubiec-Krzesniak K, Rajnisz-Mateusiak A, Guspiel A, Ziemska J, Solecka J Abstract The growing resistance of microorganisms towards antibiotics has become a serious global problem. Therapeutics with novel chemical scaffolds and/or mechanisms of action are urgently needed to combat infections caused by multidrug resistant pathogens, including bacteria, fungi and viruses. Development of novel antimicrobial agents is still highly dependent on the discovery of new natural products. At present, most antimicrobial drugs used in medicine are of natural origin. Among the natural producers of bioactive substances,...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - November 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus KL 53A and Lactobacillus casei Fyos Affect Their Adhesion to Enterocytes.
Authors: Konieczna C, Słodziński M, Schmidt MT Abstract Probiotics promote and help to maintain beneficial microbiota composition of the gastrointestinal tract ecosystem and have a positive impact on the host's health. Production of exopolysaccharides is an important feature of probiotic lactobacilli. It increases the chance of their survival in the gastrointestinal tract and promotes adhesion to the epithelium; therefore, exopolysaccharides are important for the process of colonization. Two lactic acid bacteria strains were used in this study: Lactobacillus rhamnosus KL 53A and Lactobacillus casei Fyos. Exopolys...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - November 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Biohydrogen Production by Antarctic Psychrotolerant Klebsiella sp. ABZ11.
This study reports on the improved substrate synthesis and biohydrogen productivity by the psychrotolerant Klebsiella sp. strain ABZ11, isolated from Antarctic seawater sample. The isolate was screened for biohydrogen production at 30°C, under facultative anaerobic condition. The isolate is able to ferment glucose, fructose and sucrose with biohydrogen production rate and yield of 0.8 mol/l/h and 3.8 mol/g, respectively at 10 g/l glucose concentration. It also showed 74% carbohydrate uptake and 95% oxygen uptake ability, and a wide growth temperature range with optimum at 37°C. Klebsiella sp. ABZ11 has a short bioh...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - November 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of Modified Hodge Test as a Non-molecular Assay for Accurate Detection of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Authors: Ghasemnejad A, Doudi M, Amirmozafari N Abstract Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) have become a major therapeutic challenge because of its increasingly fast dissemination throughout the world. Accurate detection of KPC is essential for optimal treatment. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institutes (CLSI) for fast detection of KPC producers currently recommend Modified Hodge Test (MHT) and Carba NP test. MHT can directly detect carbapenemase production in Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The current study was conducted to evaluate the capacity of MHT with two carbapenem disks for accurate detection...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - November 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Optimization of Mixed Solid-state Fermentation of Soybean Meal by Lactobacillus Species and Clostridium butyricum.
In this study, we investigated the optimal parameters for SSF of soybean meal by Lactobacillus species and Clostridium butyricum . The results showed that two days of fermentation was sufficient to increase the viable count of bacteria, lactic acid levels and degradation of soybean protein in fermented soybean meal at the initial moisture content of 50%. The pH value, lowering sugar content and oligosaccharides in fermented soybean meal, was significantly reduced at the initial moisture content of 50% after two days of fermentation. Furthermore, the exogenous proteases used in combination with probiotics supplementation we...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - November 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Broad Prebiotic Potential of Non-starch Polysaccharides from Oats (Avena sativa L.): an in vitro Study.
Authors: Sargautiene V, Nakurte I, Nikolajeva V Abstract Prebiotics inducing the growth or activity of beneficial intestinal bacteria - probiotics producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) have lately received wide recognition for their beneficial influence on host intestinal microbiota and metabolic health. Some non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) are defined as prebiotics and oats being one of richest sources of NSP in grains are considered as potentially having prebiotic effect. However, information on fermentation of specific NSP of oats is limited. Moreover, bacterial cross-feeding interactions in which fermentati...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - November 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

The Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Listeria monocytogenes PCM2191 Peptidoglycan Metabolism and Cell Permeability.
Authors: Markowska K, Grudniak AM, Milczarek B, Wolska KI Abstract Listeria monocytogenes is Gram-positive bacterial pathogen, a causative agent of food poisoning and systemic disease - listeriosis. This species is still susceptible to several conventionally used antibiotics but an increase in its resistance has been reported. For this reason the search for new, alternative therapies is an urgent task. Silver nanoparticles seem to be the promising antibacterial agent. Minimal inhibitory concentration of silver nanoparticles was determined. Sublethal concentrations were used in study of nanosilver effect on cells ly...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - November 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Isolation of Bacterial Endophytes from Phalaris arundinacea and their Potential in Diclofenac and Sulfamethoxazole Degradation.
Authors: Węgrzyn A, Felis E Abstract Diclofenac (DCF), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), an antimicrobial agent, are in common use and can be often detected in the environment. The constructed wetland systems (CWs) are one of the technologies to remove them from the aquatic environment. The final effect of the treatment processes depends on many factors, including the interaction between plants and the plant-associated microorganisms present in the system. Bacteria living inside the plant as endophytes are exposed to secondary metabolites in the tissues. Therefore, they can...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - November 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii from Air and Patients of Intensive Care Units.
Authors: Jiang M, Mu Y, Li N, Zhang Z, Han S Abstract To understand the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of air and clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii , the intensive care unit settings of a hospital in Northern China were surveyed in 2014. Twenty non-duplicate A. baumannii isolates were obtained from patients and five isolates of airborne A. baumannii were obtained from the wards' corridors. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to analyze the homology relationships of isolates. Resistance and resistance genes were detected by drug suscept...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - November 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Bacterial Microbiota and Fatty Acids in the Faeces of Overweight and Obese Children.
The objectives of this study were to determine quantity and proportions of dominant genera of Bacteroides, Prevotella (phylum Bacteroidetes ); Clostridium , Lactobacillus (phylum Firmicutes ) and Bifidobacterium (phylum Actinobacteria ) in the intestines and to determine the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) in the stool of 20 obese children and 20 children with normal body weight. Strains classified as Firmicutes ( Clostridium and Lactobacillus ) predominated in stool microbiota of obese children, while those of Bacteroidetes ( Prevotella and Bacteroides ) were in minority ( p
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - November 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

RNA Quality Control Using External Standard RNA.
In this study, we took into consideration the three essential factors, viz., yield of mRNA, inhibition to DNA polymerase, and degradation of mRNA for determining the RNA quality using standard RNA. It would be possible to know yield of mRNA and inhibition of the enzyme reaction by adding standard RNA before RNA extraction and looking at standard RNA loss. Degradation was evaluated by comparing the differences in the 3' and 5' regions of the RNA. In our study, it was demonstrated that in the crude extract of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , degradation was comparatively higher at the 3' end of RNA than at the 5' end. Hence, the d...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - November 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Improved Production of Recombinant Human β-NGF in Escherichia coli - a Bioreactor Scale Study.
In this study the optimal %DO (dissolved oxygen) and post induction temperature values for improved production of β-NGF were found in the bioreactor scale using response surface methodology (RSM) as the most common statistical method. Also, for further enhancement of the yield, different post-induction periods of time were selected for testing. In all experiments, the productivity level and bacterial cell growth were evaluated by western blotting technique and monitoring of absorbance at 600 nm, respectively. Our results indicated that %DO, the post-induction time and temperature have significant effects on the produc...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - November 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

The Emergence of Different Functionally Equivalent PAH Degrading Microbial Communities from a Single Soil in Liquid PAH Enrichment Cultures and Soil Microcosms Receiving PAHs with and without Bioaugmentation.
Authors: Piubeli FA, Dos Santos LG, Fernández EN, DA Silva FH, Durrant LR, Grossman MJ Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) are common soil contaminants of concern due to their toxicity toward plants, animals and microorganisms. The use of indigenous or added microbes (bioaugmentation) is commonly used for bioremediation of PAHs. In this work, the biodegradation rates and changes in the bacterial community structure were evaluated. The enrichment culture was useful for unambiguously identifying members of the soil bacterial community associated with PAH degradation and yielded a low diversity comm...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - November 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of a Native Haloalkalophilic Tolerant Strain from the Texcoco Lake.
Authors: Soto-Padilla MY, Gortáres-Moroyoqui P, Cira-Chávez LA, Estrada-Alvarado MI Abstract In the last decade several new genera have been isolated in alkaline and halophile growth conditions. The studies conducted in the Texcoco Lake soils have shown a generalized microbial adaptation to the specific conditions. In this research work, morphological and phylogenetic characterization of the HN31(22) strain that was isolated from the cited soil is presented. The strain was identified as a Gram-positive halophile and alkaline tolerant bacteria from the Nesterenkonia genus, which uses different substrat...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - November 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Gut Microbial Compositions in Four Age Groups of Tibetan Minipigs.
In this study, the gut microbiota was characterized in four age strata of Tibetan minipigs. Results indicated that the fecal bacteria of 7-, 28-, 56-, and 180-day-old minipigs did not significantly differ in terms of phylogenetic diversity (i.e., PD whole tree) or the Shannon index (both, p> 0.05). Findings of a principal coordinate analysis demonstrated that fecal bacteria of 180-day-old minipigs were discernable from those of the other three age groups. From ages seven to 56 days, the abundance of Bacteroidetes or Firmicutes appeared to vary. Regarding genera, the populations of Bacteroides and Akkermansia decreased w...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - November 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Microbial Glycosylation of Flavonoids.
Authors: Sordon S, Popłoński J, Huszcza E Abstract Flavonoids constitute a large group of polyphenolic compounds naturally found in plants, which have a wide range of biological activity. Although flavonoids are beneficial to human health, their application is limited by their low bioavailability and poor water-solubility. Therefore, recently there has been a particular interest in glycosylated forms of flavonoids, which usually are better soluble, more stable, and more functional compared to their aglycones. Microbial transformation of natural flavonoids may be an attractive way of receiving their glycosylated d...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - July 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Relationship between ureB Sequence Diversity, Urease Activity and Genotypic Variations of Different Helicobacter pylori Strains in Patients with Gastric Disorders.
In conclusion, the supposed role of H. pylori urease to form peptic ulcer and advancing of intestinal metaplasia was postulated in this study. Higher urease activity in the colonizing H. pylori strains that present specific virulence factors was indicated as a risk factor for promotion of histopathological changes of gastric tissue that advance gastric malignancy. PMID: 30015438 [PubMed] (Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - July 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research