N-acetylcysteine (NAC) Attenuating Apoptosis and Autophagy in RAW264.7 Cells in Response to Incubation with Mycolic Acid from Bovine Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex.
In conclusion, our research showed that NAC attenuates apoptosis and autophagy in response to incubation with mycolic acid. Bovine tuberculosis is an airborne infectious disease caused by organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex. Mycolic acid (MA) is the main lipid component of the cell membrane of MTB. It is non-enzymatically reduced by NAD(P)H and further produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause oxidative stress in human cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a synthetic precursor of glutathione (GSH) and exhibits anti-ROS activity. However, the underlying mechanisms of its protective proper...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - June 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Luffa cylindrica Immobilized with Aspergillus terreus QMS-1: an Efficient and Cost-Effective Strategy for the Removal of Congo Red using Stirred Tank Reactor.
Authors: Laraib Q, Shafique M, Jabeen N, Naz SA, Nawaz HR, Solangi B, Zubair A, Sohail M Abstract Microbial populations within the rhizosphere have been considered as prosperous repositories with respect to bioremediation aptitude. Among various environmental contaminants, effluent from textile industries holds a huge amount of noxious colored materials having high chemical oxygen demand concentrations causing ecological disturbances. The study was aimed to explore the promising mycobiome of rhizospheric soil for the degradation of azo dyes to develop an efficient system for the exclusion of toxic recalcitrants. An...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - June 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Lactobacillus fermentum JX306 Restrain D-galactose-induced Oxidative Stress of Mice through its Antioxidant Activity.
Authors: Zhang DI, Li C, Shi R, Zhao F, Yang Z Abstract Oxidative stress-induced series of related degenerative diseases have received widespread attention. To screen new lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains to resist oxidative stress, traditional Chinese fermented vegetables were used as a resource library to screen of LAB. The Lactobacillus fermentum JX306 strain, which showed high scavenging activity of DPPH free radical and hydrogen radical, and a strong lipid peroxidation inhibition rate in vitro was selected. L. fermentum JX306 was also examined for its antioxidant capacity in D-galactose-induced aging mice. Th...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - June 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Performance Evaluation of Different Commercial Serological Kits for Diagnosis of Acute Hepatitis E Viral Infection.
In this study, patients with acute HEV infection were tested for anti-HEV IgM and IgG, a HEV antigen (Ag), and viral loads (HEV RNA). Serology was performed using four commercial HEV ELISA kits: Wantai, Kehua, Lizhu, and Genelabs IgM and IgG. The HEV RNA was detected using RT-PCR assays. The sensitivities of different kits for anti-HEV IgM ranged from 82.6% to 86%. Each kit for anti-HEV IgM was highly specific (97.8-100%). The sensitivities of all kits to detect anti-HEV IgG with (87.2-91.9%) had a substantial agreement, but the Kehua and Genelabs tests were more specific than the Wantai and Lizhu tests. The Wantai tests f...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - June 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on Growth and Photosynthetic Pigment Content in Swiss Chard (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. cicla).
Authors: Hajnal-Jafari T, Seman V, Stamenov D, Đurić S Abstract Microalgae application in agriculture is an alternative measure that could be highly beneficial to plants. The application of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris S45 and its effect on plant growth and pigment content in Swiss chard were investigated. In the treatments, 5% and 10% algal suspensions were applied by spraying on plants and in soil, respectively. C. vulgaris S45 affected the initial growth of Swiss chard and the content of photosynthetic pigments positively. The correlation analysis proved the existence of statistically significant interdepende...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - May 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

A Current Microbiological Picture of Mycobacterium Isolates from Istanbul, Turkey.
In this study, we analyzed the distribution of Mycobacterium species, compare the diagnostic methods, and susceptibilities to anti-tuberculosis drugs of TB isolates. The aim was to document the current status and to provide a frame of reference for future studies. In this study, 278 Mycobacterium species isolated from 7,480 patients between September 2015 and June 2019 were included. Löwenstein-Jensen medium (LJ) and MGIT 960 were used for the isolation of strains. Susceptibility to 1st-line anti-tuberculosis drugs was determined. Positivity rates in clinical samples were as follows: 1.4% for direct microscopic acid-f...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - May 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

The Resurgence of Measles Infection and its Associated Complications in Early Childhood at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Peshawar, Pakistan.
Authors: Ilyas M, Afzal S, Ahmad J, Alghamdi S, Khurram M Abstract Measles infection is of substantial interest to immunologists due to its paradoxical interaction with the immune system. After the acquisition of the measles infection, secondary infection plays a pivotal role in measles-related deaths. A cross-sectional study conducted between December 2018 and July 2019 is presented here. A total of one hundred children of both genders presented with measles complications were included following WHO criteria. Measles confirmation was done by quantitative determination of anti-measles antibodies (IgM) in patients' ...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - May 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of Rapid and Routine Methods of Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Microorganisms from Blood Culture Bottles.
This study aimed to perform identification and antibiotic susceptibility tests of the blood cultures showing positive signals of microbial growth in the first 12 hours of incubation by using centrifugation and Gram staining of 5 ml of liquid from the vial, thus achieving faster results. This study included 152 consecutively incubated blood culture samples showing positive microbial growth signals in the first 12 hours. The samples were centrifuged and then categorized into two groups (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) using Gram staining. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using an automated c...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - May 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization of Microbial Diversity and Community Structure in Fermentation Pit Mud of Different Ages for Production of Strong-Aroma Baijiu.
Authors: Wang XJ, Zhu HM, Ren ZQ, Huang ZG, Wei CH, Deng J Abstract In the traditional fermentation process of strong-aroma Baijiu, a fermentation pit mud (FPM) provides many genera of microorganisms for fermentation. However, the functional microorganisms that have an important effect on the quality of Baijiu and their changes with the age of fermentation pit (FP) are poorly understood. Herein, the Roche 454 pyrosequencing technique and a phospholipid fatty-acid analysis were employed to reveal the structure and diversity of prokaryotic communities in FPM samples that have been aged for 5, 30, and 100 years. The r...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - May 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

PCR-based Screening Approach: A Rapid Method to Detect the Biosynthetic Potential of Antimicrobials in Actinobacterial Strains.
This study aimed to investigate the PCR-based screening strategy for the prediction of the antimicrobial biosynthetic potential of the selected Streptomyces strains originated from an extreme environment (Cholistan Desert, Pakistan). The biosynthetic potential was determined by using both molecular and culture-dependent screening approaches. The four biosynthetic genes clusters, including the pks-1, nrps, cyp P450 hydroxylase (cyps), and glycopeptide oxy b genes, were investigated in the selected strains by PCR amplification, sequencing, and by subsequent bioinformatics approaches. Among the 40 selected Streptomyces strain...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - May 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Extensively Drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Belonging to International Clone II from A Pet Cat with Urinary Tract Infection; The First Report from Pakistan.
This study describes a case of urinary tract infection in a 2-years old pet female cat infected with A. baumannii. The susceptibility profiling, screening for the resistance determinants, and the multilocus sequence typing was performed. The A. baumannii isolate was found to harbor the blaOXA23-like gene and corresponded to International clone II that has been widely reported to be involved in human infections. The study proposes that the pets may contribute towards the spread of clinically relevant antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. The carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) has got global attention as a ...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - April 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence of Multi-Drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa - A High Tuberculosis Endemic Area of Pakistan.
Authors: Ali S, Khan MT, Khan AS, Mohammad N, Khan MM, Ahmad S, Noor S, Jabbar A, Daire C, Hassan F Abstract Anti-tuberculosis therapy involves the combination of drugs to hamper the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a global concern. Pakistan has been ranked 5th position in terms of a high burden of MDR-TB in the world. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of drug resistance in MTB in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Random samples were collected from 25 districts using the simple random sampling formula. All samples were processe...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - April 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Anti-Salmonella Potential of New Lactobacillus Strains with the Application in the Poultry Industry.
In this study, probiotic properties of new Lactobacillus sp. strains were investigated and their antimicrobial activity against 125 environmental strains of Salmonella sp. was determined using the agar slab method. Furthermore, their survival in the presence of bile salts and at low pH, antibiotics susceptibility, aggregation and coaggregation ability, adherence to polystyrene and Caco-2 cells, and cytotoxicity were investigated. Each strain tested showed antagonistic activity against at least 96% of the environmental Salmonella sp. strains and thus representing a highly epidemiologically differentiated collection of poult...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - March 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Direct Fermentative Hydrogen Production from Cellulose and Starch with Mesophilic Bacterial Consortia.
In this study, the long-term effect of inoculum (anaerobic sludge) heat pretreatment on hydrogen production from untreated cellulose and starch was evaluated during repeated batch processes. The inoculum pretreatment at 90°C was not sufficient to suppress H2 consuming bacteria, both for starch and cellulose. Although hydrogen was produced, it was rapidly utilized with simultaneous accumulation of acetic and propionic acid. The pretreatment at 100°C (20 min) resulted in the successful enrichment of hydrogen producers on starch. High production of hydrogen (1.2 l H2/lmedium) and H2 yield (1.7 mol H2/molhexose) were m...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - March 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Resensitization of Fluconazole-Resistant Urinary Candida spp. Isolates by Amikacin through Downregulation of Efflux Pump Genes.
In conclusion, amikacin resensitized resistant Candida spp. isolates to fluconazole and could be used in combination in the management of candiduria with a higher efficiency or at lower administration doses. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the enhancement of fluconazole activity in combination with amikacin against Candida spp. The contribution of fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. isolates to urinary tract infections in Egypt has become a nationwide problem. A recent approach to overcome such disaster is combining conventional antifungals with non-antifungals. This study investigated t...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - March 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Oligotrophic Nitrification and Denitrification Bacterial Communities in a Constructed Sewage Treatment Ecosystem and Nitrogen Removal of Delftia tsuruhatensis NF4.
This study would lay the foundation for resource discovery of oligotrophic heterotrophic nitrifiers and aerobic denitrifiers in STE and further functional application of them on the bioremediation of wastewater. Oligotrophic nitrifiers and denitrifiers play important roles in the removal of nitrogen from wastewater. Here, we studied the dominant bacterial populations of the sewage treatment ecosystem (STE) water from different processes and those of culture on oligotrophic heterotrophic nitrification (OHN) medium and oligotrophic aerobic denitrification (OAD) medium, using co-analysis of Illumina HiSeq DNA sequencing a...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - March 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Bacterial Diversity in Roots, Stems, and Leaves of Chinese Medicinal Plant Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.
Authors: Liu TH, Zhou Y, Tao WC, Liu Y, Zhang XM, Tian SZ Abstract The root of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, a famous and endangered traditional Chinese herb, has a significant medicinal value. The aim of this study was to analyze the composition and functional characteristics of bacterial endophytes in roots, stems, and leaves of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and functional prediction of bacterial endophytes in roots, stems, and leaves of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were conducted. The Chao and Shannon indices of the bacteria in roots were significantly higher than those in s...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - March 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Banana Peels: A Promising Substrate for the Coproduction of Pectinase and Xylanase from Aspergillus fumigatus MS16.
Authors: Zehra M, Syed MN, Sohail M Abstract Banana peels (BP), an under-utilized waste material, was studied for the production of xylanase and pectinase by Aspergillus fumigates MS16. The factors affecting the co-production of both the enzymes were separately studied for their influence under submerged (Smf) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) of BP. The strain was cultivated in the presence of mineral salt (MS) solution containing BP powder as a sole source of carbon and physical and nutritional factors varied to observe the change in the enzyme titers. The data revealed that the MS-based medium was appropriate f...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - March 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Antibacterial Activity and Mode of Action of β-caryophyllene on Bacillus cereus.
This study investigates the antibacterial activity and mechanism of β-caryophyllene, a compound that can be found in various EOs, against Bacillus cereus. The minimum inhibitory concentration of β-caryophyllene against B. cereus was 2.5% (v/v), whereas killing kinetics of β-caryophyllene at minimum inhibitory concentration recorded complete bactericidal activity within 2 hours. Zeta-potential measurement in the cells treated with half the minimum inhibitory concentration of β-caryophyllene at 1.25% (v/v) showed an increase in the membrane permeability surface charge to -3.98 mV, compared to untreated ce...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - March 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Low Occurrence of Acinetobacter baumannii in Gulls and Songbirds.
In conclusion, our data do not support a general preference of A. baumannii for avian hosts. Acinetobacter baumannii is a worldwide occurring nosocomial pathogen, the natural habitats of which remain to be defined. Recently, white stork nestlings have been described as a recurring source of A. baumannii. Here, we challenged the hypothesis of a general preference of A. baumannii for avian hosts. Taking advantage of campaigns to ring free-living birds, we collected cloacal swab samples from 741 black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) in Poland, tracheal and cloacal swabs from 285 songbirds in Poland as well as tr...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - March 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Isolation and Identification of Chlamydia abortus from Aborted Ewes in Sulaimani Province, Northern Iraq.
Authors: Arif ED, Saeed NM, Rachid SK Abstract Abortion in small ruminants is a significant problem in Iraq and causes severe economic losses in sheep farms. Chlamydia abortus causes enzootic abortion in ewes and is associated with reproductive problems in sheep in Sulaimani province - Northern Iraq. During a lambing season in 2017, abortion was widespread among several sheep flocks in different regions of Sulaimani (Kalar, Said Sadiq, and Chamchamal), and C. abortus was one of the causes. Accordingly, we carried out this study to isolate and identify C. abortus in aborted ewes in these regions. We collected 30 sam...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - March 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

High Flocculation of Coal Washing Wastewater Using a Novel Bioflocculant from Isaria cicadae GZU6722.
Authors: Zou X, Sun J, Li J, Jia Y, Xiao T, Meng F, Wang M, Ning Z Abstract Chanhua (Isaria cicadae) was known as a rare entomogenous fungus with various pharmacological activities since a long time ago in China, which has attracted considerable attention. However, less knowledge was maintained about its products as potential bioflocculants. In this work, a bioflocculant IC-1 produced by Isaria cicadae GZU6722, consisted mainly of protein (4%) and polysaccharides including neutral sugars (52.75%) and galacturonic acid (38.14%), was characterized. It presented high efficiency in flocculating coal washing wastewater,...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - March 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Sub-lethal Concentrations of Phytochemicals (Carvacrol and Oregano) Select for Reduced Susceptibility Mutants of Escherichia coli O23:H52.
Authors: Al-Mnaser AA, Woodward MJ Abstract In vitro studies aimed at studying the mechanism of action of carvacrol and oregano as natural anti-bacterial agents to control multiple antibiotic-resistant avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strain O23:H52 isolated from chicken were performed. Derivatives with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) to the phytochemicals were selected after growing Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain O23:H52 at sub-lethal concentrations of carvacrol and oregano for a period of 60 days. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of two derivatives revealed a missense mutation in cadC an...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - February 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Assessing the Microbial Communities in Four Different Daqus by Using PCR-DGGE, PLFA, and Biolog Analyses.
This study also demonstrates the applicability of the three analytical methods in the evaluating of the microbial communities of Daqus. Daqu made from raw wheat, barley or pea is used as an inoculum for the fermentation of Chinese Baijiu. In this study, the microbial communities of four different types of Daqus (sauce-flavor Wuling Daqu, sauce and strong-flavor Baisha Daqu, strong-flavor Deshan Daqu, and light-flavor Niulanshan Daqu) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, and Biolog EcoPlates analysis (Biolog). Clear differ...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - February 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Impact of Hydrogen on the Transcriptome of Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 Using RNA-sequencing Technology.
Authors: Liu R, Li L, Li Z, Wang W Abstract Hydrogen formed during nitrogen fixation in legumes can enter the surrounding soil and confer multiple benefits to crops. Here, we used Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021, whose genome was sequenced in 2001, as a model bacterium to study the relationship between the bacterium and legume. We investigated the effects of hydrogen on the gene expression in S. meliloti using RNA-sequencing technology. We identified 43 genes whose expression was altered by hydrogen treatment; among these, 39 were downregulated, and 4 were upregulated. These genes accounted for 1.5% of the total 2941 a...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - February 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Presence of Antibodies Against Leptospira interrogans Serovar hardjo in Serum Samples from Cattle in Ukraine.
Authors: Pyskun A, Ukhovskyi V, Pyskun O, Nedosekov V, Kovalenko V, Nychyk S, Sytiuk M, Iwaniak W Abstract The article presents data on serological studies of 573 sera samples of cattle that were collected from the farms affected by leptospirosis in different regions of Ukraine in the period of 2014-2015. Samples were investigated by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), which was conducted within eight serological groups of Leptospira and nine serovars: Sejroe (serovars polonica and hardjo), Hebdomadis (serovar kabura), Tarassovi (serovar tarassovi), Pomona (serovar pomona), Grippotyphosa (serovar grippotyphos...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence and Antifungal Susceptibility of the Emerging Fungal Species, Candida nivariensis, Isolated in a Teaching Hospital in Poland.
Authors: Sikora M, Kuthan R, Piskorska-Malolepsza K, Golas-Pradzynska M, Domański D, Augustynowicz-Kopeć E, Swoboda-Kopec E Abstract The data on susceptibility to antifungals of new species within Candida glabrata complex are limited. Our study was to enrich a global knowledge of yeast epidemiology and drug resistance. The study was focused on the identification of species within clinical isolates of the C. glabrata complex and on the determination of their resistance to antifungals. Four hundred forty-five clinical C. glabrata sensu lato strains were isolated from different clinical samples at routine mycologica...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Chemical Composition of Aspergillus creber Extract and Evaluation of its Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities.
Authors: Sakhri A, Chaouche NK, Catania MR, Ritieni A, Santini A Abstract Among the species belonging to the Aspergillus section Versicolores, Aspergillus creber has been poorly studied and still unexplored for its biological activities. The present study was undertaken to analyze A. creber extract and to evaluate its in vitro antimicrobial and anti-oxidant activities. UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of A. creber extract allowed the characterization of five known fungal metabolites including: asperlactone, emodin, sterigmatocystin, deoxybrevianamide E, and norsolorinic acid. The highest antimicrobial activity was displayed ag...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of the pol/S Gene Overlapping Mutations in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients in Northern Cyprus.
Authors: Arikan A, Sayan M, Sanlidag T, Suer K, Akcali S, Guvenir M Abstract Mutations associated with the pol and the S gene can emerge as a consequence of the high replication capacity and proofreading deficiencies of hepatitis B virus during replication. The current study was constructed to evaluate primary, partial, compensatory and the escape mutations in chronic hepatitis B patients in Northern Cyprus. The samples of HBsAg positive treatment naïve 100 patients were involved in this study. HBV pol gene region was sequenced, amplified and HBV pol/S gene mutations were determined. The samples of thirty-two ...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Evidence for Infections by the Same Strain of Beta 2-toxigenic Clostridium perfringens Type A Acquired in One Hospital Ward.
This study conducts a comparative phenotypic and genetic analysis of C. perfringens strains isolated from two patients hospitalized at the same time in 2017 in the surgical ward of the Provincial Specialist Hospital in Włocławek (Kujawsko-Pomorskie Province) who developed necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI). To explain the recurring cases of this infection, a comparative analysis was performed for these strains and the ones originating from infections recorded at the same hospital in three patients with gas gangrene in 2015. The two C. perfringens isolates studied in 2017 (8554/M/17 from patient No. 1 and 8567/M/17...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Purification, Characterization and Inhibition of Alanine Racemase from a Pathogenic Strain of Streptococcus iniae.
In this study, we purified alanine racemase from S. iniae that was isolated from an infected Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis), as well as determined its biochemical characteristics and inhibitors. The alr gene has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1107 bp, encoding a protein of 369 amino acids, which has a molecular mass of 40 kDa. The enzyme has optimal activity at a temperature of 35°C and a pH of 9.5. It belongs to the PLP-dependent enzymes family and is highly specific to L-alanine. S. iniae Alr (SiAlr) could be inhibited by some metal ions, hydroxylamine and dithiothreitol (DTT). The kinetic parameters K m and V...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Significance of Infections in Implant Loss After Breast Reconstruction in the Course of Breast Cancer Treatment.
Authors: Szymankiewicz M, Nowikiewicz T, Biedka M Abstract The aim of the study was to analyze the reasons for removing implants after breast reconstruction in the course of treatment of breast cancer. The study involved 428 patients, who underwent a total of 648 breast reconstruction procedures using artificial implants. 47 out of 648 cases (7.3%) were identified in which the implant had to be removed. Of the 47 cases, 57.4% had undergone deferred reconstruction, and 42.6% immediate reconstruction; 27.7% had undergone pre-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy, 27.7% pre-operative chemotherapy, and 2.1% pre-opera...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from Milk and Humans and the Possibility of Milk-Borne Strains Transmission.
Authors: Skowron K, Wałecka-Zacharksa E, Grudlewska K, Wiktorczyk N, Kaczmarek A, Gryń G, Kwiecińska-Piróg J, Juszczuk K, Paluszak Z, Kosek-Paszkowska K, Gospodarek-Komkowska E Abstract Listeria monocytogenes is the etiological factor of listeriosis. The main source of these organisms is food, including dairy products. The aim was to determine the multiple correlations between the drug susceptibility, virulence genes (VGs), and biofilm formation on silicone teat cups of milk-borne and human L. monocytogenes strains. The spread of L. monocytogenes via contaminated teat rubbers was assessed. The L. monocyto...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Colonizing the Upper Respiratory Tract of Residents and Staff in A Nursing Home.
This study aimed to determine the genetic relatedness and prevalence of colonization of S. aureus isolated from the anterior nares and the throat of residents and staff in a nursing home located in Lublin, Poland. The study showed a high S. aureus prevalence rate among participants (46.1%), yet there was a low frequency of MRSA strains among residents (1.7%) and staff (0%). The multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) analysis demonstrated a high degree of genetic diversity of S. aureus strains colonizing the anterior nares and the throat of the participants. The occurrence of simultaneous coloniz...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Periodontal Status and Subgingival Biofilms in Cystic Fibrosis Adults.
Authors: Pawlaczyk-Kamieńska T, Śniatała R, Batura-Gabryel H, Borysewicz-Lewicka M, Cofta S Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the periodontal status of cystic fibrosis (CF) adult patients and to evaluate whether there is a correlation between the bacterial population of the subgingival biofilm and the health status of the periodontal tissues in this group of adults. The study involved 22 cystic fibrosis adult patients. The periodontal condition was assessed using Plaque Index (PLI), Gingival Index (GI), and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD). The gingival sulcus samples were analyzed by the Real-Time PCR assa...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Antifungal Activity and Physicochemical Properties of a Novel Antimicrobial Protein AMP-17 from Musca domestica.
Authors: Yang LB, Guo G, Zhao XY, Su PP, Fu P, Peng J, Xiu JF, Li BY Abstract Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are cationic small peptide chains that have good antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacteria, fungi, and viruses. AMP-17 is a recombinant insect AMP obtained by a prokaryotic expression system. However, the full antifungal activity, physicochemical characteristics, and cytotoxicity of AMP-17 were previously unknown. AMP-17 was shown to have good antifungal activity against five pathogenic fungi, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 9.375-18.75 μg/ml, and minimum fungicidal concentration...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Antibiotic Resistance Among Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.
Authors: Kot B Abstract Urinary tract infections (UTIs) belong to the most common community-acquired and nosocomial infections. A main etiological factor of UTIs is uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). This review describes the current state of knowledge on the resistance of UPEC to antibiotics recommended for the treatment of UTIs based on the available literature data. Nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin are recommended as first-line therapy in the treatment of uncomplicated cystitis, and the resistance to these antimicrobial agents remains low between UPEC. Recently, in many countries, the increasing resistance is o...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Colistin Resistance in Enterobacterales Strains - A Current View.
Authors: Stefaniuk EM, Tyski S Abstract Colistin is a member of cationic polypeptide antibiotics known as polymyxins. It is widely used in animal husbandry, plant cultivation, animal and human medicine and is increasingly used as one of the last available treatment options for patients with severe infections with carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. Due to the increased use of colistin in treating infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, the resistance to this antibiotic ought to be monitored. Bacterial resistance to colistin may be encoded on transposable genetic elements (e.g. plasmids with...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular Identification of Vibrio alginolyticus Causing Vibriosis in Shrimp and Its Herbal Remedy.
Authors: Abdul Hannan MD, Mahbubur Rahman MD, Nurunnabi Mondal MD, Suzan Chandra D, Chowdhury G, Tofazzal Islam MD Abstract Penaeus monodon is highly susceptible to vibriosis disease. Aims of the study were to identify the pathogen causing vibriosis in P. monodon through molecular techniques and develop a biocontrol method of the disease by application of herbal extracts. Shrimp samples were collected aseptically from the infected farm and the bacteria were isolated from the infected region of those samples. Based on phenotypic identification, several isolates were identified as Vibrio sp. 16S rRNA gene sequences o...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Salmonella-Infected Aortic Aneurysm: Investigating Pathogenesis Using Salmonella Serotypes.
Authors: Chu C, Wong MY, Chiu CH, Tseng YH, Chen CL, Huang YK Abstract Salmonella infection is most common in patients with infected aortic aneurysm, especially in Asia. When the aortic wall is heavily atherosclerotic, the intima is vulnerable to invasion by Salmonella, leading to the development of infected aortic aneurysm. By using THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells to mimic atherosclerosis, we investigated the role of three Salmonella enterica serotypes - Typhimurium, Enteritidis, and Choleraesuis - in foam cell autophagy and inflammasome formation. Herein, we provide possible pathogenesis of Salmonella-associa...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus in Turkish Cypriot.
Authors: Sumer U, Sayan M Abstract There is an increased demand for molecular and epidemiological information regarding Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection as the disease severity depends on these specifications. We have aimed to analyze nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) resistance and typical HBsAg escape mutations with the dispersion of HBV genotype/subgenotype/HBsAg serotypes on overlapping pol/S gene regions in the Turkish population. Samples were collected in Northern Cyprus. Reverse transcriptase (rt) region between 80-250 amino acids were amplified. Typical HBsAg escape mutations were determined as HBIg escape (6.4...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Cytokine Levels in the In Vitro Response of T Cells to Planktonic and Biofilm Corynebacterium amycolatum.
Authors: Olender A, Bogut A, Magryś A, Tabarkiewicz J Abstract Unravelling of the interplay between the immune system and non-diphtheria corynebacteria would contribute to understanding their increasing role as medically important microorganisms. We aimed at the analysis of pro- (TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-12p70) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines produced by Jurkat T cells in response to planktonic and biofilm Corynebacterium amycolatum. Two reference strains: C. amycolatum ATCC 700207 (R-CA), Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (R-SA), and ten clinical strains of C. amycolatum (C-CA) were used in the ...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

The Diversity of the Endobiotic Bacterial Communities in the Four Jellyfish Species.
Authors: Liu Q, Chen X, Li X, Hong J, Jiang G, Liang H, Liu W, Xu Z, Zhang J, Wang W, Xiao L Abstract The associated microbiota plays an essential role in the life process of jellyfish. The endobiotic bacterial communities from four common jellyfish Phyllorhiza punctata, Cyanea capillata, Chrysaora melanaster, and Aurelia coerulea were comparatively analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing in this study. Several 1049 OTUs were harvested from a total of 130 183 reads. Tenericutes (68.4%) and Firmicutes (82.1%) are the most abundant phyla in P. punctata and C. melanaster, whereas C. capillata and A. coerulea share the same to...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Inhibition of Drug Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus by Efflux Pump Inhibitor and Autolysis Inducer to Strengthen the Antibacterial Activity of β-lactam Drugs.
This study explored a potential treatment against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections that combines thioridazine (TZ), an efflux pump inhibitor, and miconazole (MCZ), an autolysis inducer, with the anti-microbial drug cloxacillin (CXN). In vitro, the combination treatment of TZ and MCZ significantly reduced 4096-fold (Σ (FIC) = 0.1 - 1.25) the MIC value of CXN against S. aureus. In vivo, the combination therapy significantly relieved breast redness and swelling in mice infected with either clinical or standard strains of S. aureus. Meanwhile, the number of bacteria isolated from the MRSA135-...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Diversity, Virulence Factors, and Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns of Pathogenic and Opportunistic Yeast Species in Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) Fecal Droppings in Western Saudi Arabia.
Authors: Abulreesh HH, Organji SR, Elbanna K, Osman GEH, Almalki MHK, Abdel-Malek AY, Ghyathuddin AAK, Ahmad I Abstract Bird fecal matter is considered a potential source of pathogenic microbes such as yeast species that contaminate the environment. Therefore, it needs to be scrutinized to assess potential environmental health risks. The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity of the yeasts in pigeon fecal droppings, their antifungal susceptibility patterns, and virulence factors. We used culturing techniques to detect the yeasts in pigeon fecal droppings. The isolates were then characterized based on co...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

The Composition of Fungal Communities in the Rumen of Gayals (Bos frontalis), Yaks (Bos grunniens), and Yunnan and Tibetan Yellow Cattle (Bos taurs).
Authors: Wang H, Li P, Liu X, Zhang C, Lu Q, Xi D, Yang R, Wang S, Bai W, Yang Z, Zhou R, Cheng X, Leng J Abstract The rumen is a microbial-rich ecosystem in which rumen fungi play an important role in the feed digestion of ruminants. The composition of rumen fungi in free-range ruminants such as gayals, yaks, Tibetan yellow cattle, and the domesticated Yunnan yellow cattle was investigated by sequencing an internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1) using Illumina MiSeq. A total of 285 092 optimized sequences and 904 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the four cattle breeds. The rumen fungi abun...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

New Look on Antifungal Activity of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs).
Authors: Żarowska B, Koźlecki T, Piegza M, Jaros-Koźlecka K, Robak M Abstract The progress of research on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has led to their inclusion in many consumer products (chemicals, cosmetics, clothing, water filters, and medical devices) as a biocide. Despite the widespread use of AgNPs, their biocidal activity is not yet fully understood and is usually associated with various factors (size, composition, surface, red-ox potential, and concentration) and, obviously, specific features of microorganisms. There are merely a few studies concerning the interaction of molds with AgNPs. Therefore, the...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Illumina MiSeq Analysis and Comparison of Freshwater Microalgal Communities on Ulleungdo and Dokdo Islands.
Authors: Yun HS, Kim YS, Yoon HS Abstract Ulleungdo and Dokdo are volcanic islands with an oceanic climate located off the eastern coast of South Korea. In the present study, we used barcoded Illumina MiSeq to analyze eukaryotic microalgal genera collected from Seonginbong, the highest peak on Ulleungdo, and from groundwater sites on Dongdo and Seodo Islands, which are part of Dokdo. Species richness was significantly greater in the Seonginbong samples than in the Dongdo and Seodo samples, with 834 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified from Seonginbong compared with 203 OTUs and 182 OTUs from Dongdo and Seo...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Epidemiology, Drug Resistance, and Virulence of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Ocular Infections in Polish Patients.
Authors: Kłos M, Pomorska-Wesołowska M, Romaniszyn D, Chmielarczyk A, Wójkowska-Mach J Abstract Analysis of the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) ocular infections and virulence factors of the isolates with a special emphasis on their drug resistance, and the ability of biofilm formation. In a period from 2009 to 2013, 83 isolates of SA were prospectively collected and preserved in a multicenter laboratory-based study carried out in southern Poland. Epidemiological, phenotypic, and genotypic analyses were performed. The resistance and virulence genes were analyzed. Screening for the biofilm format...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Structural Changes of Bacillus subtilis Biomass on Biosorption of Iron (II) from Aqueous Solutions: Isotherm and Kinetic Studies.
Authors: Krishna Kanamarlapudi SLR, Muddada S Abstract Various microbial biomasses have been employed as biosorbents. Bacterial biomass has added advantages because of easy in production at a low cost. The study investigated the biosorption of iron from aqueous solutions by Bacillus subtilis. An optimum biosorption capacity of 7.25 mg of the metal per gram of the biosorbent was obtained by the Inductive Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) under the experimental conditions of initial metal concentration of 100 mg/l, pH 4.5, and biomass dose of 1 g/l at 30°C for 24 hrs. The data showed the best...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research