Corrigendum
O'Neil O, Fernandez MM, Herzog J, et  al. Virtual reality for neurorehabilitation: insights from 3 European clinics. PM R 2018;10:S198-S206. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - December 10, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Corrigenda
Porciuncula F, Roto AV, Kumar D, et  al. Wearable movement sensors for rehabilitation: a focused review of technological and clinical advances. PM R 2018;10:S220-S232. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - December 10, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Corrigenda Source Type: research

Corrigendum
Spiess MR, Steenbrink F, Esquenazi A. Getting the best out of advances rehabilitation technology for the lower limbs: minding motor learning principles. PM R 2018;10:S165-S173. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - December 10, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

O'Neil O, Fernandez MM, Herzog J, et al. Virtual reality for neurorehabilitation: insights from 3 European clinics. PM R 2018;10:S198-S206
(Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - December 10, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Porciuncula F, Roto AV, Kumar D, et al. Wearable movement sensors for rehabilitation: a focused review of technological and clinical advances. PM R 2018;10:S220-S232.
(Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - December 10, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Spiess MR,  Steenbrink F, Esquenazi A. Getting the best out of advances rehabilitation technology for the lower limbs: minding motor learning principles. PM R 2018;10:S165-S173.
(Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - December 10, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Dealing With Binary Repeated Measures Data
Many longitudinal studies and randomized trials have binary outcomes that can repeat. For example, in a study evaluating the safety of a new drug, researchers might record whether a subject developed an adverse reaction at multiple time points during follow-up. These observations are correlated and thus require statistical tests that handle correlated data. Several different statistical models can be applied; this article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - November 22, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Christophe Toukam Tchakoute, Kristin L. Sainani Tags: Statistically Speaking Source Type: research

Message from the Editor-in-Chief
This is a historic moment for PM&R. Volume 10, issue 12, wraps up our first decade of existence. In so many ways, PM&R has been a great success story: obtaining Index Medicus status at 6 months, first Impact Factor (IF) at year 4, highest IF to date in 2018 (1.850), steady increase in manuscript submissions, maintaining a healthy rejection rate, and providing unique and relevant article types simply not found in our competitor ’s journals. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - November 22, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Stuart M. Weinstein Tags: Editor ’s Page Source Type: research

Final Episode (or Not)
I do not particularly enjoy farewells. Speeches. Letters. Parties. Even writing a “my time is over” editorial, like this one. Which probably explains why I am so fascinated by the topic of space. Space just never seems to end and that captures my imagination. You know, “Space, The Final Frontier. These are the voyages of the Starship Enterprise…etc., etc.” I have to adm it that I still watch on Netflix the re-run adventures of iconic Starship Captains Kirk, Picard, Sisko, Janeway, (and even Archer). (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - November 22, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Stuart M. Weinstein Tags: Editor ’s Corner Source Type: research

Control Mechanisms of Static and Dynamic Balance in Adults  With and Without Vestibular Dysfunction in Oculus Virtual Environments
Deficits in sensory integration and fear of falling in complex environments contribute to decreased participation of adults with vestibular disorders. With recent advances in virtual reality technology, head-mounted displays are affordable and allow manipulation of the environment to test postural responses to visual changes. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - November 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Anat V. Lubetzky, Bryan D. Hujsak, Jennifer L. Kelly, Gene Fu, Ken Perlin Tags: Review: Virtual Rehabilitation Series Source Type: research

Barriers, Facilitators and Interventions to Support Virtual Reality Implementation in Rehabilitation: A Scoping Review
Virtual reality and active video games (VR/AVGs) are promising rehabilitation tools because of their potential to facilitate abundant, motivating, and feedback-rich practice. However, clinical adoption remains low despite a growing evidence base and the recent development of clinically accessible and rehabilitation-specific VR/AVG systems. Given clinicians ’ eagerness for resources to support VR/AVG use, a critical need exists for knowledge translation (KT) interventions to facilitate VR/AVG integration into clinical practice. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - November 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Stephanie Miranda Nadine Glegg, Danielle Elaine Levac Tags: Review: Virtual Rehabilitation Series Source Type: research

PlayBionic: Game-Based Interventions to Encourage Patient Engagement and Performance in Prosthetic Motor Rehabilitation
Prosthetic motor rehabilitation usually relies on the highly repetitive training of movements. Patients might drop out of training because the rehabilitation process is long and often discouraging. Game-based interventions provide a potentially useful alternative to standard myoelectric (electromyographic [EMG]) training and can increase engagement with training. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - November 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Cosima Prahm, Fares Kayali, Agnes Sturma, Oskar Aszmann Tags: Review: Virtual Rehabilitation Series Source Type: research

Three Epidural Steroid Techniques
A 32-year-old man presents to your clinic with 6-week onset of left-sided low back pain radiating down his left posterolateral leg to the top of his left foot. His symptoms include painful shooting electrical sensations, numbness and tingling, and mild weakness in raising his foot. His deep tendon reflexes are normal and he has a positive slump sit test result on the left lower extremity. His primary care physician prescribed gabapentin and a course of oral steroids (methylprednisolone), with minimal benefit. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - November 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Zachary McCormick, George C. Chang Chien, Mary So, Resham Datta, Jaspal Ricky Singh Tags: Point/Counterpoint Source Type: research

Virtual Reality and Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Stroke: How Effective Is Their Combination for Upper Limb Motor Improvement? —A Meta-Analysis
Efforts to augment post-stroke upper limb (UL) motor improvement include the use of newer interventions such as noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) and task practice in virtual reality environments (VEs). Despite increasing interest in using a combination of these 2 interventions, the effectiveness of this combination to enhance UL motor improvement outcomes has not been examined. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - November 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Sandeep K. Subramanian, Shreya S. Prasanna Tags: Review: Virtual Rehabilitation Series Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - November 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - November 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Academy News – November PM & R
As the primary medical society for the specialty of PM&R, your Academy is focused on moving the specialty and you forward. Our mission is to lead the advancement of physiatry ’s impact throughout health care. Your Academy will ensure that: (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - November 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Departments Source Type: research

Copyright Page
(Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - November 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Spanish Translated Abstracts
(Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - November 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Translated Abstracts Source Type: research

Virtual Reality in Rehabilitation —Using Technology to Enhance Function
Virtual reality (VR) in rehabilitation capitalizes on rapidly evolving technologies to maximize function and quality of life. Virtual Reality Environments (VEs) have been suggested to be the closest human equivalent of enriched environments [1,2], which are known to be invaluable in promoting recovery, an idea first suggested in 1996 [3]. The use of VR allows designing personalized training environments combining elements such as practice intensity, variability, and task-specificity, in addition to motivation and feedback. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - November 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Sandeep K. Subramanian Tags: Review: Virtual Rehabilitation Series Source Type: research

Cervical Medial Branch Block Volume Dependent Dispersion Patterns as a Predictor for Ablation Success: A Cadaveric Study
Neck pain is one of the most common causes of chronic pain and the fourth leading cause of disability worldwide; it is estimated that between 36% to 67% of this pain is due to facet arthropathy. For patients who have pain refractory to conservative treatments literature supports management with diagnostic cervical medial branch blocks (cMBBs) to identify the associated facet innervation as the source of pain followed by therapeutic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the identified nerves. Cervical RFA has good published outcomes, but the procedure is dependent upon the specificity of the diagnostic block to achieve maximal s...
Source: PM and R - October 24, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Sayed E. Wahezi, Jocelin Jones Molina, Edward Alexeev, John S. Georgy, Nogah Haramati, Stephen A. Erosa, Jay M. Shah, Sherry Downie Source Type: research

Posterior Vertebral Endplate Fractures: A Retrospective Study on a Rare Etiology of Back Pain in Youth and Young Adults
Posterior lumbar vertebral endplate fracture occurs with avulsion of the ring apophysis from the posterior vertebral body. Although this has been described in adolescents and young adults, proper diagnosis is often delayed or missed entirely. Surgery may be curative. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - October 19, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Erin M. Conlee, Sherilyn W. Driscoll, Krista A. Coleman Wood, Amy L. McIntosh, Mark L. Dekutoski, Joline E. Brandenburg Source Type: research

Palmaris Longus Tendinopathy Diagnosed with Ultrasound: A Case Report
This is a case of 52-year old deaf female who was referred to the electrodiagnostic (EDX) laboratory for evaluation of pain and parasthesias in the left upper limb. The EDX study was normal. However, ultrasound revealed tendinopathy of the palmaris longus tendon, manifested by increased hypoechogenecity, caliber, and tenderness to sonopalpation compared to the right side. To the authors ’ knowledge there are no reported cases of palmaris longus tendinopathy diagnosed with ultrasound. This case supports the use of point of care ultrasound to explore other possible causes of pathology in patients with parasthesias in t...
Source: PM and R - October 6, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: John W. Norbury, Eric J. Morrison Source Type: research

Venous Thromboembolism is Associated with Lack of Vitamin D Supplementation in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury and Low Vitamin D Levels
The role of vitamin D (VitD) in the pathogenesis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and prevalence of low VitD (LVitD) in spinal cord injury (SCI) has motivated VitD testing and supplementation. This is an exploratory study of data collected at a time before the routine clinical practice of VitD supplementation, allowing for evaluation of the natural history of LVitD levels in patients with SCI. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - October 6, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Reza Ehsanian, Molly A. Timmerman, Jerry M. Wright, Stephen McKenna, Ben Dirlikov, James Crew Source Type: research

Radial Nerve Injury Caused by Compression Garment for Lymphedema: A Case Report
Lymphedema is a condition characterized by localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a compromised lymphatic system. To minimize fluid build-up and stimulate the flow of fluid through the lymphatic system, compression garments are usually applied to patients with lymphedema. There are few studies to report complications of compression garments to treat breast cancer-related lymphedema. To our knowledge, this is the first report of radial nerve compression neuropathy associated with wearing a compression garment to treat lymphedema. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - October 6, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Seung Yeon Rhee, Sang Yoon Lee, Ha Ra Jeon Source Type: research

The Effectiveness of Injected Corticosteroid Type, Dose, and Volume for the Treatment of Pain in Small- and Intermediate-size Joints: A Systematic Review
To systematically evaluate the scientific literature examining the efficacy of corticosteroid injections in small- and intermediate-size joints, specifically looking at the effect of corticosteroid type, dose, and volume on clinical outcomes (pain and/or function). (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - October 6, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Daniel M. Cushman, Erika Ofek, Raafay H. Syed, Nathan Clements, James E. Gardner, Jessica M. Sams, Jade L. Mulvey, Zachary L. McCormick Source Type: research

Micro-inequities in Medicine
Feature Editor: Debjani Mukherjee, PhD (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - October 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Julie K. Silver, Mary Rowe, Michael S. Sinha, Diana M. Molinares, Nancy D. Spector, Debjani Mukherjee Tags: Ethical Legal Feature Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - October 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - October 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Academy News – October PM & R
As the primary medical society for the specialty of PM&R, your Academy is focused on moving the specialty and you forward. Our mission is to lead the advancement of physiatry ’s impact throughout health care. Your Academy will ensure that: (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - October 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Department Source Type: research

Copyright Page
(Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - October 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Spanish Translated Abstracts
(Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - October 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Translated Abstracts Source Type: research

Corrigendum
Crytzer TM, Keramati M, Anthony SJ, Cheng YT, Robertson RJ, Dicianno BE. Exercise prescription using a group-normalized rating of perceived exertion in adolescents and adults with spina bifida. PM R 2018;10:738-747. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - October 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Department Source Type: research

Ask the Authors
1. The study showed that physicians who waited longer than 10 years to take a Maintenance of Certification (MOC) 3 recertification examination had a lower pass rate (97% vs 85%). Do you think these results are due to a selection bias from those who voluntarily waited longer to take the examination or are these data prescriptive, serving to guide physicians to take an examination earlier in the recertification cycle? (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - September 28, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: David J. Kennedy, Sherilyn W. Driscoll Tags: Ask the Authors Source Type: research

Ask the Authors
1. This manuscript presents the response of treatment with bone marrow aspirate concentrate in patients who had did not respond to nonsurgical treatments but did not want to undergo a joint replacement for mild hip or knee arthritis. More than 60% had a good response. Is this procedure something you are now routinely recommending, or do you have certain populations or patient characteristics that you find are better suited for this procedure? (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - September 28, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Heidi Prather, Cecilia Pascual-Garrido Tags: Ask the Authors Source Type: research

Concomitant use of opioids and benzodiazepines in the outpatient setting: A retrospective study
Benzodiazepines have been identified as a concurrent factor in opioid related deaths. Although the dangers of concomitant administration of opioids and benzodiazepines are well documented, implementation of this knowledge into practice may be lagging behind. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - September 19, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Jeremy Simon, Jeffrey Gehret, David Stolzenberg, Pedro K. Beredjiklian, Jonathon Teng, Taylor Paskey, Robin Raju Source Type: research

Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Femoral Cartilage, Achilles Tendon and Plantar Fascia in Young Women Wearing High-heeled Shoes
Specific attention on the musculoskeletal impact of wearing high-heeled shoes (HHS) has mainly focused on knee osteoarthritis and the literature is limited to biomechanical changes. Herewith, the distal femoral cartilage (DFC) has not been morphologically studied. Additionally, although heel elevation is coupled with a shear stress at the heel and overloaded calf muscles, Achilles tendon and plantar fascia thicknesses have not been assessed either. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - September 11, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Kamal Mezian, Ay şe Merve Ata, Murat Kara, Şule Şahin Onat, Eda Gürçay, Aslı Çalışkan, Maria Ines Taboas Simoes, Ayşen Akıncı, Levent Özçakar, Franco Franchignoni Source Type: research

Severe Leg Pain Following Spinal Cord Stimulator Implantation – A Case Report
We present a case of immediate, severe, post-operative leg pain secondary to a lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and subsequent pulmonary embolism (PE) after percutaneous SCS implantation for failed back syndrome. The risk factors of DVT after spine surgery and perioperative prophylaxis will be further discussed with a brief literature review. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - September 11, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Weibin Shi, Shannon Schultz, David R. Gater Source Type: research

Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome – Return to Sport Considerations: A Case Report
This is a case of a 19-year-old female collegiate field hockey player with left leg pain, numbness and tingling. A comprehensive workup including dynamic ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Angiogram (MRA) revealed a type VI functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES). There are many options for treatment of functional PAES including activity modification, botulinum toxin injection, and surgery. To the authors knowledge there is no published return to sport recommendation for post-surgical functional PAES . (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - September 11, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Todd Hayano, Joan Borg-Stein, David J. Cormier, Niki Rybko Source Type: research

Treatment of Knee Meniscus Pathology: Rehabilitation, Surgery, and Orthobiologics
The meniscal tear treatment paradigm traditionally begins with conservative measures such as physical therapy with referral for operative management for persistent or mechanical symptoms. As a result, the partial meniscectomy is performed more than any other orthopedic procedure in the United States. This treatment paradigm has shifted as recent literature supports the attempt to preserve or repair the meniscus whenever possible given its importance for the structural integrity of the knee joint and the risk of early osteoarthritis associated after meniscus excision. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - September 6, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Paul S. Chirichella, Steven Jow, Stephen Iacono, Hannah E. Wey, Gerard A. Malanga Source Type: research

Frequency and circumstances of falls reported by ambulatory unilateral lower limb prosthesis users: a secondary analysis
More than 50% of lower limb prosthesis (LLP) users report falling at least once a year, placing them at high risk for adverse health outcomes like reduced mobility and diminished quality-of-life. Efforts to reduce falls among LLP users have traditionally focused on developing clinical tests to assess fall risk, designing prosthetic components to improve patient safety, and identifying risk factors to recognize potential fallers. Little attention has been directed towards recording, reporting, and characterizing the circumstances of falls among LLP users. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - September 6, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Janis Kim, Matthew J. Major, Brian Hafner, Andrew Sawers Source Type: research

A Descriptive Study of Self-Reported Injury in Non-elite Adaptive Athletes
Adaptive sports programs are increasing across the country and there is a paucity of research investigating the epidemiology and sports injury risk factors in non-elite athletes. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - September 6, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Jennifer A. SooHoo, Erek Latzka, Mark A. Harrast Source Type: research

Bone Mineral Density among Individuals with Residual Lower Limb Weakness after Polio
Literature indicates that individuals with long-term residual lower extremity (LE) weakness after polio have decreased bone mineral density (BMD) deficiencies related to muscle weakness. Where weakness is asymmetrical, bone densitometry (BDt) measured only on the stronger LE may misclassify BMD. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - September 6, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Beth Grill, Pamela Levangie, Maria Cole, Darren Rosenberg, Leah Jensen Source Type: research

Ankle joint and rearfoot biomechanics during toe-in and toe-out walking in people with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis
Toe-in and toe-out walking are two strategies which have been shown to be effective in reducing the knee adduction moment in people with knee osteoarthritis. However, despite a positive biomechanical impact on the knee, altering foot rotation may impart unintended forces or joint positions on the ankle that could impact joint health. The kinematic and kinetic changes at the ankle during toe-in or toe-out walking have yet to be examined. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - September 6, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Jesse M. Charlton, Gillian L. Hatfield, Jordan A. Guenette, Michael A. Hunt Source Type: research

Is Technology for Orthostatic Hypotension Ready for Primetime?
Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in the devastating loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic function. After SCI, the interruption of descending sympathoexcitatory pathways disrupts supraspinal control of blood pressure (BP). A common clinical consequence of cardiovascular dysfunction after SCI is orthostatic hypotension (OH), a debilitating condition characterized by rapid profound decreases in BP when assuming an upright posture. OH can result in a diverse array of insidious and pernicious health consequences. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - September 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Zoe K. Sarafis, Aaron K. Monga, Aaron A. Phillips, Andrei V. Krassioukov Tags: Innovations Influencing Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Poststroke Motor Recovery: Challenges and Opportunities
There has been a renewed research interest in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as an adjunctive tool for poststroke motor recovery as it has a neuro-modulatory effect on the human cortex. However, there are barriers towards its successful application in motor recovery as several scientific issues remain unresolved, including device-related issues (ie, dose-response relationship, safety and tolerability concerns, interhemispheric imbalance model, and choice of montage) and clinical trial-related issues (ie, patient selection, timing of study, and choice of outcomes). (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - September 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Wuwei Feng, Steven A. Kautz, Gottfried Schlaug, Caitlyn Meinzer, Mark S. George, Pratik Y. Chhatbar Tags: Innovations Influencing Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Ethical Issues Surrounding a New Generation of Neuroprostheses for Patients With Spinal Cord Injuries
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant life event, one that often defines a fixed time point: life before SCI and life after it. However, the rise of new neuroprostheses may introduce a new point to this timeline, one that could be as precise as the injury itself: the restoration of volitional movement and perhaps even sensation. Neuroprostheses offer possibilities that may forever change physical and psychological experiences after SCI. Yet it is important to balance excitement about these possibilities with consideration of the ethical dimensions of the study and use of these technologies. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - September 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Ryan Solinsky, Laura Specker Sullivan Tags: Innovations Influencing Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Adaptation, Artificial Intelligence, and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Adaptation, cooperation, and trust are at the center of rehabilitation. Artificial intelligence and robots enhance adaptation with guidance for movement, cues for sensation, control of environment, and improved situational awareness. That said, how do we decide to trust complex technologies that might seek personal information or control dangerous equipment? (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - September 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Daniel T. Barry Tags: Innovations Influencing Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Brain Computer Interfaces in Rehabilitation Medicine
One innovation currently influencing physical medicine and rehabilitation is brain –computer interface (BCI) technology. BCI systems used for motor control record neural activity associated with thoughts, perceptions, and motor intent; decode brain signals into commands for output devices; and perform the user’s intended action through an output device. BCI systems used for se nsory augmentation transduce environmental stimuli into neural signals interpretable by the central nervous system. Both types of systems have potential for reducing disability by facilitating a user’s interaction with the environme...
Source: PM and R - September 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Marcia A. Bockbrader, Gerard Francisco, Ray Lee, Jared Olson, Ryan Solinsky, Michael L. Boninger Tags: Innovations Influencing Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Exoskeleton and End-Effector Robots for Upper and Lower Limbs Rehabilitation: Narrative Review
Recovery of upper and lower limbs function is essential to reach independence in daily activities in patients with upper motor neuron  syndrome (UMNS). Rehabilitation can provide a guide for motor recovery influencing the neurobiology of neuronal plasticity providing controlled, repetitive, and variable patterns. Increasing therapy dosage, intensity, number of repetition, execution of task-oriented exercises, and combining top-do wn and bottom-up approaches can promote plasticity and functional recovery. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - September 1, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Franco Molteni, Giulio Gasperini, Giovanni Cannaviello, Eleonora Guanziroli Tags: Innovations Influencing Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Source Type: research