It takes two to tango: Concerted protein translation and degradation necessary for synaptic scaling
by Ana Luisa Carvalho, Dominique Fernandes Synaptic scaling allows neurons to adjust synaptic strength in response to chronic alterations in neuronal activity. A new study in PLOS Biology identifies a pathway that synergizes protein synthesis and degradation with remodeling of the microRNA (miRNA)-induced silencing complex (miRISC) to medi ate synaptic scaling. This Primer explores the implications of a new study in PLOS Biology which reveals how homeostatic synaptic plasticity requires coordinated and inter-dependent protein synthesis and degradation, as well as remodeling of the miRNA-induced silencing complex. (Source...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 24, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Ana Luisa Carvalho Source Type: research

A survey of biomedical journals to detect editorial bias and nepotistic behavior
We examined whether the PPMP, complemented by the Gini index, could be useful for identifying cases of potential editorial bias, using all articles in a sample of 5,468 b iomedical journals indexed in the National Library of Medicine. For articles published between 2015 and 2019, the median PPMP was 2.9%, and 5% of journal exhibited a PPMP of 10.6% or more. Among the journals with the highest PPMP or Gini index values, where a few authors were responsible for a dispr oportionate number of publications, a random sample was manually examined, revealing that the most prolific author was part of the editorial board in 60 cases...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 23, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Alexandre Scanff Source Type: research

Homeostatic scaling is driven by a translation-dependent degradation axis that recruits miRISC remodeling
by Balakumar Srinivasan, Sarbani Samaddar, Sivaram V. S. Mylavarapu, James P. Clement, Sourav Banerjee Homeostatic scaling in neurons has been attributed to the individual contribution of either translation or degradation; however, there remains limited insight toward understanding how the interplay between the two processes effectuates synaptic homeostasis. Here, we report that a codependence betw een protein synthesis and degradation mechanisms drives synaptic homeostasis, whereas abrogation of either prevents it. Coordination between the two processes is achieved through the formation of a tripartite complex between tr...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 23, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Balakumar Srinivasan Source Type: research

Identification of astroglia-like cardiac nexus glia that are critical regulators of cardiac development and function
by Nina L. Kikel-Coury, Jacob P. Brandt, Isabel A. Correia, Michael R. O ’Dea, Dana F. DeSantis, Felicity Sterling, Kevin Vaughan, Gulberk Ozcebe, Pinar Zorlutuna, Cody J. Smith Glial cells are essential for functionality of the nervous system. Growing evidence underscores the importance of astrocytes; however, analogous astroglia in peripheral organs are poorly understood. Using confocal time-lapse imaging, fate mapping, and mutant genesis in a zebrafish model, we identi fy a neural crest–derived glial cell, termed nexus glia, which utilizes Meteorin signaling via Jak/Stat3 to drive differentiation and regula...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 18, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Nina L. Kikel-Coury Source Type: research

Attention controls multisensory perception via 2 distinct mechanisms at different levels of the cortical hierarchy
by Ambra Ferrari, Uta Noppeney To form a percept of the multisensory world, the brain needs to integrate signals from common sources weighted by their reliabilities and segregate those from independent sources. Previously, we have shown that anterior parietal cortices combine sensory signals into representations that take into account the signals’ causal structure (i.e., common versus independent sources) and their sensory reliabilities as predicted by Bayesian causal inference. The current study asks to what extent and how attentional mechanisms can actively control how sensory signals are combined for perceptual i...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 18, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Ambra Ferrari Source Type: research

Upregulation of DNA repair genes and cell extrusion underpin the remarkable radiation resistance of < i > Trichoplax adhaerens < /i >
by Angelo Fortunato, Alexis Fleming, Athena Aktipis, Carlo C. MaleyTrichoplax adhaerens is the simplest multicellular animal with tissue differentiation and somatic cell turnover. Like all other multicellular organisms, it should be vulnerable to cancer, yet there have been no reports of cancer inT.adhaerens or any other placozoan. We investigated the cancer resistance ofT.adhaerens, discovering that they are able to tolerate high levels of radiation damage (218.6 Gy). To investigate howT.adhaerens survive levels of radiation that are lethal to other animals, we examined gene expression after the X-ray exposure, finding ov...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 17, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Angelo Fortunato Source Type: research

The economics of managing evolution
by Troy Day, David A. Kennedy, Andrew F. Read, David McAdams Humans are altering biological systems at unprecedented rates, and these alterations often have longer-term evolutionary impacts. Most obvious is the spread of resistance to pesticides and antibiotics. There are a wide variety of management strategies available to slow this evolution, and there ar e many reasons for using them. In this paper, we focus on the economic aspects of evolution management and ask: When is it economically beneficial for an individual decision-maker to invest in evolution management? We derive a simple dimensionless inequality showing th...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 16, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Troy Day Source Type: research

Systematic exploration of < i > Escherichia coli < /i > phage –host interactions with the BASEL phage collection
by Enea Maffei, Aisylu Shaidullina, Marco Burkolter, Yannik Heyer, Fabienne Estermann, Valentin Druelle, Patrick Sauer, Luc Willi, Sarah Michaelis, Hubert Hilbi, David S. Thaler, Alexander Harms Bacteriophages, the viruses infecting bacteria, hold great potential for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections and other applications due to their unparalleled diversity and recent breakthroughs in their genetic engineering. However, fundamental knowledge of the molecular mecha nisms underlying phage–host interactions is mostly confined to a few traditional model systems and did not keep pace with the rec...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 16, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Enea Maffei Source Type: research

A cloud-based toolbox for the versatile environmental annotation of biodiversity data
We present the Spatiotemporal Observation Annotation Tool (STOAT), a cloud-based toolbox for flexible biodiversity–environment annotations. STOAT is optimized for large biodiversity datasets and allows user-specified spatial and temporal resolution and buffe ring in support of environmental characterizations that account for the uncertainty and scale of data and of relevant processes. The tool offers these services for a growing set of near global, remotely sensed, or modeled environmental data, including Landsat, MODIS, EarthEnv, and CHELSA. STOAT incl udes a user-friendly, web-based dashboard that provides tools fo...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 15, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Richard Li Source Type: research

A shared transcriptional code orchestrates temporal patterning of the central nervous system
by Andreas Sagner, Isabel Zhang, Thomas Watson, Jorge Lazaro, Manuela Melchionda, James Briscoe The molecular mechanisms that produce the full array of neuronal subtypes in the vertebrate nervous system are incompletely understood. Here, we provide evidence of a global temporal patterning program comprising sets of transcription factors that stratifies neurons based on the developmental time at which they are generated. This transcriptional code acts throughout the central nervous system, in parallel to spatial patterning, thereby increasing the diversity of neurons generated along the neuraxis. We further demonstrate tha...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 12, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Andreas Sagner Source Type: research

FERONIA and microtubules independently contribute to mechanical integrity in the < i > Arabidopsis < /i > shoot
by Alice Malivert, Özer Erguvan, Antoine Chevallier, Antoine Dehem, Rodrigue Friaud, Mengying Liu, Marjolaine Martin, Théophile Peyraud, Olivier Hamant, Stéphane Verger To survive, cells must constantly resist mechanical stress. In plants, this involves the reinforcement of cell walls, notably through microtubule-dependent cellulose deposition. How wall sensing might contribute to this response is unknown. Here, we tested whether the microtubule response to stres s acts downstream of known wall sensors. Using a multistep screen with 11 mutant lines, we identify FERONIA (FER) as the primary candidate for...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 12, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Alice Malivert Source Type: research

Advanced human mucosal tissue models are needed to improve preclinical testing of vaccines
by David Komla Kessie, Thomas Rudel Many vaccine candidates with promising results in preclinical testing fail in human trials. New complex human tissue models have the potential to improve the predictability of vaccine safety and efficacy in human clinical trials. There is a need for better models to improve preclinical testing of vaccines. This Perspective article argues that advanced mucosal human tissue models could present a solution to this pressing problem in the future. (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 12, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: David Komla Kessie Source Type: research

Acquisition of ionic copper by the bacterial outer membrane protein OprC through a novel binding site
by Satya Prathyusha Bhamidimarri, Tessa R. Young, Muralidharan Shanmugam, Sandra Soderholm, Arnaud Basl é, Dirk Bumann, Bert van den Berg Copper, while toxic in excess, is an essential micronutrient in all kingdoms of life due to its essential role in the structure and function of many proteins. Proteins mediating ionic copper import have been characterised in detail for eukaryotes, but much less so for prokaryotes. In particular, i t is still unclear whether and how gram-negative bacteria acquire ionic copper. Here, we show thatPseudomonas aeruginosa OprC is an outer membrane, TonB-dependent transporter that is co...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Satya Prathyusha Bhamidimarri Source Type: research

Respiration modulates oscillatory neural network activity at rest
by Daniel S. Kluger, Joachim Gross Despite recent advances in understanding how respiration affects neural signalling to influence perception, cognition, and behaviour, it is yet unclear to what extent breathing modulates brain oscillations at rest. We acquired respiration and resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG) data from hu man participants to investigate if, where, and how respiration cyclically modulates oscillatory amplitudes (2 to 150 Hz). Using measures of phase–amplitude coupling, we show respiration-modulated brain oscillations (RMBOs) across all major frequency bands. Sources of these modulations spa...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Daniel S. Kluger Source Type: research

Lineage-tracing and translatomic analysis of damage-inducible mitotic cochlear progenitors identifies candidate genes regulating regeneration
by Tomokatsu Udagawa, Patrick J. Atkinson, Beatrice Milon, Julia M. Abitbol, Yang Song, Michal Sperber, Elvis Huarcaya Najarro, Mirko Scheibinger, Ran Elkon, Ronna Hertzano, Alan G. Cheng Cochlear supporting cells (SCs) are glia-like cells critical for hearing function. In the neonatal cochlea, the greater epithelial ridge (GER) is a mitotically quiescent and transient organ, which has been shown to nonmitotically regenerate SCs. Here, we ablated Lgr5+ SCs usingLgr5-DTR mice and found mitotic regeneration of SCs by GER cells in vivo. With lineage tracing, we show that the GER houses progenitor cells that robustly divide a...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 10, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Tomokatsu Udagawa Source Type: research

p38 γ and p38δ regulate postnatal cardiac metabolism through glycogen synthase 1
by Ayel én M. Santamans, Valle Montalvo-Romeral, Alfonso Mora, Juan Antonio Lopez, Francisco González-Romero, Daniel Jimenez-Blasco, Elena Rodríguez, Aránzazu Pintor-Chocano, Cristina Casanueva-Benítez, Rebeca Acín-Pérez, Luis Leiva-Vega, Jordi Duran, Joan J. Guinovart, Jesús Jiménez-Borreguero, Jo sé Antonio Enríquez, María Villlalba-Orero, Juan P. Bolaños, Patricia Aspichueta, Jesús Vázquez, Bárbara González-Terán, Guadalupe Sabio During the first weeks of postnatal heart development, cardiomyocy...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 10, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Ayel én M. Santamans Source Type: research

From grassroots to global: A blueprint for building a reproducibility network
by UK Reproducibility Network Steering Committee Researchers, institutions, funders, and publishers are considering how to improve research culture and quality, but no single part of the research ecosystem can effect change on its own. The UK Reproducibility Network (UKRN) was established to facilitate the necessary coordination. Its experience can inform the establishment of like-minded networks around the world to drive positive change. (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 10, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: UK Reproducibility Network Steering Committee Source Type: research

Exploring bacterial diversity via a curated and searchable snapshot of archived DNA sequences
by Grace A. Blackwell, Martin Hunt, Kerri M. Malone, Leandro Lima, Gal Horesh, Blaise T. F. Alako, Nicholas R. Thomson, Zamin Iqbal The open sharing of genomic data provides an incredibly rich resource for the study of bacterial evolution and function and even anthropogenic activities such as the widespread use of antimicrobials. However, these data consist of genomes assembled with different tools and levels of quality checki ng, and of large volumes of completely unprocessed raw sequence data. In both cases, considerable computational effort is required before biological questions can be addressed. Here, we assembled an...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 9, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Grace A. Blackwell Source Type: research

Diversity, taxonomy, and evolution of archaeal viruses of the class Caudoviricetes
by Ying Liu, Tatiana A. Demina, Simon Roux, Pakorn Aiewsakun, Darius Kazlauskas, Peter Simmonds, David Prangishvili, Hanna M. Oksanen, Mart Krupovic The archaeal tailed viruses (arTV), evolutionarily related to tailed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophages of the class Caudoviricetes, represent the most common isolates infecting halophilic archaea. Only a handful of these viruses have been genomically characterized, limiting our appreciati on of their ecological impacts and evolution. Here, we present 37 new genomes of haloarchaeal tailed virus isolates, more than doubling the current number of sequenced arTVs. Analys...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 9, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Ying Liu Source Type: research

Correction: Extracellular phosphorylation of a receptor tyrosine kinase controls synaptic localization of NMDA receptors and regulates pathological pain
by Kenji Hanamura, Halley R. Washburn, Sean I. Sheffler-Collins, Nan L. Xia, Nathan Henderson, Dipti V. Tillu, Shayne Hassler, Daniel S. Spellman, Guoan Zhang, Thomas A. Neubert, Theodore J. Price, Matthew B. Dalva (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 9, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Kenji Hanamura Source Type: research

Exploring bacterial diversity via a curated and searchable snapshot of archived DNA sequences
by Grace A. Blackwell, Martin Hunt, Kerri M. Malone, Leandro Lima, Gal Horesh, Blaise T. F. Alako, Nicholas R. Thomson, Zamin Iqbal The open sharing of genomic data provides an incredibly rich resource for the study of bacterial evolution and function and even anthropogenic activities such as the widespread use of antimicrobials. However, these data consist of genomes assembled with different tools and levels of quality checki ng, and of large volumes of completely unprocessed raw sequence data. In both cases, considerable computational effort is required before biological questions can be addressed. Here, we assembled an...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 9, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Grace A. Blackwell Source Type: research

Diversity, taxonomy, and evolution of archaeal viruses of the class Caudoviricetes
by Ying Liu, Tatiana A. Demina, Simon Roux, Pakorn Aiewsakun, Darius Kazlauskas, Peter Simmonds, David Prangishvili, Hanna M. Oksanen, Mart Krupovic The archaeal tailed viruses (arTV), evolutionarily related to tailed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophages of the class Caudoviricetes, represent the most common isolates infecting halophilic archaea. Only a handful of these viruses have been genomically characterized, limiting our appreciati on of their ecological impacts and evolution. Here, we present 37 new genomes of haloarchaeal tailed virus isolates, more than doubling the current number of sequenced arTVs. Analys...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 9, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Ying Liu Source Type: research

Correction: Extracellular phosphorylation of a receptor tyrosine kinase controls synaptic localization of NMDA receptors and regulates pathological pain
by Kenji Hanamura, Halley R. Washburn, Sean I. Sheffler-Collins, Nan L. Xia, Nathan Henderson, Dipti V. Tillu, Shayne Hassler, Daniel S. Spellman, Guoan Zhang, Thomas A. Neubert, Theodore J. Price, Matthew B. Dalva (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 9, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Kenji Hanamura Source Type: research

Predicting novel candidate human obesity genes and their site of action by systematic functional screening in < i > Drosophila < /i >
by Neha Agrawal, Katherine Lawler, Catherine M. Davidson, Julia M. Keogh, Robert Legg, INTERVAL , In ês Barroso, I. Sadaf Farooqi, Andrea H. Brand The discovery of human obesity-associated genes can reveal new mechanisms to target for weight loss therapy. Genetic studies of obese individuals and the analysis of rare genetic variants can identify novel obesity-associated genes. However, establishing a functional relationship between these can didate genes and adiposity remains a significant challenge. We uncovered a large number of rare homozygous gene variants by exome sequencing of severely obese children, includin...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 8, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Neha Agrawal Source Type: research

Adult medial habenula neurons require GDNF receptor GFR α1 for synaptic stability and function
by Diana Fern ández-Suárez, Favio A. Krapacher, Katarzyna Pietrajtis, Annika Andersson, Lilian Kisiswa, Alvaro Carrier-Ruiz, Marco A. Diana, Carlos F. Ibáñez The medial habenula (mHb) is an understudied small brain nucleus linking forebrain and midbrain structures controlling anxiety and fear behaviors. The mechanisms that maintain the structural and functional integrity of mHb neurons and their synapses remain unknown. Using spatiotemporally controlle d Cre-mediated recombination in adult mice, we found that the glial cell–derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha 1 (GFRα1) is req...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 8, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Diana Fern ández-Suárez Source Type: research

NAMPT-derived NAD < sup > + < /sup > fuels PARP1 to promote skin inflammation through parthanatos cell death
In conclusion, hyperactivation of PARP1 in response to ROS-induced DNA damage, fueled by NAMPT-derived NAD+, mediates skin inflammation through parthanatos cell death. (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 8, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Francisco J. Mart ínez-Morcillo Source Type: research

Predicting novel candidate human obesity genes and their site of action by systematic functional screening in < i > Drosophila < /i >
by Neha Agrawal, Katherine Lawler, Catherine M. Davidson, Julia M. Keogh, Robert Legg, INTERVAL , In ês Barroso, I. Sadaf Farooqi, Andrea H. Brand The discovery of human obesity-associated genes can reveal new mechanisms to target for weight loss therapy. Genetic studies of obese individuals and the analysis of rare genetic variants can identify novel obesity-associated genes. However, establishing a functional relationship between these can didate genes and adiposity remains a significant challenge. We uncovered a large number of rare homozygous gene variants by exome sequencing of severely obese children, includin...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 8, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Neha Agrawal Source Type: research

Adult medial habenula neurons require GDNF receptor GFR α1 for synaptic stability and function
by Diana Fern ández-Suárez, Favio A. Krapacher, Katarzyna Pietrajtis, Annika Andersson, Lilian Kisiswa, Alvaro Carrier-Ruiz, Marco A. Diana, Carlos F. Ibáñez The medial habenula (mHb) is an understudied small brain nucleus linking forebrain and midbrain structures controlling anxiety and fear behaviors. The mechanisms that maintain the structural and functional integrity of mHb neurons and their synapses remain unknown. Using spatiotemporally controlle d Cre-mediated recombination in adult mice, we found that the glial cell–derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha 1 (GFRα1) is req...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 8, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Diana Fern ández-Suárez Source Type: research

NAMPT-derived NAD < sup > + < /sup > fuels PARP1 to promote skin inflammation through parthanatos cell death
In conclusion, hyperactivation of PARP1 in response to ROS-induced DNA damage, fueled by NAMPT-derived NAD+, mediates skin inflammation through parthanatos cell death. (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 8, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Francisco J. Mart ínez-Morcillo Source Type: research

An altered balance of integrated and segregated brain activity is a marker of cognitive deficits following sleep deprivation
by Nathan E. Cross, Florence B. Pomares, Alex Nguyen, Aurore A. Perrault, Aude Jegou, Makoto Uji, Kangjoo Lee, Fatemeh Razavipour, Oba ï Bin Ka’b Ali, Umit Aydin, Habib Benali, Christophe Grova, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu Sleep deprivation (SD) leads to impairments in cognitive function. Here, we tested the hypothesis that cognitive changes in the sleep-deprived brain can be explained by information processing within and between large-scale cortical networks. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of 20 healthy volunteers during attention and executive tasks following a regular night of sleep, ...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 4, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Nathan E. Cross Source Type: research

Fitness costs of female choosiness are low in a socially monogamous songbird
by Wolfgang Forstmeier, Daiping Wang, Katrin Martin, Bart Kempenaers Female mate choice is thought to be responsible for the evolution of many extravagant male ornaments and displays, but the costs of being too selective may hinder the evolution of choosiness. Selection against choosiness may be particularly strong in socially monogamous mating systems, because fem ales may end up without a partner and forego reproduction, especially when many females prefer the same few partners (frequency-dependent selection). Here, we quantify the fitness costs of having mating preferences that are difficult to satisfy, by manipulating...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 4, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Wolfgang Forstmeier Source Type: research

Mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 protects animals from lethal SARS-CoV challenge
by Antonio Muruato, Michelle N. Vu, Bryan A. Johnson, Meredith E. Davis-Gardner, Abigail Vanderheiden, Kumari Lokugamage, Craig Schindewolf, Patricia A. Crocquet-Valdes, Rose M. Langsjoen, Jessica A. Plante, Kenneth S. Plante, Scott C. Weaver, Kari Debbink, Andrew L. Routh, David Walker, Mehul S. Suthar, Pei-Yong Shi, Xuping Xie, Vineet D. Menachery The emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a pandemic causing significant damage to public health and the economy. Efforts to understand the mechanisms of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been hampered by the lack of r...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 4, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Antonio Muruato Source Type: research

Assembly of infectious Kaposi ’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus progeny requires formation of a pORF19 pentamer
by Peter Naniima, Eleonora Naimo, Sandra Koch, Ute Curth, Khaled R. Alkharsah, Luisa J. Str öh, Anne Binz, Jan-Marc Beneke, Benjamin Vollmer, Heike Böning, Eva Maria Borst, Prashant Desai, Jens Bohne, Martin Messerle, Rudolf Bauerfeind, Pierre Legrand, Beate Sodeik, Thomas F. Schulz, Thomas Krey Herpesviruses cause severe diseases particularly in immunocompromised patients. Both genome packaging and release from the capsid require a unique portal channel occupying one of the 12 capsid vertices. Here, we report the 2.6 Å crystal structure of the pentameric pORF19 of the γ-herpesvirus Kap osi’s s...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 4, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Peter Naniima Source Type: research

An altered balance of integrated and segregated brain activity is a marker of cognitive deficits following sleep deprivation
by Nathan E. Cross, Florence B. Pomares, Alex Nguyen, Aurore A. Perrault, Aude Jegou, Makoto Uji, Kangjoo Lee, Fatemeh Razavipour, Oba ï Bin Ka’b Ali, Umit Aydin, Habib Benali, Christophe Grova, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu Sleep deprivation (SD) leads to impairments in cognitive function. Here, we tested the hypothesis that cognitive changes in the sleep-deprived brain can be explained by information processing within and between large-scale cortical networks. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of 20 healthy volunteers during attention and executive tasks following a regular night of sleep, ...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 4, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Nathan E. Cross Source Type: research

Fitness costs of female choosiness are low in a socially monogamous songbird
by Wolfgang Forstmeier, Daiping Wang, Katrin Martin, Bart Kempenaers Female mate choice is thought to be responsible for the evolution of many extravagant male ornaments and displays, but the costs of being too selective may hinder the evolution of choosiness. Selection against choosiness may be particularly strong in socially monogamous mating systems, because fem ales may end up without a partner and forego reproduction, especially when many females prefer the same few partners (frequency-dependent selection). Here, we quantify the fitness costs of having mating preferences that are difficult to satisfy, by manipulating...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 4, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Wolfgang Forstmeier Source Type: research

Mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 protects animals from lethal SARS-CoV challenge
by Antonio Muruato, Michelle N. Vu, Bryan A. Johnson, Meredith E. Davis-Gardner, Abigail Vanderheiden, Kumari Lokugamage, Craig Schindewolf, Patricia A. Crocquet-Valdes, Rose M. Langsjoen, Jessica A. Plante, Kenneth S. Plante, Scott C. Weaver, Kari Debbink, Andrew L. Routh, David Walker, Mehul S. Suthar, Pei-Yong Shi, Xuping Xie, Vineet D. Menachery The emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a pandemic causing significant damage to public health and the economy. Efforts to understand the mechanisms of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been hampered by the lack of r...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 4, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Antonio Muruato Source Type: research

Assembly of infectious Kaposi ’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus progeny requires formation of a pORF19 pentamer
by Peter Naniima, Eleonora Naimo, Sandra Koch, Ute Curth, Khaled R. Alkharsah, Luisa J. Str öh, Anne Binz, Jan-Marc Beneke, Benjamin Vollmer, Heike Böning, Eva Maria Borst, Prashant Desai, Jens Bohne, Martin Messerle, Rudolf Bauerfeind, Pierre Legrand, Beate Sodeik, Thomas F. Schulz, Thomas Krey Herpesviruses cause severe diseases particularly in immunocompromised patients. Both genome packaging and release from the capsid require a unique portal channel occupying one of the 12 capsid vertices. Here, we report the 2.6 Å crystal structure of the pentameric pORF19 of the γ-herpesvirus Kap osi’s s...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 4, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Peter Naniima Source Type: research

Correction: Stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with slow rTMS enhances verbal memory formation
by Mircea van der Plas, Verena Braun, Benjamin Johannes Stauch, Simon Hanslmayr (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 3, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Mircea van der Plas Source Type: research

Spatial subsidies drive sweet spots of tropical marine biomass production
by Renato A. Morais, Alexandre C. Siqueira, Patrick F. Smallhorn-West, David R. Bellwood Spatial subsidies increase local productivity and boost consumer abundance beyond the limits imposed by local resources. In marine ecosystems, deeper water and open ocean subsidies promote animal aggregations and enhance biomass that is critical for human harvesting. However, the scale of this phe nomenon in tropical marine systems remains unknown. Here, we integrate a detailed assessment of biomass production in 3 key locations, spanning a major biodiversity and abundance gradient, with an ocean-scale dataset of fish counts to predic...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Renato A. Morais Source Type: research

Neuronal HSF-1 coordinates the propagation of fat desaturation across tissues to enable adaptation to high temperatures in < i > C < /i > . < i > elegans < /i >
by Laetitia Chauve, Francesca Hodge, Sharlene Murdoch, Fatemah Masoudzadeh, Harry-Jack Mann, Andrea Lopez-Clavijo, Hanneke Okkenhaug, Greg West, Bebiana C. Sousa, Anne Segonds-Pichon, Cheryl Li, Steven Wingett, Hermine Kienberger, Karin Kleigrewe, Mario De Bono, Michael Wakelam, Olivia Casanueva To survive elevated temperatures, ectotherms adjust the fluidity of membranes by fine-tuning lipid desaturation levels in a process previously described to be cell autonomous. We have discovered that, inCaenorhabditis elegans, neuronal heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1), the conserved master regulator of the heat shock response (HSR), ca...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 1, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Laetitia Chauve Source Type: research

iSDAsoil: The first continent-scale soil property map at 30 m resolution provides a soil information revolution for Africa
by Matthew A. E. Miller, Keith D. Shepherd, Bruce Kisitu, Jamie Collinson Open access, high-resolution soil property maps have been created for Africa at 30 m resolution, using machine learning trained on over 100,000 analysed soil samples. Combined with other field-level information, iSDAsoil enables the possibility of site-specific agronomy advisory for smallholder fa rmers. Recent developments in remote sensing and machine learning have allowed African soil properties to be mapped at an unprecedented resolution of 30 m. iSDAsoil is an open access resource that will empower the community to embrace ’hyperlocal&rs...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 1, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Matthew A. E. Miller Source Type: research

Neuronal HSF-1 coordinates the propagation of fat desaturation across tissues to enable adaptation to high temperatures in < i > C < /i > . < i > elegans < /i >
by Laetitia Chauve, Francesca Hodge, Sharlene Murdoch, Fatemah Masoudzadeh, Harry-Jack Mann, Andrea Lopez-Clavijo, Hanneke Okkenhaug, Greg West, Bebiana C. Sousa, Anne Segonds-Pichon, Cheryl Li, Steven Wingett, Hermine Kienberger, Karin Kleigrewe, Mario De Bono, Michael Wakelam, Olivia Casanueva To survive elevated temperatures, ectotherms adjust the fluidity of membranes by fine-tuning lipid desaturation levels in a process previously described to be cell autonomous. We have discovered that, inCaenorhabditis elegans, neuronal heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1), the conserved master regulator of the heat shock response (HSR), ca...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 1, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Laetitia Chauve Source Type: research

iSDAsoil: The first continent-scale soil property map at 30 m resolution provides a soil information revolution for Africa
by Matthew A. E. Miller, Keith D. Shepherd, Bruce Kisitu, Jamie Collinson Open access, high-resolution soil property maps have been created for Africa at 30 m resolution, using machine learning trained on over 100,000 analysed soil samples. Combined with other field-level information, iSDAsoil enables the possibility of site-specific agronomy advisory for smallholder fa rmers. Recent developments in remote sensing and machine learning have allowed African soil properties to be mapped at an unprecedented resolution of 30 m. iSDAsoil is an open access resource that will empower the community to embrace ’hyperlocal&rs...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - November 1, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Matthew A. E. Miller Source Type: research

A phylogenomic framework for charting the diversity and evolution of giant viruses
by Frank O. Aylward, Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Anh D. Ha, Eugene V. Koonin Large DNA viruses of the phylum Nucleocytoviricota have recently emerged as important members of ecosystems around the globe that challenge traditional views of viral complexity. Numerous members of this phylum that cannot be classified within established families have recently been reported, and there is presently a strong need for a robust phylogenomic and taxonomic framework for these viruses. Here, we report a comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of the Nucleocytoviricota, present a set of giant virus orthologous groups (GVOGs) together with a benc...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - October 27, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Frank O. Aylward Source Type: research

On the optimality of the enzyme –substrate relationship in bacteria
by Hugo Dourado, Matteo Mori, Terence Hwa, Martin J. Lercher Much recent progress has been made to understand the impact of proteome allocation on bacterial growth; much less is known about the relationship between the abundances of the enzymes and their substrates, which jointly determine metabolic fluxes. Here, we report a correlation between the concentr ations of enzymes and their substrates inEscherichia coli. We suggest this relationship to be a consequence of optimal resource allocation, subject to an overall constraint on the biomass density: For a cellular reaction network composed of effectively irreversible rea...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - October 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Hugo Dourado Source Type: research

The microbiome impacts host hybridization and speciation
by Asia K. Miller, Camille S. Westlake, Karissa L. Cross, Brittany A. Leigh, Seth R. Bordenstein Microbial symbiosis and speciation profoundly shape the composition of life’s biodiversity. Despite the enormous contributions of these two fields to the foundations of modern biology, there is a vast and exciting frontier ahead for research, literature, and conferences to address the neglected prospects of merging their study. Here, we survey and synthesize exemplar cases of how endosymbionts and microbial communities affect animal hybridization and vice versa. We conclude that though the number of case studies remain n...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - October 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Asia K. Miller Source Type: research

On the optimality of the enzyme –substrate relationship in bacteria
by Hugo Dourado, Matteo Mori, Terence Hwa, Martin J. Lercher Much recent progress has been made to understand the impact of proteome allocation on bacterial growth; much less is known about the relationship between the abundances of the enzymes and their substrates, which jointly determine metabolic fluxes. Here, we report a correlation between the concentr ations of enzymes and their substrates inEscherichia coli. We suggest this relationship to be a consequence of optimal resource allocation, subject to an overall constraint on the biomass density: For a cellular reaction network composed of effectively irreversible rea...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - October 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Hugo Dourado Source Type: research