Neurocognitive processing efficiency for discriminating human non-alarm rather than alarm scream calls
by Sascha Fr ühholz, Joris Dietziker, Matthias Staib, Wiebke Trost Across many species, scream calls signal the affective significance of events to other agents. Scream calls were often thought to be of generic alarming and fearful nature, to signal potential threats, with instantaneous, involuntary, and accurate recognition by perceivers. However, scream calls a re more diverse in their affective signaling nature than being limited to fearfully alarming a threat, and thus the broader sociobiological relevance of various scream types is unclear. Here we used 4 different psychoacoustic, perceptual decision-making, and...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - April 13, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Sascha Fr ühholz Source Type: research

Molecular basis of F-actin regulation and sarcomere assembly via myotilin
by Julius Kostan, Miha Pav šič, Vid Puž, Thomas C. Schwarz, Friedel Drepper, Sibylle Molt, Melissa Ann Graewert, Claudia Schreiner, Sara Sajko, Peter F. M. van der Ven, Adekunle Onipe, Dmitri I. Svergun, Bettina Warscheid, Robert Konrat, Dieter O. Fürst, Brigita Lenarčič, Kristina Djinović-Carugo Sarcomeres, the basic contractile units of striated muscle cells, contain arrays of thin (actin) and thick (myosin) filaments that slide past each other during contraction. The Ig-like domain-containing protein myotilin provides structural integrity to Z-discs—the boundaries between adjacent sar comeres. My...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - April 12, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Julius Kostan Source Type: research

Peroxiredoxin alleviates the fitness costs of imidacloprid resistance in an insect pest of rice
by Rui Pang, Ke Xing, Longyu Yuan, Zhikun Liang, Meng Chen, Xiangzhao Yue, Yi Dong, Yan Ling, Xionglei He, Xianchun Li, Wenqing Zhang Chemical insecticides have been heavily employed as the most effective measure for control of agricultural and medical pests, but evolution of resistance by pests threatens the sustainability of this approach. Resistance-conferring mutations sometimes impose fitness costs, which may drive subseque nt evolution of compensatory modifier mutations alleviating the costs of resistance. However, how modifier mutations evolve and function to overcome the fitness cost of resistance still remains un...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - April 12, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Rui Pang Source Type: research

Neural stem cells traffic functional mitochondria via extracellular vesicles
by Luca Peruzzotti-Jametti, Joshua D. Bernstock, Cory M. Willis, Giulia Manferrari, Rebecca Rogall, Erika Fernandez-Vizarra, James C. Williamson, Alice Braga, Aletta van den Bosch, Tommaso Leonardi, Grzegorz Krzak, Ágnes Kittel, Cristiane Benincá, Nunzio Vicario, Sisareuth Tan, Carlos Bastos, Iacopo Bicci, Nunzio Iraci, Jayden A. Smith, Ben Peacock, Karin H. Muller, Paul J. Lehner, Edit Iren Buzas, Nuno Faria, Massimo Zeviani, Christian Frezza, Alain Brisson, Nicholas J. Matheson, Carlo Viscomi, Stefano Pluc hino Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation induces recovery in animal models of central nervous syst...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - April 7, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Luca Peruzzotti-Jametti Source Type: research

Human protection drives the emergence of a new coping style in animals
by Bastien Sadoul, Daniel T. Blumstein, S ébastien Alfonso, Benjamin Geffroy Wild animals face novel environmental threats from human activities that may occur along a gradient of interactions with humans. Recent work has shown that merely living close to humans has major implications for a variety of antipredator traits and physiological responses. Here, we hypothesize th at when human presence protects prey from their genuine predators (as sometimes seen in urban areas and at some tourist sites), this predator shield, followed by a process of habituation to humans, decouples commonly associated traits related to ...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - April 6, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Bastien Sadoul Source Type: research

The evolving role of preprints in the dissemination of COVID-19 research and their impact on the science communication landscape
by Nicholas Fraser, Liam Brierley, Gautam Dey, Jessica K. Polka, M áté Pálfy, Federico Nanni, Jonathon Alexis Coates The world continues to face a life-threatening viral pandemic. The virus underlying the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused over 98 million confirmed cases and 2.2 million deaths since January 2020. Although the most recent respiratory viral pandemic swept the globe only a decade ago, the way science operates and responds to current events has experienced a cultural shift in the interim. The scientific community h...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - April 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Nicholas Fraser Source Type: research

Stress and odorant receptor feedback during a critical period after hatching regulates olfactory sensory neuron differentiation in < i > Drosophila < /i >
by Shadi Jafari, Johan Henriksson, Hua Yan, Mattias Alenius Here, we reveal that the regulation ofDrosophila odorant receptor (OR) expression during the pupal stage is permissive and imprecise. We found that directly after hatching an OR feedback mechanism both directs and refines OR expression. We demonstrate that, as in mice,dLsd1 andSu(var)3-9 balance heterochromatin formation to direct OR expression. We show that the expressed OR inducesdLsd1 andSu(var)3-9 expression, linking OR level and possibly function to OR expression. OR expression refinement shows a restricted duration, suggesting that a gene regulatory critica...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - April 1, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Shadi Jafari Source Type: research

Anesthetics fragment hippocampal network activity, alter spine dynamics, and affect memory consolidation
by Wei Yang, Mattia Chini, Jastyn A. P öpplau, Andrey Formozov, Alexander Dieter, Patrick Piechocinski, Cynthia Rais, Fabio Morellini, Olaf Sporns, Ileana L. Hanganu-Opatz, J. Simon Wiegert General anesthesia is characterized by reversible loss of consciousness accompanied by transient amnesia. Yet, long-term memory impairment is an undesirable side effect. How different types of general anesthetics (GAs) affect the hippocampus, a brain region central to memory formation and consolid ation, is poorly understood. Using extracellular recordings, chronic 2-photon imaging, and behavioral analysis, we monitor the effects ...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - April 1, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Wei Yang Source Type: research

Creating clear and informative image-based figures for scientific publications
We present detailed descriptions and visual examples to help scientists avoid common pitfalls when publishing images. Our recommendations address image magnification, scale information, insets, annotation, and color and may encourage discussion about quality standards for bioimage publishing. (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 31, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Helena Jambor Source Type: research

Microbial colonization induces histone acetylation critical for inherited gut-germline-neural signaling
by Chunlan Hong, Jonathan Lalsiamthara, Jie Ren, Yu Sang, Alejandro Aballay The gut-neural axis plays a critical role in the control of several physiological processes, including the communication of signals from the microbiome to the nervous system, which affects learning, memory, and behavior. However, the pathways involved in gut-neural signaling of gut-governed behavi ors remain unclear. We found that the intestinal distension caused by the bacteriumPseudomonas aeruginosa induces histone H4 Lys8 acetylation (H4K8ac) in the germline ofCaenorhabditis elegans, which is required for both a bacterial aversion behavior and ...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 31, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Chunlan Hong Source Type: research

Loss of the abasic site sensor HMCES is synthetic lethal with the activity of the APOBEC3A cytosine deaminase in cancer cells
by Josep Biayna, Isabel Garcia-Cao, Miguel M. Álvarez, Marina Salvadores, Jose Espinosa-Carrasco, Marcel McCullough, Fran Supek, Travis H. Stracker Analysis of cancer mutagenic signatures provides information about the origin of mutations and can inform the use of clinical therapies, including immunotherapy. In particular, APOBEC3A (A3A) has emerged as a major driver of mutagenesis in cancer cells, and its expression results in DNA damage and susceptibility to treatment with inhibitors of the ATR and CHK1 checkpoint kinases. Here, we report the implementation of CRISPR/Cas-9 genetic screening to identify susceptibi...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 31, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Josep Biayna Source Type: research

Addressing the environmental and health impacts of microplastics requires open collaboration between diverse sectors
by Scott Coffin, Holly Wyer, J. C. Leapman Public concern over the environmental and public health impacts of the emerging contaminant class “microplastics” has recently prompted government agencies to consider mitigation efforts. Microplastics do not easily fit within traditional risk-based regulatory frameworks because their persiste nce and extreme diversity (of size, shape, and chemical properties associated with sorbed chemicals) result in high levels of uncertainty in hazard and exposure estimates. Due to these serious complexities, addressing microplastics’ impacts requires open collaboration betw...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 30, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Scott Coffin Source Type: research

Tackling the toxics in plastics packaging
by Jane Muncke The widespread use of plastic packaging for storing, transporting, and conveniently preparing or serving foodstuffs is significantly contributing to the global plastic pollution crisis. This has led to many efforts directed toward amending plastic packaging’s end of life, such as recycling, or a lternative material approaches, like increasingly using paper for food packaging. But these approaches often neglect the critical issue of chemical migration: When contacting foodstuffs, chemicals that are present in packaging transfer into food and thus unwittingly become part of the human diet. Ha zardous ch...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 30, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Jane Muncke Source Type: research

Microplastic effects on carbon cycling processes in soils
by Matthias C. Rillig, Eva Leifheit, Johannes Lehmann Microplastics (MPs), plastic particles (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 30, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Matthias C. Rillig Source Type: research

Confronting plastic pollution to protect environmental and public health
by Liza Gross, Judith Enck A new collection of evidence-based commentaries explores critical challenges facing scientists and policymakers working to address the potential environmental and health harms of microplastics. The commentaries reveal a pressing need to develop robust methods to detect, evaluate, and mitigate the impacts of this emerging contaminant, most recently found in human placentas. (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 30, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Liza Gross Source Type: research

Disparate temperature-dependent virus –host dynamics for SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in the human respiratory epithelium
by Philip V ’kovski, Mitra Gultom, Jenna N. Kelly, Silvio Steiner, Julie Russeil, Bastien Mangeat, Elisa Cora, Joern Pezoldt, Melle Holwerda, Annika Kratzel, Laura Laloli, Manon Wider, Jasmine Portmann, Thao Tran, Nadine Ebert, Hanspeter Stalder, Rune Hartmann, Vincent Gardeux, Daniel Alpern, Bart Deplancke, Volker Thiel, Ronald Dijkman Since its emergence in December 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally and become a major public health burden. Despite its close phylogenetic relationship to SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 exhibits increased human-to-human transmission dynamics,...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 29, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Philip V ’kovski Source Type: research

Dynamics of the cell fate specifications during female gametophyte development in < i > Arabidopsis < /i >
by Daichi Susaki, Takamasa Suzuki, Daisuke Maruyama, Minako Ueda, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Daisuke Kurihara The female gametophytes of angiosperms contain cells with distinct functions, such as those that enable reproduction via pollen tube attraction and fertilization. Although the female gametophyte undergoes unique developmental processes, such as several rounds of nuclear division without cell plate formation and final cellularization, it remains unknown when and how the cell fate is determined during development. Here, we visualized the living dynamics of female gametophyte development and performed transcriptome analysi...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Daichi Susaki Source Type: research

From Reductionism to Reintegration: Solving society ’s most pressing problems requires building bridges between data types across the life sciences
by Anne E. Thessen, Paul Bogdan, David J. Patterson, Theresa M. Casey, C ésar Hinojo-Hinojo, Orlando de Lange, Melissa A. Haendel Decades of reductionist approaches in biology have achieved spectacular progress, but the proliferation of subdisciplines, each with its own technical and social practices regarding data, impedes the growth of the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches now needed to address pressing so cietal challenges. Data integration is key to a reintegrated biology able to address global issues such as climate change, biodiversity loss, and sustainable ecosystem management. We identify m...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Anne E. Thessen Source Type: research

Genome-wide analysis of DNA replication and DNA double-strand breaks using TrAEL-seq
by Neesha Kara, Felix Krueger, Peter Rugg-Gunn, Jonathan Houseley Faithful replication of the entire genome requires replication forks to copy large contiguous tracts of DNA, and sites of persistent replication fork stalling present a major threat to genome stability. Understanding the distribution of sites at which replication forks stall, and the ensuing fork processing events, requires genome-wide methods that profile replication fork position and the formation of recombinogenic DNA ends. Here, we describe Transferase-Activated End Ligation sequencing (TrAEL-seq), a method that captures single-stranded DNA 3′ end...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 24, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Neesha Kara Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 variants reveal features critical for replication in primary human cells
by Marie O. Pohl, Idoia Busnadiego, Verena Kufner, Irina Glas, Umut Karakus, Stefan Schmutz, Maryam Zaheri, Irene Abela, Alexandra Trkola, Michael Huber, Silke Stertz, Benjamin G. Hale Since entering the human population, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; the causative agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 [COVID-19]) has spread worldwide, causing>100 million infections and>2 million deaths. While large-scale sequencing efforts have identified numerous genetic variants in SARS-CoV-2 during its circulation, it remains largely unclear whether many of these changes impact adaptation, replication,...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 24, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Marie O. Pohl Source Type: research

A quantitative model used to compare within-host SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV dynamics provides insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2
by Kwang Su Kim, Keisuke Ejima, Shoya Iwanami, Yasuhisa Fujita, Hirofumi Ohashi, Yoshiki Koizumi, Yusuke Asai, Shinji Nakaoka, Koichi Watashi, Kazuyuki Aihara, Robin N. Thompson, Ruian Ke, Alan S. Perelson, Shingo Iwami The scientific community is focused on developing antiviral therapies to mitigate the impacts of the ongoing novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. This will be facilitated by improved understanding of viral dynamics within infected hosts. Here, using a mathematical model in combinati on with published viral load data, we compare within-host viral dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 with analogous dynamics...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 22, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Kwang Su Kim Source Type: research

Mitotic gene conversion can be as important as meiotic conversion in driving genetic variability in plants and other species without early germline segregation
by Xianqing Jia, Qijun Zhang, Mengmeng Jiang, Ju Huang, Luyao Yu, Milton Brian Traw, Dacheng Tian, Laurence D. Hurst, Sihai Yang In contrast to common meiotic gene conversion, mitotic gene conversion, because it is so rare, is often ignored as a process influencing allelic diversity. We show that if there is a large enough number of premeiotic cell divisions, as seen in many organisms without early germline sequestration, s uch as plants, this is an unsafe position. From examination of 1.1 million rice plants, we determined that the rate of mitotic gene conversion events, per mitosis, is 2 orders of magnitude lower than t...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 22, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Xianqing Jia Source Type: research

Optogenetic activation of spinal microglia triggers chronic pain in mice
by Min-Hee Yi, Yong U. Liu, Anthony D. Umpierre, Tingjun Chen, Yanlu Ying, Jiaying Zheng, Aastha Dheer, Dale B. Bosco, Hailong Dong, Long-Jun Wu Spinal microglia are highly responsive to peripheral nerve injury and are known to be a key player in pain. However, there has not been any direct evidence showing that selective microglial activation in vivo is sufficient to induce chronic pain. Here, we used optogenetic approaches in microglia t o address this question employing CX3CR1creER/+: R26LSL-ReaChR/+ transgenic mice, in which red-activated channelrhodopsin (ReaChR) is inducibly and specifically expressed in microglia. ...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 19, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Min-Hee Yi Source Type: research

Is “bioinformatics” dead?
by Philip E. Bourne Why would a computational biologist with 40 years of research experience say bioinformatics is dead? The short answer is, in being the Founding Dean of a new School of Data Science, what we do suddenly looks different. (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 18, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Philip E. Bourne Source Type: research

Single-cell longitudinal analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in human airway epithelium identifies target cells, alterations in gene expression, and cell state changes
by Neal G. Ravindra, Mia Madel Alfajaro, Victor Gasque, Nicholas C. Huston, Han Wan, Klara Szigeti-Buck, Yuki Yasumoto, Allison M. Greaney, Victoria Habet, Ryan D. Chow, Jennifer S. Chen, Jin Wei, Renata B. Filler, Bao Wang, Guilin Wang, Laura E. Niklason, Ruth R. Montgomery, Stephanie C. Eisenbarth, Sidi Chen, Adam Williams, Akiko Iwasaki, Tamas L. Horvath, Ellen F. Foxman, Richard W. Pierce, Anna Marie Pyle, David van Dijk, Craig B. Wilen There are currently limited Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs and vaccines for the treatment or prevention of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Enhanced understandin...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 17, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Neal G. Ravindra Source Type: research

An evolutionarily diverged mitochondrial protein controls biofilm growth and virulence in < i > Candida albicans < /i >
by Zeinab Mamouei, Shakti Singh, Bernard Lemire, Yiyou Gu, Abdullah Alqarihi, Sunna Nabeela, Dongmei Li, Ashraf Ibrahim, Priya Uppuluri A forward genetic screening approach identified orf19.2500 as a gene controllingCandida albicans biofilm dispersal and biofilm detachment. Three-dimensional (3D) protein modeling and bioinformatics revealed that orf19.2500 is a conserved mitochondrial protein, structurally similar to, but functionally diverged from, the squalene/phytoene synthases family. TheC.albicans orf19.2500 is distinguished by 3 evolutionarily acquired stretches of amino acid inserts, absent from all other eukaryote...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 15, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Zeinab Mamouei Source Type: research

Natural selection in the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in bats created a generalist virus and highly capable human pathogen
by Oscar A. MacLean, Spyros Lytras, Steven Weaver, Joshua B. Singer, Maciej F. Boni, Philippe Lemey, Sergei L. Kosakovsky Pond, David L. Robertson Virus host shifts are generally associated with novel adaptations to exploit the cells of the new host species optimally. Surprisingly, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has apparently required little to no significant adaptation to humans since the start of the Coronavi rus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to October 2020. Here we assess the types of natural selection taking place inSarbecoviruses in horseshoe bats versus the early SARS-CoV-2 evo...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 12, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Oscar A. MacLean Source Type: research

Towards precision medicine in diabetes? A critical review of glucotypes
by Adam Hulman, Yuri D. Foreman, Martijn C. G. J. Brouwers, Abraham A. Kroon, Koen D. Reesink, Pieter C. Dagnelie, Carla J. H. van der Kallen, Marleen M. J. van Greevenbroek, Kristine F ærch, Dorte Vistisen, Marit E. Jørgensen, Coen D. A. Stehouwer, Daniel R. Witte In response to a study previously published in PLOS Biology, this Formal Comment thoroughly examines the concept of ’glucotypes’ with regard to its generalisability, interpretability and relationship to more traditional measures used to describe data from continuous glucose monitoring. (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Adam Hulman Source Type: research

Expansion microscopy provides new insights into the cytoskeleton of malaria parasites including the conservation of a conoid
by Elo ïse Bertiaux, Aurélia C. Balestra, Lorène Bournonville, Vincent Louvel, Bohumil Maco, Dominique Soldati-Favre, Mathieu Brochet, Paul Guichard, Virginie Hamel Malaria is caused by unicellularPlasmodium parasites.Plasmodium relies on diverse microtubule cytoskeletal structures for its reproduction, multiplication, and dissemination. Due to the small size of this parasite, its cytoskeleton has been primarily observable by electron microscopy (EM). Here, we demonstrate that the nanoscale cytoskeleton organisation is within reach using ultrastructure expansion microscopy (U-ExM). In developing microga...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Elo ïse Bertiaux Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of the conoid complex in < i > Toxoplasma < /i > reveals its conservation in all apicomplexans, including < i > Plasmodium < /i > species
We reporter-tagged and observed the expression and location of several conoid complex proteins in the malaria modelP.berghei and revealed equivalent structures in all of its zoite forms, as well as evidence of molecular differentiation between blood-stage merozoites and the ookinetes and sporozoites of the mosquito vector. Collectively, we show that the conoid is a conserved apicomplexan element at the heart of the invasion mechanisms of these highly successful and often devastating parasites. (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Ludek Koreny Source Type: research

Response to Hulman and colleagues regarding “Glucotypes reveal new patterns of glucose dysregulation”
by Alessandra Breschi, Dalia Perelman, Michael Paul Snyder In a response to a Formal Comment critiquing their model for classifying individualized glucose patterns into glucotypes, these authors stand by their results and conclusions, which can be reproduced using their publicly available data, and maintain that improved algorithms for analyzing CGM data will continue to emerge and enrich the field. (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Alessandra Breschi Source Type: research

MARK2 phosphorylates eIF2 α in response to proteotoxic stress
by Yu-Ning Lu, Sarah Kavianpour, Tao Zhang, Xumei Zhang, Dao Nguyen, Ravi Thombre, Lu He, Jiou Wang The regulation of protein synthesis is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis, especially during stress responses, and its dysregulation could underlie the development of human diseases. The critical step during translation regulation is the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α). Here we report the identification of a direct kinase of eIF2α, microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 2 (MARK2), which phosphorylates eIF2α in response to proteotoxic stress. The activity of MARK2...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Yu-Ning Lu Source Type: research

Apicomplexans: A conoid ring unites them all
by Julien Guizetti, Friedrich Frischknecht Apicomplexan parasites are defined by complex apical structures, which are necessary for interaction with incredibly diverse host cells. Two studies now amend a long-standing paradigm by showing conservation of an essential ring structure in the entire phylum. (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Julien Guizetti Source Type: research

Intraspecific diversity loss in a predator species alters prey community structure and ecosystem functions
by Allan Raffard, Julien Cucherousset, Jos é M. Montoya, Murielle Richard, Samson Acoca-Pidolle, Camille Poésy, Alexandre Garreau, Frédéric Santoul, Simon Blanchet Loss in intraspecific diversity can alter ecosystem functions, but the underlying mechanisms are still elusive, and intraspecific biodiversity–ecosystem function (iBEF) relationships have been restrained to primary producers. Here, we manipulated genetic and functional richness of a fish consume r (Phoxinus phoxinus) to test whether iBEF relationships exist in consumer species and whether they are more likely sustained by genet...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 11, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Allan Raffard Source Type: research

Blunted diurnal firing in lateral habenula projections to dorsal raphe nucleus and delayed photoentrainment in stress-susceptible mice
by He Liu, Ashutosh Rastogi, Priyam Narain, Qing Xu, Merima Sabanovic, Ayesha Darwish Alhammadi, Lihua Guo, Jun-Li Cao, Hongxing Zhang, Hala Aqel, Vongai Mlambo, Rachid Rezgui, Basma Radwan, Dipesh Chaudhury Daily rhythms are disrupted in patients with mood disorders. The lateral habenula (LHb) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) contribute to circadian timekeeping and regulate mood. Thus, pathophysiology in these nuclei may be responsible for aberrations in daily rhythms during mood disorders. Using the 1 5-day chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) paradigm and in vitro slice electrophysiology, we measured the effects of stress...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 10, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: He Liu Source Type: research

Bacterial defenses against a natural antibiotic promote collateral resilience to clinical antibiotics
by Lucas A. Meirelles, Elena K. Perry, Megan Bergkessel, Dianne K. Newman Bacterial opportunistic human pathogens frequently exhibit intrinsic antibiotic tolerance and resistance, resulting in infections that can be nearly impossible to eradicate. We asked whether this recalcitrance could be driven by these organisms’ evolutionary history as environmental microbes tha t engage in chemical warfare. UsingPseudomonas aeruginosa as a model, we demonstrate that the self-produced antibiotic pyocyanin (PYO) activates defenses that confer collateral tolerance specifically to structurally similar synthetic clinical antibioti...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 10, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Lucas A. Meirelles Source Type: research

Rebuild the Academy: Supporting academic mothers during COVID-19 and beyond
by Robinson W. Fulweiler, Sarah W. Davies, Jennifer F. Biddle, Amy J. Burgin, Emily H. G. Cooperdock, Torrance C. Hanley, Carly D. Kenkel, Amy M. Marcarelli, Catherine M. Matassa, Talea L. Mayo, Lory Z. Santiago-V àzquez, Nikki Traylor-Knowles, Maren Ziegler The issues facing academic mothers have been discussed for decades. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is further exposing these inequalities as womxn scientists who are parenting while also engaging in a combination of academic related duties are falling behind. These inequities can be solved by investing strategically in solutions. Here we describe strategie...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 9, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Robinson W. Fulweiler Source Type: research

How < i > PLOS Biology < /i > aims to foster diversity, equity and inclusion in science
by The PLOS Biology Staff Editors A diverse scientific community is not only fairer but also improves science overall by bringing a richer range of perspectives to the research enterprise. Here, we discuss steps that PLOS Biology is taking to support diversity, equity and inclusion at the journal and beyond. (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 9, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: The PLOS Biology Staff Editors Source Type: research

Visible name changes promote inequity for transgender researchers
by Leo Chan Gaskins, Craig R. McClain Allowing for invisible name changes is a matter of dignity for trans researchers. This would prevent their own publication record from outing them without their consent. A single, centralized name change request through ORCID iD would alleviate the burden of changing each publication individually. Academic journals allowing for invisible name changes is a matter of fundamental respect and dignity for trans researchers, but there are currently no acceptable choices when dealing with name changes in a publishing record. This Perspective article proposes a centralized name change solut...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 9, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Leo Chan Gaskins Source Type: research

Sprouty2 positively regulates T cell function and airway inflammation through regulation of CSK and LCK kinases
by Anand Sripada, Kapil Sirohi, Lidia Michalec, Lei Guo, Jerome T. McKay, Sangya Yadav, Mukesh Verma, James Good, Donald Rollins, Magdalena M. Gorska, Rafeul Alam The function of Sprouty2 (Spry2) in T cells is unknown. Using 2 different (inducible and T cell–targeted) knockout mouse strains, we found that Spry2 positively regulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling by modulating the activity of LCK. Spry2−/− CD4+ T cells were unable to activate LCK, proliferate, differentiate into T helper cells, or produce cytokines. Spry2 deficiency abrogated type 2 inflammation and airway hy...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 8, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Anand Sripada Source Type: research

Racism, disease, and vaccine refusal: People of color are dying for access to COVID-19 vaccines
by Susan M. Reverby As the vaccines against COVID are slowly becoming available, we need to consider the paradox of why so many people of color are dying from the disease yet cannot get the vaccinations. Concerns focus on vaccine refusal but lack of access is the bigger problem. As the vaccines against COVID are slo wly becoming available, we need to consider the paradox of why so many people of color are dying from the disease yet cannot get the vaccinations. Focus of concern ought to shift from vaccine refusal to lack of access. (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 8, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Susan M. Reverby Source Type: research

Reexposure to a sensorimotor perturbation produces opposite effects on explicit and implicit learning processes
by Guy Avraham, J. Ryan Morehead, Hyosub E. Kim, Richard B. Ivry The motor system demonstrates an exquisite ability to adapt to changes in the environment and to quickly reset when these changes prove transient. If similar environmental changes are encountered in the future, learning may be faster, a phenomenon known as savings. In studies of sensorimotor learn ing, a central component of savings is attributed to the explicit recall of the task structure and appropriate compensatory strategies. Whether implicit adaptation also contributes to savings remains subject to debate. We tackled this question by measuring, in para...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 5, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Guy Avraham Source Type: research

Correction: Empirical assessment of published effect sizes and power in the recent cognitive neuroscience and psychology literature
by Denes Szucs, John P. A. Ioannidis (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 5, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Denes Szucs Source Type: research

CD74 is a regulator of hematopoietic stem cell maintenance
by Shirly Becker-Herman, Milena Rozenberg, Carmit Hillel-Karniel, Naama Gil-Yarom, Mattias Kramer, Avital Barak, Lital Sever, Keren David, Lihi Radomir, Hadas Lewinsky, Michal Levi, Gilgi Friedlander, Richard Bucala, Amnon Peled, Idit Shachar Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are a small population of undifferentiated cells that have the capacity for self-renewal and differentiate into all blood cell lineages. These cells are the most useful cells for clinical transplantations and for regenerative medicine. So far, it has not been possible to expand adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) without losing their ...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 4, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Shirly Becker-Herman Source Type: research

A unified mechanism for the control of < i > Drosophila < /i > wing growth by the morphogens Decapentaplegic and Wingless
by Myriam Zecca, Gary Struhl Development of theDrosophila wing —a paradigm of organ development—is governed by 2 morphogens, Decapentaplegic (Dpp, a BMP) and Wingless (Wg, a Wnt). Both proteins are produced by defined subpopulations of cells and spread outwards, forming gradients that control gene expression and cell pattern as a function of concentration. They also control growth, but how is unknown. Most studies have focused on Dpp and yielded disparate models in which cells throughout the wing grow at similar rates in response to the grade or temporal change in Dpp concentration or to the different amounts ...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 3, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Myriam Zecca Source Type: research

MITOL-dependent ubiquitylation negatively regulates the entry of Pol γA into mitochondria
by Mansoor Hussain, Aftab Mohammed, Shabnam Saifi, Aamir Khan, Ekjot Kaur, Swati Priya, Himanshi Agarwal, Sagar Sengupta Mutations in mitochondrial replicative polymerase PolγA lead to progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO). While PolγA is the known central player in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication, it is unknown whether a regulatory process exists on the mitochondrial outer membrane which controlled its entry into the mitochondria. We now demonstrate that PolγA is ubiquitylated by mitochondrial E3 ligase, MITOL (or MARCH5, RNF153). Ubiquitylation in wild-type (WT) PolγA occurs at Lysine ...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 3, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Mansoor Hussain Source Type: research

Functional innovation promotes diversification of form in the evolution of an ultrafast trap-jaw mechanism in ants
by Douglas B. Booher, Joshua C. Gibson, Cong Liu, John T. Longino, Brian L. Fisher, Milan Janda, Nitish Narula, Evropi Toulkeridou, Alexander S. Mikheyev, Andrew V. Suarez, Evan P. Economo Evolutionary innovations underlie the rise of diversity and complexity—the 2 long-term trends in the history of life. How does natural selection redesign multiple interacting parts to achieve a new emergent function? We investigated the evolution of a biomechanical innovation, the latch-spring m echanism of trap-jaw ants, to address 2 outstanding evolutionary problems: how form and function change in a system during the evolution ...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Douglas B. Booher Source Type: research

Assessment of transparency indicators across the biomedical literature: How open is open?
We present an open-source, automated approach to identify 5 indicators of transparency (data sharing, code sharing, conflicts of interest disclosures, funding disclosures, and protocol registration) and apply it across the entire open access biomedical litera ture of 2.75 million articles on PubMed Central (PMC). Our results indicate remarkable improvements in some (e.g., conflict of interest [COI] disclosures and funding disclosures), but not other (e.g., protocol registration and code sharing) areas of transparency over time, and map transparency acros s fields of science, countries, journals, and publishers. This work h...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - March 1, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Stylianos Serghiou Source Type: research

Sustained neural rhythms reveal endogenous oscillations supporting speech perception
by Sander van Bree, Ediz Sohoglu, Matthew H. Davis, Benedikt Zoefel Rhythmic sensory or electrical stimulation will produce rhythmic brain responses. These rhythmic responses are often interpreted as endogenous neural oscillations aligned (or “entrained”) to the stimulus rhythm. However, stimulus-aligned brain responses can also be explained as a sequence of e voked responses, which only appear regular due to the rhythmicity of the stimulus, without necessarily involving underlying neural oscillations. To distinguish evoked responses from true oscillatory activity, we tested whether rhythmic stimulation produc...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - February 26, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Sander van Bree Source Type: research

A plasmid DNA-launched SARS-CoV-2 reverse genetics system and coronavirus toolkit for COVID-19 research
by Suzannah J. Rihn, Andres Merits, Siddharth Bakshi, Matthew L. Turnbull, Arthur Wickenhagen, Akira J. T. Alexander, Carla Baillie, Benjamin Brennan, Fiona Brown, Kirstyn Brunker, Steven R. Bryden, Kerry A. Burness, Stephen Carmichael, Sarah J. Cole, Vanessa M. Cowton, Paul Davies, Chris Davis, Giuditta De Lorenzo, Claire L. Donald, Mark Dorward, James I. Dunlop, Matthew Elliott, Mazigh Fares, Ana da Silva Filipe, Joseph R. Freitas, Wilhelm Furnon, Rommel J. Gestuveo, Anna Geyer, Daniel Giesel, Daniel M. Goldfarb, Nicola Goodman, Rory Gunson, C. James Hastie, Vanessa Herder, Joseph Hughes, Clare Johnson, Natasha Johnson, ...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - February 25, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Suzannah J. Rihn Source Type: research