Original Research Article - Conjugative and replicative biology of the Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance plasmid, pC02
Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Patrick T. LaBreck, Zhaozhang Li, Kevin P. Gibbons, D. Scott MerrellAbstractGenetic transfer among bacteria propels rapid resistance to antibiotics and decreased susceptibility to antiseptics. Staphylococcus aureus is a common culprit of hospital and community acquired infections, and S. aureus plasmids have been shown to carry a multitude of antimicrobial resistance genes. We previously identified a novel conjugative, multidrug resistance plasmid, pC02, from the clinical S. aureus isolate C02. This plasmid contained the chlorhexidine resistance gene ...
Source: Plasmid - March 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Analysis of two B/O plasmids, R805a from 1972 and pCERC6 from 2008, reveals extensive mosaicism in B/O plasmid backbones
Publication date: Available online 27 February 2019Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Robert A. Moran, Isabella A. Richardson, Ruth M. HallAbstractTwo B/O plasmids were sequenced. The kanamycin resistance plasmid R805a was found in a Salmonella Typhi strain from a 1972 typhoid fever outbreak in Mexico City. pCERC6, which confers resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazole, was found in a commensal E. coli isolated from a healthy adult in Sydney in 2008. Both plasmids contain the same gene for RNAI, the incompatibility determinant, as the reference B/O plasmid pMU707 and the recently reported plasmid p838B-R, which ...
Source: Plasmid - February 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

pXO16, the large conjugative plasmid from Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis displays an extended host spectrum
Publication date: Available online 27 February 2019Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Pauline Hinnekens, Klèma Marcel Koné, Nancy Fayad, Audrey Leprince, Jacques MahillonAbstractpXO16, the large conjugative plasmid from Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis is able to efficient self-transfer, to mobilize and retro-mobilize non-conjugative plasmids, including “non-mobilizable” plasmids, and to transfer chromosomal loci. It also displays a remarkable aggregation phenotype associated with conjugation under liquid conditions. However, it was recently shown that aggregation boosts pXO16 transfer but is not...
Source: Plasmid - February 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Mosaic plasmids are abundant and unevenly distributed across prokaryotic taxa
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2019Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Mitchell W. Pesesky, Rayna Tilley, David A.C. BeckAbstractMosaic plasmids, plasmids composed of genetic elements from distinct sources, are associated with the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. Transposons are considered the primary mechanism for mosaic plasmid formation, though other mechanisms have been observed in specific instances. The frequency with which mosaic plasmids have been described suggests they may play an important role in plasmid population dynamics. Our survey of the confirmed plasmid sequences available from complete and d...
Source: Plasmid - February 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

pCP13, a representative of a new family of conjugative toxin plasmids in Clostridium perfringens
This study has significant implications for our understanding of the movement of toxin genes both within C. perfringens, but also potentially to other pathogenic clostridia. (Source: Plasmid)
Source: Plasmid - February 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Interactions between plasmids and other mobile genetic elements affect their transmission and persistence
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Francisco Dionisio, Rita Zilhão, João Alves GamaAbstractPlasmids are genetic elements that play a role in bacterial evolution by providing new genes that promote adaptation to diverse conditions. Plasmids are also known to reduce bacterial competitiveness in the absence of selection for plasmid-encoded traits. It is easier to understand plasmid persistence when considering the evidence that plasmid maintenance can improve during co-evolution with the bacterial host, i.e. the chromosome. However, bacteria isolated from nature often ha...
Source: Plasmid - February 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

An improved plasmid size standard, 39R861+
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2019Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Robert A. Moran, Sashindran Anantham, Ruth M. HallAbstractThe four plasmids in E. coli 39R861 have been used as size standards for closed-circular plasmid DNA since the 1980s. However, their sizes had only been estimated. Here, the complete sequence of the 61.3 kb cryptic FII plasmid p39R861–3 is reported, and the sizes of p39R861–4, pSa and NTP168 were determined to be 155.8, 40.1 and 6.8 kb, respectively. An improved size standard, 39R861+, was created by adding two sequenced, compatible plasmids to 39R861 via conjugation. The 94....
Source: Plasmid - February 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Characterization of the first blaCTX-M-14/ermB-carrying IncI1 plasmid from Latin America
In this study, we characterized the first blaCTX-M-14/ermB-carrying IncI1 plasmid from Latin America, which was detected in a MDR E. coli clinical isolate from Uruguay.Plasmid pUR-EC07 was a 105,836-bp IncI1 ST80 plasmid harboring blaCTX-M-14, blaTEM-1 and ermB, and characterized by a backbone region of 92,554 bp, and a multi resistance region (MRR) of 13,282 bp, bounded by two directly-oriented IS26 elements, and inserted upstream of ResD. The MRR comprised two nested IS26-composite transposons (Tn6651 and Tn6652). Tn6651 included the ermBL-ermB operon flanked by two IS26 copies in opposite direction. Tn6652 included ...
Source: Plasmid - February 5, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Hitchhiking on chromosomes: A persistence strategy shared by diverse selfish DNA elements
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2019Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Soumitra Sau, Santanu Kumar Ghosh, Yen-Ting Liu, Chien-Hui Ma, Makkuni JayaramAbstractAn underlying theme in the segregation of low-copy bacterial plasmids is the assembly of a ‘segrosome’ by DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions, followed by energy-driven directed movement. Analogous partitioning mechanisms drive the segregation of host chromosomes as well. Eukaryotic extra-chromosomal elements, exemplified by budding yeast plasmids and episomes of certain mammalian viruses, harbor partitioning systems that promote their physica...
Source: Plasmid - February 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: January 2019Source: Plasmid, Volume 101Author(s): (Source: Plasmid)
Source: Plasmid - January 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

A high-throughput approach to the culture-based estimation of plasmid transfer rates
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): David Kneis, Teppo Hiltunen, Stefanie HeßAbstractHorizontal gene transfer is an essential component of bacterial evolution. Quantitative information on transfer rates is particularly useful to better understand and possibly predict the spread of antimicrobial resistance. A variety of methods has been proposed to estimate the rates of plasmid-mediated gene transfer all of which require substantial labor input or financial resources. A cheap but reliable method with high-throughput capabilities is yet to be developed in order to better capture...
Source: Plasmid - December 30, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

A step forward: Compatible and dual-inducible expression vectors for gene co-expression in Corynebacterium glutamicum
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Rahul Gauttam, Christian Desiderato, Lisa Jung, Adnan Shah, Bernhard J. EikmannsAbstractThe Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum represents a promising platform for the production of amino acids, organic acids, and other bio-products. However, the availability of only few expression vectors limits its use for production purposes, using metabolic engineering approaches when co-expression of several target genes is desired. To widen the scope for co-expression, the pCG1/p15A and pBL1/colE1 replicons were employed to construct the two d...
Source: Plasmid - December 27, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

The antibiotic resistance-free mammalian expression plasmid vector pPAL for development of third generation vaccines
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Pedro J. Alcolea, Ana Alonso, Vicente LarragaAbstractDNA vaccines require a vector to replicate genes and express encoding antigens. Antibiotic resistance genes are often used as selection markers, which must not be released to the environment upon final product commercialization. For this reason, generation of antibiotic resistance-free vectors is imperative. The pPAL vector contains the cytomegalovirus enhancer and promoter for expression in mammalian cells, and the E. coli fabI chromosomal gene as a selectable marker. The fabI gene encodes the e...
Source: Plasmid - December 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Contemporary IncI1 plasmids involved in the transmission and spread of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacteriaceae
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Alessandra Carattoli, Laura Villa, Daniela Fortini, Aurora García-FernándezAbstractIncI1 has become one of the most common plasmid families in contemporary Enterobacteriaceae from both human and animal sources. In clinical epidemiology, this plasmid type ranks first as the confirmed vehicle of transmission of extended spectrum beta-lactamase and plasmid AmpC genes in isolates from food-producing animals. In this review, we describe the epidemiology and evolution of IncI1 plasmids and closely related IncIγ plasmids. We highlight ...
Source: Plasmid - December 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: November 2018Source: Plasmid, Volume 100Author(s): (Source: Plasmid)
Source: Plasmid - November 23, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

pBuzz: A cryptic rolling-circle plasmid from a commensal Escherichia coli has two inversely oriented oriTs and is mobilised by a B/O plasmid
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Robert A. Moran, Ruth M. HallAbstractAmpicillin, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazole resistant commensal E. coli 838-3B contains five plasmids that range in size from>90 kb to
Source: Plasmid - November 22, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Development of host strains and vector system for an efficient genetic transformation of filamentous fungi
Publication date: Available online 19 November 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Larissa A. Balabanova, Yuri N. Shkryl, Lubov V. Slepchenko, Yulia A. Yugay, Tatiana Y. Gorpenchenko, Natalia N. Kirichuk, Yulia V. Khudyakova, Irina Yu. Bakunina, Anna B. Podvolotskaya, Victor P. Bulgakov, Aleksandra V. Seitkalieva, Oksana M. Son, Liudmila A. TekutyevaAbstractAn ability to synthesize extracellular enzymes degrading a wide spectrum of plant and algae polymeric substrates makes many fungi relevant for biotechnology. The terrestrial thermophilic and marine fungal isolates capable of plant and algae degradation have been tested for an...
Source: Plasmid - November 21, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

IS26 mediated antimicrobial resistance gene shuffling from the chromosome to a mosaic conjugative FII plasmid
This study further highlights the role played by IS26 in intracellular ARGs shuffling. Moreover, attention has been focused on recombination hot spots that might play a key role in generating mosaic plasmids. (Source: Plasmid)
Source: Plasmid - October 16, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: June 2018Source: Plasmid, Volume 98Author(s): (Source: Plasmid)
Source: Plasmid - October 5, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Linezolid resistance genes and genetic elements enhancing their dissemination in enterococci and streptococci
Publication date: Available online 22 September 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Ewa SadowyAbstractLinezolid is considered a last resort drug in treatment of severe infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens, resistant to other antibiotics, such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), methicillin-resistant staphylococci and multidrug resistant pneumococci. Although the vast majority of Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria remain susceptible to linezolid, resistant isolates of enterococci, staphylococci and streptococci have been reported worldwide. In these bacteria, apart from mutations, affecting mostly the 23S rRNA genes...
Source: Plasmid - October 5, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Plasmids for making multiple knockouts in a radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans
Publication date: November 2018Source: Plasmid, Volume 100Author(s): Ganesh K. Maurya, Hari S. MisraAbstractThe gene knockouts are mostly created using homologous recombination-based replacement of target gene(s) with the expressing cassette of selection marker gene(s). Here, we constructed a series of plasmids bearing the expressing cassettes of genes encoding different antibiotics markers like nptII (KanR), aadA (SpecR), cat (CmR) and aac(3) (GenR). D. radiodurans is a radioresistant Gram positive bacterium that does not support the independent maintenance of colE1 origin-based plasmids. Using these constructs, the disru...
Source: Plasmid - October 5, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

An IncX1 plasmid isolated from Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Pullorum carrying blaTEM-1B, sul2, arsenic resistant operons
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Xiu-Zhong Zhang, Chang-Wei Lei, Jin-Xin Zeng, Yan-Peng Chen, Zhuang-Zhuang Kang, Yu-Long Wang, Xiao-Lan Ye, Xi-Wen Zhai, Hong-Ning WangAbstractWe have identified an IncX1 plasmid named pQJDSal1 from Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum). The plasmid is 67,685 bp in size and has 72 putative genes. pQJDSal1 harbors a conserved IncX1-type backbone with predicted regions for conjugation, replication and partitioning, as well as a toxin/antitoxin plasmid addiction system. Two regions (A and B) that have not been previous...
Source: Plasmid - September 22, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Plasmid-mediated resistance is going wild
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Monika Dolejska, Costas C. PapagiannitsisAbstractMultidrug resistance (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria have been increasingly reported in humans, companion animals and farm animals. The growing trend of plasmid-mediated resistance to antimicrobial classes of critical importance is attributed to the emergence of epidemic plasmids, rapidly disseminating resistance genes among the members of Enterobacteriaceae family. The use of antibiotics to treat humans and animals has had a significant impact on the environment and on wild animals living and feeding...
Source: Plasmid - September 22, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Impact of plasmid interactions with the chromosome and other plasmids on the spread of antibiotic resistance
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): João Alves Gama, Rita Zilhão, Francisco DionisioAbstractNaturally occurring plasmids have medical importance given that they frequently code for virulence or antibiotic resistance. In many cases, plasmids impose a fitness cost to their hosts, meaning that the growth rate of plasmid-bearing cells is lower than that of plasmid-free cells. However, this does not fit with the fact that plasmids are ubiquitous in nature nor that plasmids and their hosts adapt to each other very fast – as has been shown in laboratory evolutionary as...
Source: Plasmid - September 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Identification and sequence analysis of two novel cryptic plasmids isolated from the vaginal mucosa of South African women
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Lyle Harris, Leonardo J. van Zyl, Bronwyn M. Kirby-McCullough, Leonard H. Damelin, Caroline T. Tiemessen, Marla TrindadeAbstractThe vaginal mucosa is dominated by Gram positive, rod shaped lactobacilli which serve as a natural barrier against infection. In both healthy- and bacterial vaginosis (BV)-infected women Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus jensenii have been found to be the predominant Lactobacillus species. Many studies have been conducted to assess factors influencing lactobacilli dominance in the vaginal microbiome. In the prese...
Source: Plasmid - September 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Generation of a synthetic binary plasmid that confers resistance to nourseothricin for genetic engineering of Sporothrix schenckii
Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Alma K. Tamez-Castrellón, Ricardo Romo-Lucio, Iván Martínez-Duncker, Héctor M. Mora-MontesAbstractSome members of the Sporothrix genus can cause sporotrichosis, a worldwide distributed mycosis that affects several mammalian species, including human beings. Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis are the fungal species frequently associated with this disease, and the latter has gained significant interest because of the increased number of cases associated with transmission by cats. Despite the relevance of the...
Source: Plasmid - September 18, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Multi-target plasmid controls for conventional and real-time PCR-based serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae
ConclusionsThese quantifiable multi-target plasmids simplify the preparation of controls for PCR-based serotyping of S. pneumoniae, and methods herein could be extended to other highly multiplexed PCR assays. (Source: Plasmid)
Source: Plasmid - September 12, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Construction and identification of the recombinant hFcεRIα/RBL-2H3 cells
Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Zhongcheng Liu, Lifang Hao, Nanan Wang, Su Zhang, Nan Zhang, Zhenzhen Xu, Yanlei Yang, Yanfen ZhangAbstractIgE/FcεRI signal pathway plays a crucial role in triggering allergic reactions, and there is no cross-recognition between IgE and FcεRI in human and rats. In order to obtain the hFcεRIα/ RBL-2H3 cell line, total RNA was extracted from U937 cells, and the human FcεRIα gene was obtained by RT-PCR technology. Then the amplified product was digested and inserted into the pIRES2-EGFP vector. After the p...
Source: Plasmid - September 11, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Development of a Gateway-compatible pCAMBIA binary vector for RNAi-mediated gene knockdown in plants
Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Deshui Yu, Libing Liao, Yi Zhang, Kedong Xu, Ju Zhang, Kun Liu, Xiaoli Li, Guangxuan Tan, Jurui Zheng, Yong He, Changling Xu, Jinjin Zhao, Beibei Fu, Jiaxing Xie, Jie Mao, Chengwei LiAbstractRNA interference (RNAi), based on hairpin RNA (hpRNA) expression, plays an important role in functional analysis of plant genes. Traditional methods for making RNAi constructs usually involve multiple time-consuming cloning steps. We have developed a Gateway-compatible binary vector for RNAi-mediated gene knockdown in plants from pCAMBIA2301 and pHANNIBAL vect...
Source: Plasmid - September 8, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

A genome editing vector that enables easy selection and identification of knockout cells
In this report, we show that our novel vector, pGedit, significantly facilitates genome editing. (Source: Plasmid)
Source: Plasmid - September 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistance plasmid reservoir in food and food-producing animals
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Jean-Yves Madec, Marisa HaenniAbstractAntimicrobial resistance (AMR) plasmids have been recognized as important vectors for efficient spread of AMR phenotypes. The food reservoir includes both food-producing animals and food products, and a huge diversity of AMR plasmids have been reported in this sector. Based on molecular typing methods and/or whole genome sequencing approaches, certain AMR genes/plasmids combinations were found more frequently in food compared to other settings. However, the food source of a definite AMR plasmid is highly compl...
Source: Plasmid - September 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Thinking outside the (Pill) box: Does toxic metal exposure thwart antibiotic stewardship best practices?
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Anne O. Summers, Andrew G. Wiggins, Stephen P. LaVoie, Joy Wireman, Anne O. Summers (Source: Plasmid)
Source: Plasmid - September 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

A new vector for heterologous gene expression in Escherichia coli with increased stability in the absence of antibiotic
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Fara Amelia Primelles Eguia, Henrique Roman Ramos, Stefanie Kraschowetz, Daniel Omote, Celso Raul Romero Ramos, Paulo Lee Ho, Eneas Carvalho, Viviane Maimoni GonçalvesAbstractExpression vectors for industrial production should be stable and allow tight control of protein synthesis. This is necessary to ensure plasmid transmission to daughter cells in order to achieve a stable population capable of synthesizing high amounts of the target protein. A high-copy-number plasmid, pAE, was previously used for laboratory-scale production of recombin...
Source: Plasmid - September 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Monitoring plasmid-mediated horizontal gene transfer in microbiomes: recent advances and future perspectives
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Rafael Pinilla-Redondo, Valentine Cyriaque, Samuel Jacquioid, Søren J. Sørensen, Leise RiberAbstractThe emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria constitutes an increasing global health concern. Although it is well recognized that the cornerstone underlying this phenomenon is the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance via plasmids and other mobile genetic elements, the antimicrobial resistance transfer routes remain largely uncharted. In this review, we describe different methods for assessing the transfer frequency and host rang...
Source: Plasmid - August 5, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Evolution and typing of IncC plasmids contributing to antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria
Publication date: Available online 3 August 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Stephanie J. Ambrose, Christopher J. Harmer, Ruth M. HallAbstractThe large, broad host range IncC plasmids are important contributors to the spread of key antibiotic resistance genes and over 200 complete sequences of IncC plasmids have been reported. To track the spread of these plasmids accurate typing to identify the closest relatives is needed. However, typing can be complicated by the high variability in resistance gene content and various typing methods that rely on features of the conserved backbone have been developed. Plasmids can be broadly...
Source: Plasmid - August 4, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

A plasmid-encoded mobile genetic element from Pseudomonas aeruginosa that confers heavy metal resistance and virulence
Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Karen C. Hernández-Ramírez, Rosa I. Reyes-Gallegos, Víctor M. Chávez-Jacobo, A. Díaz-Magaña, Víctor Meza-Carmen, Martha I. Ramírez-DíazAbstractMobile plasmid-encoded elements are DNA segments that are transferred for horizontal gene transfer and that confer adaptive proprieties, as well as virulence and antibiotic and heavy metal resistance to bacteria. The conjugative plasmid pUM505, isolated from a clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, possesses a putative 31.292 kb mobile element...
Source: Plasmid - July 30, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Antibiotic resistance plasmids and mobile genetic elements of Clostridium perfringens
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Vicki Adams, Xiaoyan Han, Dena Lyras, Julian I. RoodAbstractClostridium perfringens is an anaerobic bacterium that is a major human and animal pathogen. The key features of C. perfringens-mediated infections are that disease pathogenesis involves the production of protein toxins and that disease epidemiology generally involves the production of environmentally resistant endospores. Many of the toxins involved in these diseases are encoded on conjugative plasmids that are closely related to the paradigm tetracycline resistance plasmid pCW3. This plasmi...
Source: Plasmid - July 26, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: March–May 2018Source: Plasmid, Volumes 96–97Author(s): (Source: Plasmid)
Source: Plasmid - July 10, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Complete sequence of the tumor-inducing plasmid pTiChry5 from the hypervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain Chry5
Publication date: March–May 2018Source: Plasmid, Volumes 96–97Author(s): Shuai Shao, Xiaorong Zhang, G. Paul H. van Heusden, Paul J.J. HooykaasAbstractAgrobacterium tumefaciens strain Chry5 is hypervirulent on many plants including soybean that are poorly transformed by other A. tumefaciens strains. Therefore, it is considered as a preferred vector for genetic transformation of plants. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of its chrysopine-type Ti-plasmid pTiChry5. It is comprised of 197,268 bp with an overall GC content of 54.5%. Two T-DNA regions are present and 219 putative protein-coding sequen...
Source: Plasmid - July 10, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Compatibility and entry exclusion of IncA and IncC plasmids revisited: IncA and IncC plasmids are compatible
Publication date: March–May 2018Source: Plasmid, Volumes 96–97Author(s): Stephanie J. Ambrose, Christopher J. Harmer, Ruth M. HallAbstractIn an early study, IncA and IncC plasmids that were reported to be compatible were grouped as the “A-C complex” based on similarities and on strong entry exclusion. However, recently, the term IncA/C has been used frequently to describe plasmids belonging to both of these two groups. Granted that the supporting data was not included in the original reports and that the consensus iteron sequences have since been shown to be essentially identical, we have addressed ...
Source: Plasmid - July 10, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of rhizobial chromosomes and plasmids to estimate their evolutionary relationships
Publication date: March–May 2018Source: Plasmid, Volumes 96–97Author(s): Xinye Wang, Dongying Liu, Yantao Luo, Liang Zhao, Zhenshan Liu, Minxia Chou, Entao Wang, Gehong WeiAbstractIn the present study, complete genomic sequences retrieved from 57 rhizobial strains that covered four genera including 11 species were analyzed comprehensively. The four types of replicons: chromosomes, chromids, nonsymbiotic plasmids, and symbiotic plasmids were investigated and compared among these strains. Results showed that co-evolution occurred among these four replicons based on the similarities in average nucleotide identity....
Source: Plasmid - July 10, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Identification of large cryptic plasmids in Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile
Publication date: March–May 2018Source: Plasmid, Volumes 96–97Author(s): Jacob Amy, Dieter Bulach, Daniel Knight, Tom Riley, Priscilla Johanesen, Dena LyrasAbstractClostridioides (Clostridium) difficile is a major bacterial pathogen of both humans and animals. Several species of pathogenic clostridia are known to harbour large plasmids with combinations of virulence, antibiotic resistance and metabolism determinants. Small cryptic plasmids have been previously identified in C. difficile, but there is a lack of recent work examining the prevalence and heterogeneity of plasmids in this diverse bacterial species. ...
Source: Plasmid - July 10, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Mobile macrolide resistance genes in staphylococci
Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Andrea T. Feßler, Yang Wang, Congming Wu, Stefan SchwarzAbstractMacrolide resistance in staphylococci is based on the expression of a number of genes which specify four major resistance mechanisms: (i) target site modification by methylation of the ribosomal target site in the 23S rRNA, (ii) ribosome protection via ABC-F proteins, (iii) active efflux via Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) transporters, and (iv) enzymatic inactivation by phosphotransferases or esterases. So far, 14 different classes of erm genes, which code for 23S rRNA methylase...
Source: Plasmid - July 10, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Baculovirus for gene delivery to mammalian cells: Past, present and future
Publication date: June 2018Source: Plasmid, Volume 98Author(s): Maysam Mansouri, Philipp BergerAbstractBaculovirus is an insect virus which has been used for more than thirty years for production of recombinant proteins in insect cells. However, baculovirus can also be harnessed for efficient gene delivery to mammalian cells if it is equipped with mammalian promoters. This technology is known as BacMam and has been used for gene delivery to immortalized cell lines, stem cells, and primary cells, as well as for gene delivery in animals. Baculovirus has unique features when compared to mammalian viruses. Besides the fact tha...
Source: Plasmid - July 10, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Mobile lincosamide resistance genes in staphylococci
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Andrea T. Feßler, Yang Wang, Congming Wu, Stefan SchwarzAbstractLincosamide resistance in staphylococci is based on the expression of a number of genes which specify three major resistance mechanisms: (i) enzymatic inactivation by lincosamide nucleotidyltransferases, (ii) ribosome protection by ABC-F proteins, and (iii) methylation of the ribosomal target sites in the 23S rRNA by Cfr or Erm methylases. So far, only two lnu genes, lnu(A) and lnu(B), which code for different types of lincosamide nucleotidyltransferases, have been found in staphylo...
Source: Plasmid - July 10, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Broad-host-range Inc18 plasmids: Occurrence, spread and transfer mechanisms
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Verena Kohler, Ankita Vaishampayan, Elisabeth GrohmannAbstractConjugative plasmid transfer is one of the major mechanisms responsible for the spread of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. The incompatibility (Inc) 18 group of plasmids is a family of plasmids replicating by the theta-mechanism, whose members have been detected frequently in enterococci and streptococci. Inc18 plasmids encode a variety of antibiotic resistances, including resistance to vancomycin, chloramphenicol and the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramine (MLS) group of antibio...
Source: Plasmid - July 10, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Improvement in the efficiency of natural transformation of Haemophilus parasuis by shuttle-plasmid methylation
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2018Source: PlasmidAuthor(s): Xiaojing Zhang, Xuwang Cai, Yi Qi, Yunbao Liu, Qi Cao, Xiangru Wang, Huanchun Chen, Xiaojuan XuAbstractSome Haemophilus parasuis strains display resistance to transformation with Escherichia.coli-derived plasmids. This property limits the application of genetic approaches previously developed for H. parasuis. The present study showed that natural transformation with the shuttle plasmid pS2UK led to allelic exchange in H. parasuis strains SH0165 and CF7066. Furthermore, natural transformation with pS2UK yielded allelic exchange mutants in 10 of 17H. par...
Source: Plasmid - July 10, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: March–May 2018Source: Plasmid, Volumes 96–97Author(s): (Source: Plasmid)
Source: Plasmid - July 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Complete sequence of the tumor-inducing plasmid pTiChry5 from the hypervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain Chry5
Publication date: March–May 2018Source: Plasmid, Volumes 96–97Author(s): Shuai Shao, Xiaorong Zhang, G. Paul H. van Heusden, Paul J.J. HooykaasAbstractAgrobacterium tumefaciens strain Chry5 is hypervirulent on many plants including soybean that are poorly transformed by other A. tumefaciens strains. Therefore, it is considered as a preferred vector for genetic transformation of plants. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of its chrysopine-type Ti-plasmid pTiChry5. It is comprised of 197,268 bp with an overall GC content of 54.5%. Two T-DNA regions are present and 219 putative protein-coding sequen...
Source: Plasmid - July 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research