Optical coherence tomography retinal ganglion cell complex analysis for the detection of early chiasmal compression
ConclusionsThese patients show that OCT-GCC analysis is more sensitive than visual field testing with standard automated perimetry in the detection of compressive chiasmopathy or optic neuropathy. These cases and previous studies suggest that OCT-GCC analysis may be used in addition to visual field testing to evaluate patients with lesions compressing the chiasm. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - August 10, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The experience with transsphenoidal surgery and its importance to outcomes
AbstractPurposeSurgical experience is considered paramount for excellent outcome of transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). However, objective data demonstrating the surgical success in relation to the experience of pituitary surgery units or individual experience of pituitary surgeons is sparse.MethodsBased on literature data, we have investigated the influence of experience with TSS for pituitary adenomas on endocrinological remission rates and on operative complications. The surgical experience was assessed by calculating the number of transsphenoidal operations per year.ResultsFor TSS of microprolactinomas, mean remission rates...
Source: Pituitary - July 31, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Management of pituicytomas: a multicenter series of eight cases
ConclusionRecent updates concerning the histological diagnosis of pituicytomas should be generalized to our practice in order to provide a better understanding of this rare pathology and its natural course. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - July 31, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Single fraction and multisession Gamma Knife radiosurgery for craniopharyngioma
ConclusionsGKRS was effective for controlling the growth of residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma. Serious side effects were uncommon. Multisession GKRS seems a very promising tool to allow performing GKRS even in patients with large residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - July 24, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

An early post-operative ACTH suppression test can safely predict short- and long-term remission after surgery of Cushing ’s disease
ConclusionsA 48  h, 2 mg/day betamethasone suppression test after transphenoidal surgery of Cushing’s disease could predict short- and long-term remission with a high accuracy. Suppression of plasma cortisol after 24 h with betamethasone to values excluding Cushings disease in the diagnostic setting yielded th e highest accuracy in predicting long-term remission. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - July 23, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pituitary tumour apoplexy within prolactinomas in children: a more aggressive condition?
ConclusionsWith only a limited number of published case reports surrounding this topic our case series contributes to help further understand and manage this condition. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - July 16, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency as a form of paraneoplastic syndrome
ConclusionsThese data indicate that the ectopic ACTH expression in the tumor evoked the autoimmunity to corticotrophs and caused IAD as a form of paraneoplastic syndrome. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - July 14, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Twelve cases of pituitary metastasis: a case series and review of the literature
ConclusionsThe pituitary should not be overlooked as a site of metastasis and sellar symptoms may be the first presentation of neoplastic disease. Any biochemical or clinical sign of pituitary pathology in a patient with known cancer should raise suspicion for sellar metastasis. Moreover, the development of DI or ophthalmoplegia from any pituitary lesion is suggestive of metastatic disease even in patients with no known primary. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - July 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Clinical outcomes in male patients with lactotroph adenomas who required pituitary surgery: a retrospective single center study
AbstractPurposeLactotroph adenomas (LA) are the most frequently encountered pituitary tumors. Although more frequently observed in women, LAs in men were recently included in a more aggressive category regardless of histological grading, by the WHO. We aimed to perform a rigorous retrospective review of a single center ’s pre-operative evaluation, patient characteristics and outcomes of male LAs patients requiring pituitary surgery.MethodsA retrospective review, over 11 years, of patients who underwent resection of a pituitary adenoma at a single center was conducted. Predictors of persistent disease in male LAs pati...
Source: Pituitary - June 23, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effectiveness of medical treatment for Cushing ’s syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsThis meta-analysis shows that medication induces cortisol normalization effectively in a large percentage of patients. Medical treatment for Cushing ’s disease patients is thus a reasonable option in case of a contraindication for surgery, a recurrence, or in patients choosing not to have surgery. When experiencing side effects or no treatment effect, an alternate medical therapy or combination therapy can be considered. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - May 31, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

In Memoriam: Lawrence A. Frohman, M.D. January 26, 1935 –March 4, 2018
(Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - May 28, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Prevalence and treatment of central hypogonadism and hypoandrogenism in women with hypopituitarism
AbstractPurposeWomen with hypopituitarism have increased morbidity and mortality, and hypogonadism has been suggested to be a contributing mechanism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of central hypogonadism and hypoandrogenism in women with hypopituitarism at a single Swedish center.MethodsAll consecutive women (n  = 184) who commenced growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg between 1995 and 2015 were included. In accordance with the Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines, strict criteria, based on menstrual history combined w...
Source: Pituitary - May 22, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Endoscopic vs. microscopic transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing ’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractPurposeSystematic review and meta-analysis comparing endoscopic and microscopic transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing ’s disease regarding surgical outcomes (remission, recurrence, and mortality) and complication rates. To stratify the results by tumor size.MethodsNine electronic databases were searched in February 2017 to identify potentially relevant articles. Cohort studies assessing surgical outcomes or complication rates after endoscopic or microscopic transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing ’s disease were eligible. Pooled proportions were reported including 95% confidence intervals.ResultsWe included 9...
Source: Pituitary - May 16, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Two types of ectopic Cushing syndrome or a continuum? Review
ConclusionAlthough there is no absolute differentiation between the two extremes of ECS, a classification could be established in two groups, guided by its clinical and biochemical characteristics, and mainly by the type and stage of the ACTH-secreting tumor. However, a small percentage of tumors do not fit in this simple grouping, and may present both phenotypes or an intermediate one. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - May 15, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Neuro-radiological features can predict hypopituitarism in primary autoimmune hypophysitis
AbstractPrimary autoimmune hypophysitis (PAH) is considered an underdiagnosed disease, due to the difficulty in reaching a definitive diagnosis. PAH clinical diagnosis remains an exclusion diagnosis. We aimed to correlate PAH neuro-radiological signs to endocrine features and evaluate their prognostic role. 24 PAH cases were enrolled and classified according to neuro-radiological signs: in 12 adeno-hypophysitis (AHs), 8 infundibulo-neuro-hypophysitis (INHs) and 4 pan-hypophysitis (PHs). Secondary hypogonadism developed more frequently in INHs as compared to AHs (54.5% vs. 27.3%, p  = 0.05), without no differe...
Source: Pituitary - May 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

IGF-1 levels may increase paradoxically with dopamine agonist treatment for prolactinomas
ConclusionIGF-1 levels may increase to clinically significant levels during cabergoline treatment for PRL-adenoma. We suggest IGF-1 monitoring in all patients treated with dopamine agonists and not only in those presenting symptoms of acromegaly. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - May 4, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Can tissue biomarkers reliably predict the biological behavior of craniopharyngiomas? A comprehensive overview
ConclusionsThe isolated evaluation of CPs ’ molecular or genetic profiles that do not take into consideration fundamental pathological and therapeutic factors, specifically the tumor topography and the degree of tumor removal, may actually generate confusion regarding the reliability of some biomarkers to predict the CP biological behavio r. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - April 26, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cystic tumors of the pituitary infundibulum: seminal autopsy specimens (1899 to 1904) that allowed clinical-pathological craniopharyngioma characterization
AbstractA heterogeneous group of epithelial cystic tumors developed at the infundibulum and the third ventricle disconcerted pathologists at the dawn of the twentieth century. Very little was known at that time about the physiological role played by the pituitary gland, and there was almost complete ignorance regarding the function of the hypothalamus. Acromegaly, or enlargement of acral body parts, described in 1886 by Pierre Marie, was the only disease linked to primary hypertrophies of the pituitary gland, known as “pituitary strumas”. A growing number of young patients manifesting an unexplained combination...
Source: Pituitary - April 21, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Management of cystic prolactinomas: a review
ConclusionsRecent studies suggest that dopamine agonist therapy may be an effective and safe treatment option in a considerable portion of patients with cystic prolactinomas. We suggest that dopamine agonists should be considered as a first-line therapy for cystic prolactinoma in the absence of indications for early surgical intervention. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - April 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cognitive-behavioral therapy improves the quality of life of patients with acromegaly
ConclusionThe technique presented herein effectively improved the quality of life of patients with acromegaly with different levels of disease activity, type, and treatment time. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - April 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Management and consequences of postoperative fluctuations in plasma sodium concentration after pediatric brain tumor surgery in the sellar region: a national cohort analysis
ConclusionPostoperative CDI is a common complication after pediatric brain tumor surgery in the sellar or suprasellar region. Extreme plasma sodium concentrations and large intra-day fluctuations still occur and seem to influence the postoperative neurological course. These results illustrate the need for intensive monitoring in a highly experienced center. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - April 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

How are growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 reported as markers for drug effectiveness in clinical acromegaly research? A comprehensive methodologic review
ConclusionsThe way GH and IGF-1 are measured and reported in acromegaly research varies considerably. A consensus on how to report study results would enable better comparisons between studies, thereby improving evidence based decision making to optimize treatment in acromegaly. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - March 31, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diagnosing pituitary adenoma in unstained sections based on multiphoton microscopy
ConclusionThese results indicated that MPM can make a diagnosis of pituitary adenoma by the morphological changes without routine pathological processing including hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and other special staining. Therefore, this technique is expected to help diagnosis of pituitary adenoma during operation. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - March 29, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Presence of the posterior pituitary bright spot sign on MRI in the general population: a comparison between 1.5 and 3T  MRI and between 2D-T1 spin-echo- and 3D-T1 gradient-echo sequences
AbstractPurposeTo describe the prevalence of the posterior pituitary bright spot (PPBS) in the general population on 1.5 and 3T MRI examinations and on 2D-T1 spin-echo (SE) and 3D-T1 gradient-echo (GE) sequences.Materials and methods1017 subjects who received an MRI of the brain for aspecific neurological complaints were included. MRI was performed on 1.5T in 64.5% and on 3T in 35.5% of subjects. Presence of the PPBS was evaluated on sagittal 2D T1-SE echo images with slice thickness 3  mm in 67.5% and on sagittal 3D T1-GE with slice thickness 0.9 mm in 32.5% of subjects.ResultsThe PPBS was detectable in 95.9% of...
Source: Pituitary - March 28, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Low concordance between surgical and radiological assessment of degree of resection and treatment-related hypothalamic damage: results of KRANIOPHARYNGEOM 2007
AbstractBackgroundAssessment of presurgical hypothalamic involvement (psHI) and treatment-related hypothalamic damage (trHD) is relevant for the decision on risk-adapted treatment and rehabilitation strategies in craniopharyngioma.Patients and methods129 surgical reports of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma patients recruited 2007 –2014 in KRANIOPHARYNGEOM 2007 were analyzed. Data on psHI were available based on surgeon’s (63%), reference neuroradiologist’s (95%), and local radiologist’s (23%) assessment. The surgical degree of resection (DoR) was assessed by neurosurgeon (95%), reference neuroradio...
Source: Pituitary - March 27, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Differential gene expression of sirtuins between somatotropinomas and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas
AbstractSirtuins 1 –7 (SIRT) are a highly conserved family of histone deacetylases involved in the regulation of longevity that have a considerable impact in transcription, DNA repair regulation, telomeric stability, cell senescence and apoptosis. In the present study,SIRT1 –7 mRNA levels were evaluated in 37 somatotropinomas and 31 nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) using qPCR and relation to tumor size, invasiveness and Ki-67 proliferative index was made. Overexpression ofSIRT1 was observed in 86.5% of somatotropinomas versus 41.9% of NFPAs (P 
Source: Pituitary - March 21, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Immunotherapy-induced autoimmune diabetes and concomitant hypophysitis
(Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - February 23, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correction to: Effects of pegvisomant and somatostatin receptor ligands on incidence of vertebral fractures in patients with acromegaly
AbstractThe original version of the article contained an error in the results section of the Abstract. The vertebral fractures (VFs) odds ratio is incorrectly published as 61.0 and the correct value is 6.10. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - February 23, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Immunohistochemistry for transcription factor T-Pit as a tool in diagnostics of corticotroph pituitary tumours
(Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - February 21, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Clinicopathological significance of baseline T2-weighted signal intensity in functional pituitary adenomas
AbstractPurposeTo assess baseline T2-weighted signal intensity (T2-WSI) of functional pituitary adenomas (FPA), and to investigate the relationship of baseline T2-WSI with clinical features, histopathological granulation patterns, and response to treatment in patients with acromegaly, prolactinoma and Cushing ’s disease (CD).MethodsSomatotroph adenomas (n  = 87), prolactinomas (n = 78) and corticotroph adenomas (n = 29) were included in the study. Baseline T2-WSI findings (grouped as hypo-, iso- and hyperintense) were compared with hormone levels, tumor diameter, granulation ...
Source: Pituitary - February 19, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Germline mutations of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein ( AIP ) gene and somatostatin receptor 1 –5 and AIP immunostaining in patients with sporadic acromegaly with poor versus good response to somatostatin analogues
AbstractObjectiveTo determine aryl hydrocarbon interacting protein (AIP) gene variations andAIP and somatostatin receptor (SSTR) 1 –5 immunostaining in patients with apparently sporadic acromegaly with poor versus good response to somatostatin analogues (SRLs).MethodsA total of 94 patients (66 with poor and 28 with good response to SRLs) were screened for theAIP gene variations using Sanger sequencing. Immunostaining was performed in 60 tumors.ResultsSeveral variations, albeit some with undetermined significance, were detected, especially in poor responder patients. The prevalence ofAIP mutation was 2.1% in the whole...
Source: Pituitary - February 17, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Non-functioning pituitary adenomas, not all the same and certainly not boring!
(Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - February 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Corticotrophic pituitary carcinoma with cervical metastases: case series and literature review
ConclusionsPituitary carcinoma is a rare disease with high mortality rate and is a diagnostic and treatment challenge. Further study is required but is difficult due to its low incidence. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - February 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of non-functioning pituitary adenomas
AbstractThe pathogenesis of non functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) is a complex process involving several factors, from molecular to genetic and epigenetic modifications, where tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, cell cycle derangements have been demonstrated to play an important role. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have also been identified as possible players in NFPA tumorigenesis and pituitary stem cells have been investigated for their potential role in pituitary tumor initiation. However, a critical role for paracrine signalling has also been highlighted. This review focuses on the current knowledge on the involvement of these ...
Source: Pituitary - February 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effects of pegvisomant and somatostatin receptor ligands on incidence of vertebral fractures in patients with acromegaly
ConclusionsPegV and SRLs had comparable effects on VF risk in acromegaly. The activity of disease was the main determinant of VFs independently of the drug used to control acromegaly. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - February 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Letter to the editor
(Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - February 1, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Apoplexy in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas
AbstractPituitary apoplexy is an uncommon event, occurring due to the infarction and/or haemorrhage usually of a previously unknown pituitary adenoma. It can occur in all adenoma subtypes but is more common in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. The physiopathology is not completely clear, and precipitating factors, such as major surgeries, anticoagulant use or pituitary dynamic tests, can be found in up to 40% of patients. The clinical presentation is characterized by a rapid onset with a headache as the main symptom, but visual disturbances can also be present as well as meningism and intracranial hypertension. The diagno...
Source: Pituitary - January 31, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Fall in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) may be an early marker of ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis
ConclusionsTSH fall ≥ 80% may be an early marker of IH. Serial TSH measurement during ipilimumab therapy may be an inexpensive tool to expedite IH diagnosis. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - January 29, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Management of nonfunctioning pituitary tumors: radiotherapy
AbstractExternal beam radiotherapy (RT) is an essential part of the management of intracranial tumors and has been used in treating pituitary adenomas for more than five decades. It has been demonstrated that conventional RT for postoperative residual or progressive nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs) present an excellent long-term local tumor control, although its use has been limited because of the potential late toxicity related to radiation treatments. Recent advances in radiation techniques have led to more accurate treatments, rendering obsolete many commonly held views of the “old” radiotherapy. New...
Source: Pituitary - January 25, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Epidemiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of non-functioning pituitary adenomas
ConclusionThis article reviews the epidemiology, clinical behaviour and diagnostic approach of non-functioning pituitary adenomas. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - January 24, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pituitary xanthogranulomas: clinical features, radiological appearances and post-operative outcomes
ConclusionsThe prevalence of pituitary xanthogranulomas in our series is higher than that suggested in the literature. Surgery restored normal vision to all cases, however four patients (67%) required long-term hormonal replacement post-operatively. Imaging features such peripheral rim enhancement, a suprasellar tumour epicentre, and the absence of both calcification or cavernous sinus invasion were identified as potential indicators that together should alert clinicians to the possibility of pituitary xanthogranuloma when assessing patients with cystic sellar and parasellar tumours. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - January 23, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Biochemical efficacy of long-acting lanreotide depot/Autogel in patients with acromegaly na ïve to somatostatin-receptor ligands: analysis of three multicenter clinical trials
AbstractPurposeIn clinical research involving acromegalic patients na ïve to somatostatin-receptor ligands (SRLs), 19 and 31% of those receiving the SRLs octreotide LAR and pasireotide LAR, respectively, achieved GH 
Source: Pituitary - January 22, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Silent corticotroph adenomas
ConclusionThis article reviews the incidence, molecular pathology, and clinical behavior of these unique non-functioning pituitary corticotroph adenomas, and highlights the need for rigorous monitoring for recurrences and hypopituitarism in patients with SCAs. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - January 17, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

MGMT assessment in pituitary adenomas: comparison of different immunohistochemistry fixation chemicals
ConclusionOur data confirm that the current method using formaldehyde tissue fixation and IHC reveals stable and reliable results of MGMT assessment in pituitary adenomas. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - January 17, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mortality in patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma
AbstractNon-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFA) are benign pituitary neoplasms not associated with clinical evidence of hormonal hypersecretion. A substantial number of patients with NFA have morbidities related to the tumor and possible recurrence(s), as well as to the treatments offered. Studies assessing the long-term mortality of patients with NFA are limited. Based on the published literature of the last two decades, overall, the standardized mortality ratios in this group suggest mortality higher than that of the general population with deaths attributed mainly to circulatory, respiratory and infectious causes. Wome...
Source: Pituitary - January 17, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Management of NFAs: medical treatment
ConclusionsNFPA are often not amenable to complete surgical resection. Conservative follow-up after surgery is associated with a high prevalence of tumor remnant progression. DA therapy may prevent residual tumor enlargement in over 85% of these patients, with a substantial consequent reduction in the need for repeat surgery or radiation therapy. It is our view that DA treatment should be routinely considered for the management of NFPA patients with incompletely resected tumors. (Source: Pituitary)
Source: Pituitary - January 17, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A prospective longitudinal study of Pasireotide in Nelson ’s syndrome
AbstractPurposeNelson ’s syndrome is a challenging condition that can develop following bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing’s disease, with high circulating ACTH levels, pigmentation and an invasive pituitary tumor. There is no established medical therapy. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of pasireotide on plasma ACTH and tumor volume in Nelson’s syndrome.MethodsOpen labeled multicenter longitudinal trial in three steps: (1) a placebo-controlled acute response test; (2) 1  month pasireotide 300–600 μg s.c. twice-daily; (3) 6 months pasireotide long-acting-release (LAR...
Source: Pituitary - January 8, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Silent somatotroph pituitary adenomas: an update
AbstractSilent growth hormone adenomas (SGHA) are a rare entity of non-functioning pituitary neuroendocrine tumors. Diagnosis is invariably made post-operatively of a tumor immunopositive for GH (and Pit-1 in selected cases) but without clinical acromegaly. Mainly young females are affected, and tumors are often uncovered by investigation for headaches or oligoamenorrhea. Integration of clinical, pathological and biochemical data is required for proper diagnosis. Beside normal IGF-1 levels, a third of SGHAs displays elevated GH levels and some will eventually progress to acromegaly. Almost two-thirds will be mixed GH-prola...
Source: Pituitary - January 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

How non-functioning pituitary adenomas can affect health-related quality of life: a conceptual model and literature review
AbstractAfter treatment for a non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFA) health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) improves considerably. However, the literature about the normalization of HR-QoL after treatment is inconclusive. Some researchers described a persistently decreased HR-QoL compared to reference data, while others did not. Considering this variety in observed HR-QoL outcomes, the aim of the present review was to provide a literature overview of health outcomes in patients with a NFA, using a conceptual HR-QoL model. A concrete conceptualization of the health outcomes of patients with a NFA can be helpful to underst...
Source: Pituitary - January 4, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Malignant transformation in non-functioning pituitary adenomas (pituitary carcinoma)
AbstractNon-functioning pituitary carcinomas (NFPC) are defined as tumours of adenophyseal origin with craniospinal or systemic dissemination, with the absence of a hormonal hypersecretion syndrome. These are a histologically heterogenous group of tumours, comprising gonadotroph, null cell, “silent” tumours of corticotroph, somatotroph or lactotroph cell lineages as well as plurihormonal Pit-1 tumours. NFPC are exceedingly rare, and hence few cases have been described. This review has identified 38 patients with NFPC reported in the literature. Recurrent invasive non-functioning pi tuitary adenomas (NFPA) were ...
Source: Pituitary - January 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research