P53 deficiency potentiates LPS-Induced acute lung injury in vivo.
Abstract Acute Lung Injury (ALI) and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill hospitalized patients. Emerging evidence suggest that the expression levels of P53 in the lungs are associated with the supportive effects of heat shock protein 90 inhibitors and growth hormone releasing hormone antagonists in the endothelium. In the current study, we employed an in vivo model of intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced ALI to investigate the role of P53 in counteracting LPS-induced lung inflammatory responses. In wild t...
Source: Physiological Research - July 31, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Uddin MA, Akhter MS, Kubra KT, Barabutis N Tags: Curr Res Physiol Source Type: research

Covid-19 infection and the host genetic predisposition: does it exist?
ků A Abstract Knowledge of genomic interindividual variability could help us to explain why different manifestation of clinical severity of Covid-19 infection as well as modified pharmacogenetic relations can be expected during this pandemic condition. PMID: 32682363 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Physiological Research)
Source: Physiological Research - July 16, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Vašků A Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Radiofrequency electromagnetic field affects heart rate variability in rabbits.
kus J Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) on heart rate variability (HRV) in rabbits with intensity slightly exceeding the limits for occupations. Totally 21 New Zealand white rabbits divided into two groups were used in this double-blind study. The first group of animals without general anesthesia was subjected to HRV examination under exposure to a device generated RF EMF source (frequency 1788 MHz, intensity 160 V/m, lasting 150 min.). The second group (premedications + alpha chloralose mg/kg) underwent the same protocol under the exposure to...
Source: Physiological Research - July 16, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Misek J, Veterník M, Tonhajzerova I, Jakusova V, Janousek L, Jakus J Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

The effect of vibratory stimulation on the timed-up-and-go mobility test: a pilot study for sensory-related fall risk assessment.
Abstract Effects of localized lower-extremity vibration on postural balance have been reported. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of low-frequency vibration of calf muscles on the instrumented Timed-Up-and-Go (iTUG) test among older adults. Older adults were recruited and classified to low (n=10, age=72.9±2.8 years) and high fall risk (n=10, age=83.6±9.6) using STEADI. Vibratory system (30Hz or 40Hz), was positioned on calves along with wearable motion sensors. Participants performed the iTUG test three times, under conditions of no-vibration, 30Hz, and 40Hz vibration. Pe...
Source: Physiological Research - July 16, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Toosizadeh N, Wahlert G, Fain M, Mohler J Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

The effect of repeated passaging on the susceptibility of human proximal tubular HK-2 cells to toxic compounds.
ute; J, Roušar T Abstract The human proximal tubular HK-2 cell line is an immortalized cell line commonly used for studying proximal tubular toxicity. Even as their use is presently increasing, there unfortunately are no studies focused on functional changes in HK-2 cells associated with passaging. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to evaluate the functional stability of HK-2 cells during 13 weeks of continuous passaging after 6 and 24 h of treatment with model nephrotoxic compounds (i.e., acetaminophen, cisplatin, CdCl(2)). Short tandem repeat profile, the doubling time, cell diameter, glutathio...
Source: Physiological Research - July 16, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Handl J, Čapek J, Majtnerová P, Báčová J, Roušar T Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Pathophysiology of exercise-induced muscle damage and its structural, functional, metabolic, and clinical consequences.
Abstract Extreme or unaccustomed eccentric exercise can cause exercise-induced muscle damage, characterized by structural changes involving sarcomere, cytoskeletal, and membrane damage, with an increased permeability of sarcolemma for proteins. From a functional point of view, disrupted force transmission, altered calcium homeostasis, disruption of excitation-contraction coupling, as well as metabolic changes bring about loss of strength. Importantly, the trauma also invokes an inflammatory response and clinically presents itself by swelling, decreased range of motion, increased passive tension, soreness, and a tr...
Source: Physiological Research - July 16, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Stožer A, Vodopivc P, Križančić Bombek L Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Identification of novel and selective agonists for ABA receptor PYL3.
This study revealed the structural basis of the binding mechanism of 3-methyleneisoindolin-1-one molecules with ABA receptors. Mol26 and Mol25 were identified for the development of specific PYL3 agonists with a vast potential in agriculture to accentuate the ABA like action in plants. PMID: 32629182 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Physiological Research)
Source: Physiological Research - June 30, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Singh R, Bhardwaj VK, Sharma J, Purohit R Tags: Plant Physiol Biochem Source Type: research

Influence of Histidine Administration on Ammonia and Amino Acid Metabolism: A Review.
Abstract Histidine (HIS) is an essential amino acid investigated for therapy of various diseases, used for tissue protection in transplantation and cardiac surgery, and as a supplement to increase muscle performance. The data presented in the review show that HIS administration may increase ammonia and affect the level of several amino acids. The most common are increased levels of alanine, glutamine, and glutamate and decreased levels of glycine and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA, valine, leucine, and isoleucine). The suggested pathogenic mechanisms include increased flux of HIS through HIS degradation pathway ...
Source: Physiological Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Holeček M Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Influence of Cilostazol on Changes in Cyclin D1 Expression in Cerebral Cortex of Rats with Chronic Cerebral Ischemia.
Abstract The influence of cilostazol on learning and memory, and cyclin D1 expression in the cerebral cortex of rats with chronic cerebral ischemia were investigated. A chronic cerebral ischemia model was established using the permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion method (2VO), learning and memory capacity was detected using the Morris water maze, and expression changes in apoptosis regulating gene cyclin D1 were tested by RT-PCR. Results of the Morris water maze indicated that significant extensions were found in the escape latent period and swimming path of rats in the ischemia group (2VO group), l...
Source: Physiological Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Wei AX, Shao MY, Liu Y, Sun Y, Wang LM, Ma XY, Mang J, Xu ZX Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Potent Inhibition of Biphasic Tubular Reabsorption of Lithium by Acetazolamide and Foscarnet in Rats.
Abstract Lithium is mainly excreted into urine, and a large fraction of lithium filtered through glomeruli is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. However, the mechanisms responsible for lithium reabsorption remain unclear. We previously reported that the reabsorption of lithium was biphasic in rats, and that foscarnet inhibited lithium reabsorption with a high affinity type. We herein evaluated the effects of acetazolamide and foscarnet on the renal excretion of lithium in rats treated with lithium chloride at 2 doses. In rats intravenously injected with a bolus of 25 mg/kg lithium chloride, acetazolamide facilitat...
Source: Physiological Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Uwai Y, Kondo R, Suzuki T, Kawasaki T, Nabekura T Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Wnt/beta-Catenin Signaling Contributes to Vincristine-Induced Neuropathic Pain.
Abstract Chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain (CNP) is the major dose-limiting factor in cancer chemotherapy. However, the mechanisms underlying CNP remain elusive. In the present study, CNP was induced by repeated intraperitoneal injection of vincristine (VCR) into male C57BL/6J mice. VCR administration caused significant activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, which led to the activation of astrocytes, microglia, the release of inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and the activation of subsequent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracell...
Source: Physiological Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Hu C, Zhao YT, Cui YB, Zhang HH, Huang GL, Liu Y, Liu YF Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Increased Number of Mast Cells in Epicardial Adipose Tissue of Cardiac Surgery Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.
Ivák P, Netuka I, Haluzík M, Kučera T Abstract Chronic inflammation of adipose tissue is associated with the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Mast cells represent an important component of the innate defense system of the organism. In our work, we quantified mast cell number in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and right atrial myocardium (RA) in patients undergoing open heart surgery (n=57). Bioptic samples of EAT (n=44), SAT (n=42) and RA (n=17) were fixed by 4 % paraformaldehyde and embedded into paraffin. An anti-mast cell tryptase antibody was used for...
Source: Physiological Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Rozsívalová K, Pierzynová A, Kratochvílová H, Lindner J, Lipš M, Kotulák T, Ivák P, Netuka I, Haluzík M, Kučera T Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Elevated Tenascin-C Serum Levels in Patients With Axial Spondyloarthritis.
This study aimed to examine serum tenascin C (TNC) in different subsets of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients. Sixty-one patients fulfilling the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification criteria for axSpA and 20 healthy subjects (HS) were included in study. Based on imaging, patients were classified as non-radiographic (n=16) and radiographic (n=45) axSpA. TNC serum levels were determined by ELISA. Disease-related factors including the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, were determined. TNC levels were elevated in axSpA patients...
Source: Physiological Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Bubová K, Prajzlerová K, Hulejová H, Gregová M, Mintálová K, Hušáková M, Forejtová Š, Filková M, Tomčík M, Vencovský J, Pavelka K, Šenolt L Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Follicle Stimulating Hormone Inhibits the Expression of p53 Up-Regulated Modulator of Apoptosis Induced by Reactive Oxygen Species Through PI3K/Akt in Mouse Granulosa Cells.
In conclusion, FSH inhibit the expression of PUMA induced by ROS through PI3K/AKT pathway in vivo and vitro. PMID: 32584135 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Physiological Research)
Source: Physiological Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Shi XY, Guan ZQ, Yu JN, Liu HL Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Increasing Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Flow Reduces Electrical Impedance of the Lung Regions in Porcine Acute Heart Failure.
ťádal P, Neužil P, Kittnar O, Mlček M Abstract Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) is a technique used in patients with severe heart failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate its effects on left ventricular afterload and fluid accumulation in lungs with electrical impedance tomography (EIT). In eight swine, incremental increases of extracorporeal blood flow (EBF) were applied before and after the induction of ischemic heart failure. Hemodynamic parameters were continuously recorded and computational analysis of EIT was used to determine lung fluid accumulation. With an increa...
Source: Physiological Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Popková M, Kuriščák E, Hála P, Janák D, Tejkl L, Bělohlávek J, Ošťádal P, Neužil P, Kittnar O, Mlček M Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Investigation of the Properties and Effects of Salvia Officinalis L. on the Viability, Steroidogenesis and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production in TM3 Leydig Cells in Vitro.
Abstract The aim of our study was to reveal the in vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. (37.5, 75, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 600 µg/ml) extract on the TM3 Leydig cell viability, membrane integrity, steroidogenesis and reactive oxygen species production after 24 h and 48 h cultivation. For the present study, the extract prepared from Salvia officinalis L. leaves was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for selected flavonoids and phenolic acids followed by a determination of its free radicals scavenging activity (DPPH). Furthermore, Leydig cell viability was assessed by the mitochondrial t...
Source: Physiological Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Jambor T, Arvay J, Ivanisova E, Tvrda E, Kovacik A, Greifova H, Lukac N Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

The Effect of Resorcinol on Bovine Spermatozoa Parameters in Vitro.
M, Greń A, Formicki G, Massányi P Abstract The goal of this study was to observe the effect of resorcinol on motility, viability and morphology of bovine spermatozoa. The semen was used from six randomly chosen breeding bulls. Ejaculate was diluted by different solutions of resorcinol in 1:40 ratio. Samples were divided into 7 groups with different concentrations of resorcinol (Control, RES1 - 4 mg/ml, RES2 - 2 mg/ml, RES3 - 1 mg/ml, RES4 - 0.5 mg/ml, RES5 - 0.25 mg/ml and RES6 - 0.125 mg/ml). Motility of spermatozoa was detected using CASA method at temperature of 37 °C in time periods 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 h...
Source: Physiological Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Massányi M, Halo M, Strapáková L, Slanina T, Ivanič P, Strapáková E, Strapák P, Halo M, Greń A, Formicki G, Massányi P Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

What Is the Optimal Light Source for Optical Mapping Using Voltage- and Calcium-Sensitive Dyes?
Abstract Optical mapping is a fluorescence-based physiological method to image spreading of action potential in excitable tissues, such as the heart and central nervous system. Because of the requirements for high speed imaging in low light conditions, highly sensitive high-speed cameras together with an optical system with maximum photon efficiency are required. While the optimization of these two components is relatively straightforward, the choice of the perfect light source is less simple; depending on the other (usually fixed) components, various parameters may acquire different weight in decision-making proc...
Source: Physiological Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Olejnickova V, Sedmera D Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of NADPH oxidase within midbrain periaqueductal gray decreases pain sensitivity in Parkinson's disease via GABAergic signaling pathway.
In conclusions, NOX4 activation of oxidative stress in the PAG of PD rats is likely to impair the descending inhibitory GABAergic pathways in regulating pain transmission and thereby plays a role in the development of pain hypersensitivity in PD. Inhibition of NOX4 has beneficial effects on the exaggerated pain evoked by PD. PMID: 32584140 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Physiological Research)
Source: Physiological Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Zhang W, Sun L, Yang X, Wang R, Wang H Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Fitness and strength responses to distinct exercise modes in twins: Studies of Twin Responses to Understand Exercise as a THerapy (STRUETH) study.
This study has implications for those charged with optimising the benefits of exercise by means of individualising the exercise prescription. ABSTRACT: Exercise response is idiosyncratic, but the degree of responsiveness, concordance in response between modalities and genetic contribution to responsiveness are not well understood. We investigated this using a novel randomised cross-over design of dichotomous exercise interventions in mono-(MZ) and di-zygotic (DZ) twin pairs. We studied strength (1RM) and fitness (VO2 max) responses in 84 same-sex untrained twins (30MZ, 12DZ pairs; 24.9 ± 5.4 yr)....
Source: Physiological Research - June 22, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Marsh CE, Thomas HJ, Naylor LH, Scurrah KJ, Green DJ Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research

Evolutionary constraints on flicker fusion frequency in Lepidoptera.
Abstract Flying insects occupy both diurnal and nocturnal niches, and their visual systems encounter distinct challenges in both conditions. Visual adaptations, such as superposition eyes of moths, enhance sensitivity to low light levels but trade off with spatial and temporal resolution. Conversely, apposition eyes of butterflies enable high spatial resolution but are poorly sensitive in dim light. Although diel activity patterns of insects influence visual processing, their role in evolution of visual systems is relatively unexplored. Lepidopteran insects present an excellent system to study how diel activity pa...
Source: Physiological Research - June 11, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Chatterjee P, Mohan U, Krishnan A, Sane SP Tags: J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol Source Type: research

Resistance exercise training induces subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue browning in Swiss mice.
es SB Abstract Aerobic exercise training (AER) may promote several adaptations in white adipose tissue (WAT), including a phenotypic change known as browning. The present study aimed at assessing if resistance exercise training (RES) would be as efficient as AER in inducing a brown-like adipocyte reprogramming in WAT. 30 Swiss male mice were randomly divided into three groups with 10 animals each: 1. Sedentary (SED), 2. AER, and 3. RES. After the adaptation training, an incremental test was performed at the beginning of each week to adjust training load. Mice were submitted to 8 weeks of AER or RES. After the expe...
Source: Physiological Research - June 5, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Picoli CC, Gilio GR, Henriques FDS, Leal LG, Besson JC, Lopes MA, Franzói de Moraes SM, Hernandes L, Batista Junior ML, Peres SB Tags: J Appl Physiol (1985) Source Type: research

Vitamin D3 action within the ovary - an updated review.
The objective of this review is to summarize our knowledge about the contribution of vitamin D3 to physiological and pathological processes within the ovary. PMID: 32469224 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Physiological Research)
Source: Physiological Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Grzesiak M Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

COVID-19 and the immune system.
Abstract A close interaction between the virus SARS-CoV-2 and the immune system of an individual results in a diverse clinical manifestation of the COVID-19 disease. While adaptive immune responses are essential for SARS-CoV-2 virus clearance, the innate immune cells, such as macrophages, may contribute, in some cases, to the disease progression. Macrophages have shown a significant production of IL-6 suggesting they may contribute to the excessive inflammation in COVID-19 disease. Macrophage Activation Syndrome may further explain the high serum levels of CRP, which are normally lacking in viral infections. In ad...
Source: Physiological Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Paces J, Strizova Z, Smrz D, Cerny J Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Pathological changes in the central nervous system following exposure to ionizing radiation.
, Adamkov M Abstract Experimental studies in animals provide relevant knowledge about pathogenesis of radiation-induced injury to the central nervous system. Radiation-induced injury can alter neuronal, glial cell population, brain vasculature and may lead to molecular, cellular and functional consequences. Regarding to its fundamental role in the formation of new memories, spatial navigation and adult neurogenesis, the majority of studies have focused on the hippocampus. Most recent findings in cranial radiotherapy revealed that hippocampal avoidance prevents radiation-induced cognitive impairment of patients wit...
Source: Physiological Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Bálentová S, Adamkov M Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Contribution of selected vasoactive systems to blood pressure regulation in two models of chronic kidney disease.
J, Vaněčková I Abstract It is generally accepted that angiotensin II plays an important role in high blood pressure (BP) development in both 2-kidney-1-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt hypertension and partial nephrectomy (NX) model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The contribution of sympathetic nervous system and nitric oxide to BP control in these models is less clear. Partial nephrectomy or stenosis of the renal artery was performed in adult (10-week-old) male hypertensive heterozygous Ren-2 transgenic rats (TGR) and normotensive control Hannover Sprague Dawley (HanSD) rats and in Wistar rats. One and four weeks...
Source: Physiological Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Drábková N, Hojná S, Zicha J, Vaněčková I Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Pharmacological suppression of endogenous glucocorticoid synthesis attenuated blood pressure and heart rate response to acute restraint in Wistar rats.
In conclusion, PhADX attenuated stress-induced rise of blood pressure, heart rate and core body temperature indicating an important permissive and/or stimulating role of glucocorticoids in the maintenance of the adequate response of cardiovascular system and thermoregulation to several stimuli including acute exposure to stressor. PMID: 32469228 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Physiological Research)
Source: Physiological Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Bencze M, Vavřínová A, Zicha J, Behuliak M Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

(Pro)renin receptor contributes to hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis and autophagy in myocardial cells via the beta-catenin signaling pathway.
In this study, we used an in vitro model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) to mimic IRI and carried out PRR knockdown by siRNA and PRR overexpression using cDNA in H9c2 cells. Cell proliferation activity was examined by MTT and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays. Apoptosis-related factors, autophagy markers and beta-catenin pathway activity were assessed by real-time PCR and western blotting. After 24 h of hypoxia followed by 2 h of reoxygenation, the expression levels of PRR, LC3B-I/II, Beclin1, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and Bax were upregulated, suggesting that apoptosis and autophagy were increased in H9c2 cells...
Source: Physiological Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Gao X, Zhang S, Wang D, Cheng Y, Jiang Y, Liu Y Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Short term methylphenidate treatment does not increase myocardial injury in the ischemic rat heart.
Abstract Methylphenidate is commonly used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The cardiovascular safety of methylphenidate has been a subject of debate with some studies indicating that methylphenidate increases the likelihood of experiencing a myocardial infarction. However, it is unknown whether methylphenidate worsens the extent of injury during an ischemic insult. The purpose of this study was to determine whether short term exposure to methylphenidate increases the extent of myocardial injury during an ischemic insult. Male and female rats received methylphenidate (5 mg/kg/day) or s...
Source: Physiological Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Seeley SL, D'Souza MS, Stoops TS, Rorabaugh BR Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease.
Abstract Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is one of the members of endocrine arm of FGF family. Its actions as a glucose and lipids metabolism regulator are widely known. Although the mechanism of FGF21 action in kidneys is still under investigation, FGF21 was considered as a marker of early kidney function decline. While many researchers focused on adult subjects in this matter, there are no data regarding children. Therefore, we have investigated the relationship between plasma or urine FGF21 levels and kidney function in a group of 42 pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Anthropometrical par...
Source: Physiological Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Gamrot Z, Adamczyk P, Świętochowska E, Roszkowska-Bjanid D, Gamrot J, Szczepańska M Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

FSH, oxytocin and IGF-I regulate the expression of sirtuin 1 in porcine ovarian granulosa cells.
th AH Abstract The involvement of the mTOR system/enzyme sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) intracellular signaling system in the control of ovarian functions and its role in mediating hormonal action on the ovary has been proposed, but this hypothesis should be supported by a demonstrated influence of hormones on mTOR/SIRT1. Therefore, the aim of our in vitro experiments was to examine the effect of the known hormonal regulators of ovarian functions, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), oxytocin (OT) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), on mTOR/SIRT1. The accumulation of SIRT1 in porcine ovarian granulosa cells cultur...
Source: Physiological Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Sirotkin AV, Dekanová P, Harrath AH Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

miR-29a is a potential protective factor for fibrogenesis in gluteal muscle contracture.
Abstract Circulating miRNAs have been proposed as the effective diagnostic biomarkers for muscular fibrosis-associated diseases. However, circulating biomarkers for early diagnosis of contracture muscles are limited in gluteal muscle contracture (GMC) patients. Here we sought to explore the abnormally expressed miRNAs in plasma and contraction bands of GMC patients. The results showed miR-29a-3p expression in plasma and contraction bands tissue was significantly reduced in GMC patients compared with normal control. Cell viability and levels of proliferation-associated protein cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent-kinase ...
Source: Physiological Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Zhou R, Ren S, Li C, Zhang X, Zhang W Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Study on the pharmacological character of an insulin-mimetic small molecular compound of vanadyl trehalose.
Abstract To investigate the effect of vanadyl trehalose (VT) on oxidative stress and reduced glutathione/glutathione-S-transferase (GSH/GSs) pathway gene expression in mouse gastrointestinal tract, as well as the protective effects of vitamin C (VC) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Thirty male Kunming mice were randomly divided into five groups: control group (group A), VT group (group B), VC + VT group (group C), GSH + VT group (group D) and VC + GSH + VT group (group E). The content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and the expressions of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic ...
Source: Physiological Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Umar M, Qian W, Liu Q, Xing S, Li X, Yang X, Fan Y, Ma D, Jiang P, Li M Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Factors affecting the function of the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore and their role in evaluation of calcium retention capacity values.
te; Z Abstract Values of the calcium retention capacity (CRC) of rat liver mitochondria are highly dependent on the experimental conditions used. When increasing amounts of added calcium chloride are used (1.25-10 nmol), the values of the CRC increase 3-fold. When calcium is added in 75 s intervals, the CRC values increase by 30 % compared with 150 s interval additions. CRC values are not dependent on the calcium/protein ratio in the measured sample in our experimental design. We also show that a more detailed evaluation of the fluorescence curves can provide new information about mitochondrial permeability transi...
Source: Physiological Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Drahota Z, Endlicher R, Kučera O, Rychtrmoc D, Červinková Z Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Cell-type-independent expression of inwardly rectifying potassium currents in mouse fungiform taste bud cells.
Abstract Inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels play key roles in functions, including maintaining the resting membrane potential and regulating the action potential duration in excitable cells. Using in situ whole-cell recordings, we investigated Kir currents in mouse fungiform taste bud cells (TBCs) and immunologically identified the cell types (type I-III) expressing these currents. We demonstrated that Kir currents occur in a cell-type-independent manner. The activation potentials we measured were -80 to -90 mV, and the magnitude of the currents increased as the membrane potentials decreased, irrespectiv...
Source: Physiological Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Nakao Y, Koshimura M, Yamasaki T, Ohtubo Y Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Cell-free DNA as an obesity biomarker.
Abstract Obesity is a disease that affects about 13 % of the world population (2016) (Who 2018). This condition generates a process of systemic inflammation that may contribute to the release of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) into the bloodstream. cfDNA has been considered a potential biomarker to monitor several physiological and pathological conditions, such as tumors, exercise intensity and obesity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the association of cfDNA levels with the amount of weight and fat mass lost six months after bariatric surgery. Thirty-eight subjects classified as obese (BMI, 43.5+-6.2...
Source: Physiological Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Camuzi Zovico PV, Gasparini Neto VH, Venancio FA, Soares Miguel GP, Graca Pedrosa R, Kenji Haraguchi F, Barauna VG Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

SHR-Zbtb16 minimal congenic strain reveals nutrigenetic interaction between Zbtb16 and high-sucrose diet.
In this study, we have tested the hypothesis that a variation of metabolic syndrome-related gene, Zbtb16 (Zinc Finger and BTB Domain Containing 16 will affect the reaction to high-sucrose diet (HSD) content in "matched" nutritional exposition settings, i.e. maternal HSD with re-exposition to HSD in adulthood vs. standard diet. We compared metabolic profiles of adult males of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and a single-gene, minimal congenic strain SHR-Zbtb16 fed either standard diet or exposed to HSD prenatally throughout gestation and nursing and again at the age of 6 months for the period of 14 days. HSD...
Source: Physiological Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Školníková E, Šedová L, Liška F, Šeda O Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Application of spike sorting algorithm to neuronal signals originated from boron doped diamond micro-electrode arrays.
V, Petrák V, Taylor A Abstract In this work we report on the implementation of methods for data processing signals from microelectrode arrays (MEA) and the application of these methods for signals originated from two types of MEAs to detect putative neurons and sort them into subpopulations. We recorded electrical signals from firing neurons using titanium nitride (TiN) and boron doped diamond (BDD) MEAs. In previous research, we have shown that these methods have the capacity to detect neurons using commercially-available TiN-MEAs. We have managed to cultivate and record hippocampal neurons for the first ...
Source: Physiological Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Klempíř O, Krupička R, Krůšek J, Dittert I, Petráková V, Petrák V, Taylor A Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Isolation and identification of MYB transcription factors (MYB19Long and MYB19Short) involved in raised spot anthocyanin pigmentation in lilies (Lilium spp.).
Abstract Although anthocyanin color patterns on flowers are among the most attractive characteristics, the genetic mechanisms through which color patterns are developed are not well understood, especially for color patterns associated with altered petal structure. Lilium species and cultivars often develop raised spots, where the interior surfaces of tepals increase to develop bumps with accompanying anthocyanin accumulation. The aim of this study was to identify transcription factors regulating pigmentation of the bumps. We identified two R2R3-MYB genes, MYB19Long and MYB19Short, in Lilium leichtlinii, L. lancifo...
Source: Physiological Research - May 16, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Yamagishi M Tags: J Plant Physiol Source Type: research

Reduced Stiffness and Augmented Traction Force in Type 2 Diabetic Coronary Microvascular Smooth Muscle.
Abstract Type 2 diabetic (T2DM) coronary resistance microvessels (CRMs) undergo inward hypertrophic remodeling associated with reduced stiffness and reduced coronary blood flow in both mice and pig models. Since reduced stiffness does not appear to be due to functional changes in the extracellular matrix, this study tested the hypothesis that decreased CRM stiffness in T2DM is due to reduced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) stiffness, which impacts the traction force generated by VSMCs. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and traction force microscopy (TFM) were conducted on primary low-passage CRM VSMCs from normal D...
Source: Physiological Research - May 1, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: McCallinhart P, Cho Y, Sun Z, Ghadiali SN, Meininger GA, Trask AJ Tags: Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol Source Type: research

Dual Activities of Receptor-like Kinase OsWAKL21.2 Induce Immune Responses.
Abstract Plant pathogens secrete cell wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs) that degrade various components of the plant cell wall. Plants sense this cell wall damage as a mark of infection and induce immune responses. However, the plant functions that are involved in the elaboration of cell wall damage-induced immune responses remain poorly understood. Transcriptome analysis revealed that a rice (Oryza sativa) receptor-like kinase, WALL-ASSOCIATED KINASE-LIKE 21 (OsWAKL21.2), is upregulated following treatment with either Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo, a bacterial pathogen) or lipaseA/esterase (LipA: a CWDE of Xoo)...
Source: Physiological Research - April 30, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Malukani KK, Ranjan A, Jyothi HS, Patel HK, Sonti RV Tags: Plant Physiol Source Type: research

The AlRabring7 E3-Ub-ligase mediates AlRab7 ubiquitination and improves ionic and oxidative stress tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Abstract The maintenance of ROS homeostasis, membrane biogenesis and recycling of molecules are common stress responses involving specific and complex regulatory network. Ubiquitination is an important and common mechanism which facilitates environmental adaptation in eukaryotes. In the present study we have cloned the AlRabring7, an E3-Ub-ligase, previously identified as AlRab7 interacting partner. The role of AlRabring7 for ubiquitinating AlRab7 and facilitating stress tolerance is analysed. The AlRabring7, with an open-reading frame of 702 bp encodes a protein of 233 amino acids, with RING-HC domain of 40 amino...
Source: Physiological Research - April 21, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Agarwal P, Patel K, More P, Sapara KK, Singh VK, Agarwal PK Tags: Plant Physiol Biochem Source Type: research

Purinoceptors, renal microvascular function and hypertension.
Abstract Proper renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are critical for maintaining normal blood pressure, kidney function and water and electrolyte homeostasis. The renal microvasculature expresses a multitude of receptors mediating vasodilation and vasoconstriction, which can influence glomerular blood flow and capillary pressure. Despite this, RBF and GFR remain quite stable when arterial pressure fluctuates because of the autoregulatory mechanism. ATP and adenosine participate in autoregulatory control of RBF and GFR via activation of two different purinoceptor families (P1 and P2). Purino...
Source: Physiological Research - April 17, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Guan Z, Makled MN, Inscho EW Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Biomarkers of Bronchial Asthma.
Abstract Asthma is a complex disease with a variable course. Efforts to identify biomarkers to predict asthma severity, the course of disease and response to treatment have not been very successful so far. Biomarker research has expanded greatly with the advancement of molecular research techniques. An ideal biomarker should be suitable to identify the disease as well the specific endotype/phenotype, useful in the monitoring of the disease and to determine the prognosis, easily to obtain with minimum discomfort or risk to the patient. An ideal biomarker should be suitable to identify the disease as well the specif...
Source: Physiological Research - March 27, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Kunc P, Fabry J, Lucanska M, Pecova R Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Upper Airway Cough Syndrome in Pathogenesis of Chronic Cough.
Abstract Cough is one of the most important defensive reflexes. However, extensive non- productive cough is a harmful mechanism leading to the damage of human airways. Cough is initiated by activation of vagal afferents in the airways. The site of their convergence is particularly the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS). The second-order neurons terminate in the pons, medulla and spinal cord and there is also the cortical and subcortical control of coughing.Upper airway cough syndrome (UACS) - previously postnasal drip syndrome - is one of the most common causes of chronic cough together with asthma and gastroesop...
Source: Physiological Research - March 27, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Lucanska M, Hajtman A, Calkovsky V, Kunc P, Pecova R Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Itch and Cough - Similar Role of Sensory Nerves in Their Pathogenesis.
Abstract Itch is the most common chief complaint in patients visiting dermatology clinics and is analogous to cough and also sneeze of the lower and upper respiratory tract, all three of which are host actions trying to clear noxious stimuli. The pathomechanisms of these symptoms are not completely determined. The itch can originate from a variety of etiologies. Itch originates following the activation of peripheral sensory nerve endings following damage or exposure to inflammatory mediators. More than one sensory nerve subtype is thought to subservepruriceptive itch which includes both unmyelinated C-fibers and t...
Source: Physiological Research - March 27, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Pecova T, Kocan I, Vysehradsky R, Pecova R Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Non-Reflex Defense Mechanisms of Upper Airway Mucosa: Possible Clinical Application.
Abstract The sinonasal mucosa has an essential role in defense mechanisms of the upper respiratory tract. The innate immune system presents the primary defense against noxious microorganisms followed by induction of the adaptive immune mechanisms as a consequence of the presence of pathogens. This well-known activation of adaptive immune system in response to presence of the antigen on mucosal surfaces is now broadly applicated in vaccinology research. Prevention of infectious diseases belongs to substantial challenges in maintaining the population health. Non-invasive, easily applicable mucosal vaccination purpos...
Source: Physiological Research - March 27, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Pedan H, Janosova V, Hajtman A, Calkovsky V Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Respiratory Function and Dysfunction in Parkinson-Type Neurodegeneration.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is most commonly manifested by the presence of motor symptoms. However, non-motor symptoms occur several years before the onset of motor symptoms themselves. Hallmarks of dysfunction of the respiratory system are still outside the main focus of interest, whether by clinicians or scientists, despite their indisputable contribution to the morbidity and mortality of patients suffering from PD. In addition, many of the respiratory symptoms are already present in the early stages of the disease and efforts to utilize these parameters in the early diagnosis of PD are now intensifying. M...
Source: Physiological Research - March 27, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Pokusa M, Hajduchova D, Buday T, Kralova Trancikova A Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Drug-Induced Cough.
Abstract Since the recognition of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)-induced cough, drug has been considered as a potential cause of chronic cough. This review presents recent knowledge on drug-induced coughs in patients with chronic cough. The focus is placed on ACEIs, for which there are a multitude of studies documenting their associations with cough. Additional drugs are discussed for which there are reports of cough as a side effect of treatment, and the potential mechanisms of these effects are discussed. PMID: 32228014 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Physiological Research)
Source: Physiological Research - March 27, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Shim JS, Song WJ, Morice AH Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

A Review on Cough Augmentation Techniques: Assisted Inspiration, Assisted Expiration and Their Combination.
Abstract Cough is an important mechanism of airway clearance. In patients who present weak and ineffective cough, augmentation techniques aim to assist or simulate the maneuver. These techniques target different phases of the cough cycle, mainly the inspiratory and expiratory phases, through assisted inspiration, assisted expiration and their combination. They include the manual hyperinflation, ventilator hyperinflation, glossopharyngeal breathing, manually assisted cough and mechanical insufflator-exsufflator, each applied individually or in different combinations. The aim of this review is to investigate the eff...
Source: Physiological Research - March 27, 2020 Category: Physiology Authors: Spinou A Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research