Editorial Board
Publication date: 27 February 2020Source: Physics Reports, Volume 845Author(s): (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - February 26, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Heavy quarkonium in extreme conditions
Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Alexander Rothkopf (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - February 26, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Special geometry, Hessian structures and applications
Publication date: Available online 20 February 2020Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Gabriel Lopes Cardoso, Thomas MohauptAbstractThe target space geometry of abelian vector multiplets in N=2 theories in four and five space–time dimensions is called special geometry. It can be elegantly formulated in terms of Hessian geometry. In this review, we introduce Hessian geometry, focussing on aspects that are relevant for the special geometries of four- and five-dimensional vector multiplets. We formulate N=2 theories in terms of Hessian structures and give various concrete applications of Hessian geometry, ranging from sta...
Source: Physics Reports - February 22, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

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Publication date: 23 February 2020Source: Physics Reports, Volume 844Author(s): (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - February 20, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

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Publication date: 13 February 2020Source: Physics Reports, Volume 843Author(s): (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - February 20, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

A perspective on conventional high-temperature superconductors at high pressure: Methods and materials
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2020Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): José A. Flores-Livas, Lilia Boeri, Antonio Sanna, Gianni Profeta, Ryotaro Arita, Mikhail EremetsAbstractTwo hydrogen-rich materials, H3S and LaH10, synthesized at megabar pressures, have revolutionized the field of condensed matter physics providing the first glimpse to the solution of the hundred-year-old problem of room temperature superconductivity. The mechanism underlying superconductivity in these exceptional compounds is the conventional electron–phonon coupling. Here we describe recent advances in experimental techniqu...
Source: Physics Reports - February 17, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

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Publication date: 3 February 2020Source: Physics Reports, Volume 842Author(s): (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - February 16, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Fundamentals and perspectivesof ultrafast photoferroic recording
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): A.V. Kimel, A.M. Kalashnikova, A. Pogrebna, A.K. ZvezdinAbstractThe ability to switch ferroics (ferro-, ferri-, antiferromagnets, ferroelectrics, multiferroics) between two stable bit states is one of the keystones of modern data storage technology. Due to many new ideas, originating from fundamental research during the last 50 years, this technology has developed in a breath-taking fashion. Finding a conceptually new way to control ferroic state of a medium with the lowest possible production of heat and at the fastest possible time-scale...
Source: Physics Reports - February 16, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Effective field theory of dark energy: A review
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2020Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Noemi Frusciante, Louis PerenonAbstractThe discovery of cosmic acceleration has triggered a consistent body of theoretical work aimed at modelling its phenomenology and understanding its fundamental physical nature. In recent years, a powerful formalism that accomplishes both these goals has been developed, the so-called effective field theory of dark energy. It can capture the behavior of a wide class of modified gravity theories and classify them according to the imprints they leave on the smooth background expansion history of the Unive...
Source: Physics Reports - February 16, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

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Publication date: 22 January 2020Source: Physics Reports, Volume 840Author(s): (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - February 14, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: 27 January 2020Source: Physics Reports, Volume 841Author(s): (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - February 14, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Flavor structures of charged fermions and massive neutrinos
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Zhi-zhong XingAbstractMost of the free parameters in the Standard Model (SM) — a quantum field theory which has successfully elucidated the behaviors of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions of all the known fundamental particles, come from the lepton and quark flavors. The discovery of neutrino oscillations has proved that the SM is incomplete, at least in its lepton sector; and thus the door of opportunity is opened to exploring new physics beyond the SM and solving a number of flavor puzzles. In this review article we give...
Source: Physics Reports - February 14, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Mapping the phases of quantum chromodynamics with beam energy scan
We present the conceptual framework and discuss the observables deemed most sensitive to a phase transition, QCD critical point, and anomalous transport, focusing on fluctuation and correlation measurements. Selected experimental results for these observables together with those characterizing the global properties of the systems created in heavy ion collisions are presented. We then discuss what can be already learned from the currently available data about the QCD critical point and anomalous transport as well as what additional measurements and theoretical developments are needed in order to discover these phenomena. (S...
Source: Physics Reports - February 12, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

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Publication date: 21 January 2020Source: Physics Reports, Volume 839Author(s): (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - February 8, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Four lectures on closed string field theory
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Theodore ErlerAbstractThe following notes derive from review lectures on closed string field theory given at the Galileo Galilei Institute for Theoretical Physics in March 2019. (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - February 1, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Frenesy: Time-symmetric dynamical activity in nonequilibria
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Christian MaesAbstractWe review the concept of dynamical ensembles in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics as specified from an action functional or Lagrangian on spacetime. There, under local detailed balance, the breaking of time-reversal invariance is quantified via the entropy flux, and we revisit some of the consequences for fluctuation and response theory. Frenesy is the time-symmetric part of the path-space action with respect to a reference process. It collects the variable quiescence and dynamical activity as function of the system...
Source: Physics Reports - January 29, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Quantitative immunology for physicists
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Grégoire Altan-Bonnet, Thierry Mora, Aleksandra M. WalczakAbstractThe adaptive immune system is a dynamical, self-organized multiscale system that protects vertebrates from both pathogens and internal irregularities, such as tumours. For these reason it fascinates physicists, yet the multitude of different cells, molecules and sub-systems is often also petrifying. Despite this complexity, as experiments on different scales of the adaptive immune system become more quantitative, many physicists have made both theoretical and experimen...
Source: Physics Reports - January 25, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

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Publication date: 18 January 2020Source: Physics Reports, Volume 838Author(s): (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - January 24, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Two-dimensional MXenes: From morphological to optical, electric, and magnetic properties and applications
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Xiantao Jiang, Artem V. Kuklin, Alexander Baev, Yanqi Ge, Hans Ågren, Han Zhang, Paras N. PrasadAbstractMXenes, generally referring to two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides, have received tremendous attention since the first report in 2011. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies have unveiled their enormous potential for applications in optoelectronics, photonics, catalysis, and many other areas. Because of their intriguing mechanical and electronic properties, together with the richness o...
Source: Physics Reports - January 23, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Computational network biology: Data, models, and applications
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Chuang Liu, Yifang Ma, Jing Zhao, Ruth Nussinov, Yi-Cheng Zhang, Feixiong Cheng, Zi-Ke ZhangAbstractBiological entities are involved in intricate and complex interactions, in which uncovering the biological information from the network concepts are of great significance. Benefiting from the advances of network science and high-throughput biomedical technologies, studying the biological systems from network biology has attracted much attention in recent years, and networks have long been central to our understanding of biological systems, i...
Source: Physics Reports - January 15, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

On virus growth and form
Publication date: Available online 15 January 2020Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Roya Zandi, Bogdan Dragnea, Alex Travesset, Rudolf PodgornikAbstractWe review approaches aimed at deciphering the physical mechanisms responsible for viral structure and assembly. We discuss the basic principles of condensed matter physics, macroscopic electrostatics and elastomechanics as they apply to nanosized two-dimensional biomolecular shells with spherical topology and icosahedral symmetry, as well as their proper extension to nonspherical structures pertinent to retroviruses. We examine the relation between the virus structure, the ...
Source: Physics Reports - January 15, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Variable-range hopping charge transport in organic thin-film transistors
Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): O. Marinov, M.J. Deen, J.A. Jiménez-Tejada, C.H. ChenAbstractThe charge transport in organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) is assessed in terms of variable range hopping (VRH), by numerical simulations, analytical analyses and comparisons to published experimental results. A numerical simulator, built on the fundamental relations for VRH, provides a simple key dependence that the sum of hopping energy and energy bending under bias is equal to the hopping energy in the bulk material, the latter a bias-independent function of the absol...
Source: Physics Reports - January 11, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Computational network biology: Data, model, and applications
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Chuang Liu, Yifang Ma, Jing Zhao, Ruth Nussinov, Yi-Cheng Zhang, Feixiong Cheng, Zi-Ke ZhangAbstractBiological entities are involved in intricate and complex interactions, in which uncovering the biological information from the network concepts are of great significance. Benefiting from the advances of network science and high-throughput biomedical technologies, studying the biological systems from network biology has attracted much attention in recent years, and networks have long been central to our understanding of biological systems, i...
Source: Physics Reports - December 30, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Incomplete fusion reactions using strongly and weakly bound projectiles
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2019Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): V. Jha, V.V. Parkar, S. KailasAbstractThe phenomenon of incomplete fusion (ICF) using both the strongly and weakly bound projectiles below an incident energy of ≈ 10 MeV per nucleon is reviewed. Various reaction mechanisms responsible for ICF, such as projectile breakup followed by fusion, massive transfer or transfer of nucleon(s) to higher energy states of target leading to formation of a composite system have been described. Several theoretical models developed for the description of ICF and its contribution to non-elastic breakup...
Source: Physics Reports - December 29, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Dark Matter through the Higgs portal
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Giorgio Arcadi, Abdelhak Djouadi, Martti RaidalAbstractWe review scenarios in which the particles that account for the Dark Matter (DM) in the Universe interact only through their couplings with the Higgs sector of the theory, the so-called Higgs-portal models. In a first step, we use a general and model-independent approach in which the DM particles are singlets with spin 0,12 or 1, and assume a minimal Higgs sector with the presence of only the Standard Model (SM) Higgs particle observed at the LHC. In a second step, we discuss non-minim...
Source: Physics Reports - December 14, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

A review of recent advances in thermophysical properties at the nanoscale: From solid state to colloids
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Lin Qiu, Ning Zhu, Yanhui Feng, Efstathios E. Michaelides, Gaweł Żyła, Dengwei Jing, Xinxin Zhang, Pamela M. Norris, Christos N. Markides, Omid MahianAbstractNanomaterials possess superior optical, electrical, magnetic, mechanical, and thermal properties, which have made them suitable for a multitude of applications. The present review paper deals with recent advances in the measurement and modeling of thermophysical properties at the nanoscale (from the solid state to colloids). For this purpose, first, various techniques for the measu...
Source: Physics Reports - December 14, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: 12 December 2019Source: Physics Reports, Volumes 836–837Author(s): (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - November 27, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

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Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: Physics Reports, Volume 833Author(s): (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - November 24, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

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Publication date: 20 November 2019Source: Physics Reports, Volumes 834–835Author(s): (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - November 24, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Data science applications to string theory
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Fabian RuehleAbstractWe first introduce various algorithms and techniques for machine learning and data science. While there is a strong focus on neural network applications in unsupervised, supervised and reinforcement learning, other machine learning techniques are discussed as well. These include various clustering and anomaly detection algorithms, support vector machines, and decision trees. In addition, we review data science techniques such as genetic algorithms and topological data analysis. This first part of the review makes some ...
Source: Physics Reports - November 21, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Jet substructure at the Large Hadron Collider: A review of recent advances in theory and machine learning
This article is meant both as a pedagogical introduction, covering the key physical principles underlying the calculation of jet substructure observables, the development of new observables, and cutting edge machine learning techniques for jet substructure, as well as a comprehensive reference for experts. We hope that it will prove a useful introduction to the exciting and rapidly developing field of jet substructure at the LHC. (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - November 19, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Geometry of quantum phase transitions
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Angelo Carollo, Davide Valenti, Bernardo SpagnoloAbstractIn this article we provide a review of geometrical methods employed in the analysis of quantum phase transitions and non-equilibrium dissipative phase transitions. After a pedagogical introduction to geometric phases and geometric information in the characterisation of quantum phase transitions, we describe recent developments of geometrical approaches based on mixed-state generalisation of the Berry-phase, i.e. the Uhlmann geometric phase, for the investigation of non-equilibrium st...
Source: Physics Reports - November 16, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

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Publication date: 25 October 2019Source: Physics Reports, Volume 831Author(s): (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - November 15, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

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Publication date: 20 October 2019Source: Physics Reports, Volume 830Author(s): (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - November 12, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

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Publication date: 13 October 2019Source: Physics Reports, Volume 829Author(s): (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - November 9, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

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Publication date: 20 September 2019Source: Physics Reports, Volume 827Author(s): (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - November 8, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

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Publication date: 3 October 2019Source: Physics Reports, Volume 828Author(s): (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - November 8, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

k-core: Theories and applications
Publication date: Available online 7 November 2019Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Yi-Xiu Kong, Gui-Yuan Shi, Rui-Jie Wu, Yi-Cheng ZhangAbstractWith the rapid development of science and technology, the world is becoming increasingly connected. The following dire need for understanding both the relationships amongst individuals and the global structural characteristics brings forward the study of network sciences and many interdisciplinary subjects in recent years. As a result, it is crucial to have methods and algorithms that help us to unveil the structural properties of a network. Over the past few decades, many essenti...
Source: Physics Reports - November 8, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: 13 September 2019Source: Physics Reports, Volume 826Author(s): (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - November 6, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Extreme value statistics of correlated random variables: A pedagogical review
Publication date: Available online 1 November 2019Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Satya N. Majumdar, Arnab Pal, Grégory SchehrAbstractExtreme value statistics (EVS) concerns the study of the statistics of the maximum or the minimum of a set of random variables. This is an important problem for any time-series and has applications in climate, finance, sports, all the way to physics of disordered systems where one is interested in the statistics of the ground state energy. While the EVS of ‘uncorrelated’ variables are well understood, little is known for strongly correlated random variables. Only recentl...
Source: Physics Reports - November 3, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Saddle point approaches in strong field physics and generation of attosecond pulses
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Arjun Nayak, Mathieu Dumergue, Sergei Kühn, Sudipta Mondal, Tamás Csizmadia, N.G. Harshitha, Miklós Füle, Mousumi Upadhyay Kahaly, Balázs Farkas, Balázs Major, Viktor Szaszkó-Bogár, Péter Földi, Szilárd Majorosi, Nikolaos Tsatrafyllis, Emmanuel Skantzakis, Lana Neoričić, Mojtaba Shirozhan, Giulio Vampa, Katalin Varjú, Paraskevas TzallasAbstractAttoscience is the emerging field that accesses the fastest electronic processes occurring at the atomic and molecular l...
Source: Physics Reports - November 1, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

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Publication date: 10 September 2019Source: Physics Reports, Volume 825Author(s): (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - October 26, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

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Publication date: 3 September 2019Source: Physics Reports, Volume 824Author(s): (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - October 25, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Implications of superrotations
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2019Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Sabrina PasterskiAbstractA framework of connections between asymptotic symmetries, soft theorems, and memory effects has recently shed light on a universal structure associated with infrared physics. Here, we show how this pattern has been used to fill in missing elements. After the necessary groundwork, we begin by proving a Ward identity for superrotations using the subleading soft graviton theorem, thereby demonstrating a semiclassical Virasoro symmetry for scattering in quantum gravity. Next, we show there exists a new spin memory effec...
Source: Physics Reports - October 22, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Local temperatures out of equilibrium
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2019Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Daochi Zhang, Xiao Zheng, Massimiliano Di VentraAbstractThe temperature of a physical system is operationally defined in physics as “that quantity which is measured by a thermometer” weakly coupled to, and at equilibrium with the system. This definition is unique only at global equilibrium in view of the zeroth law of thermodynamics: when the system and the thermometer have reached equilibrium, the “thermometer degrees of freedom” can be traced out and the temperature read by the thermometer can be uniquely assigned ...
Source: Physics Reports - October 22, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Quantum decoherence
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Maximilian SchlosshauerAbstractQuantum decoherence plays a pivotal role in the dynamical description of the quantum-to-classical transition and is the main impediment to the realization of devices for quantum information processing. This paper gives an overview of the theory and experimental observation of the decoherence mechanism. We introduce the essential concepts and the mathematical formalism of decoherence, focusing on the picture of the decoherence process as a continuous monitoring of a quantum system by its environment. We review ...
Source: Physics Reports - October 19, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

First-principles design of strong solids: Approaches and applications
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2019Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): R.F. Zhang, S.H. Zhang, Y.Q. Guo, Z.H. Fu, D. Legut, T.C. Germann, S. VeprekAbstractIn the design of strong solids, especially hard and superhard materials, this review article attempts to critically cover an extended field of first-principles derived mechanical properties by considering both intrinsic (i.e., crystal structures, bonding nature and strength) and extrinsic (i.e., nanostructures and interface characteristics) parameters. For the intrinsic parameters, firstly, the bonding topology and nature, elastic property and ductility-br...
Source: Physics Reports - September 29, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Silicon strip and pixel detectors for particle physics experiments
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2019Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Sally SeidelAbstractFollowing a brief introduction to the roles that a tracking detector fulfills in a particle physics experiment, the concept of a silicon tracking detector is introduced. The contributors to position resolution of the detector are described along with some technological developments that have occurred in response to them. An overview of the historical evolution of the silicon detector concept follows, with emphasis on what was learned at significant junctures. A light reminder of foundational concepts related to semicon...
Source: Physics Reports - September 27, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Matter manipulation with extreme terahertz light: Progress in the enabling THz technology
Publication date: Available online 20 September 2019Source: Physics ReportsAuthor(s): Peter Salén, Martina Basini, Stefano Bonetti, János Hebling, Mikhail Krasilnikov, Alexey Y. Nikitin, Georgii Shamuilov, Zoltán Tibai, Vitali Zhaunerchyk, Vitaliy GoryashkoAbstractTerahertz (THz) light has proven to be a fine tool to probe and control quasi-particles and collective excitations in solids, to drive phase transitions and associated changes in material properties, and to study rotations and vibrations in molecular systems. In contrast to visible light, which usually carries excessive photon energy for coll...
Source: Physics Reports - September 21, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research

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Publication date: 25 August 2019Source: Physics Reports, Volume 823Author(s): (Source: Physics Reports)
Source: Physics Reports - September 21, 2019 Category: Physics Source Type: research