Vertical distribution of mercury and MeHg in Nandagang and Beidagang wetlands: Influence of microtopography
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Ruhai Liu, Yanyan Zhang, Yan Wang, Jin Zhao, Huayao Shan Wetlands often show different small-scale topography, such as riffle, habitat island, deep water, shallow water zone and dry zone. Core soils in different micro topographical landforms of Nandagang and Beidagang wetlands in North China were sampled for THg and MeHg to analyze the influence of microtopography. Results showed that THg content in surface soil (<2 cm) was little higher than that at depth 2–4 cm of all stations. There w...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 11, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus stoichiometry of three dominant plant communities distributed along a small-scale elevation gradient in the East Dongting Lake
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Cong Hu, Feng Li, Yong-hong Xie, Zheng-miao Deng, Xin-sheng Chen Soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry greatly affects plant community succession and structure. However, few studies have examined the soil stoichiometric changes in different vegetation communities of freshwater wetland ecosystems along an elevation gradient distribution. In the present study, soil nutrient concentrations (C, N, and P), soil stoichiometry (C:N, C:P, and N:P ratios), and other soil physicochemical charac...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 11, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Emergy analysis on urban metabolism by counties in Beijing
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Wei Qi, Xiangzheng Deng, Xi Chu, Chunhong Zhao, Fan Zhang Beijing is an international metropolis, with rapid urbanization during the last 30 years. However, it faces the challenge of sustainability with limited natural resources. This paper attempts to incorporate emergy analysis on urban metabolism to investigate the sustainability of the entire Beijing at the county level. Based on the time-series climate data and socioeconomic data, we calculated the structure, intensities, environment pressures and output ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 11, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of the content, structure, and source of soil dissolved organic matter in the coastal wetlands of Jiaozhou Bay, China
Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Min Xi, Yuanyuan Zi, Qinggai Wang, Sen Wang, Guolu Cui, Fanlong Kong The contents and structure of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in four typical wetlands, such as naked tidal, suaeda salsa, reed and spartina, were conducted to investigate the content, structure, and source of dissolved organic matter in coastal wetland soil. The soil samples were obtained from Jiaozhou Bay in January, April, July, and October of 2014. Results showed that the DOM contents in soil of four typical wetland were in order of sparti...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 7, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

The study on ecological sustainable development in Chengdu
In this study, we combine ecological footprint with system dynamics software STELLA to construct a predictable model of ecological sustainable development. We introduce rate1 and rate2 into the model, which reflects the change in per capita consumption of biological resources and energy due to the socio-economic development, and by changing the values of them to simulate a variety of scenarios. The results show that ecological sustainable development of Chengdu is in the state of ecological deficit, which is 1.43 million hm2 in 2013, and different rate1 and rate2 will lead to different changes in the ecological deficit. Wh...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 7, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Exploration of the causality between area changes of green spaces and waterlogging frequency in Beijing
Publication date: Available online 7 March 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Guofeng Wang, Jiancheng Chen, Chunhong Zhao, Xiaoxue Zhou, Xiangzheng Deng (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 7, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Wetland biogeochemistry and ecological risk assessment
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 97 Author(s): Junhong Bai, Laibin Huang, Haifeng Gao, Guangliang Zhang (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 1, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Prediction of non-linear site response using downhole array data and numerical modeling: The Belleplaine (Guadeloupe) case study
In this study, we analyze the acceleration time histories data at the Belleplaine (Guadeloupe, French West Indies) vertical array, recorded between 2008 and 2014, to evaluate the seismic response of sediments. First, we apply seismic interferometry by deconvolution method to compute the in-situ shear wave velocity between the sensor at the surface and the two shallow sensors located at GL-15m and GL-39m depth. The efficiency of this method is discussed by studying the variability of the velocity profile obtained and comparing with the in-situ geophysical survey of the site. Computed strains between sensors remain very weak...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 28, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Green space water use and its impact on water resources in the capital region of China
Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Mi Feng (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 24, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Remote sensing leaf water stress in coffee (Coffea arabica) using secondary effects of water absorption and random forests
In this study, we tested the ability of selected wavebands in the VIS/NIR range to predict plant water content (PWC) in coffee using the random forest algorithm. An experiment was set up such that coffee plants were exposed to different levels of water stress and reflectance and plant water content measured. In selecting appropriate parameters, cross-correlation identified 11 wavebands, reflectance difference identified 16 and reflectance sensitivity identified 22 variables related to PWC. Only three wavebands (485nm, 670nm and 885nm) were identified by at least two methods as significant. The selected wavebands were train...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 23, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Evaluating the influence of the Red Edge band from RapidEye sensor in quantifying leaf area index for hydrological applications specifically focusing on plant canopy interception
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Timothy Dube, Onisimo Mutanga, Mbulisi Sibanda, Cletah Shoko, Abel Chemura Reliable and accurate quantification of plant Leaf Area Index (LAI) is critical in understanding its role in reducing runoff. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the Red Edge (RE) band derived from RapidEye in estimating LAI for applications in quantifying canopy interception at landscape scale. To achieve this objective, the study also compares the predictive power of two machine learning algorithms (Ra...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 22, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Interaction processes at the concrete-bentonite interface after 13 years of FEBEX-Plug operation. Part II: Bentonite contact
Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Raúl Fernández, Elena Torres, Ana I. Ruiz, Jaime Cuevas, María Cruz Alonso, José Luis García Calvo, Enrique Rodríguez, María Jesús Turrero The in situ FEBEX experiment performed at the URL in Grimsel (Swizerland) was dismantled after 18 years of operation. Interface samples between bentonite and a shotcreted concrete plug that was constructed in a second operational phase have been studied after 13 years of interaction. Mineralogical and geochemical c...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 21, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Evaluation of drought using SPEI drought class transitions and log-linear models for different agro-ecological regions of India
In this study, the probabilities of drought class transition, the mean residence time, the 1, 2 or 3 months ahead prediction of average transition time between drought classes and the drought severity class have been derived. The seasonality of precipitation has been derived for non-homogeneous Markov chains which could be used to explain the effect of the potential retreat of drought. Quasi-association and Quasi-symmetry log-linear models have been fitted to the drought class transitions derived from SPEI-12 time series. The estimates of odds along with their confidence intervals were obtained to explain the progression o...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 21, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Evaluation of Satellite and simulated rainfall products for hydrological applications in the Notwane Catchment, Botswana
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): P.K. Kenabatho, B.P. Parida, D.B. Moalafhi In semi-arid catchments, hydrological modelling, water resources planning and management are hampered by insufficient spatial rainfall data which is usually derived from limited rain gauge networks. Satellite products are potential candidates to augment the limited spatial rainfall data in these areas. In this paper, the utility of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) product (3B42 v7) is evaluated using data from the Notwane catchment in Botswana. In ad...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 21, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Remote sensing of surface water quality in relation to catchment condition in Zimbabwe
In this study, we used remotely sensed Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to assess how catchment condition varies within and across river catchments in Zimbabwe. We then used non-linear regression to test whether catchment condition assessed using the NDVI is significantly (α = 0.05) related with levels of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) measured at different sampling points in thirty-two sub-catchments in Zimbabwe. The results showed a consistent negative curvilinear relationship between Landsat 8 derived NDVI and TSS measured across the catchments under study. In the drier catchments of the country, 98% of...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 21, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Evaluating the performance of the newly-launched Landsat 8 sensor in detecting and mapping the spatial configuration of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in inland lakes, Zimbabwe
This study therefore sought to explore the potential of the recently-launched Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS sensor in mapping invasive species in inland lakes. Specifically, the study compares the performance of the newly-launched Landsat 8 sensor, with more advanced sensor design and image acquisition approach to the traditional Landsat-7 ETM+ in detecting and mapping the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) invasive species across Lake Chivero, in Zimbabwe. The analysis of variance test was used to identify windows of spectral separability between water hyacinth and other land cover types. The results showed that portions of the v...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 21, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Formation of magnesium silicate hydrates (M-S-H)
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Ellina Bernard, Barbara Lothenbach, Daniel Rentsch, Isabelle Pochard, Alexandre Dauzères The formation of magnesium silicate hydrates (M-S-H) with MgO to SiO2 ratios from 0.7 to 1.6 has been studied at 20, 50 and 70°C. TGA and XRD data reveal that initially brucite and M-S-H are formed while amorphous silica is still present as indicated by FT-IR and 29Si MAS NMR experiments. In this first step M-S-H with Mg/Si ∼ 1 with pH values ∼ 9.4 is formed independently of the total Mg/Si. Investig...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 21, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Zeolite formation in the presence of cement hydrates and albite
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Barbara Lothenbach, Ellina Bernard, Urs Mäder Zeolite formation caused by interactions between cement hydrates and rock forming minerals was investigated by two sets of batch experiments and supported by thermodynamic modelling. The first set of batch experiments investigated the interaction between calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) (Ca0.8SiO2.8·32H2O) and ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12(H2O)26) as cement hydrate minerals and albite (NaAlSi3O8) as a rock forming mineral at 20, 50 and 80°C. T...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 21, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Providing peak river flow statistics and forecasting in the Niger River basin
In this study, we use discharge observations, a hydrological model (Niger-HYPE) and extreme value analysis to estimate peak river flow statistics (e.g. the discharge magnitude with a 100-year return period) across the Niger River basin. To test the model’s capacity of predicting peak flows, we compared 30-year maximum discharge and peak flow statistics derived from the model vs. derived from nine observation stations. The results indicate that the model simulates peak discharge reasonably well (on average +20%). However, the peak flow statistics have a large uncertainty range, which ought to be considered in infrastr...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 21, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Modelling of cementitious backfill interactions with vitrified intermediate-level waste
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Graham Baston, Timothy Heath, Fiona Hunter, Stephen Swanton New types of wasteform are being considered for the geological disposal of radioactive intermediate-level waste (ILW) in the UK. These include vitrified ILW products arising from the application of thermal treatment processes. For disposal of such wasteforms in a geological disposal facility, a range of concepts are under consideration, including those with a high-pH cementitious backfill (the NRVB, Nirex Reference Vault Backfill). Alternatively, ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 21, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Designing local solutions for emptying pit latrines in low-income urban settlements (Malawi)
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): W.C. Chipeta, R.H. Holm, J.F. Kamanula, W.E. Mtonga, F.L. de los Reyes A lack of effective options in local technology poses challenges when onsite household sanitation facilities are eventually filled to capacity in unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu City, located in northern Malawi. Vacuum tankers currently dominate the market but focus on emptying septic tanks in the more easily accessible planned settlement areas, rather than servicing the pit latrines common in unplanned settlement areas. As a re...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 21, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of water availability for competing uses using SWAT and WEAP in South Phuthiatsana catchment, Lesotho
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Motlatsi Maliehe, Deogratias M.M. Mulungu The study assessed the quantity of surface water in the South Phuthiatsana catchment, estimated flows in ungauged catchments using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and allocated the resources in the catchment using Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) model. SWAT model was calibrated from 1979 to 2001, the p-factor was 65%, r_factor 0.58, NS 0.59 and R2 0.59 for calibration and for validation from 2002 to 2013, the p-factor was 57%, the r_factor was 1.34, the ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 21, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Simulation of the effect of an oil refining project on the water environment using the MIKE 21 model
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Peng Jia, Qinggai Wang, Xuchuan Lu, Beibei Zhang, Chen Li, Sa Li, Shibei Li, Yaping Wang A case study of the Caofeidian oil refining project is conducted. A two-dimensional convective dispersion mathematical model is established to simulate the increase in the concentration of pollutants resulting from the wastewater discharge from the Caofeidian oil refining project and to analyze the characteristics of the dispersion of pollutants after wastewater is discharged and the effect of the wastewater discharge ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 13, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Distribution and source identification of trace metals in the sediment of Yellow River Estuary and the adjacent Laizhou Bay
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Yan Wang, Min Ling, Ru-hai Liu, Ping Yu, Ai-kun Tang, Xian-xiang Luo, Qimin Ma Rapid economic development in the Yellow River basin has inevitably resulted in increase of pollutions in the estuary, and concern for both the environment and protection against pollutants is increasing. Contents of trace metals (Cu, Pb Zn, Cr, Cd, As, Hg), Fe, Al, total organic carbon (TOC), and their granulometry were determined in surface sediment samples from the Yellow River estuary and its adjacent areas. Metal contents w...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 11, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Reactive transport models of a high –pH infiltration test in concrete
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): M. Carme Chaparro, Josep M. Soler, Maarten W. Saaltink, Urs K. Mäder A laboratory-scale tracer test was carried out to characterize the transport properties of concrete from the Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at El Cabril (Spain). A hyperalkaline solution (K-Ca-OH, pH = 13.2) was injected into a concrete sample under a high entry pressure in order to perform the experiment within a reasonable time span, obtaining a decrease of permeability by a factor of 1000. The concentrations of the t...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 4, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Potential application of synthesized ferrocenylimines compounds for the elimination of bacteria in water
In this study, the potential application of novel ferrocenylimines compounds, namely 4-ferrocenylaniline (1), N-(3-bromo-2-hydroxylbenzylidene)-4-ferrocenylimine (2) and N-(3-bromo-5-chlorosalicyl)-4-ferrocenylimine (3) for the elimination of bacteria in water was investigated by evaluating their antibacterial properties against twelve different bacterial strains using microdilution method in sterile 96 well micro titer plates. The in vitro antibacterial activity revealed that the ferrocenylimines compound exhibit higher antibacterial activity than ferrocene, which is one of the starting materials towards the synthesis of ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 4, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Use of Landsat series data to analyse the spatial and temporal variations of land degradation in a dispersive soil environment: A case of King Sabata Dalindyebo local municipality in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Timothy Dube, Onisimo Mutanga, Mbulisi Sibanda, Khoboso Seutloali, Cletah Shoko Land degradation as a result of inappropriate landuse practices, such as overgrazing and cultivation on steep slopes, etc. is one of the major global environmental challenges. Specifically, land degradation threatens the productivity and sustainability of the natural environment, agriculture, and most importantly rural economies in most developing countries, particularly the sub-Saharan region. The main aim of this study was the...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 4, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Land-use-change induced dynamics of carbon stocks of the terrestrial ecosystem in Pakistan
This study, based on Dynamics of Land System (DLS) model, simulating the future land use changes, combing with Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model, has analyzed the changes in quantity and distribution of carbon stock in Pakistan under alternative land use scenarios for 2020 using historical land use data from 2006 to 2009. The results indicate that comparing the carbon stocks in 2009, only the Business-as-usual scenario of carbon stocks continue to decrease; the other two scenarios of carbon stocks show the increasing trend. Moreover, the Ecological protection scenario has the high...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 3, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Effect of coastal eutrophication on growth and physiology of Spartina alterniflora Loisel
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Yu Zhang, Baoshan Cui, Tian Xie, Qing Wang, Jiaguo Yan Coastal eutrophication has become a driver of coastal wetlands loss. Eutrophication caused by the increase of nitrogen content was one of the most main reasons. We analyzed that exogenous ammonium nitrogen (EAN) of different concentration influenced on the growth and physiology of Spartina alterniflora Loisel (S. alterniflora) through simulated conditions. The results showed that growth of the root system largely depended on the environment conditions a...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 3, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Estimating groundwater levels using system identification models in Nzhelele and Luvuvhu areas, Limpopo Province, South Africa
This study was focused on testing the ability of a coupled linear and non-linear system identification model in estimating groundwater levels. System identification provides an alternative approach for estimating groundwater levels in areas that lack data required by physically-based models. It also overcomes the limitations of physically-based models due to approximations, assumptions and simplifications. Daily groundwater levels for 4 boreholes, rainfall and evaporation data covering the period 2005–2014 were used in the study. Seventy and thirty percent of the data were used to calibrate and validate the model, re...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 3, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Scenario simulation of land exploitation and risk assessment of soil erosion in the low-slope hilly area of the Erhai basin
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Gui Jin, Xiangzheng Deng, Yongwei Yuan, Sai Ma, Zhaohua Li, Saiya Shi Risk assessment of soil erosion is an important prerequisite to develop the low-slope hilly in basin-scale. Using Dynamics of Land System model (DLS), we design the scenario simulation of land exploitation of Dali city which is located in the Erhai basin and typical as low-slope hilly area. Then we bring in Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) to assess the risks of soil erosion under different scenarios. In two simulating scenarios, basel...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 3, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Effect of incorporating graphene oxide and surface imprinting on polysulfone membranes on flux, hydrophilicity and rejection of salt and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water
We report a significant enhancement of hydrophillity of polysulfone (Psf) membranes after modification with graphene oxide (GO) as a filler followed by surface imprinting on the surface of GO/Psf composite imprinted membranes (CIMs). The surface imprinting on the GO-Psf membrane was employed in order to enhance its selectivity towards polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water. The CIMs were prepared through a process of phase inversion of a mixture of graphene oxide and polysulfone (Psf) in N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP). Fourier-transform spectroscopy (FT-IR) of the imprinted showed new peaks at 935 cm−1 and ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 3, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Denitrification of soil nitrogen in coastal and inland salt marshes with different flooding frequencies
This study reflected that the denitrification rates decreased with depth along soil profiles in both inland and coastal salt marsh soils. Flooding periods, soil depth and their interaction showed significant effects on the denitrification processes. Generally, higher flooding frequencies will cause higher denitrification rates in salt marshes. Moreover, the denitrification rates were significantly positively correlated with soil moisture content in both wetlands. Additionally, the denitrification rates were significantly positively correlated with organic matter and NO3 -_N content while negatively correlated with soil pH ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 3, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Salinity-driven shifts in the activity, diversity, and abundance of anammox bacteria of estuarine and coastal wetlands
In this study, serial incubation experiments with a salinity gradient (0-40) were conducted to explore the responses of anammox bacterial activity, diversity and abundance to the changing salinity in the intertidal wetland of the Yangtze Estuary. Results show that activity and abundance of anammox bacteria firstly increased with the increase of salinity, but they were physiologically stressed by high-level salinity (>30) in a short-term incubation (<10 days). However, the treatment with salinity of 5 showed the maximal anammox activity and anammox bacterial abundance after a long-term incubation (60-120 days)...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 2, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Impact assessments of water allocation on water environment of river network: Method and application
Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Qinggai Wang, Yaping Wang, Xuchuan Lu, Peng Jia, Beibei Zhang, Chen Li, Sa Li, Shibei Li Two types of water allocation senarioes were proposed for reasonably utilizing water resources and improving water quality in a two-river network in Tongzhou District. Water circulation and quality were selected as two important indexes to evaluate the two senarioe. Meanwhile, one-dimensional water amount and quality model was set up on the basis of the MIKE11 model to compare the two senarioes in terms of improving wat...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 2, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Understanding land use change impacts on microclimate using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model
This study also demonstrated that urbanization significantly reduced latent heat fluxes and albedo of land surface; while increased sensible heat flux changes following urbanization suggested that developed land surfaces mainly acted as heat sources. In this study, climate change projection not only predicts future spatiotemporal patterns of multiple climate factors, but also provides valuable insights into policy making related to land use management, water resource management, and agriculture management to adapt and mitigate future climate changes in this populous region. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 2, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Effect of particulate air pollution on coronary heart disease in China: Evidence from threshold GAM and Bayesian hierarchical model
This study investigates the season-varying association between particulate matter less than or equal to 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and daily CHD mortality in seven cities of China. Time series threshold Poisson regression model is specified to estimate the health effect for four cities with the threshold effect, and conventional linear Poisson model is used to analyze the effect for three cities without threshold. We apply the Bayesian hierarchical model to pool the city-specific estimates into overall level. On average, a 10 μg/m3 increase of the moving average concentrations of current-day and previo...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 2, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Traditional Portland cement and MgO-based cement: a promising combination?
Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Monica Tonelli, Francesca Martini, Lucia Calucci, Marco Geppi, Silvia Borsacchi, Francesca Ridi MgO/SiO2 cements are materials potentially very useful for radioactive waste disposal, but knowledge about their physico-chemical properties is still lacking. In this paper we investigated the hydration kinetics of cementitious formulations prepared by mixing MgO/SiO2 and Portland cement in different proportions and the structural properties of the hydrated phases formed in the first month of hydration. In partic...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 2, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Articulating the history and major departure points evident in post-apartheid South African national water policy and law
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): C. Chikozho, L. Danga, D. Saruchera Governance of the water sector in South Africa has reflected the political changes taking place in society. For instance, due to apartheid policies of segregation, inequality of access to water resources marks South Africa's history in a very profound way and redistribution of rights to water to redress the results of past discrimination became an explicit purpose of the post-apartheid water governance policy and legislative regime. In this paper, we articulate the histor...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 28, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Detecting CO2 anomalies in a spring on Mt. Amiata volcano (Italy)
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): L. Pierotti, F. Gherardi, G. Facca, L. Piccardi, G. Moratti Located at the south-western slope of the Mt. Amiata volcano (Tuscany, Central Italy), the Bagnore spring has been investigated for geochemical precursors of earthquakes from 2004 to 2015. Over this period, several parameters of the spring have been monitored by discrete and continuous sampling. An automatic continuous monitoring station, equipped with sensors for the measurement of temperature, pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity, CO2 and...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 27, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Site - building resonance response in a complex geological setting: Ground motions recorded in the centre of Paleohora Basin and at a rock fractured outcrop site close to the basin edge (SW Crete, Greece)
This study aims to assess the frequencies of vibration of selected masonry and reinforced concrete buildings and to examine potential soil - building resonance in a complex geological setting of the small scale Paleohora Basin (southwest Crete). Ambient noise survey was performed in masonry and reinforced concrete buildings, on soil foundation and on soil at several distances from the base of the selected buildings. The selected public and private (masonry and RC) building constructions are located in the centre of the Basin which is characterized by heterogeneities induced by large scale E-W fault and at rock fractured (o...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 27, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Interaction of ordinary Portland cement and Opalinus Clay: dual porosity modelling compared to experimental data
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): A. Jenni, T. Gimmi, P. Alt-Epping, U. Mäder, V. Cloet Interactions between concrete and clays are driven by the strong chemical gradients in pore water and involve mineral reactions in both materials. In the context of a radioactive waste repository, these reactions may influence safety-relevant clay properties such as swelling pressure, permeability or radionuclide retention. Interfaces between ordinary Portland cement and Opalinus Clay show weaker, but more extensive chemical disturbance compared to ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 18, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

In situ interactions between Opalinus Clay and Low Alkali Concrete
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Catherine Lerouge, Stéphane Gaboreau, Sylvain Grangeon, Francis Claret, Fabienne Warmont, Andreas Jenni, Veerle Cloet, Urs Mäder A five-year-old interface between a Low Alkali Concrete (LAC) formulation (CEM III/B containing 66% slag and 10% nano-silica) and Opalinus Clay (OPA) from a field experiment at Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory in Switzerland (Jenni et al., 2014) has been studied to decipher the textural, mineralogical and chemical changes that occurred between the two reacting ma...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 18, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of heavy metals contamination in soil profiles of roadside Suaeda salsa wetlands in a Chinese delta
Publication date: Available online 4 January 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Xiaojun Wen, Qinggai Wang, Guangliang Zhang, Junhong Bai, Wei Wang, Shuai Zhang Five sampling sites (Sites A, B, C, D and E) were selected along a 250 m sampling zone covered by Suaeda salsa, which is perpendicular to a road, in the Yellow River Delta of China. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 40cm in these five sampling sites to investigate the profile distributions and toxic risks of heavy metals. Concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined using inductively...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 13, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Carbon nanotube embedded PVDF membranes: Effect of solvent composition on the structural morphology for membrane distillation
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Edgar C. Mapunda, Bhekie B. Mamba, Titus A.M. Msagati Rapid population increase, growth in industrial and agricultural sectors and global climate change have added significant pressure on conventional freshwater resources. Tapping freshwater from non-conventional water sources such as desalination and waste water recycling is considered as sustainable alternative to the fundamental challenges of water scarcity. However, affordable and sustainable technologies need to be applied for the communities to benefi...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 12, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

The potential vulnerability of the Namib and Nama Aquifers due to low recharge levels in the area surrounding the Naukluft Mountains, SW Namibia
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Winnie N. Kambinda, Benjamin Mapani The Naukluft Mountains in the Namib Desert are a high rainfall-high discharge area. It sees increased stream-, spring- flow as well as waterfalls during the rainy season. The mountains are a major resource for additional recharge to the Namib and Nama aquifers that are adjacent to the mountains. This paper aimed to highlight the potential vulnerability of the aquifers that surround the Naukluft Mountain area; if the strategic importance of the Naukluft Karst Aquifer (NKA)...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 11, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Changes in ecosystem services associated with planting structures of cropland: a case study in Minle County in China
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Yaqun Liu, Wei Song, Fengyun Mu The cropland ecosystem provides essential direct and indirect products and services to mankind such as food, fiber, biodiversity and soil conservation. A change of crop planting structure can change the ecosystem services of cropland by affecting land use type. In recent years, under the influence of regional comparative advantage and consumer demand changes, the crop planting structure in China has changed rapidly. However, there is still a lack of deep understanding on the ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 11, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of heavy metals contamination in soil profiles of roadside Suaeda salsa wetlands in the Yellow River Delta, China
Publication date: Available online 4 January 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Xiaojun Wen, Qinggai Wang, Guangliang Zhang, Junhong Bai, Wei Wang, Shui Zhang Five sampling sites (Sites A, B, C, D, and E) were selected along a 250m sampling zone covered by Suaeda salsa, which was perpendicular to a road, in the Yellow River Delta of China. Soil profile samples were collected in these five sampling sites to investigate the profile distributions and toxic risks of heavy metals. Concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined using inductively coupled plasma ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 5, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Effects of drought and salt stresses on growth characteristics of Euhalophyte Suaeda salsa in coastal wetlands
In this study, plants were exposed to two water contents treatments (i.e., 14 % and 26 % water content), four salinity treatments (i.e., 2 g/kg, 4 g/kg, 6 g/kg, and 8 g/kg NaCl) and two N application treatments (i.e., 0 and 200 N mg/kg) in field conditions. Growth characteristics of Suaeda salsa were assessed as fresh weight, dry weight, height, total nitrogen (TN) and total carbon (TC). Our results showed that fresh weight, dry weight and height of Suaeda salsa promoted at lower salinity treatments but reduced at higher salinity treatments, while TN and TC contents kept stable with increasing salinity levels. Drought stre...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 5, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Impacts of sea cucumber farming on biogeochemical characteristics in the Yellow River estuary, Northern China
Publication date: Available online 28 December 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Jing Fu, Hisashi Yokoyama, Baoshan Cui, Jin Zhou, Jiaguo Yan, Xu Ma, Shozo Shibata To investigate the potential environmental effects of pond farming for Apostichopus japonicas in Yellow River estuary, we examined discrepancies of distance-based typical pollution indicators (TOC, TN, NO3 -, NH4 +, NO2 - and PO4 3-) and biochemical tracers (δ13C and δ15N) in water column and sediment, as well as dietary characteristics of dominant macrobenthos between farming and non-farming areas. The results r...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 29, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research