Innovative solutions for intractable water problems in the face of climate change in southern and East African sub regions
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Benjamin Mapani, Hodson Makurira, Lapologang Magole, Maideyi Meck, Theresa Mkandawire, Marloes Mul, Cosmo Ngongondo (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 24, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Estimating spatial catchment natural hydrological response characteristics in Swaziland
This study establishes the hydrological response of 122 catchments in Swaziland’s trans-boundary basins on the basis of validated WR90 hydro-meteorological time series data. The flow duration indices (FDIs: Q10, Q50, Q90) were determined and standardised by the mean monthly streamflow, and the runoff ratio was calculated as a method to determine how catchments respond to precipitation inputs. The runoff ratio and FDIs were then plotted against aridity indices, and the plot shows that the runoff ratio is consistent with the aridity index, except for a few suspected anomalies emanating from values of Q50 and Q90. The f...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 20, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Surface water bodies mapping in Zimbabwe using landsat 8 OLI multispectral imagery: A comparison of multiple water indices
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Mhosisi Masocha, Timothy Dube, Mellisa Makore, Munyaradzi D. Shekede, Jacob Funani Water is integral for the survival of humans, animals, as well as vegetation and information on its spatial distribution is important for water resources management. Various methods have been applied to detect and map land surface water, especially due to the availability of a large range of satellite sensors. The main methods involved are either general feature classification techniques or thematic water body information extracti...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 19, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of empirical and regression methods for infilling missing streamflow data in Little Ruaha catchment Tanzania
This study therefore made a contribution by appraising empirical and regression rainfall runoff based methods in the Little Ruaha River catchment, a sub-catchment of the Great Ruaha River sub-basin both within the Rufiji River Basin. The methods employed included simple linear regression (with untransformed and log-transformed data), multiple linear regression (with untransformed and log-transformed data), rainfall-runoff relationship using double mass curve technique, flow duration matching and drainage-area ratio. In addition, rainfall runoff modeling using HBV-Light was done for further comparison. With exception to the...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Impacts of hydropower dam operations in the Mana Pools National Park floodplains
This study investigated the hydro-dynamics from natural and human influenced flows, particularly at the Mana Pools floodplains which are downstream of Kariba and Kafue hydropower dams. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the differences in flow regime upstream and downstream of the hydropower reservoirs. A standard t-test was done to compare the natural and modified mean annual flows. Results show that the presence of upstream reservoirs has reduced the high peak average monthly flows by 17% and increased the average monthly low flows by 5% at Mana Pools. However, the mean annual runoff has not significantly change...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 13, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Microwave assisted graft synthesis and characterization of poly(methacrylic acid)-grafted polyethersulfone for preparation hydrophilic and low-fouling membranes for water treatment
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Lwazi Ndlwana, Keneiloe Sikhwivhilu, Richard Moutloali, Jane Catherine Ngila Herein, we report on powder composites of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA)-grafted polyethersulfone (PES) prepared via microwave (MW) assisted synthesis. The grafting was confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) after which ultrafiltration membranes were prepared from the powder composites by phase inversion. The effect of PMAA grafting on the morphology of the membranes was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Investigation of nutrients and faecal coliforms removal in wastewater using a hydroponic system
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): S.F. Ndulini, G.M. Sithole, M.S. Mthembu Fresh water resources are diminishing rapidly through increased inadequately treated or untreated wastewater disposal in water bodies. Disposal of untreated wastewater in freshwater bodies threatens the environment, aquatic and human life. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the removal of contaminants using a simple cost effective hydroponic system in the treatment of raw wastewater to allowable discharge limits. After macrophytes were planted and wate...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 9, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Hydrogeological conceptual model of large and complex sedimentary aquifer systems – Central Kalahari Basin (Botswana)
In this study, an efficient data integration method for developing hydrogeological conceptual model of the large and hydrogeologically-complex, Central Kalahari Basin (CKB) aquifer system, was undertaken. In that process, suitability of 3-D geological modelling with RockWorks code in iterative combination with standard GIS (ArcGIS) was tested. As a result, six hydrostratigraphic units were identified, their heads and related flow system interdependencies evaluated and hydraulic properties attached. A characteristic feature of the CKB is a thick unsaturated Kalahari Sand Unit (KSU), that restricts the erratic recharge input...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 9, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Implementation of Community Based Management (CBM) in Zimbabwe: The dichotomy of theory and practice and its influence on sustainability of rural water supply systems
This study was done to investigate how CBM is being implemented in Zimbabwe. The specific objectives were to analyze how practices of different stakeholders in the rural water sector differ from their roles as stipulated in the CBM framework and to analyze how discrepancies between theory and practice in CBM implementation are influencing sustainability of water supply systems. The study also sought to investigate how trainings which are stipulated in the CBM framework are being done. Data was collected using Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) and a Water Point Committee questionnaire. Pearson ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 8, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Surface water bodies mapping in Zimbabwe using landsat 8 OLI multispectral imagery: AA comparison of multiple water indices
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Mhosisi Masocha, Timothy Dube, Millicent Makore, Munyaradzi D. Shekede, Jacob Funani Water is integral for the survival of humans, animals, as well as vegetation and information on its spatial distribution is important for water resources management. Various methods have been applied to detect and map land surface water, especially due to the availability of a large range of satellite sensors. The main methods involved are either general feature classification techniques or thematic water body information extrac...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 8, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of seawater intrusion in an arid coastal aquifer, south-eastern Tunisia, using multivariate statistical analysis and chloride mass balance
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Faten Telahigue, Belgacem Agoubi, Faiza Souid, Adel Kharroubi Water availability is a fundamental concern for coastal areas in arid and semiarid regions such as Jerba Island, southeastern Tunisia. In these areas, the water demand is steadily increasing and putting pressure on water resources. These pressures are maintained by excessive pumping to meet the needs of various agricultural, domestic, industrial and tourism sectors. The effects on the groundwater are expressed by a quantitative and qualitative deterio...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 8, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Spatial and seasonal distribution of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur and their ecological stoichiometry in wetland soils along a water and salt gradient in the Yellow River Delta, China
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Qiongqiong Lu, Junhong Bai, Guangliang Zhang, Qingqing Zhao, Jianjun Wu Top soils (0–10 cm) were collected in three sampling belts during four seasons in 2014, including bare land (HN1), Calamagrostis epigeios (HN2), Typha orientalis (HN3), Phragmites australis (HN4), Tamarix chinensis (HN5) and Suaeda salsa (HN6) along a water and salinity gradient in the Yellow River Delta, China. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), total sulfur (TS) and their ecological stoichiome...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 7, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Access to water and sanitation facilities in primary schools: A neglected educational crisis in Ngamiland sub-district in Botswana
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): B.N. Ngwenya, O.T. Thakadu, N.A. Phaladze, B. Bolaane In developing countries, the sanitation and hygiene provision often receives limited resources compared to the water supply. However, water supply benefits tend to diminish if improved sanitation and hygiene are neglected. This paper presents findings of a situational analysis of water supply, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure and their utilization in three primary schools in north-western Botswana. The overall objective of the paper is to determine acc...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

A review of formal institutions affecting water supply and access in Botswana
Publication date: Available online 28 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Patricia K. Mogomotsi, Goemeone E.J. Mogomotsi, Dimpho M. Matlhola Over the years, many countries across the world have increasingly experienced the collapse of their ecosystems, leading to an elevated increase on the demand for freshwater resources. Botswana is not an exception. The problem of disrupted potable water supply is widespread across the country. However, the physical shortage of water in the country is arguably coupled by lack of effective and efficient water supply and management institutions an...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 29, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Effects of land use and land cover changes on water quality in the uMngeni river catchment, South Africa
Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Jean Namugize, Graham Jewitt, Mark Graham Land use and land cover change are major drivers of water quality deterioration in watercourses and impoundments. However, understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of land use change characteristics and their link to water quality parameters in catchments is limited. As a contribution to address this limitation, the objective of this study is to assess the linkages between biophysico-chemical water quality parameters and land use and land cover (LULC) cla...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 28, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Signature of present and projected climate change at an urban scale: The case of Addis Ababa
In this study, the 1 km2 high resolution NIMR-HadGEM2-AO simulations for future projections under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios and gridded observations provided by Worldclim data center are used to assess changes in rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature expected under the two scenarios over Addis Ababa city. The gridded 1 km2 observational data set for the base period (1950–2000) is compared to observation from a meteorological station in the city in order to assess its quality for use as a reference (baseline) data. The comparison revealed that the data set has a very g...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 28, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Effects of climate change on evapotranspiration over the Okavango Delta water resources
Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Oliver Moses, Wame L. Hambira In semi-arid developing countries, most poor people depend on contaminated surface or groundwater resources since they do not have access to safe and centrally supplied water. These water resources are threatened by several factors that include high evapotranspiration rates. In the Okavango Delta region in the north-western Botswana, communities facing insufficient centrally supplied water rely mainly on the surface water resources of the Delta. The Delta loses about 98% of its w...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 28, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Preface: Ecosystem services, ecosystem health and human communities
Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Hans-Peter Plag (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 28, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

SWAT model uncertainty analysis, calibration and validation for runoff simulation in the Luvuvhu river catchment, South Africa
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): M.P. Thavhana, M.J. Savage, M.E. Moeletsi The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) was calibrated for the Luvuvhu River catchment, South Africa in order to simulate runoff. The model was executed through QSWAT which is an interface between SWAT and QGIS. Data from four weather stations and four weir stations evenly distributed over the catchment were used. The model was run for a 33-year period of 1983–2015. Sensitivity analysis, calibration and validation were conducted using the sequential uncertaint...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 27, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Analysis of potential future droughts limiting maize production, in the Luvuvhu River catchment area, South Africa
This study provided information on how farmers in the area can prepare for future agricultural seasons, while there is sufficient time to implement strategies to reduce drought risk potential. Thus, integrated interventions could provide best options for improving livelihoods and building the capability of farmers to manage climate change-related stresses. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 27, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Modelling nitrogen transformation and removal in mara river basin wetlands upstream of lake victoria
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Aloyce W. Mayo, Marwa Muraza, Joel Norbert Lake Victoria, the largest lake in Africa, is a resource of social-economic potential in East Africa. This lake receives water from numerous tributaries including Mara River, which contributes about 4.8% of the total Lake water inflow. Unfortunately, Mara River basin faces environmental problems because of intensive settlement, agriculture, overgrazing in the basin and mining activities, which has lead to water pollution in the river, soil erosion and degradation, de...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 27, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Estimating soil organic and aboveground woody carbon stock in a protected dry Miombo ecosystem, Zimbabwe: Landsat 8 OLI data applications
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Timothy Dube, Mhosisi Masocha, Cletah Shoko Accurate and reliable soil organic carbon stock estimation is critical in understanding forest role to regional carbon cycles. So far, the total carbon pool in dry Miombo ecosystems is often under-estimated. In that regard this study sought to model the relationship between the aboveground woody carbon pool and the soil carbon pool, using both ground-based and remote sensing methods. To achieve this objective, the Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI), Normalized Difference ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 27, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Residual antibiotics, antibiotic resistant superbugs and antibiotic resistance genes in surface water catchments: Public health impact
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Adegoke Anthony A, Faleye Adekunle C, Stenstrӧm Thor A Antibiotics are released to the surface water through different routes, like for example the wastewater treatment plants, from human and animal metabolic waste, agriculture run off, industrial antibiotic waste. The release of the antibiotics to the water catchment and/or the environments in sub-lethal concentrations for the microorganisms lead to the emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) and selection for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The bacteri...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 27, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

An assessment of groundwater potential and vulnerability in the Upper Manyame Sub-Catchment of Zimbabwe
This study assessed GP and vulnerability in the UMSC using Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing techniques. Groundwater conditioning factors: geology, slope, land-use, drainage density, topographic index, altitude, recharge and rainfall were used to develop GP zones. Validation of the GP map was done by correlating estimated GP with historical borehole yields. An assessment of groundwater vulnerability was done at micro-catchment level (Marimba) using the GOD model; a three parameter Index Overlay Model. Marimba is the most urbanised and has the second highest borehole density. It also exhibits similar landuse...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 27, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

The potential use of natural resources in urban informal settlements as substitutes for financial capital during flooding emergencies
Publication date: Available online 13 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Mwazvita T.B. Dalu, Charlie M. Shackleton Rapid and widespread land cover change and the subsequent loss of the buffering capacity provided by healthy ecosystems against natural hazards has resulted in increased vulnerability to natural hazards. There is an insufficient understanding of natural resource contribution to the resilience of poor urban communities living in informal settlements and the financial implications thereof. Thus, household strategies used to recover from the October 2012 flood shock were...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 14, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Spatial feature analysis of a cosmic-ray sensor for measuring the soil water content: Comparison of four weighting methods
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Jingya Cai, Zhiguo Pang, Jun'e Fu To quantitatively analyze the spatial features of a cosmic-ray sensor (CRS) (i.e., the measurement support volume of the CRS and the weight of the in situ point-scale soil water content (SWC) in terms of the regionally averaged SWC derived from the CRS) in measuring the SWC, cooperative observations based on CRS, oven drying and frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) methods are performed at the point and regional scales in a desert steppe area of the Inner Mongolia Autonomou...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Investigating waste rock, tailings, slag and coal ash clinker as adsorbents for heavy metals: Batch and column studies
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): D. Letina, W.M. Letshwenyo Wastewater from the mining industry is a concern because most of the time it contains heavy metals with concentrations above permissible levels, posing a threat to terrestrial and aquatic life. The study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of locally available waste materials (waste rock, tailings, coal ash clinker, and slag) generated by BCL (Ltd) mine, a copper and nickel mining and smelting company in Botswana, for removal of nickel and copper from the real mining wastewat...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Synthesized af-PFCl and GG-g-P(AN)/TEOS hydrogel composite used in hybridized technique applied for AMD treatment
Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Elvis Fosso-Kankeu In the present study af-PFCl, GL-g-P(AN) hydrogel and GL-g-P(AN)/TEOS hydrogel composite were synthesized. The hydrogels were characterized using the fourier transformed infra-red (FTIR) and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The coagulant af-PFCl and the hydrogels were applied consecutively in flocculation and adsorption processes respectively for the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). It was observed that the grafting process increased the amount of binding groups on th...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Key attributes of agricultural innovations in semi-arid smallholder farming systems in south-west Zimbabwe
Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Eness P. Mutsvangwa-Sammie, Emmanuel Manzungu, Shephard Siziba In Sub-Sahara Africa, which includes Zimbabwe, about 80% of the population depends on agriculture for subsistence, employment and income. Agricultural production and productivity are, however, low. This has been attributed to a lack of appropriate innovations despite the huge investments that have been made to promote ‘innovations’ as a means to safeguarding agriculture-based livelihoods, which raises the question of how innovations are...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 3, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of quality of water provided for wildlife in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana
Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Moses Selebatso, Glyn Maude, Richard W.S. Fynn Arid and semi-arid environments have low and unpredictable rainfall patterns resulting in limited availability of surface water for wildlife. In the Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR) wildlife populations have lost access to natural surface water through cordon fences, livestock and human encroachment along the access routes. Artificial waterholes have been developed in the reserve to compensate for this loss. However, there have not been any assessments of the ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 2, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Determinants of farmers' participation in collective maintenance of irrigation infrastructure in KwaZulu-Natal
This study identifies the factors influencing farmers'’ decision to, and extent of participation in the maintenance of irrigation infrastructure in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa based on cross-section data collected from 320 randomly selected smallholder irrigating farmers. A two-step Heckman regression model was applied in the analysis. It was established that households whose heads were older, block committee members, with larger irrigation plots, good soil quality and experiencing severe irrigation water shortages are more likely to participate in maintenance of irrigation infrastructure. On the other hand,...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 1, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Wetland biogeochemical processes and simulation modeling
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 103 Author(s): Junhong Bai, Laibin Huang, Haifeng Gao, Jia Jia, Xin Wang (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 24, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Heavy metal contents and transfer capacities of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa in the Yellow River Delta, China
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Shuai Zhang, Junhong Bai, Wei Wang, Laibing Huang, Guangliang Zhang, Dawei Wang Plant samples including roots, stems and leaves of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa were collected in the short-term-flooding and tidal-flooding wetlands of the Yellow River Delta of China. Six heavy metals (e.g., As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) were measured in roots, stems and leaves of each plant species using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry (ICP-AAS) to investigate the levels, and transfer capabil...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 16, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Influence of urbanization-driven land use/cover change on climate: The case of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Bisrat Kifle Arsiso, G. Mengistu Tsidu, Gerrit Hendrik Stoffberg, Tsegaye Tadesse Land use change is the second most important anthropogenic influence on climate beside the emission of greenhouse gases. Urbanization is leading to significant land use changes in Africa since the continent is undergoing rapid urbanization and population growth in recent decades. Addis Ababa is one of these fast growing cities in the continent. Therefore, detection of land use change is very important to identify its impact o...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 14, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Sanitation and hygiene practices among primary school learners in Ngamiland district, Botswana
This study explored hygiene education, personal hygiene practices among learners, environmental sanitation and hygiene within three primary schools in the Ngamiland district, Botswana. From the three schools, a total sample of 285 pupils was selected using proportionate stratified random sampling technique, and 15 teachers purposively selected as key informants. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires with key informants and social survey instrument for learners. Results show that very few learners linked poor hygiene to the following diseases; diarrhea/upset stomach (31.7%); malaria (23%); bilharzia (16.4%...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 10, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Validation of satellite-based rainfall in Kalahari
This study highlighted SREs as valuable source of daily rainfall data providing good spatio-temporal data coverage especially suitable for areas with limited rain gauges, such as the CKB, but also emphasized SREs' drawbacks, creating avenue for follow up research. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 10, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Preparation and application of a tyre-based activated carbon solid phase extraction of heavy metals in wastewater samples
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): K. Mogolodi Dimpe, J.C. Ngila, P.N. Nomngongo In this paper, the tyre-based activated carbon solid phase extraction (SPE) method was successfully developed for simultaneous preconcentration of metal ions in the model and real water samples before their determination using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The activation of carbon was achieved by chemical activation and the tyre-based activated carbon was used as a sorbent for solid phase extraction. The prepared activated carbon was characterized...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 10, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Quantification of water resources uncertainties in the Luvuvhu sub-basin of the Limpopo river basin
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): N. Oosthuizen, D. Hughes, E. Kapangaziwiri, J. Mwenge Kahinda, V. Mvandaba In the absence of historical observed data, models are generally used to describe the different hydrological processes and generate data and information that will inform management and policy decision making. Ideally, any hydrological model should be based on a sound conceptual understanding of the processes in the basin and be backed by quantitative information for the parameterization of the model. However, these data are often ina...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 10, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Flood hazard vulnerability assessment in Kashmir Valley, India using geospatial approach
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Tauseef Ahmad, Arvind Chandra Pandey, Amit Kumar (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 10, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Urban flood simulation and prioritization of critical urban sub-catchments using SWMM model and PROMETHEE II approach
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Sahar Babaei, Reza Ghazavi, Mahdi Erfanian Urban runoff increased due to augment of impervious surfaces. In order to flood mitigation during rainy season, determination of critical urban sub-catchments is very important for urban planners. Due to lack of information, adopting a simulation approach is one of the practical ways to identify the surcharged junctions and critical sub-catchments. Occurrence of destructive floods in the rainy seasons indicates the inappropriateness of the urban drainage system in ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 10, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Changes in streamflow contributions with increasing spatial scale in Thukela basin, South Africa
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Macdex Mutema, Vincent Chaplot Sustainable management of river basins requires precise understanding of the origin and variability of water fluxes. Water samples were collected in Thukela Basin (30,000 km2), South Africa, over the 2012 rainy season, from fifteen 1 m2 runoff microplots (for OF), a 5-m deep piezometer (SW) and 20-m deep borehole (GW), in the basin headwater and nested catchment outlets (microcatchment, 0.23 km2; subcatchment, 1.20 km2; catchment, 9.75 km2; sub-basin, 253 km2). The...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 10, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Relating the dynamics of climatological and hydrological droughts in semiarid Botswana
This study attempts to determine drought timescale that is suitable for monitoring the effects of drought on hydrological systems which can then be used to assess the long term persistence or reversion and forecasts of the dynamics. Based on this, climatological and hydrological drought indices characterized by Standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and Standardized flow index (SFI) respectively have been determined using monthly rainfall, temperature and flow data from two major river systems. The association between climatological and hydrological droughts in Botswana has been investigated using these...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 10, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Physicochemical and microbial assessment of spring water quality for drinking supply in Piedmont of B éni-Mellal Atlas (Morocco)
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Ahmed Barakat, Redouane Meddah, Mustapha Afdali, Fatima Touhami The present study was conducted to examine the water quality of karst springs located along the Piedmont of Béni-Mellal Atlas (Morocco) for drinking purposes. Twenty-five water samples were collected from seven springs in June, July, August and September 2013, and May 2016 have been analyzed for their physicochemical and microbial characteristics. The analytical data of temperature, pH, DO, TAC, TH, oxidizability and NH4 + showed that al...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 2, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Integrating environmental variables and geospatial technologies in landscape scale habitat modelling of edible stink bugs in Zimbabwe
In this study maximum entropy model was used to predict the probability of presence of E. delegorguei in southern Zimbabwe. The environmental factors governing its geographic distribution in Zimbabwe were also evaluated. Presence/absence data were selected along thirty-five randomly selected transects. The climatic and topographic variables used to predict the distribution of E. delegorguei were: maximum temperature of the warmest month; minimum temperature of the coldest month; the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI); altitude; slope; and aspect. It was found that E. delegorguei is most likely to occur on steep ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 2, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

A geomorphological characterisation of river systems in South Africa: A case study of the Sabie River
This study reports on a case study to characterise the geomorphology of different river systems in South Africa, with the aim of better understanding their properties, controls, and implications for biophysical interactions including water quality, biodiversity (aquatic and riparian), and human activity within the catchment. The approach adopted is based on the River Styles® framework (RSF), a geomorphology-based approach developed for rivers in New Zealand and Australia, but applied here for the first time to South Africa. Based on analysis of remote sensing imagery, SRTM-2 digital topographic data and field observati...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 2, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Trace element geochemistry and mineralogy of coal from Samaleswari open cast coal block (S-OCB), Eastern India
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Debasree Saha, Debashis Chatterjee, Sanchita Chakravarty, Madhurina Mazumder Coal samples of Samaleswari open cast coal block (S-OCB) are high ash (Aad, mean value 35.43%) and low sulphur content (St, on dry basis, mean value 0.91% < 1%) in quality. The stratigraphic variation of volatile matter and fixed carbon (dry ash-free) reflect a progress of coal metamorphism with depth that accordance to the coal rank variation from lignite to high volatile bituminous in the studied borehole. The younger ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 1, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Modelling climate change impact: A case of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea)
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi, Tendai Polite Chibarabada, Vimbayi Grace Petrova Chimonyo, Albert Thembinkosi Modi Climate change projections for southern Africa indicate low and erratic rainfall as well as increasing frequency and intensity of rainfall extremes such as drought. The 2015/16 drought devastated large parts of southern Africa and highlighted the need for drought tolerant crops. Bambara groundnut is an African indigenous crop, commonly cultivated in southern Africa, with a higher potential for drought...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 31, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Fertility status of cultivated floodplain soils in the Zambezi Valley, northern Zimbabwe
The objective of this study was to determine the fertility status of cultivated Zambezi Valley floodplain soils, in northern Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at three sites, along tributaries of Musengezi River. Soil samples were taken at 0.20 m depth increments to 0.60 m from hydromorphologically stratified fields, during the cropping season. Sampling points were replicated twice in each stratum at points equidistant from river edges. Relative elevations of sampling points were measured using levelling equipment. Soil was analysed using: core method for bulk density, hydrometer method for texture, loss on ignit...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 2, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Scenario planning for water resource management in semi arid zone
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Rajiv Gupta, Gaurav Kumar Scenario planning for water resource management in semi arid zone is performed using systems Input-Output approach of time domain analysis. This approach derived the future weights of input variables of the hydrological system from their precedent weights. Input variables considered here are precipitation, evaporation, population and crop irrigation. Ingles & De Souza's method and Thornthwaite model have been used to estimate runoff and evaporation respectively. Difference...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 30, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

Perceptions on the use of bottled water in restaurants in Harare's Central Business District (CBD)
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Olivia Sakhile Juba, Vincent Itai Tanyanyiwa Bottled water use continues to expand worldwide and in the last two decades, a significant number of consumers have shifted from tap water to bottled water due to Cryptosporidium outbreaks. Bottled water consumption has increased in Harare due to erratic tap water supplies. Since 2011, forty bottled water brands have been banned because of failure to meet safety and quality standards due to contamination, unsuitable packaging, and wrong labelling. Nevertheless, ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 27, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research