Relating the dynamics of climatological and hydrological droughts in semiarid Botswana
This study attempts to determine drought timescale that is suitable for monitoring the effects of drought on hydrological systems which can then be used to assess the long term persistence or reversion and forecasts of the dynamics. Based on this, climatological and hydrological drought indices characterized by Standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and Standardized flow index (SFI) respectively have been determined using monthly rainfall, temperature and flow data from two major river systems. The association between climatological and hydrological droughts in Botswana has been investigated using these...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Modelling climate change impact: A case of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea)
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi, Tendai Polite Chibarabada, Vimbayi Grace Petrova Chimonyo, Albert Thembinkosi ModiAbstractClimate change projections for southern Africa indicate low and erratic rainfall as well as increasing frequency and intensity of rainfall extremes such as drought. The 2015/16 drought devastated large parts of southern Africa and highlighted the need for drought tolerant crops. Bambara groundnut is an African indigenous crop, commonly cultivated in southern Africa, with a higher potential for drought toler...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Changes in streamflow contributions with increasing spatial scale in Thukela basin, South Africa
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): Macdex Mutema, Vincent ChaplotAbstractSustainable management of river basins requires precise understanding of the origin and variability of water fluxes. Water samples were collected in Thukela Basin (30,000 km2), South Africa, over the 2012 rainy season, from fifteen 1 m2 runoff microplots (for OF), a 5-m deep piezometer (SW) and 20-m deep borehole (GW), in the basin headwater and nested catchment outlets (microcatchment, 0.23 km2; subcatchment, 1.20 km2; catchment, 9.75 km2; sub-basin, 253 km2). The water...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Analysis of potential future droughts limiting maize production, in the Luvuvhu River catchment area, South Africa
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): Teboho Elisa Masupha, Mokhele Edmond MoeletsiAbstractRecurring droughts associated with global warming have raised major concern for the agricultural sector, particularly vulnerable small-scale farmers who rely on rain-fed farming such as in the Luvuvhu River catchment. The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI) were calculated to assess drought on a 120-day maturing maize crop based on outputs of the CSIRO-Mk3.6.0 under RCP 4.5 emission scenario, for t...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Quantification of water resources uncertainties in the Luvuvhu sub-basin of the Limpopo river basin
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): N. Oosthuizen, D. Hughes, E. Kapangaziwiri, J. Mwenge Kahinda, V. MvandabaAbstractIn the absence of historical observed data, models are generally used to describe the different hydrological processes and generate data and information that will inform management and policy decision making. Ideally, any hydrological model should be based on a sound conceptual understanding of the processes in the basin and be backed by quantitative information for the parameterization of the model. However, these data are often inadequat...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Flood hazard vulnerability assessment in Kashmir Valley, India using geospatial approach
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): Tauseef Ahmad, Arvind Chandra Pandey, Amit Kumar (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

An assessment of groundwater potential and vulnerability in the Upper Manyame Sub-Catchment of Zimbabwe
This study assessed GP and vulnerability in the UMSC using Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing techniques. Groundwater conditioning factors: geology, slope, land-use, drainage density, topographic index, altitude, recharge and rainfall were used to develop GP zones. Validation of the GP map was done by correlating estimated GP with historical borehole yields. An assessment of groundwater vulnerability was done at micro-catchment level (Marimba) using the GOD model; a three parameter Index Overlay Model. Marimba is the most urbanised and has the second highest borehole density. It also exhibits similar landuse...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Validation of satellite-based rainfall in Kalahari
This study highlighted SREs as valuable source of daily rainfall data providing good spatio-temporal data coverage especially suitable for areas with limited rain gauges, such as the CKB, but also emphasized SREs' drawbacks, creating avenue for follow up research. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Effects of climate change on evapotranspiration over the Okavango Delta water resources
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): Oliver Moses, Wame L. HambiraAbstractIn semi-arid developing countries, most poor people depend on contaminated surface or groundwater resources since they do not have access to safe and centrally supplied water. These water resources are threatened by several factors that include high evapotranspiration rates. In the Okavango Delta region in the north-western Botswana, communities facing insufficient centrally supplied water rely mainly on the surface water resources of the Delta. The Delta loses about 98% of its water...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Signature of present and projected climate change at an urban scale: The case of Addis Ababa
In this study, the 1 km2 high resolution NIMR-HadGEM2-AO simulations for future projections under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios and gridded observations provided by Worldclim data center are used to assess changes in rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature expected under the two scenarios over Addis Ababa city. The gridded 1 km2 observational data set for the base period (1950–2000) is compared to observation from a meteorological station in the city in order to assess its quality for use as a reference (baseline) data. The comparison revealed that the data set has a very g...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

SWAT model uncertainty analysis, calibration and validation for runoff simulation in the Luvuvhu River catchment, South Africa
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): M.P. Thavhana, M.J. Savage, M.E. MoeletsiAbstractThe soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) was calibrated for the Luvuvhu River catchment, South Africa in order to simulate runoff. The model was executed through QSWAT which is an interface between SWAT and QGIS. Data from four weather stations and four weir stations evenly distributed over the catchment were used. The model was run for a 33-year period of 1983–2015. Sensitivity analysis, calibration and validation were conducted using the sequential uncertainty fi...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Key attributes of agricultural innovations in semi-arid smallholder farming systems in south-west Zimbabwe
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): Eness P. Mutsvangwa-Sammie, Emmanuel Manzungu, Shephard SizibaAbstractIn Sub-Sahara Africa, which includes Zimbabwe, about 80% of the population depends on agriculture for subsistence, employment and income. Agricultural production and productivity are, however, low. This has been attributed to a lack of appropriate innovations despite the huge investments that have been made to promote ‘innovations’ as a means to safeguarding agriculture-based livelihoods, which raises the question of how innovations are co...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Modelling nitrogen transformation and removal in mara river basin wetlands upstream of lake Victoria
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): Aloyce W. Mayo, Marwa Muraza, Joel NorbertAbstractLake Victoria, the largest lake in Africa, is a resource of social-economic potential in East Africa. This lake receives water from numerous tributaries including Mara River, which contributes about 4.8% of the total Lake water inflow. Unfortunately, Mara River basin faces environmental problems because of intensive settlement, agriculture, overgrazing in the basin and mining activities, which has lead to water pollution in the river, soil erosion and degradation, decrea...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Fertility status of cultivated floodplain soils in the Zambezi Valley, northern Zimbabwe
The objective of this study was to determine the fertility status of cultivated Zambezi Valley floodplain soils, in northern Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at three sites, along tributaries of Musengezi River. Soil samples were taken at 0.20 m depth increments to 0.60 m from hydromorphologically stratified fields, during the cropping season. Sampling points were replicated twice in each stratum at points equidistant from river edges. Relative elevations of sampling points were measured using levelling equipment. Soil was analysed using: core method for bulk density, hydrometer method for texture, loss on ignition fo...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Estimating soil organic and aboveground woody carbon stock in a protected dry Miombo ecosystem, Zimbabwe: Landsat 8 OLI data applications
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): Timothy Dube, Richard Muchena, Mhosisi Masocha, Cletah ShokoAbstractAccurate and reliable soil organic carbon stock estimation is critical in understanding forest role to regional carbon cycles. So far, the total carbon pool in dry Miombo ecosystems is often under-estimated. In that regard this study sought to model the relationship between the aboveground woody carbon pool and the soil carbon pool, using both ground-based and remote sensing methods. To achieve this objective, the Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI), Normalize...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Preparation and application of a tyre-based activated carbon solid phase extraction of heavy metals in wastewater samples
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): K. Mogolodi Dimpe, J.C. Ngila, Philiswa N. NomngongoAbstractIn this paper, the tyre-based activated carbon solid phase extraction (SPE) method was successfully developed for simultaneous preconcentration of metal ions in the model and real water samples before their determination using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The activation of carbon was achieved by chemical activation and the tyre-based activated carbon was used as a sorbent for solid phase extraction. The prepared activated carbon was characterize...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Synthesized af-PFCl and GG-g-P(AN)/TEOS hydrogel composite used in hybridized technique applied for AMD treatment
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): Elvis Fosso-KankeuAbstractIn the present study af-PFCl, GL-g-P(AN) hydrogel and GL-g-P(AN)/TEOS hydrogel composite were synthesized. The hydrogels were characterized using the fourier transformed infra-red (FTIR) and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The coagulant af-PFCl and the hydrogels were applied consecutively in flocculation and adsorption processes respectively for the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). It was observed that the grafting process increased the amount of binding groups on the h...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Residual antibiotics, antibiotic resistant superbugs and antibiotic resistance genes in surface water catchments: Public health impact
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): Adegoke Anthony A, Faleye Adekunle C, Stenstrӧm Thor AAbstractAntibiotics are released to the surface water through different routes, like for example the wastewater treatment plants, from human and animal metabolic waste, agriculture run off, industrial antibiotic waste. The release of the antibiotics to the water catchment and/or the environments in sub-lethal concentrations for the microorganisms lead to the emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) and selection for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The bacteria ut...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Investigating waste rock, tailings, slag and coal ash clinker as adsorbents for heavy metals: Batch and column studies
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): D. Letina, W.M. LetshwenyoAbstractWastewater from the mining industry is a concern because most of the time it contains heavy metals with concentrations above permissible levels, posing a threat to terrestrial and aquatic life. The study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of locally available waste materials (waste rock, tailings, coal ash clinker, and slag) generated by BCL (Ltd) mine, a copper and nickel mining and smelting company in Botswana, for removal of nickel and copper from the real mining wastewater....
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of quality of water provided for wildlife in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): Moses Selebatso, Glyn Maude, Richard W.S. FynnAbstractArid and semi-arid environments have low and unpredictable rainfall patterns resulting in limited availability of surface water for wildlife. In the Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR) wildlife populations have lost access to natural surface water through cordon fences, livestock and human encroachment along the access routes. Artificial waterholes have been developed in the reserve to compensate for this loss. However, there have not been any assessments of the qua...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

A geomorphological characterisation of river systems in South Africa: A case study of the Sabie River
This study reports on a case study to characterise the geomorphology of different river systems in South Africa, with the aim of better understanding their properties, controls, and implications for biophysical interactions including water quality, biodiversity (aquatic and riparian), and human activity within the catchment. The approach adopted is based on the River Styles® framework (RSF), a geomorphology-based approach developed for rivers in New Zealand and Australia, but applied here for the first time to South Africa. Based on analysis of remote sensing imagery, SRTM-2 digital topographic data and field observati...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Integrating environmental variables and geospatial technologies in landscape scale habitat modelling of edible stink bugs in Zimbabwe
In this study maximum entropy model was used to predict the probability of presence of E. delegorguei in southern Zimbabwe. The environmental factors governing its geographic distribution in Zimbabwe were also evaluated. Presence/absence data were selected along thirty-five randomly selected transects. The climatic and topographic variables used to predict the distribution of E. delegorguei were: maximum temperature of the warmest month; minimum temperature of the coldest month; the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI); altitude; slope; and aspect. It was found that E. delegorguei is most likely to occur on steep ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Influence of urbanization-driven land use/cover change on climate: The case of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): Bisrat Kifle Arsiso, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Gerrit Hendrik Stoffberg, Tsegaye TadesseAbstractLand use change is the second most important anthropogenic influence on climate beside the emission of greenhouse gases. Urbanization is leading to significant land use changes in Africa since the continent is undergoing rapid urbanization and population growth in recent decades. Addis Ababa is one of these fast growing cities in the continent. Therefore, detection of land use change is very important to identify its impact on cl...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Sanitation and hygiene practices among primary school learners in Ngamiland district, Botswana
This study explored hygiene education, personal hygiene practices among learners, environmental sanitation and hygiene within three primary schools in the Ngamiland district, Botswana. From the three schools, a total sample of 285 pupils was selected using proportionate stratified random sampling technique, and 15 teachers purposively selected as key informants. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires with key informants and social survey instrument for learners. Results show that very few learners linked poor hygiene to the following diseases; diarrhea/upset stomach (31.7%); malaria (23%); bilharzia (16.4%...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Access to water and sanitation facilities in primary schools: A neglected educational crisis in Ngamiland district in Botswana
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): B.N. Ngwenya, O.T. Thakadu, N.A. Phaladze, B. BolaaneAbstractIn developing countries, the sanitation and hygiene provision often receives limited resources compared to the water supply. However, water supply benefits tend to diminish if improved sanitation and hygiene are neglected. This paper presents findings of a situational analysis of water supply, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure and their utilization in three primary schools in north-western Botswana. The overall objective of the paper is to determine access...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Perceptions on the use of bottled water in restaurants in Harare's Central Business District (CBD)
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): Olivia Sakhile Juba, Vincent Itai TanyanyiwaAbstractBottled water use continues to expand worldwide and in the last two decades, a significant number of consumers have shifted from tap water to bottled water due to Cryptosporidium outbreaks. Bottled water consumption has increased in Harare due to erratic tap water supplies. Since 2011, forty bottled water brands have been banned because of failure to meet safety and quality standards due to contamination, unsuitable packaging, and wrong labelling. Nevertheless, the bot...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Urban flood simulation and prioritization of critical urban sub-catchments using SWMM model and PROMETHEE II approach
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): Sahar Babaei, Reza Ghazavi, Mahdi ErfanianAbstractUrban runoff increased due to augment of impervious surfaces. In order to flood mitigation during rainy season, determination of critical urban sub-catchments is very important for urban planners. Due to lack of information, adopting a simulation approach is one of the practical ways to identify the surcharged junctions and critical sub-catchments. Occurrence of destructive floods in the rainy seasons indicates the inappropriateness of the urban drainage system in Urmia....
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Influence of paper mill wastewater on reed chlorophyll content and biomass
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Fangli Su, Linlin Dong, Haifu Li, Tieliang WangAbstractStudies on the influence of paper mill wastewater, which affects photosynthesis, on reed chlorophyll and biomass can provide a theoretical basis for the ecological restoration of wetland plants. The influence of different concentrations of wastewater (chemical oxygen demands (COD) of 300, 175 and 50 mg•L−1) and different irrigation times (germination, blade-expansion, rapid-growth, heading and maturity stages) on the contents of chlorophyll a, ch...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

A new very high-resolution climatological dataset in Portugal: Application to hydrological modeling in a mountainous watershed
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): A.R. Fonseca, J.A. SantosAbstractThe study of precipitation and temperature variability in Portugal, including their extremes, is often restricted by the lack of high-resolution gridded datasets at daily timescales and available for sufficiently long time periods. They are of quite importance specially when considering hydrology modeling at a local scale. To overcome this limitation, we develop new high-resolution gridded datasets (∼1 km) of daily precipitation (1950–2015) over Portugal. Daily precipi...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Modeling the luminous intensity of Beijing, China using DMSP-OLS night-time lights series data for estimating population density
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Pavan Kumar, Haroon Sajjad, P.K. Joshi, Christopher D. Elvidge, Sufia Rehman, B.S. Chaudhary, Bismay Ranjan Tripathy, Jyoti Singh, Gajendra PipalAbstractVarious scientific researches were conducted to monitor human activities and natural phenomena with the availability of various night time satellite data such as Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMPS). Population growth especially in a faster growing economy like China is an important indicator for assessing socio-economic development, urban planning and...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of the quality of SOBO industrial wastewater and its impact on water quality in Nankhaka River
Publication date: Available online 9 June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): L. Ngwira, D. LakudzalaAbstractAn assessment of the quality of industrial (effluent) from soft drink manufacturer Southern Bottlers (SOBO) factory in Lilongwe was carried out to determine the impact of pollution in Nankhaka River. Both the effluents and the water samples at selected points in the river were analysed for pH, suspended solids (SS), total dissolved solids (TDS), phosphate, nitrates, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and faecal coliform (FC) using st...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Trace element geochemistry and mineralogy of coal from Samaleswari open cast coal block (S-OCB), Eastern India
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Debasree Saha, Debashis Chatterjee, Sanchita Chakravarty, Madhurina MazumderAbstractCoal samples of Samaleswari open cast coal block (S-OCB) are high ash (Aad, mean value 35.43%) and low sulphur content (St, on dry basis, mean value 0.91% 
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Spatial feature analysis of a cosmic-ray sensor for measuring the soil water content: Comparison of four weighting methods
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Jingya Cai, Zhiguo Pang, Jun'e FuAbstractTo quantitatively analyze the spatial features of a cosmic-ray sensor (CRS) (i.e., the measurement support volume of the CRS and the weight of the in situ point-scale soil water content (SWC) in terms of the regionally averaged SWC derived from the CRS) in measuring the SWC, cooperative observations based on CRS, oven drying and frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) methods are performed at the point and regional scales in a desert steppe area of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Reg...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

The potential use of natural resources in urban informal settlements as substitutes for financial capital during flooding emergencies
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Mwazvita T.B. Dalu, Charlie M. ShackletonAbstractRapid and widespread land cover change and the subsequent loss of the buffering capacity provided by healthy ecosystems against natural hazards has resulted in increased vulnerability to natural hazards. There is an insufficient understanding of the natural resources contribution to the resilience of poor urban communities living in informal settlements and the financial implications thereof. Thus, household strategies used to recover from the October 2012 flood shock we...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Spatial and seasonal distribution of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur and their ecological stoichiometry in wetland soils along a water and salt gradient in the Yellow River Delta, China
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Qiongqiong Lu, Junhong Bai, Guangliang Zhang, Qingqing Zhao, Jianjun WuAbstractTop soils (0–10 cm) were collected in three sampling belts during four seasons in 2014, including bare land (HN1), Calamagrostis epigeios (HN2), Typha orientalis (HN3), Phragmites australis (HN4), Tamarix chinensis (HN5) and Suaeda salsa (HN6) along a water and salinity gradient in the Yellow River Delta, China. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), total sulfur (TS) and their ecological stoichiometr...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Heavy metal contents and transfer capacities of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa in the Yellow River Delta, China
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Shuai Zhang, Junhong Bai, Wei Wang, Laibing Huang, Guangliang Zhang, Dawei WangAbstractPlant samples including roots, stems and leaves of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa were collected in the short-term flooding and tidal flooding wetlands of the Yellow River Delta of China. Six heavy metals (e.g., As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) were measured in roots, stems and leaves of each plant species using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry (ICP-AAS) to investigate the levels, and transfer capabilities ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Hydro-meteorological trends in the Gidabo catchment of the Rift Valley Lakes Basin of Ethiopia
This study examines the long term hydroclimatic changes, analyses of the hydro-climate variability and detect whether there exist significant trend or not in the Gidabo catchment, rift valley lakes basin of Ethiopia. Precipitation, temperature and stream flow time series data were used in monthly, seasonal and annual time scales. The precipitation and temperature data span is between 1982 and 2014 and that of stream flow is between 1976 and 2006. To detect trends the analysis were done by using Mann Kendal (MK), Sen's graphical method and to detect change point using the Pettit test. The comparison of trend analysis betwee...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Evaluation of ecosystem service based on scenario simulation of land use in Yunnan Province
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Hong Zhang, Xiaoli Liao, Tianlin ZhaiAbstractClimate change and rapid urbanization are important factors restricting future land use. Situational analysis, as an important foundation for the optimization of land use, needs to focus on the impact of climate factors and socio-economic factors. In this paper, the Markov model and the DLS (Simulation of Land System Dynamics) model are combined for the first time, and the land use pattern in 2020 is simulated based on the data of land use in 2000 and 2010 as well as the cli...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Projected land use changes impacts on water yields in the karst mountain areas of China
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Yanqing Lang, Wei Song, Xiangzheng DengAbstractHuman-induced land use changes over short time scales have significant impacts on water yield, especially in China because of the rapid social economic development. As the biggest developing country of the world, China's economy is expected to continuously grow with a high speed in the next few decades. Therefore, what kind of land use changes will occur in the future in China? How these changes will influence the water yields? To address this issue, we assessed the water ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Association between forestry ecological engineering and dust weather in Inner Mongolia: A panel study
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Huang Jixia, Zhang Qibin, Tan Jing, Yue Depeng, Ge QuanshengAbstractForestry ecological engineering projects in Western China include the Three-North Shelter Forest Project (TNSFP), the Natural Forest Protection Project (NFPP), the Grain for Green Project (GGP) and the Beijing-Tianjin Sandstorm Source Project (BTSSP). Such projects play an important role in the control of dust weather in Western China. In this research, data on the frequency of sandstorms, sand-blowing and dust-floating weather, the area of four forest...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Physicochemical and microbial assessment of spring water quality for drinking supply in Piedmont of Béni-Mellal Atlas (Morocco)
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Ahmed Barakat, Redouane Meddah, Mustapha Afdali, Fatima TouhamiAbstractThe present study was conducted to examine the water quality of karst springs located along the Piedmont of Béni-Mellal Atlas (Morocco) for drinking purposes. Twenty-five water samples were collected from seven springs in June, July, August and September 2013, and May 2016 have been analyzed for their physicochemical and microbial characteristics.The analytical data of temperature, pH, DO, TAC, TH, oxidizability and NH4+ showed that all sampl...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Preface: Ecosystem services, ecosystem health and human communities
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Hans-Peter Plag (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of seawater intrusion in an arid coastal aquifer, south-eastern Tunisia, using multivariate statistical analysis and chloride mass balance
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Faten Telahigue, Belgacem Agoubi, Faiza Souid, Adel KharroubiAbstractWater availability is a fundamental concern for coastal areas in arid and semiarid regions such as Jerba Island, southeastern Tunisia. In these areas, the water demand is steadily increasing and putting pressure on water resources. These pressures are maintained by excessive pumping to meet the needs of various agricultural, domestic, industrial and tourism sectors. The effects on the groundwater are expressed by a quantitative and qualitative de...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Implementation of Community Based Management (CBM) in Zimbabwe: The dichotomy of theory and practice and its influence on sustainability of rural water supply systems
This study was done to investigate how CBM is being implemented in Zimbabwe. The specific objectives were to analyze how practices of different stakeholders in the rural water sector differ from their roles as stipulated in the CBM framework and to analyze how discrepancies between theory and practice in CBM implementation are influencing sustainability of water supply systems. The study also sought to investigate how trainings which are stipulated in the CBM framework are being done. Data was collected using Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) and a Water Point Committee questionnaire. Pearson ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Surface water bodies mapping in Zimbabwe using landsat 8 OLI multispectral imagery: A comparison of multiple water indices
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Mhosisi Masocha, Timothy Dube, Mellisa Makore, Munyaradzi D. Shekede, Jacob FunaniAbstractWater is integral for the survival of humans, animals, as well as vegetation and information on its spatial distribution is important for water resources management. Various methods have been applied to detect and map land surface water, especially due to the availability of a large range of satellite sensors. The main methods involved are either general feature classification techniques or thematic water body information ext...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Investigation of nutrients and faecal coliforms removal in wastewater using a hydroponic system
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): S.F. Ndulini, G.M. Sithole, M.S. MthembuAbstractFresh water resources are diminishing rapidly through increased inadequately treated or untreated wastewater disposal in water bodies. Disposal of untreated wastewater in freshwater bodies threatens the environment, aquatic and human life. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the removal of contaminants using a simple cost effective hydroponic system in the treatment of raw wastewater to allowable discharge limits. After macrophytes were planted and...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Hydrogeological conceptual model of large and complex sedimentary aquifer systems – Central Kalahari Basin (Botswana)
In this study, an efficient data integration method for developing hydrogeological conceptual model of the large and hydrogeologically-complex, Central Kalahari Basin (CKB) aquifer system, was undertaken. In that process, suitability of 3-D geological modelling with RockWorks code in iterative combination with standard GIS (ArcGIS) was tested. As a result, six hydrostratigraphic units were identified, their heads and related flow system interdependencies evaluated and hydraulic properties attached. A characteristic feature of the CKB is a thick unsaturated Kalahari Sand Unit (KSU), that restricts the erratic recharge input to
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Microwave-assisted graft synthesis and characterization of poly(methacrylic acid)-grafted polyethersulfone towards dense hydrophilic and low-fouling membranes for water treatment
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Lwazi Ndlwana, Keneiloe Sikhwivhilu, Richard Moutloali, Jane Catherine NgilaAbstractHerein, we report on a fast route of microwave-assisted synthesis for powder composites towards robust and ultralow-fouling polymethacrylic acid (PMAA)-grafted polyethersulfone (PES) membranes. The grafting was confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). Microfiltration membranes were then prepared from the powder composites b...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Impacts of hydropower dam operations in the Mana Pools National Park floodplains
This study investigated the hydro-dynamics from natural and human influenced flows, particularly at the Mana Pools floodplains which are downstream of Kariba and Kafue hydropower dams. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the differences in flow regime upstream and downstream of the hydropower reservoirs. A standard t-test was done to compare the natural and modified mean annual flows. Results show that the presence of upstream reservoirs has reduced the high peak average monthly flows by 17% and increased the average monthly low flows by 5% at Mana Pools. However, the mean annual runoff has not significantly change...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research