Evaluating the effectiveness of fusing remote sensing images with significantly different spatial resolutions for thematic map production
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Shaohui Chen, Weimin Wang, Hong LiangAbstractIt is very challenging to fuse remote sensing images with significant spatial resolution difference. In this paper, such kind of images are fusing with one posteriori probability model for the purpose of creating thematic maps. The outlined solution consists of parsing the low spatial resolution multispectral images into intensity-hue- saturation triples with spatial and spectral properties separated; the contribution of the old intensity and the panchromatic ima...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 20, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Variation in ecosystem services with rapid urbanization: A study of carbon sequestration in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, China
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Chao Wang, Jinyan Zhan, Xi Chu, Wei Liu, Fan ZhangAbstractLand use and land cover change (LUCC) has had a profound effect on terrestrial carbon stocks, though its impact on the terrestrial carbon cycle remains uncertain. LUCC and rapid urbanization have occurred in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region over the past decades, which have greatly influenced regional carbon stocks. Based on the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model, this paper estimated the tempora...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 15, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

The effects of hydraulic performance and operation interventions on water quality: The case of Phakalane water distribution system in Botswana
This study demonstrates the application of water distribution system (WDS) simulations to investigate the effect of hydraulic performance, network configurations and alternative operational interventions (AOI) on water quality in a WDS. The study explores the viability of introducing AOI to the current (existing) and plausible (possible) network configurations to improve water age and chlorine residuals in the Phakalane WDS. The criteria used to determine the performances of the WDS are (1) the percentage of nodes and (2) the percentage of volume of water demand with water age or chlorine residuals, which are within the ac...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 8, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Decision Support System for Urban Major Hazard Installations Management Based on 3DGIS
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Wenjiang Chen, Hongbo Su, Yan Yong, Zhaoji HuAbstractThe management of urban major hazard installations (UMHI) is important for the public safety and the surrounding ecological environment. The safety managers will have great challenges due to the rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, we developed a 3DGIS-based tool for decision support of UMHI management. The methods of UMHI management are respectively established for real-time risk early warning and consequence assessment. These methods ar...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 30, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Green synthesis of Ag/MgO nanoparticle modified nanohydroxyapatite and its potential for defluoridation and pathogen removal in groundwater
Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): W.B. Ayinde, W.M. Gitari, M. Munkombwe, Samie AmidouAbstractThe paper presents a facile green method of synthesizing a multi-functional 3-layered Ag-MgO/nanohydroxyapatite (Ag-MgOnHaP) composite via a combined microwave and ultrasonically modified methods with emphasis on simultaneous pathogens and fluoride removal in groundwater. The reduction of Ag and MgO ions by aqueous Citrus paradisi peel extracts was utilized for the impregnation Ag-MgO nanoparticles on the adsorbent surface. Ag-MgOnHaP composite morpho...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 28, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Removal of dissolved organic matter from raw water using zero valent iron -carbonaceous conjugated microporous polymer nanocomposites
In this study, a magnetic zero valent iron-carbonaceous conjugated microporous polymer nanocomposite (ZVI-CCMP) was synthesized from ZVI and waste polystyrene via the liquid phase reduction method, and used in a batch system for the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in water from a water treatment plant (WTP) in Pretoria, South Africa. The results were compared to the DOC removal efficiency of the WTP. The surface morphology of the nanocomposites as characterized using scanning electron microscopy showed heterogeneous ZVI nanastructures dispersed on the CCMP surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed t...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 28, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

The viability of artificial surface treatments as a mechanism for domestic rain water harvesting
Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): V. Kisakye, B. Van der BruggenAbstractThe main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of using paraffin wax as an alternative surface treatment for rainwater harvesting in the high rainfall zone of Kabarole district, Western Uganda. Specifically, the paper assesses the efficiency of paraffin wax in terms of quantity and quality of runoff. A complete randomized block experimental design was setup in three replications based on a slope of 1%, 3% and 5%. The treatments included: wax on bare soil (W...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 28, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Application of silica and germanium dioxide nanoparticles/ polyethersulfone blend membranes for removal of emerging micropollutants from water
This study fabricated silicon dioxide (silica) (SiO2) and germanium dioxide (GeO2) embedded polyethersulfone (PES) blend membranes using phase inversion method for the removal of EMPs from water samples collected from North West Province, South Africa. The EMPs were extracted and enriched by auto-trace solid-phase extraction and analyzed using comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS). The fabricated membranes' permeation properties were determined by computing the pure water flux and EMPs' rejection. The water flux was observed to increase with increase in t...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 24, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Study on microclimate observation network for urban unit: a case study in a campus of Shenzhen, China
In this study, we develop a technology on microclimate observation for urban units, which is experimentally applied in a campus in Shenzhen, China. We have arrived at the following conclusions: (1) The application of precision integration technology and small sensors greatly reduces the physical size of the microclimate observation instrument. With the help of advanced algorithms for data quality control, the cost of detection and measuring instruments can be greatly reduced even when accuracy is maintained so that the instruments can be densely deployed in urban units. (2) The urban unit microclimate observation network, ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 18, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Moringa stenopetala bark: A novel green adsorbent for the removal of metal ions from industrial effluents
Publication date: Available online 8 August 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Temesgen Girma Kebede, Simiso Dube, Alemayehu Abebaw Mengistie, Thabo TI. Nkambule, Mathew Muzi NindiAbstractThis work demonstrates the potential of Moringa stenopetala bark powder as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. The bark powder was characterised using FTIR, XRD, zeta potential, TGA, SEM and BET techniques. Several processing parameters such as; contact time, adsorbent dose, concentration, pH, agitation speed and temperature were optimised. Using the optimum conditions the maxim...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 8, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Mechanistic aspects for the removal of Congo red dye from aqueous media through adsorption over N-doped graphene oxide nanoadsorbents prepared from graphite flakes and powders
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Kholiswa Yokwana, Alex T. Kuvarega, Sabelo D. Mhlanga, Edward N. NxumaloAbstractThis work reports the mechanistic models responsible for the adsorptive removal of Congo red (CR) dyes by nitrogen-doped graphene oxide nanosheets (NGO) prepared via a one-pot modified Hummer's method using either graphite powder (to form NGOp) or graphite flakes (to form NGOf) as starting materials. The microstructural properties, surface chemistry and thermal stability of the produced NGO adsorbents were ascertained using a range ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 4, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Principal component analysis and characterization of methane community in a full-scale bioenergy producing UASB reactor treating brewery wastewater
This study investigated the efficiency of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) reactor in treating brewery wastewater and generation of biogas as one of the sources of renewable energy. Physico-chemical parameters, dynamics and abundance of methane-producing Archaea were studied using standard methods and fluorescent in-situ hybridization respectively. Raw wastewater from brewery plant had high organic matter and solids content that needs pre-treatment before its discharged into the municipal wastewater treatment plants. The average removal efficiency recorded for biological and chemical oxygen demand were 60...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 1, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

The Effect of Hydraulic Performance and Operation Interventions on Water Quality: The case of Phakalane Water Distribution System in Botswana
This study demonstrates the application of water distribution system (WDS) simulations to investigate the effect of hydraulic performance, network configurations and alternative operational interventions (AOI) on water quality in a WDS. The study explores the viability of introducing AOI to the current (existing) and plausible (possible) network configurations to improve water age and chlorine residual in the Phakalane WDS. The criteria used to determine the performances of the WDS are (1) the percentage of nodes and (2) the percentage of volume of water demand with water age or chlorine residual, which are within the acce...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 27, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Development and testing of a rainfall-runoff model for flood simulation in dry mountain catchments: A case study for the Dez River Basin
In this study, the Watershed Modelling System (WMS) software was applied for rainfall-runoff modelling on Dez catchment located in Khuzestan province, IRAN since it faces serious flooding caused by heavy rainfall. The use of WMS software which interconnects the terrain models and the Geographic Information System (GIS) with commercial standard hydrological model including HEC-1 results in higher accuracy and saving time through modelling process. In this study, two historical storms (7 days in March 1993 and November–December 2001) used by applying two different modelling methods to determine the hyetographs which ar...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 27, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

The delineation of alluvial aquifers towards a better understanding of channel transmission losses in the Limpopo River Basin
Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): V. Mvandaba, D. Hughes, E. Kapangaziwiri, J. Mwenge Kahinda, P. Hobbs, S. Madonsela, N. OosthuizenAbstractUnderstanding the impact of key hydrological processes on the availability of water resources is an integral component of equitable and sustainable integrated water resource management. Previous hydrological studies conducted in the Limpopo River Basin have revealed a gap in the understanding of surface water-groundwater interactions, particularly channel transmission loss processes. These studies, focused l...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 22, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Potential to use municipal waste bio char in wastewater treatment for nutrients recovery
In this study, municipal wastewater was treated with bio char at the bio filtration stage and the changes in the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphates (TP) and pH were measured before and after treatment with biochar using standard methods. Bio char with surface area of 1000 m2/g and loading of 1g/L was steam activated was used. The wastewater COD, TSS, TKN and TP showed a 90%, 89%, 64% and 78% reduction respectively after being passed through the bio char bio filter. In addition the wastewater pH changed from alkaline to neutral. Bio char can be effecti...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 20, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Drought monitoring and analysis: Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI)
This study compares two different drought indices in the Kafue Basin located in northern Zambia, where most of the socioeconomic livelihoods are dependent on water. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) depends on precipitation as the single input variable while the Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) is derived from precipitation and temperature in the form of a simple water balance. By comparing time series plots (1960–2015) of the two indices, both indices were able to pick up temporal variation of droughts. SPI and SPEI agreed (R > 0.5) on the direction of change but the effect ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 13, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Trace element geochemistry and mineralogy of coal from Samaleswari open cast coal block (S-OCB), Eastern India
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Debasree Saha, Debashis Chatterjee, Sanchita Chakravarty, Madhurina MazumderAbstractCoal samples of Samaleswari open cast coal block (S-OCB) are high ash (Aad, mean value 35.43%) and low sulphur content (St, on dry basis, mean value 0.91% 
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Spatial feature analysis of a cosmic-ray sensor for measuring the soil water content: Comparison of four weighting methods
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Jingya Cai, Zhiguo Pang, Jun'e FuAbstractTo quantitatively analyze the spatial features of a cosmic-ray sensor (CRS) (i.e., the measurement support volume of the CRS and the weight of the in situ point-scale soil water content (SWC) in terms of the regionally averaged SWC derived from the CRS) in measuring the SWC, cooperative observations based on CRS, oven drying and frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) methods are performed at the point and regional scales in a desert steppe area of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Reg...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

The potential use of natural resources in urban informal settlements as substitutes for financial capital during flooding emergencies
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Mwazvita T.B. Dalu, Charlie M. ShackletonAbstractRapid and widespread land cover change and the subsequent loss of the buffering capacity provided by healthy ecosystems against natural hazards has resulted in increased vulnerability to natural hazards. There is an insufficient understanding of the natural resources contribution to the resilience of poor urban communities living in informal settlements and the financial implications thereof. Thus, household strategies used to recover from the October 2012 flood shock we...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Spatial and seasonal distribution of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur and their ecological stoichiometry in wetland soils along a water and salt gradient in the Yellow River Delta, China
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Qiongqiong Lu, Junhong Bai, Guangliang Zhang, Qingqing Zhao, Jianjun WuAbstractTop soils (0–10 cm) were collected in three sampling belts during four seasons in 2014, including bare land (HN1), Calamagrostis epigeios (HN2), Typha orientalis (HN3), Phragmites australis (HN4), Tamarix chinensis (HN5) and Suaeda salsa (HN6) along a water and salinity gradient in the Yellow River Delta, China. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), total sulfur (TS) and their ecological stoichiometr...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Heavy metal contents and transfer capacities of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa in the Yellow River Delta, China
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Shuai Zhang, Junhong Bai, Wei Wang, Laibing Huang, Guangliang Zhang, Dawei WangAbstractPlant samples including roots, stems and leaves of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa were collected in the short-term flooding and tidal flooding wetlands of the Yellow River Delta of China. Six heavy metals (e.g., As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) were measured in roots, stems and leaves of each plant species using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry (ICP-AAS) to investigate the levels, and transfer capabilities ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Hydro-meteorological trends in the Gidabo catchment of the Rift Valley Lakes Basin of Ethiopia
This study examines the long term hydroclimatic changes, analyses of the hydro-climate variability and detect whether there exist significant trend or not in the Gidabo catchment, rift valley lakes basin of Ethiopia. Precipitation, temperature and stream flow time series data were used in monthly, seasonal and annual time scales. The precipitation and temperature data span is between 1982 and 2014 and that of stream flow is between 1976 and 2006. To detect trends the analysis were done by using Mann Kendal (MK), Sen's graphical method and to detect change point using the Pettit test. The comparison of trend analysis betwee...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Evaluation of ecosystem service based on scenario simulation of land use in Yunnan Province
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Hong Zhang, Xiaoli Liao, Tianlin ZhaiAbstractClimate change and rapid urbanization are important factors restricting future land use. Situational analysis, as an important foundation for the optimization of land use, needs to focus on the impact of climate factors and socio-economic factors. In this paper, the Markov model and the DLS (Simulation of Land System Dynamics) model are combined for the first time, and the land use pattern in 2020 is simulated based on the data of land use in 2000 and 2010 as well as the cli...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Projected land use changes impacts on water yields in the karst mountain areas of China
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Yanqing Lang, Wei Song, Xiangzheng DengAbstractHuman-induced land use changes over short time scales have significant impacts on water yield, especially in China because of the rapid social economic development. As the biggest developing country of the world, China's economy is expected to continuously grow with a high speed in the next few decades. Therefore, what kind of land use changes will occur in the future in China? How these changes will influence the water yields? To address this issue, we assessed the water ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Association between forestry ecological engineering and dust weather in Inner Mongolia: A panel study
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Huang Jixia, Zhang Qibin, Tan Jing, Yue Depeng, Ge QuanshengAbstractForestry ecological engineering projects in Western China include the Three-North Shelter Forest Project (TNSFP), the Natural Forest Protection Project (NFPP), the Grain for Green Project (GGP) and the Beijing-Tianjin Sandstorm Source Project (BTSSP). Such projects play an important role in the control of dust weather in Western China. In this research, data on the frequency of sandstorms, sand-blowing and dust-floating weather, the area of four forest...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Physicochemical and microbial assessment of spring water quality for drinking supply in Piedmont of Béni-Mellal Atlas (Morocco)
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Ahmed Barakat, Redouane Meddah, Mustapha Afdali, Fatima TouhamiAbstractThe present study was conducted to examine the water quality of karst springs located along the Piedmont of Béni-Mellal Atlas (Morocco) for drinking purposes. Twenty-five water samples were collected from seven springs in June, July, August and September 2013, and May 2016 have been analyzed for their physicochemical and microbial characteristics.The analytical data of temperature, pH, DO, TAC, TH, oxidizability and NH4+ showed that all sampl...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Preface: Ecosystem services, ecosystem health and human communities
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Hans-Peter Plag (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of seawater intrusion in an arid coastal aquifer, south-eastern Tunisia, using multivariate statistical analysis and chloride mass balance
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Faten Telahigue, Belgacem Agoubi, Faiza Souid, Adel KharroubiAbstractWater availability is a fundamental concern for coastal areas in arid and semiarid regions such as Jerba Island, southeastern Tunisia. In these areas, the water demand is steadily increasing and putting pressure on water resources. These pressures are maintained by excessive pumping to meet the needs of various agricultural, domestic, industrial and tourism sectors. The effects on the groundwater are expressed by a quantitative and qualitative de...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Implementation of Community Based Management (CBM) in Zimbabwe: The dichotomy of theory and practice and its influence on sustainability of rural water supply systems
This study was done to investigate how CBM is being implemented in Zimbabwe. The specific objectives were to analyze how practices of different stakeholders in the rural water sector differ from their roles as stipulated in the CBM framework and to analyze how discrepancies between theory and practice in CBM implementation are influencing sustainability of water supply systems. The study also sought to investigate how trainings which are stipulated in the CBM framework are being done. Data was collected using Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) and a Water Point Committee questionnaire. Pearson ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Surface water bodies mapping in Zimbabwe using landsat 8 OLI multispectral imagery: A comparison of multiple water indices
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Mhosisi Masocha, Timothy Dube, Mellisa Makore, Munyaradzi D. Shekede, Jacob FunaniAbstractWater is integral for the survival of humans, animals, as well as vegetation and information on its spatial distribution is important for water resources management. Various methods have been applied to detect and map land surface water, especially due to the availability of a large range of satellite sensors. The main methods involved are either general feature classification techniques or thematic water body information ext...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Investigation of nutrients and faecal coliforms removal in wastewater using a hydroponic system
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): S.F. Ndulini, G.M. Sithole, M.S. MthembuAbstractFresh water resources are diminishing rapidly through increased inadequately treated or untreated wastewater disposal in water bodies. Disposal of untreated wastewater in freshwater bodies threatens the environment, aquatic and human life. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the removal of contaminants using a simple cost effective hydroponic system in the treatment of raw wastewater to allowable discharge limits. After macrophytes were planted and...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Hydrogeological conceptual model of large and complex sedimentary aquifer systems – Central Kalahari Basin (Botswana)
In this study, an efficient data integration method for developing hydrogeological conceptual model of the large and hydrogeologically-complex, Central Kalahari Basin (CKB) aquifer system, was undertaken. In that process, suitability of 3-D geological modelling with RockWorks code in iterative combination with standard GIS (ArcGIS) was tested. As a result, six hydrostratigraphic units were identified, their heads and related flow system interdependencies evaluated and hydraulic properties attached. A characteristic feature of the CKB is a thick unsaturated Kalahari Sand Unit (KSU), that restricts the erratic recharge input to
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Microwave-assisted graft synthesis and characterization of poly(methacrylic acid)-grafted polyethersulfone towards dense hydrophilic and low-fouling membranes for water treatment
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Lwazi Ndlwana, Keneiloe Sikhwivhilu, Richard Moutloali, Jane Catherine NgilaAbstractHerein, we report on a fast route of microwave-assisted synthesis for powder composites towards robust and ultralow-fouling polymethacrylic acid (PMAA)-grafted polyethersulfone (PES) membranes. The grafting was confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). Microfiltration membranes were then prepared from the powder composites b...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Impacts of hydropower dam operations in the Mana Pools National Park floodplains
This study investigated the hydro-dynamics from natural and human influenced flows, particularly at the Mana Pools floodplains which are downstream of Kariba and Kafue hydropower dams. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the differences in flow regime upstream and downstream of the hydropower reservoirs. A standard t-test was done to compare the natural and modified mean annual flows. Results show that the presence of upstream reservoirs has reduced the high peak average monthly flows by 17% and increased the average monthly low flows by 5% at Mana Pools. However, the mean annual runoff has not significantly change...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of empirical and regression methods for infilling missing streamflow data in Little Ruaha catchment Tanzania
This study therefore made a contribution by appraising empirical and regression rainfall runoff based methods in the Little Ruaha River catchment, a sub-catchment of the Great Ruaha River sub-basin both within the Rufiji River Basin. The methods employed included simple linear regression (with untransformed and log-transformed data), multiple linear regression (with untransformed and log-transformed data), rainfall-runoff relationship using double mass curve technique, flow duration matching and drainage-area ratio. In addition, rainfall runoff modeling using HBV-Light was done for further comparison. With exception to the...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Estimating spatial catchment natural hydrological response characteristics in Swaziland
This study establishes the hydrological response of 122 catchments in Swaziland's trans-boundary basins on the basis of validated WR90 hydro-meteorological time series data. The flow duration indices (FDIs: Q10, Q50, Q90) were determined and standardised by the mean monthly streamflow, and the runoff ratio was calculated as a method to determine how catchments respond to precipitation inputs. The runoff ratio and FDIs were then plotted against aridity indices, and the plot shows that the runoff ratio is consistent with the aridity index, except for a few suspected anomalies emanating from values of Q50 and Q90. The finding...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Constraints to smallholder agricultural production in the Western Cape, South Africa
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Bongani NcubeAbstractImproving agricultural production remains a major challenge for smallholder farmers in South Africa. The enactment of the 1998 Water Act and subsequent water allocation reforms were meant to correct equity challenges of the past in water allocation and increase agricultural productivity in the rural sector. More than 20 years after the initiation of the processes smallholder farmers remain poor with limited agricultural productivity. With the advent of more frequent droughts and the ever incr...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

A novel photodegradation approach for the efficient removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from water
In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes/nitrogen, palladium co-doped titanium dioxide (MWCNT/N, Pd co-doped TiO2) (0.5–5% MWCNTs) were fabricated for the enhancement of NOM degradation under visible-light illumination. Different MWCNT/N, Pd co-doped TiO2 (also referred to as CT) nanocomposites were synthesised via a modified sol-gel method and characterised using ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The UV-Vis ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Understanding the impacts of human resettlement and projected land use dynamics in Chimanimani district of Zimbabwe
This study tests whether and in what way agricultural expansion drives land cover change in resettled landscapes of Zimbabwe now and in the future. Classified Landsat Thematic Mapper images of 2000, 2009, and Landsat 8 image of 2013 were analyzed, using the widely used Markov modelling framework, to determine land use and land cover changes between the year 2000 and 2013, as well as future land cover dynamics in the area of interest. Specifically, land cover data was used to simulate land cover transitions up to 2050, using Markov chain model. Historic land cover modelling and future spatial predictions revealed increases ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Effects of land use and land cover changes on water quality in the uMngeni river catchment, South Africa
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): Jean Nepomuscene Namugize, Graham Jewitt, Mark GrahamAbstractLand use and land cover change are major drivers of water quality deterioration in watercourses and impoundments. However, understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of land use change characteristics and their link to water quality parameters in catchments is limited. As a contribution to address this limitation, the objective of this study is to assess the linkages between biophysico-chemical water quality parameters and land use and land cover (L...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Determinants of farmers' participation in collective maintenance of irrigation infrastructure in KwaZulu-Natal
This study identifies the factors influencing farmers' decision to, and extent of participation in the maintenance of irrigation infrastructure in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa based on cross-section data collected from 320 randomly selected smallholder irrigating farmers. A two-step Heckman regression model was applied in the analysis. It was established that households whose heads were older, block committee members, with larger irrigation plots, good soil quality and experiencing severe irrigation water shortages are more likely to participate in maintenance of irrigation infrastructure. On the other hand, farmer...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Validation and verification of lawful water use in South Africa: An overview of the process in the KwaZulu-Natal Province
The objective of the process is to determine how much water is allocated for: (1) existing lawful use in accordance with specific requirements of the NWA, and; (2) current water uses. The process identified users with or without registered use entitlements, whether claims for registered uses were correct, under-estimated, over-estimated or false; and confirmed the lawfulness of each water use in accordance with water legislation that pre-dated the NWA. The process included identifying land and non-land based water uses (industrial, mining and bulk potable water supplies, irrigation, crop types and impoundments) using remot...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Scenario planning for water resource management in semi arid zone
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): Rajiv Gupta, Gaurav KumarAbstractScenario planning for water resource management in semi arid zone is performed using systems Input-Output approach of time domain analysis. This approach derived the future weights of input variables of the hydrological system from their precedent weights. Input variables considered here are precipitation, evaporation, population and crop irrigation. Ingles & De Souza's method and Thornthwaite model have been used to estimate runoff and evaporation respectively. Difference between pr...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Innovative solutions for intractable water problems in the face of climate change in southern and East African sub regions
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): Benjamin Mapani, Hodson Makurira, Lapologang Magole, Maideyi Meck, Theresa Mkandawire, Marloes Mul, Cosmo Ngongondo (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

A review of formal institutions affecting water supply and access in Botswana
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): Patricia K. Mogomotsi, Goemeone E.J. Mogomotsi, Dimpho M. MatlholaAbstractOver the years, many countries across the world have increasingly experienced the collapse of their ecosystems, leading to an elevated increase on the demand for freshwater resources. Botswana is not an exception. The problem of disrupted potable water supply is widespread across the country. However, the physical shortage of water in the country is arguably coupled by lack of effective and efficient water supply and management institutions and wa...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Relating the dynamics of climatological and hydrological droughts in semiarid Botswana
This study attempts to determine drought timescale that is suitable for monitoring the effects of drought on hydrological systems which can then be used to assess the long term persistence or reversion and forecasts of the dynamics. Based on this, climatological and hydrological drought indices characterized by Standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and Standardized flow index (SFI) respectively have been determined using monthly rainfall, temperature and flow data from two major river systems. The association between climatological and hydrological droughts in Botswana has been investigated using these...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Modelling climate change impact: A case of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea)
Publication date: June 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 105Author(s): Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi, Tendai Polite Chibarabada, Vimbayi Grace Petrova Chimonyo, Albert Thembinkosi ModiAbstractClimate change projections for southern Africa indicate low and erratic rainfall as well as increasing frequency and intensity of rainfall extremes such as drought. The 2015/16 drought devastated large parts of southern Africa and highlighted the need for drought tolerant crops. Bambara groundnut is an African indigenous crop, commonly cultivated in southern Africa, with a higher potential for drought toler...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research