Comparison of solute/heat transport in fractured formations using discrete fracture and equivalent porous media modeling at the reservoir scale
In this study, fluid flow and solute/heat transport phenomena were investigated using the equivalent porous media approach and compared to discrete fracture modeling. In the equivalent porous media approach, the fractures were replaced with a porous medium. Its effective porosity and permeability were adjusted to get the simulation results similar to discrete fracture modeling results. In addition, the solid deformation, in equivalent porous media approach, was coupled with heat transfer, while it was de-coupled with fluid flow to increase the simulations’ efficiency. The equivalent porous media approach was applied ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 9, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Impact of substrate type, depth and retention time on organic matter removal in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland mesocosms for treating slaughterhouse wastewater
Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): C. Mburu, J. Kipkemboi, R. KimwagaAbstractPopulation growth and the associated demand for meat products is creating an increasing concern on water over slaughterhouse associated pollution of aquatic environments in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, increasing volumes of strong slaughterhouse wastewater being discharged either untreated or partially treated has necessitated ardent research into sustainable technologies. Vertical sub-surface flow constructed wetlands offer a promising solution. A study investigating ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 7, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

The removal and adsorption mechanisms of free amino acid l-tryptophan from aqueous solution by biomass-based activated carbon by H3PO4 activation: regeneration study
The objective of this work is to examine the effectiveness of low cost material as adsorbent for the removal of free amino acid l-tryptophan from aqueous solutions in order to avoid the formation of undesirable disinfection by-products, trihalomethanes and iodinated trihalomethanes, during the water chlorination. The adsorbent was prepared from date pits and activated with H3PO4 (DPH). The textural properties of DPH were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM analysis and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. DPH possesses a large specific surface area (1040 m2 g–1) and a high total pore volume (1.089 cm3 g–1)....
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 1, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Approaches to multi-scale analyses of mechanically and thermally-driven migration of fluid inclusions in salt rocks
Publication date: Available online 22 July 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Hua Shao, Yifeng Wang, Olaf Kolditz, Thomas Nagel, Torben BrüningAbstractFluid inclusions are found within mineral crystals or along grain boundaries in many sedimentary rocks, notably in evaporite formations, and can migrate along a thermal or hydro-mechanical gradient. Shale and salt rocks have been considered potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal, due to their low permeability. Previously stagnant inclusions may become mobilised by a perturbation of the in situ state by a geotechnical insta...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 22, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

An assessment of baseline and downscaled projected climate variables in the Upper Manyame sub-catchment of Zimbabwe
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Oliver Masimba, Webster Gumindoga, Alexander Mhizha, Donald Tendayi RwasokaAbstractThe study assessed historical trends in precipitation and temperature using Mann-Kendall trend and Wilcoxon signed rank tests in the Upper Manyame sub-catchment of Zimbabwe. The projected precipitation and temperature for the 2030s and 2060s were downscaled using the Statistical DownScaling Model with data from HadCM3 and CanESM2. Trend analysis results showed a declining statistically non-significant trend in precipitation and a s...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 10, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Terrestrial heat flow evaluation from thermal response tests combined with temperature profiling
Publication date: Available online 7 July 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Maria Isabel Velez, Jasmin Raymond, Daniela Blessent, Mikael PhilippeABSTRACTThe terrestrial heat flux density, an essential information to evaluate the deep geothermal resource potential, is rarely defined over urban areas where energy needs are important. In an effort to fill this gap, the subsurface thermal conductivity estimated during two thermal response tests was coupled with undisturbed temperature profile measurements conducted in the same boreholes to infer terrestrial heat flow near the surface. The un...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 7, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Mapping floods in the Middle Zambezi Basin using Earth observation and hydrological modeling techniques
Publication date: Available online 29 June 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): T. Nharo, H. Makurira, W. GumindogaAbstractThe Lower Middle Zambezi catchment, on the Zimbabwean side, is vulnerable to floods almost every year. In this work, the causes and impacts of floods in the Mbire District of the Middle Zambezi Basin are investigated. An algorithm based on the binary logistic regression is used together with MODIS NDVI images to determine the spatial and temporal variation of flood inundation. The HEC-HMS model is used to simulate rainfall time series at daily time step. The quantified ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 30, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: June 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 111Author(s): (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 18, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Application of the Two-Fluid Model to Prediction of Sediment Transport in Turbulent Open Channel Flow
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Mina Ahadi, Donald J. Bergstrom, Kerry Anne MazurekAbstractThe two-fluid model formulation was used to predict the fluid and sediment transport in an open channel flow for a dilute concentration. A low Reynolds number k–ε model was used to represent the turbulence in the fluid phase; it included the effect of the sediment particles on the turbulence field. The particle-wall interactions were implemented using the boundary condition of Johnson and Jackson (1987), which resulted in a finite value for...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 15, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: April 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 110Author(s): (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 25, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Resistance Prediction of Two Fishing Vessel Models Based on RANS Solutions
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Md Ashim Ali, Heather Peng, Wei QiuAbstractThis paper presents the numerical prediction of calm water resistance of a fishing vessel using the open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package, OpenFOAM. Numerical simulations were carried out for two different vessel models, one with an optimized bulbous bow and the other without a bulbous bow, by solving the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The numerical solutions were validated against the experimental results. The wave profile along the s...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 24, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of water quality in coastal estuaries under the impact of an industrial zone in Hai Phong, Vietnam
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Quang Tri Doan, Thi Mai Linh Nguyen, Thi Thanh Tuyet Quach, Anh Phuong Tran, Cao Don NguyenAbstractThe purpose of this study was to apply numerical modeling to assess the water quality in Nam Trieu and Lach Tray coastal estuaries. The wind reanalysis data from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model were used to simulate waves and hydrodynamic regimes with a definition of 14 km within the longitude range from 105oE to 120oE and latitude range from 5° to 22° in the study area. The calibration a...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 19, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Integrating LIDAR data and four-dimensional flux method to analyzing the transmission of PM2.5 in Shenzhen
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Chanfang Liu, Long He, Dongqin Pi, Jiangwei Zhao, Liheng Lin, Pengfei He, Jiahe Wang, Jianbin Wu, Huansheng Chen, Pingzhong Yan, Weimin Wang, Shuxian Lin, Yong YouAbstractWith the increase economic growth and high energy consumption in Shenzhen, pollutant emission increases gradually which leads to air pollution and affect public health. In order to undertake effective measures for preventing and controlling air pollution, it is essential to understand the transmission characteristics of PM2.5 and identify the c...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 18, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessing the Performance of Trichardt Wastewater Treatment Plant (South Africa)
The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of the Trichardt Wastewater Treatment Plant (South Africa) and come up with recommendations for the improvement of the wastewater treatment plant. The performance of the plant was evaluated for its compliance with the standard set by the DWS. The water quality parameters tested include: Ammonia (NH3), Nitrate (NO3-), Phosphate (PO4-3), Chemical Oxygen Demands (COD), Turbidity (T) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS). The result indicates that the concentration of most of the considered parameters (TSS, NH4, COD, PO4-3) are above the permissible limit set by DWS thr...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 16, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Estimating vegetation productivity of urban regions using sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence data derived from the OCO-2 satellite
In conclusion, the method of using OCO-2 SIF to estimate GPP established in this study could provide support for the study of vegetation productivity in urban regions around the world. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 16, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Comparison of the Performance of SWAT, IHACRES and Artificial Neural Networks models in rainfall-runoff simulation (Case study: Kan watershed, Iran)
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Mehdi Ahmadi, Abolfazl Moeini, Hassan Ahmadi, Baharak Motamedvaziri, Gholam Reza ZehtabiyanAbstractThe catchment area is essentially a heterogeneous dynamic, time and space hydrological system, and so the process of rainfall- runoff transmission in the catchment area is a very complex phenomenon. The temporal and spatial changes in the catchment characteristics, uncertainties in rainfall patterns, and a large number of parameters that alter the rainfall in to runoff, are the main sources of complexity in such rela...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 10, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Quantifying spatial pattern of urban greenspace from a gradient perspective of built-up age
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Yuguo Qian, Zhiqiang Li, Weiqi Zhou, Yingyun ChenAbstractUrban greenspace provides myriad ecosystem services to urban dwellers. Accurately quantifying the spatiotemporal pattern of urban greenspace is important to fully understand its ecosystem services provision. While numerous studies have investigated the spatial pattern of urban greenspace and its change, few studies have explored how the spatial pattern of urban greenspace differ in urban areas developed in different years. Here, we chose Shenzhen as the stud...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 10, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

How climate variations are reflected in root zone storage capacities
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Tanja de Boer-Euser, Jaime Palalane, Hubert Savenije, Dinis JuízoAbstractChanges in climatic conditions and vegetation cover are expected to affect the hydrological behaviour of catchments. An important variable in hydrological models trying to catch this behaviour is the catchment representative root zone storage capacity (Sr). Traditionally, Sr is derived from soil properties, which makes it difficult to incorporate changes in climatic and vegetation conditions. Using climate data rather than soil data to...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 7, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessing the surface material quality of unpaved rural roads to understand susceptibility to surface deterioration. A case study of four rural areas in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
This study assesses the surface material quality of unpaved rural roads in four rural areas in the KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa in order to understand susceptibility to surface deterioration. The study further establishes other possible factors such as slope gradient and rainfall, that could determine the surface material quality. Soil samples were collected from R3, R4, and R5 road classes in four rural areas which are: Emazabekweni, Dukuza, Mkhunya and Mhlwazini Area. Laboratory analyses were conducted in order to determine the performance of the material as potential wearing course. Material performance was then...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 25, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Analysis and determination of optimum risk factors to prioritize illegal discharge potential in urban catchments.
The objective of this paper was to search for optimum risk factors based on existing data to determine the potential severity of illegal discharge within selected two catchments, and identify which areas merit priority investigation. The methods used in the investigation included risk factors metric ranking, spatial analysis, multi criteria evaluation, and composite risk map production. Results from the study indicated that many land use, hydraulic, and hydrologic factors affect the location of illegal discharges. Risk factors were ranked in terms of their performance to predict locations of illegal discharge potential. Th...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 25, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Fine particulate (PM2.5) dynamics before and after China's “Reform and Opening up” policy in Shenzhen
Publication date: Available online 11 April 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Lijian Han, Weiqi Zhou, Weifeng Li, Yuguo Qian, Weimin WangAbstractUnderstanding the trade-off between urbanization and air pollution could provide important insights on urban sustainable development. Such cases in China were very rare for PM2.5 due to the recent short-term availability of the PM2.5 monitoring records. We therefore estimated the long time series PM2.5 concentration in Shenzhen during 1973–2017 under the truth that PM2.5 is the major component of PM10, and PM2.5 have a significant relation...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 16, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Fine particulate (PM2.5) dynamics before and after China’s “Reform and Opening up” policy in Shenzhen
Publication date: Available online 11 April 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Lijian Han, Weiqi Zhou, Weifeng Li, Yuguo Qian, Weimin WangAbstractUnderstand the trade-off between urbanization and air pollution could provide important insights on urban sustainable development. Such cases in China were very rare for PM2.5 due to the availability of the PM2.5 records’ availability. We therefore estimated the long time series PM2.5 concentration in Shenzhen during 1973-2017 under the truth that PM2.5 is the major component of PM10, and PM2.5 have a significant relationship (y = 100e-0.086x; r = 0.69, P
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 11, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of Water Quality in Coastal Estuaries Under Impact of Industrial Zone in Hai Phong, Vietnam
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Doan Quang Tri, Nguyen Thi Mai Linh, Quach Thi Thanh Tuyet, Tran Anh Phuong, Nguyen Cao DonAbstractThe purpose of this study is to apply numerical modeling to assess the water quality in Cam and Lach Tray coastal estuaries. The wind re-analysis data from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to simulate wave and the hydrodynamic regimes with a definition of 14 km within the longitude range from 1050E to 1200E and latitude range from 50 to 220 in the study area. The calibration and validation res...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 5, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of the patterns of urban land covers and impervious surface areas: a case study of Shenzhen, China
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Qinghuai Zeng, Yingjia Xie, Kai LiuAbstractRemote sensing techniques have gradually become a popular tool for monitoring urban ecological environments because of their multi-temporal characteristics and rapid acquisition abilities. Based on five Landsat 8 scenes from 2013 to 2017, this study investigates the application of land cover classification and spectral mixture analysis in monitoring the urban environment of Shenzhen. By combining high-resolution data with field survey data, this study also assesses and ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 5, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

LIDAR analyzing the transmission of PM2.5 in Shenzhen with LIDAR data and four- dimensional flux method
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Chanfang Liu, Long He, Dongqin Pi, Jiangwei Zhao, Liheng Lin, Pengfei He, Jiahe Wang, Jianbin Wu, Huansheng Chen, Pingzhong Yan, Weimin Wang, Shuxian Lin, Yong YouAbstractWith the increase economic growth and high energy consumption in Shenzhen, pollutant emission increases gradually which leads to air pollution and affect public health. In order to undertake effective measures for preventing and controlling air pollution, it is essential to understand the transmission charactistics of PM2.5 and identify the cau...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 5, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Degradation Of Kilombero Valley Ramsar Wetlands In Tanzania
In this study, the land cover changes in the Kilombero Valley were analyzed over a span of 30 years. Fourteen Landsat (ETM and TM) images, covering the years 1975, 1990, 2002, 2009 and 2010, were used to generate land use maps for the study area and were analyzed for quantitative changes. Post-classification change detection analysis revealed that there has been an extensive exploitation of natural land cover across the valley through agricultural activities. In 1975, the valley floor was dominated by woodland (42%) and seasonal wetlands (37%). However, this has changed over the years and in 2008, 36% of the valley area wa...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 28, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

High resolution Mapping of Agricultural Water Productivity using SEBAL in a cultivated African Catchment, Tanzania
This study aims at high resolution (10m) mapping and evaluation of the spatial variability of biomass, yield, ET and WPET in the Makanya river catchment using the automated Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (pySEBAL) with SENTINEL-2 and LANDSAT-8 images, local land use map and locally calibrated leaf area index (LAI) inputs. A coupled phenological variability and supervised classification approach on high resolution images generated a high accuracy LULC layer which was used to map the WPET in the agricultural lands. The pySEBAL results were evaluated in view of local information on crop yields, water allocation and...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 27, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Geochemical and statistical studies of Mio-Pliocene aquifer's mineralization in Jerba Island, South-eastern Tunisia
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Soumaya Farhat, Mahmoud Bali, Fethi KamelAbstractManagement of water resources is a major concern for arid and semi-arid regions mainly because of the high groundwater salinization which impacts water quality. Here, Hydrochemical data of major and minor ions such as (sodium (Na+), Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl−), bicarbonate (HCO3−) and sulfate (SO42−) were used to study the Mio-Pliocene (MP) aquifer of Jerba Island, southeastern Tunisia, whose groundwater reso...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 27, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Spatial-temporal pattern evolution of wastewater discharge in Yangtze River Economic Zone from 2002 to 2015
This study uses Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) method and Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) model to analyze and discuss the Spatial-temporal pattern as well as the dominant driving factors of wastewater discharge in Yangtze River Economic Zone from 2002 to 2015. The paper indicates that: (1) In terms of the spatial-temporal pattern, the amount of wastewater discharge in Yangtze River Economic Zone shows an increase trend from 2002 to 2005, and then put up a decline trend between 2005 and 2015. Referring to the spatial characteristics, firstly, the amount of wastewater discharge increases from upstream to dow...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 21, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Tree Diversity Assessment and Above Ground Forests Biomass Estimation using SAR Remote Sensing: A case study of Higher Altitude Vegetation of North-East Himalayas, India
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Amit Kumar, B.S.P.C. Kishore, P. Saikia, J. Deka, S. Bharali, L.B. Singha, O.P. Tripathi, M.L. KhanAbstractForest biomass is one of the significant components for assessing the productivity and sustainability of the forest’s ecosystem. In the present study, the mapping and estimation of above ground biomass (AGB) was performed using field observations employing allometric equations and C band Sentinel 1A and L band Advanced Land Observation System (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSA...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 21, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Geochemical and statistical studies of Mio-Pliocene aquifer’s mineralization in Jerba Island, South-eastern Tunisia
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Soumaya Farhat, Mahmoud Bali, Fethi KamelAbstractManagement of water resources is a major concern for arid and semi-arid regions mainly because of the high groundwater salinization which impacts water quality. Here, Hydrochemical data of major and minor ions such as (sodium (Na+), Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), bicarbonate (HCO3-) and sulfate (SO42-) were used to study the Mio-Pliocene (MP) aquifer of Jerba Island, southeastern Tunisia, whose groundwater resources are characte...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 21, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: February 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 109Author(s): (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 16, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Editorial
Publication date: February 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 109Author(s): Cristina Andrade, João A. Santos, Samantha Hughes (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 16, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Evaluation of TAMSAT satellite rainfall estimates for southern Africa: A comparative approach
Publication date: Available online 20 February 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Eric S. Seyama, Mhosisi Masocha, Timothy DubeAbstractDeveloping countries with a paucity of direct rainfall measuring systems on the ground, satellite remote sensing is increasingly being relied upon as a means through which national governmental response and future strategies to manage natural disasters, such as drought and flooding are decided upon. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the Tropical Applications of Meteorology Using Satellite Data and Ground-Based Observations (TAMSAT) mon...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 15, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Precipitation variations and shifts over time: Implication on Windhoek city water supply
This study highlights the need for better water management strategies, if cities in dry climates are to survive the anticipated future water crises. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 13, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability and Water Quality of Ngwerere Sub-Catchment Urban Aquifers in Lusaka, Zambia
This study is aimed at evaluation of the protection and management of groundwater quality for aquifers in Ngwerere sub-catchment, as a case study. This was achieved through the development of a vulnerability map using inherent hydrogeological and landuse data, as well as analysis of groundwater quality. The results revealed that most of the aquifers in the study area have very low protective effectiveness of the soil and rock cover, which are supposed to act as barriers against pollution. This was validated from physicochemical and microbial analyses of randomly sampled boreholes in the study area, which indicated high lev...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 13, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Integrating microbiological and physico-chemical parameters for enhanced spatial prediction of groundwater quality in Harare
Publication date: Available online 11 March 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Mhosisi Masocha, Timothy Dube, Thokozani DubeAbstractWe predict groundwater quality to ascertain suitability for drinking purposes in the City of Harare using a geostatistical approach. Forty-four (44) groundwater samples collected across different parts of the City of Harare were used. The samples were analyzed for twelve physico-chemical and microbiological parameters (i.e., pH, conductivity, calcium, magnesium, hardness, sodium, iron, potassium, nitrates, sulphates, turbidity, and total coliforms). Then, an ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 13, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Optimization of Urban Land-use Structure in China's Rapidly Developing Regions with Eco-environmental Constraints
Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Xiang Luo, Xinhai Lu, Gui Jin, Qing Wan, Min ZhouAbstractEconomic growth and eco-environmental protection are largely incompatible in the optimization of the urban land-use structure (ULUS) in rapidly developing regions. Here, we attempted to construct a model for optimizing ULUS with the inclusion of uncertain interval values, simultaneously considering the economic growth and eco-environmental protection in rapidly developing regions so as to estimate the elastic interval value of ULUS. The corresponding urba...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 13, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Permeability calculation of rarefied gas flows through 2D porous structures using the lattice Boltzmann method
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Michel Ho, Jesús García Pérez, Marcelo Reggio, Jean-Yves TrépanierAbstractIn the perspective of understanding the flow behavior of atmosphere gases through porous thermal protection systems (TPS) for spacecrafts, permeability calculation has been performed by implementing a modified lattice Boltzmann model. This realization allows the simulation of rarefied gas flows through the TPS micro-porous media. Rarefaction, characterized by the Knudsen number (Kn) is taken into account in the...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 11, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

SDGs and decentralizing water management for transformation: Normative policy coherence for water security in SADC river basin organizations
Publication date: Available online 27 February 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Christopher Changwe NshimbiAbstractThis paper engages in a normative analysis of water security, in view of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) and the call for transformation. It examines the role of river basin organizations (RBOs) and integrated water resources management (IWRM) to water governance, and the extent to which they are consistent with water security for development in Southern Africa. The paper uses Policy Coherence for Development (PCD) and addresses essential questions regarding the ex...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 28, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Geospatial assessment of soil erosion vulnerability in the upper uMgeni catchment in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Nosipho Makaya, Timothy Dube, Khoboso Seutloali, Cletah Shoko, Onisimo Mutanga, Mhosisi MasochaAbstractSoil erosion remains a major environmental threat confronting agriculture in South Africa. The main objective of the study was, therefore, to assess and map soil erosion vulnerability in the upper uMgeni catchment of South Africa. To achieve this objective, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to calculate the normalized weights of six soil erosion controlling factors i.e. slope (27.6%), vegetati...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 23, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Perceptions on greywater reuse for home gardening activities in two rural villages of Fetakgomo Local Municipality, South Africa
In this study we assess the reuse of greywater for home gardening in two rural communities (Ga-Seroka and Ga-Nkwana) in Limpopo Province, South Africa, using a mixed methods approach (Qualitative and Quantitative). A total of 95 and 87 households were randomly selected in Ga-Seroka and Ga-Nkwana villages, respectively. Field surveys from the selected households were gathered based on structured questionnaire and then analysed using statistical package software. The key findings of the study showed that 66% of the respondents from Ga-Nkwana village reused their greywater for irrigation, as compared to 59% from Ga-Seroka. Th...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 23, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Revealing patterns of greenspace in urban areas resulting from three urban growth types
This study linked landscape patterns and urban growth types that enhanced our understanding of the process of urban expansion and may provide valuable information for local policy making and urban planning. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 22, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Groundwater Quality Assessment Using a Water Quality Index and GIS: A Case of Ushewokunze Settlement, Harare, Zimbabwe.
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Felistas Muzenda, Mhosisi Masocha, Sherpherd. N. MisiAbstractA study was carried out to assess the quality of groundwater and its suitability for domestic use in Ushewokunze peri-urban Settlement, Harare, Zimbabwe. The study area is not yet serviced with water supply and sanitation. This leaves residents solely dependent on pit latrines for sanitation and on groundwater sources for potable water supply. Ushewokunze is divided into Phase 1; with residential stand sizes of 1 500m2 - 2000m2; Phase 2 where stand...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 22, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Evaluation of TAMSAT satellite rainfall estimates for southern Africa: An inter-product comparison study
Publication date: Available online 20 February 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Seyama Eric S, Mhosisi Masocha, Timothy DubeAbstractIn developing countries with a paucity of direct rainfall measuring systems on the ground, satellite remote sensing is increasingly being relied upon as a means through which national governmental response and future strategy to manage natural disasters such as drought and flooding are decided upon. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the Tropical Applications of Meteorology Using Satellite Data and Ground-Based Observations (TAMSAT) mont...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 21, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Examining Trends of Hydro-Meteorological Extremes in the Shire River Basin in Malawi
This study, therefore, aimed at examining trends and frequency of these hydro-meteorological extremes in the Shire River Basin in Malawi. Daily scale data from 1961 to between 2005 to 2015 were collected from 22 rainfall stations, 12 temperature stations and 10 river discharge station within the study area. The hydro-meteorological extremes were analyzed using annual maximas and annual minimas of the daily hydro-meteorological data. Significance and direction of trends in these extreme indices were examined using the non-parametric Mann–Kendall test statistic. The Peak-Over-Threshold (POT) approach, applying the Gene...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 20, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Urban expansion in Shenzhen since 1970s: A retrospect of change from a village to a megacity from the space
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Wenjuan Yu, Yujia Zhang, Weiqi Zhou, Weimin Wang, Rong TangAbstractQuantifying the characteristic of urban expansion is the prerequisite of understanding its social and ecological outcomes. Here, using Shenzhen, a city that grew from a fishery village to a megacity in 40 years as a case study, we quantified the urban expansion at two scales, over the entire city and within the city, at district level. Twelve land cover maps from 1979 to 2017 were classified using Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI images. Based on the long...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 14, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Predicting pollutant concentrations in rivers exposed to alluvial gold mining in Mazowe Catchment, Zimbabwe
In this study, we assess the effect of alluvial gold mining on surface water quality at three sites located along the Mazowe and Mwenje rivers in northern Zimbabwe using a simple exponential decay model. The model predictions were regressed against measured in-situ Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and turbidity. Strong linear relationships were observed between the measured and predicted pollutant concentrations. Specifically, the results indicate that TSS concentrations can be predicted in the catchment, with high accuracy (R2 values of 82%, 88% and 93% and root mean square errors (RMSEs) of 5, 2 and 3 mg/ℓ across the three...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 12, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Used plastic materials as mulches: An alternative to conventional black plastic mulch for small and marginal farmers
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Jitendra Sinha, Radhika Sahu, R.K. Sahu, G.K. NigamAbstractThe return of ladies finger (okra) to the joint effect of drip irrigation and mulches is very encouraging. The most common types of mulch are the black plastic mulch (BPM), which is commercially produced by industry but does create environmental problems and increased cost of production particularly for small and marginal farmers. On the other hand, food materials and fertilizers etc. are available and sold in plastic bags. Can we make REUSE of these ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 7, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Remote sensing of water use and water stress in the African Savanna ecosystem at local scale – development and validation of a monitoring tool.
In this study we develop a mechanism for monitoring the water used by African savanna from fine scale (meters) to watershed scale, integrating the effects of the water stress. Our hypothesis is that the Ecosystem Stress Index (ESI) is a valuable tool to downscale estimates of actual evapotranspiration at coarse scale, to high resolutions. To monitor savanna water fluxes in a semi-continuous way this study integrates two different ET-estimation approaches: KC-FAO56 model, integrating reflectance-based “crop” coefficients (SPOT 4 & 5 satellites), is used to derive unstressed savanna evapotranspiration (with h...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 6, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research