Effects of salinity on dynamics of soil carbon in degraded coastal wetlands: implications on wetland restoration
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Qingqing Zhao, Junhong Bai, Qiongqiong Lu, Guangliang Zhang To investigate the effects of salinity on dynamics of soil carbon contents and stocks, soil samples were collected at a depth of 30 cm at four sampling sites (Sites B, T, S and P) along a salinity gradient in a drained coastal wetland, the Yellow River Delta, China. The salinity of these four sites ranked in the order: B (8.68 ± 4.25 ms/cm) > T (5.89 ± 3.17 ms/cm) > S (3.19 ± 1.01 ms/cm) > P (2.26 ± 0...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 30, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

A Method to Correct Eddy Covariance Flux Underestimates under an Advective Environment for Arid or Semi-arid Regions
In this study, a new method is proposed to account for advection in order to correct EC data under advective environments. This advection based method was applied to data from Bushland, TX, which is subject to dry air and strong winds. Observations from two identical EC systems as well as two precision monolithic weighing lysimeters were used in this analysis. Both EC sites showed significant underestimates of evapotranspiration (ET) compared with lysimeter measurements. The daily energy balance closure for NE01 and SE02 sites were 0.78 and 0.74 respectively. The advection correction method provided improved performance in...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 30, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

The 24 May 2014 (Mw6.8) earthquake (North Aegean Trough): spatiotemporal evolution, source and slip model from teleseismic data
Publication date: Available online 28 August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Anastasia Kiratzi, Eva Tsakiroudi, Christoforos Benetatos, George Karakaisis We use teleseismic data to calculate the source model of the 24 May 2014 earthquake and regional catalogues to examine the spatial-temporal characteristics of the sequence. The sequence started in Saros Basin but almost simultaneously aftershocks spread along a ∼200 km zone, activating the entire North Aegean Trough. The aftershock sequence was rich in moderate (M<4) size events, but very deficient in strong events &ndash...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 28, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Electrospun and functionalized PVDF/PAN composite for the removal of trace metals in contaminated water
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): R.M. Nthumbi, A.A. Adelodun, J.C. Ngila The electrospinning of a nanofiber composite of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in a dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent was carried out prior to functionalization by free radical grafting of acrylic acid (AA) brushes. Subsequent application for the removal of Pb2+ and Cd2+ from contaminated water is reported. Free radicals were initiated on the polymeric nanofiber composite using 5% 2,2′-Azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN) in acetone. Upo...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 28, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

When good practices by water committees are not relevant: sustainability of small water infrastructures in semi-arid mozambique
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Raphaelle Ducrot This paper explores the contradiction between the need for large scale interventions in rural water supplies and the need for flexibility when providing support for community institutions, by investigating the implementation of the Mozambique - National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Program in a semi-arid district of the Limpopo Basin. Our results showed that coordinated leadership by key committee members, and the level of village governance was more important for borehole sustainabilit...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 23, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Surface geology and morphologic effects on seismic site response: the study case of Lampedusa, Italy
Publication date: Available online 22 August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): F. Panzera, G. Lombardo, S. Sicali, S. D’Amico A joint Italo-Maltese research project (Costituzione di un Sistema Integrato di Protezione Civile Transfrontaliero Italo-Maltese, SIMIT) was financially supported by the European community with the aim to produce hazard maps in the area between the south-eastern Sicilian coast and the Sicily Channel including the islands of Lampedusa and Malta. In the frame of this project, the present study investigates the characteristics of the local seismic response in...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 22, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Polyethyleneimine-carbon nanotube polymeric nanocomposite adsorbents for the removal of Cr6+ from water
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Shepherd S. Sambaza, Monaheng L. Masheane, Soraya P. Malinga, Edward N. Nxumalo, Sabelo D. Mhlanga This work reports on the synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and their use in branched polyethyleneimine-multiwalled carbon nanotube (PEI-MWCNT) polymeric nanocomposite adsorbents for the removal of Cr6+ from contaminated water. The nanostructured materials were characterized using TEM, Raman, FTIR, BET surface area and zeta potental measurements. TEM confirmed the average diameter of the MWCNTs...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 17, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Ungauged runoff simulation in Upper Manyame Catchment, Zimbabwe: Application of the HEC-HMS model
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Webster Gumindoga, Donald T. Rwasoka, Innocent Nhapi, Timothy Dube The Hydrologic Engineering Center Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS) model was applied to simulate runoff in the ten gauged and ungauged Upper Manyame subcatchments in Zimbabwe. Remote sensing and Geographic Information System techniques were used to determine the geometric and hydrologic parameters required for estimating model parameters. The Snyder Unit Hydrograph method was used for ungauged subcatchment simulations based on parameter tra...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 16, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Reception conditions of low frequency (LF) transmitter signals onboard DEMETER micro-satellite
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): M.Y. Boudjada, P.F. Biagi, E. Al-Haddad, P.H.M. Galopeau, B. Besser, D. Wolbang, G. Prattes, H. Eichelberger, G. Stangl, M. Parrot, K. Schwingenschuh We analyse the flux density variation associated to low frequency (LF) broadcasting transmitters observed by the ICE electric field experiment onboard DEMETER micro-satellite, observed from 01st Jan. to 09th Dec. 2010. We select five stations localised around the Mediterranean and the Black seas: Tipaza (252 kHz, 02°28’E, 36°33’N, Algeria), ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 12, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Forecast and optimal allocation of production, living and ecology water consumption in Zhangye, China
Publication date: Available online 6 August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Qian Xu, Wei Song, Ying Zhang The water crisis is one of three crises that are persecuting the world. China is among the countries that face severe water shortages. Water scarcity and water pollution have seriously affected China's sustainable development in terms of the economy and society. Water resources per capita of China is only one quarter of the world's average. In addition, about 70 percent of China’s rivers, lakes, and reservoirs are affected by pollution. Due to limited water resources, a cru...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 7, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Site amplification at the city scale in Basel (Switzerland) from geophysical site characterization and spectral modelling of recorded earthquakes
Publication date: Available online 6 August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Clotaire Michel, Donat Fäh, Benjamin Edwards, Carlo Cauzzi Hazard assessment at the city scale requires a detailed characterization of the effect of surface geology on ground motion (site effects). Though this analysis is commonly achieved using geophysical site characterization and site response modelling, we propose here a complementary analysis based on amplification functions retrieved from Empirical Spectral Modelling (ESM) of earthquake recordings. We applied this method to the city of Basel (Switz...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 7, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Seismic amplification in a fractured rock site. The case study of San Gregorio (L'Aquila, Italy)
Publication date: Available online 6 August 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Di Naccio Deborah, Vassallo Maurizio, Di Giulio Giuseppe, Amoroso Sara, Cantore Luciana, Hailemikael Salomon, Falcucci Emanuela, Gori Stefano, Giuliano Milana The village of San Gregorio (SG), eight kilometres away from L’Aquila (central Italy), was severely damaged by the April 6, 2009 L’Aquila earthquake (MW 6.1). A coseismic fracture zone was mapped along SW-dipping fault segments crossing SG, which is situated at the base of a carbonate relief bounded by the Aterno river alluvial plain. An int...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 6, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Is small-scale irrigation an efficient pro-poor strategy in the upper Limpopo Basin in Mozambique?
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Raphaelle Ducrot In Sub-Saharan Africa, there is evidence that households with access to small-scale irrigation are significantly less poor than households that do not have access to irrigation. However, private motopumps tend to be distributed inequitably. This paper investigates the success of explicit pro-poor interventions with emphasis on small-scale irrigation in the semi-arid Limpopo Basin in Mozambique. It reveals that high irrigation costs are progressively excluding the poor, who are unable to genera...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 5, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Recent trends of extreme precipitation indices in the Iberian Peninsula using observations and WRF model results
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): S. Bartolomeu, M.J. Carvalho, M. Marta-Almeida, P. Melo-Gonçalves, A. Rocha Spatial and temporal distributions of the trends of extreme precipitation indices were analysed between 1986 and 2005, over the Iberian Peninsula (IP). The knowledge of the patterns of extreme precipitation is important for impacts assessment, development of adaptation and mitigation strategies. As such, there is a growing need for a more detailed knowledge of precipitation climate change. This analysis was performed for Portugu...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 5, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Strategy for Management of Lake-Catchment System Integrated with Natural and Anthropogenic Factors in China
In this study, we detected its major driving factors based on an observed dataset and assessed the impacts of these factors. Firstly, empirical econometric models were used to ascertain the Per capita GDP and the percentage of impervious surface, which are significantly related with the eutrophication level. Eutrophication is slightly affected by anthropogenic disturbance, but is negatively related to the supply coefficient. Secondly, all driving factors are divided into two categories, including the stresses caused by human activities and the comprehensive health status, which are expressed as the two coordinate axes of a...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 5, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

The impact of land use change on water balance in Zhangye city, China
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Zhongxiao Sun, Feng Wu, Chenchen Shi, Jinyan Zhan Land use change has a significant effect on water balance, especially in arid region, such as Northwest China. In this paper, we analyze the effect of land use change on water balance in terms of the amount of water supply and demand from economic perspective. It's the first time to extend the basic 48 sectors input-output table to include water and land accounts that involved into multiple production processes for Zhangye city. We then perform the improved ORA...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 5, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Long time-series spatiotemporal variations of NPP and water use efficiency in the Lower Heihe River Basin with serious water scarcity
This study analyzed the long time-series variations of WUE in the Lower Heihe River Basin, a typical arid and semi-arid region in China. The net primary productivity (NPP) was first estimated with the C-fix model, then WUE during 2001-2010 was calculated with the NPP and evapotranspiration (ET) data, and the accumulative WUE was further calculated. The results showed that the annual NPP and WUE in the study area ranged from zero to 448.70 gC/(m2•a) and from zero to 2.20 gC kg−1 H2O, respectively, both of which showed an overall increasing trend during 2001-2010. Besides, the spatial pattern of WUE kept overall u...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 5, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Allocating agricultural production factors: a scenario-based modeling of wheat production in Shandong Province, China
In conclusion, wheat production at different operating modes could be improved so as to constitute more efficient and economic use of production factors. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 5, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Shear-tensile crack as a tool for reliable estimates of the non-double-couple mechanism: West Bohemia-Vogtland earthquake 1997 swarm
Publication date: Available online 29 June 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Jan Šílený, Josef Horálek Shear-tensile crack is a model for an earthquake mechanism that is more constrained than the moment tensor but that can still describe a non-shear focus. As such, the shear-tensile crack model is more robust than the moment tensor model and yields more reliable estimates for the earthquake mechanism. Such an advantage verifies the credibility of the non-double-couple component found for some events of the 1997 West Bohemia-Vogtland earthquake swarm. As expe...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 5, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

S-wave velocity measurement and the effect of basin geometry on site response, east San Francisco Bay area, California, USA
Publication date: Available online 22 July 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Koichi Hayashi, Mitchell Craig We measured S-wave velocity profiles at eleven sites in the east San Francisco Bay area using surface wave methods. Data acquisition included multichannel analysis of surface waves using an active source (MASW), a passive surface-wave method using a linear array of geophones (Linear-MAM), and a two-station spatial autocorrelation method (2ST-SPAC) using long-period accelerometers. Maximum distance between stations ranged from several hundred meters to several kilometers, dependin...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 5, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

The Sustainability of Drinking Water Supply in Rural China: Does the Provision of Drinking Water Investment Mismatch the Demand of Residents?
Publication date: Available online 27 July 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Ying Liu, Tang Yao, Yu Liu It is doubted that the top down nature of investment planning may lead to mismatches between drinking water investment and the demands of local residents in rural China. Statistical and econometric analysis based on data of 2020 rural households from five Chinese provinces from 1998 to 2011 are used to illustrate the linkage between demand for drinking water investment and construction of drinking water projects. Household’s demand significantly affects drinking water projects ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 5, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Analysis of the 2012 –2013 Torreperogil-Sabiote seismic swarm
This study analyses the temporal clustering, spatial clustering, and statistics of the 2012–2013 Torreperogil-Sabiote (southern Spain) seismic swarm. During the swarm, more than 2200 events were located, mostly at depths of 2–5 km, with magnitude event up to m bLg 3.9 (M w 3.7). On the basis of daily activity rate, three main temporal phases are identified and analysed. The analysis combines different seismological relationships to improve our understanding of the physical processes related to the swarm's occurrence. Each temporal phase is characterized by its cumulative seismic moment. Using several diffe...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 17, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Managing ground and surface water resources using innovative methods in rural and urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 93 Author(s): Benjamin Mapani, Lapologang Magole, Hodson Makurira, Dominic Mazvimavi, Maideyi Meck, Maloes Mul (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 12, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Water: The conveyor belt for sustainable livelihoods and economic development
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 92 Author(s): Benjamin Mapani, Maideyi Meck, Hodson Makurira, Lapologang Magole, Damas Mashauri, Dominic mazvimavi, Marloes Mul (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 10, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Robust inferences on climate change patterns of precipitation extremes in the Iberian Peninsula
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Paulo de Melo-Gonçalves, Alfredo Rocha, João Santos This work presents a methodology to make statistical significant and robust inferences on climate change from an ensemble of model simulations. This methodology is used to assess climate change projections of the Iberian daily-total precipitation for a near-future (2021 – 2050) and a distant-future (2069 – 2098) climates, relatively to a reference past climate (1961 – 1990). Climate changes of precipitation spatial patterns ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 1, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Regionalization of Europe based on a K-Means Cluster Analysis of the climate change of temperatures and precipitation
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): M.J. Carvalho, P. Melo-Gonçalves, J.C. Teixeira, A. Rocha In order to study climate change on a regional scale using Earth System Models, it is useful to partition the spatial domain into regions according to their climate changes. The aim of this work is to divide the European domain into regions of similar projected climate changes using a simulation of daily total precipitation, minimum and maximum temperatures for the recent-past (1986 – 2005) and long-term future (2081 – 2100) provi...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 23, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Ungauged runoff simulation in Upper Manyame Catchment, Zimbabwe: Applications of the HEC-HMS model
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Webster Gumindoga, Donald T. Rwasoka, Innocent Nhapi, Timothy Dube The Hydrologic Engineering Centre Hydrologic Modelling System model was applied to simulate runoff in the ten gauged and ungauged Upper Manyame micro-catchments in Zimbabwe. Remote sensing and Geographic Information System techniques were used to determine the geometric and hydrologic parameters required for estimating model parameters. The Snyder Unit Hydrograph method was used for ungauged catchment simulations based on parameter transfer...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 23, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Identification of blasting sources in the Dobrogea seismogenic region, Romania using seismo-acoustic signals
Publication date: Available online 20 May 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Daniela Ghica, Bogdan Grecu, Mihaela Popa, Mircea Radulian In order to discriminate between quarry blasts and earthquakes observed in the Dobrogea seismogenic region, a seismo-acoustic analysis was performed on 520 events listed in the updated Romanian seismic catalogue from January 2011 to December 2012. During this time interval, 104 seismo-acoustic events observed from a distance between 110 and 230 km and backazimuth interval of 110 to 160 degrees from the IPLOR infrasound array were identified as expl...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 19, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

A Ten Year Moment Tensor Database for Western Greece
Publication date: Available online 20 May 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Anna Serpetsidaki, Efthimios Sokos, G-Akis Tselentis Moment Tensors (MTs) provide important information for seismotectonic, stress distribution and source studies. It is also important as a real time or near real time information in shakemaps, tsunami warning, and stress transfer. Therefore a reliable and rapid MT computation is a routine task for modern seismic networks with broadband sensors and real-time digital telemetry. In this paper we present the database of Moment Tensor solutions computed during t...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 19, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Application of satellite products and hydrological modelling for flood early warning
In this study, we propose a satellite based flood index to identify the runoff source areas that largely contribute to extreme runoff production and floods in the basin. Satellite based products used for development of the flood index are CMORPH (Climate Prediction Center MORPHing technique: 0.25° by 0.25°, daily) product for calculation of the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) and a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) for calculation of the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI). Other satellite products used in this study are for rainfall-runoff modelling to represent rainfall, potenti...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 28, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Evaluation of groundwater quality in rural-areas of northern Malawi: Case of Zombwe Extension Planning Area in Mzimba
This study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical quality of water from boreholes (n = 20) in Zombwe Extension Planning Area (EPA), Mzimba in Northern Malawi to ascertain their safety. Desktop studies and participatory approaches were employed to assess the socio–economic activities and water supply regime in the study areas. The water samples were analysed forpH, conductivity (EC), turbidity, water temperature, nitrate ( NO 3 − ), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), fluoride (F−), and sulphate ( SO 4 2 − ). In-situ and laboratory analyses were carried out using portable m...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 27, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Appropriate technology and climate change adaptation
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 91 Author(s): Erick R. Bandala, Carlos Patiño-Gomez (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 23, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Anomalous behavior of ionospheric parameters above the Kamchatka peninsula before and during seismic activity
Publication date: Available online 24 April 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Vadim V. Bogdanov, Aleksandr V. Kaisin, Aleksey V. Pavlov, Anastasia L. Polyukhova, Claudia-Veronika Meister In the present work, searching for new methods of earthquake prediction, variations of ionospheric plasma parameters and ionospheric turbulence before and during seismic activity are studied applying complex radiophysical methods and a theoretical probabilistic approach. The analysis of radiophysical observations of some seismic events of February-March (28.02.–02.03.) 2013 shows, that K-la...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 23, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

The Typical Seismic Behavior in the Vicinity of a Large Earthquake
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): M.V. Rodkin, I.N. Tikhonov The Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalog (GCMT) was used to construct the spatio-temporal generalized vicinity of a large earthquake (GVLE) and to investigate the behavior of seismicity in GVLE. The vicinity is made of earthquakes falling into the zone of influence of a large number (100, 300, or 1,000) of largest earthquakes. The GVLE construction aims at enlarging the available statistics, diminishing a strong random component, and revealing typical features of pre- and post-s...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 22, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

A new approach for computing a flood vulnerability index using cluster analysis
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Paulo Fernandez, Sandra Mourato, Madalena Moreira, Luísa Pereira A Flood Vulnerability Index (FloodVI) was developed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a new aggregation method based on Cluster Analysis (CA). PCA simplifies a large number of variables into a few uncorrelated factors representing the social, economic, physical and environmental dimensions of vulnerability. CA groups areas that have the same characteristics in terms of vulnerability into vulnerability classes. The grouping...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 22, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessing the feasibility of integrating remote sensing and in-situ measurements in monitoring water quality status of Lake Chivero, Zimbabwe
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): S. Dlamini, I. Nhapi, W. Gumindoga, T. Nhiwatiwa, T. Dube This work investigates the likelihood of integrating the cheap and readily-available broadband multispectral MODIS data and in-situ measurements in quantifying and monitoring water quality status of an inland lake within Upper Manyame Catchment in Zimbabwe. Specifically we used MODIS images to quantify inland lake chlorophyll_a concentrations, as a proxy for predicting lake pollution levels. The findings of this study show a high chlorophyll_a co...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 22, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

On the spatial distribution of seismicity and the 3D tectonic stress field in western Greece
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Ioannis Kassaras, Vasilis Kapetanidis, Andreas Karakonstantis We analyzed a large number of focal mechanisms and relocated earthquake hypocenters to investigate the geodynamics of western Greece, the most seismically active part of the Aegean plate-boundary zone. This region was seismically activated multiple times during the last decade, providing a large amount of enhanced quality new information that was obtained by the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN). Relocated seismicity using a double-...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 22, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Critical Pollution levels in Umguza River, Zimbabwe
This study investigated the levels of pollution in Umguza River that would affect its self-purification capacity. This was achieved by characterising the spatial distribution of a selected range of water quality parameters as well as determining the self-purification capacity of a stretch of the river. Critical pollutant concentrations were determined for some of the parameters that showed high values along the stretch. The selected parameters of interest were dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, phosphates, nitrates, COD, turbidity, ammonia, pH, alkalinity and temperature. The study was carried out from January 2014 to Apr...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 21, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Determination of background concentrations of hydrochemical parameters and water quality assessment in the Akhuryan River Basin (Armenia)
This study highlights the usefulness of application of site-specific background concentrations for the evaluation, interpretation of surface water quality and for determination of pollution sources. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 21, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Evaluation of Borehole Water Quality in Rural-Areas Of Northern Malawi: Case of Zombwe in Mzimba
This study was conducted to evaluate quality of water from boreholes (n=20) in Zombwe Extension Planning Area (EPA), Mzimba in Northern Malawi to ascertain their safety. Desktop studies and participatory approaches were employed to assess the socio-economic activities and water supply regime in the study areas. Water samples were analyzed for selected physico-chemical parameters: pH, conductivity (EC), turbidity, water temperature, nitrate ( NO 3 − ), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), fluoride (F-), and sulphate ( SO 4 2 − ). In-situ and laboratory analyses were carried out using portable meters and ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 21, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

High resolution WRF climatic simulations for the Iberian Peninsula: Model validation
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Martinho Marta-Almeida, João C. Teixeira, Maria João Carvalho, Paulo Melo-Gonçalves, Alfredo M. Rocha A high resolution atmospheric modelling study was done for a 20-year recent historical period. The dynamic downscaling approach adopted used the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) to drive the WRF running in climate mode. Three online nested domains were used covering part of the North Atlantic and Europe, with a resolution 81 km, and reaching 9 km in the innermost do...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 21, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Climate Change induced by Southern Hemisphere Desertification
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Ye Wang, Xiaodong Yan Some 10 to 20% of global dry-lands are already degraded, and the ongoing desertification threatens the world’s poorest populations. Studies on desertification effects are essential for humans to adapt to the environmental challenges posed by desertification. Given the importance of the much larger southern ocean to the global climate and the Southern Hemisphere (SH) climate changes in phase with those in the north, the biogeophysical effects of the SH desertification on climate ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 21, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

The effect of roughness in simultaneously retrieval of land surface parameters
In this study, a model called Simultaneous Land Parameters Retrieval Model (SLPRM) that is an iterative least-squares minimization method is proposed. The algorithm estimates surface soil moisture, land surface temperature and canopy temperature simultaneously in vegetated areas using AMSR-E (Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS) brightness temperature data. The simultaneous estimations of the three parameters are based on a multi-parameter inversion algorithm which includes model construction, calibration and validation using observations carried out for the SMEX03 (Soil Moisture Experiment 2003) region in the South ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 21, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Application of satellite products and hydrological modeling for flood early warning
In this study, we propose a satellite based flood index to identify the runoff source areas that largely contribute to extreme runoff production and floods in the basin. Satellite based products used for development of the flood index are CMORPH (0.250 by 0.250, daily) product for calculation of the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) and a SRTM digital elevation model for calculation of the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI). Other satellite products used in this study are for rainfall-runoff modelling to represent rainfall, potential evapotranspiration, vegetation cover and topography. Results of the study show that assessme...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 20, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Micrometeorological Measurements and Vapour Pressure Deficit Relations under In-field Rainwater Harvesting
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Weldemichael A. Tesfuhuney, Sue Walker, Leon D. Van Rensburg, A. Stephan Steyn In a cropped field, microclimate and thermal stability conditions depend on the canopy structures and the prevailing weather. The main aim of the study therefore was to characterize the vertical profiles of weather variables within and above a maize (Zea mays L.) canopy and to describe the water vapour pressure deficit (VPD) under different atmospheric and soil surface conditions for both wide and narrow runoff strips with the...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

The hydrology of sand rivers in Zimbabwe and the use of remote sensing to assess their level of saturation
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): S.C. Mpala, A.S. Gagnon, M.G. Mansell, S.W. Hussey Sand rivers are ephemeral watercourses containing sand that are occasionally flooded with rainwater runoff during the rainy season. Although the riverbed appears dry for most of the year, there is perennial groundwater flow within the sand. This water flowing beneath the surface is a valuable resource for local communities; nonetheless our understanding of such river systems is limited. Hence, this paper aims to improve our understanding of the hydrology...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

How is water availability related to the land use and morphology of an inland valley wetland in Kenya?
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Beate Böhme, Mathias Becker, Bernd Diekkrüger, Gerd Förch Small inland valley wetlands contribute substantially to the livelihoods of rural communities in East Africa. Their conversion into farmland is driven by water availability. We quantified spatial-temporal dynamics of water availability in a headwater wetland in the humid zone of Kenya. Climatic conditions, soil moisture contents, groundwater levels and discharge data were monitored. A land-use map and a digital elevation model of th...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Land use/land cover change and implications for ecosystems services in the Likangala River Catchment, Malawi
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Deepa Pullanikkatil, Lobina G. Palamuleni, Tabukeli M. Ruhiiga Likangala River catchment in Zomba District of Southern Malawi is important for water resources, agriculture and provides many ecosystem services. Provisioning ecosystem services accrued by the populations within the catchment include water, fish, medicinal plants and timber among others. In spite of its importance, the River catchment is under threat from anthropogenic activities and land use change. This paper studies land uses and land cove...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Water supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in low-income areas of Lilongwe City, Malawi
This study explored supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in four LIAs of Lilongwe City in Malawi using qualitative and quantitative methods. Household-level surveys (n=120) and transect walks were employed to determine the socio-economic activities in the areas. One-on-one discussions were made with water source owners (SSIPs) (n=24). Data on policy and institutional frameworks was collected through desktop study and Key Informant Interviews (n=25). Quality of the water sources (shallow wells and boreholes) was determined by collecting grab samples (n=24) in triplicate using 500 mL bottles. Selected phy...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

From standard to fractional structural visco-elastodynamics: Application to seismic site response
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): C. Germoso, A. Fraile, E. Alarcon, J.V. Aguado, F. Chinesta This paper revisits viscoelastodynamics from its most standard formulation to some more advanced description involving frequency-dependent damping (or viscosity), analyzing the effects of considering fractional derivatives for representing such viscous contributions. We will prove that such a choice results in richer models that can accommodate different constraints related to the dissipated power, response amplitude and phase angle. Moreove...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 13, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research