Climate threats, water supply vulnerability and the risk of a water crisis in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (Northeastern Mexico)
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Nicholas P. Sisto, Aldo I. Ramírez, Ismael Aguilar-Barajas, Víctor Magaña-Rueda This paper evaluates the risk of a water crisis – a substantial, sudden reduction in water supply - in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA), posed by climate threats and the vulnerability of its water supply system. Our analysis of long-term precipitation, water supply and water availability data reveals that the MMA is highly vulnerable to recurring periods of exceptionally low precipitation and ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 30, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Possible Climate Change Evidence in Ten Mexican Watersheds
This study also shows that the difference between maximum and minimum monthly temperature trends is negatively correlated with monthly precipitation trends. As a result, land-use and land-cover changes could be the main drivers of climate change in the region. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 30, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Contribution of surface roughness to simulations of historical deforestation
This study indicates that land surface roughness plays a significant role which is comparable with the whole land conversion effect in climate change. Therefore, further investigation of roughness-climate relationship is needed to incorporate these aspects. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 30, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Geochemical modelling and speciation studies of metal pollutants present in selected water systems in South Africa
Publication date: Available online 28 August 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): M.M. Magu, P.P. Govender, J.C. Ngila Metal pollutants in water poses great threats to living beings and hence requires to be monitored regularly to avoid loss of lives. Various analytical methods are available to monitor these pollutants in water and can be improved with time. Modelling of metal pollutants in any water system helps chemists, engineers and environmentalists to greatly understand the various chemical processes in such systems. Water samples were collected from waste water treatment plant a...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 29, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Review and discussion of homogenisation methods for climate data
This article reviews the characteristics of the most important procedures used in the homogenisation of climatic variables based on a thorough literature research. It also summarises many methods applications in order to illustrate their applicability, which may help climatologists and other experts to identify adequate method(s) for their particular needs. This review study also describes comparison studies, which evaluated the efficiency of homogenisation methods, and provides a summary of conclusions and lessons learned regarding good practices for the use of homogenisation methods. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 29, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Simulated effects of cropland expansion on seasonal temperatures over China
Publication date: Available online 28 August 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Zhe Xiong Human activities result in deforestation, expansion of cropland, grassland degradation, urbanization and other large-scale land use/cover change; among these, cropland expansion is one of the most important processes. To understand the effects of cropland expansion on seasonal temperatures over China, two 21-year simulations (spanning January 1, 1980–December 31, 2000), using the Regional Integrated Environmental Model System (RIEMS 2.0), were performed. The two simulations comprised curren...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 29, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Quantitative Analysis of Agricultural Land Use Change in China
This article reviews the potential impacts of climate change on land use change in China. Crop Sown Area is used as index to quantitatively analyze the temporal-spatial changes and the utilization of the agricultural land. A new concept is defined as potential multiple cropping index to reflect the potential sowing ability. The impacting mechanism, land use status and its surplus capacity are investigated as well. The main conclusions are as following; 1. During 1949 to 2010, the agricultural land was the greatest in amount in the middle of China, followed by that in the country’s eastern and western regions. The mos...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 29, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Adjustment of wind-drift effect for real-time systematic error correction in radar rainfall data
In this study, we introduce an adjustment method to incorporate the wind-drift effect into a bias correlation scheme. We first simulate the trajectory of raindrops in the air using downscaled three-dimensional wind data from the weather research and forecasting model (WRF) and calculate the final location of raindrops on the ground. The displacement of rainfall is then estimated and a radar-gauge spatial relationship is reconstructed. Based on this, the local real-time biases of the bin-average radar data were estimated for 12 selected events. Then, the reference mean local gauge rainfall, mean local bias, and adjusted rad...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 29, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Impacts of temperature on rice yields of different rice cultivation systems in Southern China over the past 40 years
Publication date: Available online 28 August 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Jiahua Zhang, Fengmei Yao, Cui Hao, Vijendra Boken The impact of climate change on rice yield in China remains highly uncertain. we examined the impact of the change of maximum temperature (T max) and minimum temperature (T min) on rice yields in southern China from 1967 to 2007. The rice yields were simulated by using the DSSAT3.5 (Decision Support System for Agro-technology Transfer)-Rice model. The change of T max and T min in rice growing seasons and simulated rice yields as well their correlations ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 29, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Analysis of observations backing up the existence of VLF and ionospheric TEC anomalies before the Mw6.1 earthquake in Greece, January 26, 2014
Publication date: Available online 28 August 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): F. Sanchez-Dulcet, M. Rodríguez-Bouza, H.G. Silva, M. Herraiz, M. Bezzeghoud, P.F. Biagi The present work integrates ground-based ionosphere measurements using very-low-frequency radio transmissions with satellite measurements of the total electron content to draw common conclusions about the possible impact that the Mw6.1 earthquake that took place in Greece on January 26, 2014, had on the ionosphere. Very-low-frequency radio signals reveal the existence of an ∼4-day anomaly in the wavelet...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 29, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Exploring the Dynamics of Agricultural Climatic Resource Utilization of Spring Maize Over the Past 50 Years in Northeast China
Publication date: Available online 28 August 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Junfang Zhao, Jianping Guo, Jia Mu, Yanhong Xu Exploring the dynamics of the utilization of agricultural climatic resources (i.e., environmental factors that affect crop productivity such as light, temperature, and water) can provide a theoretical basis for modifying agricultural practices and distributions of agricultural production in the future. Northeast China is one of the major agricultural production areas in China and also an obvious region of climatic warming. We were motivated to analyze the u...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 29, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Evaluation of DEM generation based on Interferometric SAR using TanDEM-X data in Tokyo
This study is focused on the evaluation of a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for Tokyo, Japan from data collected by the recently launched TerraSAR add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements (TanDEM-X), satellite of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The aim of the TanDEM-X mission is to use Interferometric SAR techniques to generate a consistent high resolution global DEM dataset. In order to generate an accurate global DEM using TanDEM-X data, it is important to evaluate the accuracy at different sites around the world. Here, we report our efforts to generate a high-resolution DEM of the Tokyo metropolitan region using TanD...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 29, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Expansion of agricultural oasis in the Heihe River Basin of China: patterns, reasons and policy implications
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Wei Song, Ying Zhang The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is the second largest inland river basin in the arid region of northwestern China. An agricultural oasis is a typical landscape in arid regions providing precious fertile soil, livingspace and ecological services. The agricultural oasis change has been one of the key issues in sustainable development in recent decades. In this paper, we examined the changes in the agricultural oasis in HRB and analyzed the socio-economic and climatic driving forces behind t...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 25, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

New Criteria to Assess Interbasin Water Transfers and a Case for Nzoia- Suam/Turkwel in Kenya
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Joel Kibiiy, Julius Ndambuki Although an interbasin water transfer project (IWT) is subject to many issues ranging from socio-economic to ecological, the final decision on implementation is always a political one, made in the best interest of sitting administrations. Therefore a sound pragmatic assessment process for IWTs should be used to inform the final (political) decision. Unfortunately, there is no universally agreed set of criteria for assessment of IWTs. Existing criteria vary and tend to be presc...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 25, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Reducing atmospheric noise in RST analysis of TIR satellite radiances for earthquakes prone areas satellite monitoring
Publication date: Available online 19 August 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Mariano Lisi, Carolina Filizzola, Nicola Genzano, Rossana Paciello, Nicola Pergola, Valerio Tramutoli Space-time fluctuations of the Earth’s emitted Thermal Infrared (TIR) radiation observed from satellite from months to weeks before an earthquake are reported in several studies. Among the others, a Robust Satellite data analysis Technique (RST) was proposed (and applied to different satellite sensors in various geo-tectonic contexts) to discriminate anomalous signal transients possibly associat...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 19, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Decline in the species richness contribution of Echinodermata to the macrobenthos in the shelf seas of China
In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of 77 case studies in 51 papers to examine the changes in the contribution of echinoderm species richness to the macrobenthos in the shelf seas of China since the 1980s. The relative species richness (RSR) was considered as the metric to evaluate these changes. Trends analysis revealed significant declines in RSR in the shelf seas of China, the Yellow Sea, and the East China Sea from 1997 to 2009. Compared with the RSR before 1997, no significant changes in mean RSR were found after 1997, except in the Bohai Sea. In addition, relative change in the RSR of echinoderms and species ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 16, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Spatial and Temporal changes of phosphorus in coastal wetland soils as affected by a tidal creek in the Yellow River Estuary, China
Publication date: Available online 15 August 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Zhaoqin Gao, Junhong Bai, Jia Jia, Xiaojun Wen, Guangliang Zhang, Qingqing Zhao In order to investigate spatial and temporal changes of soil phosphorus and its availability in coastal wetlands in the Yellow River Estuary, soil samples from five sampling sites (Sites1-5) in four sampling periods were collected and the contents of soil phosphorus and other properties were detected. Our results showed that there were no significant differences in total phosphorus (TP) in surface and subsurface soils amon...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 16, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Water ecological carrying capacity of urban lakes in the context of rapid urbanization: a case study of East Lake in Wuhan
Publication date: Available online 15 August 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Lei Ding, Kun-lun Chen, Sheng-gao Cheng, Xu Wang With the excessive development of social economy, water scarcity and water environment deterioration become a common phenomenon in metropolis. As a crucial component of urban water environment system, urban lake is mainly influenced by social economic system and tourism system. In this paper, a framework for quantitatively evaluating development sustainability of urban lake was established by a multi-objective model that represented water ecological carry...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 16, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Multiresolution wavelets and natural time analysis before the January–February 2014 Cephalonia (Mw6.1 & 6.0) sequence of strong earthquake events
Publication date: Available online 30 July 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Filippos Vallianatos, Georgios Michas, George Hloupis On January 26 and February 3, 2014, Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Greece) was struck by two strong, shallow earthquakes (moment magnitudes Mw6.1 and Mw6.0, respectively) that ruptured two sub-parallel, strike-slip faults, with right-lateral kinematics. The scope of the present work is to investigate the complex correlations of the earthquake activity that preceded the Mw6.1 event in the broader area of the Cephalonia Island and identify possible indica...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 7, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Modeling the climatic effects of the land use/cover change in eastern China
This study aims to quantify the contribution of land use/cover change (LUCC) during the last three decades to climate change conditions in eastern China. The effects of farmland expansion in Northeast China, grassland degradation in Northwest China, and deforestation in South China were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in addition to the latest actual land cover datasets. The simulated results show that when forestland is converted to farmland, the air temperature decreased owing to an increase in surface albedo in Northeast China. The climatic effect of grassland degradation on the Loess Pl...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 7, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Multidecadal changes in moisture condition during climatic growing period of crops in Northeast China
In this study, the following were used to evaluate the multidecadal changes in moisture condition during climatic growth period of crops in Northeast China from 1961 to 2010: (1) the daily climate variables gathered from 101 meteorological stations in Northeast China for 1961-2010; (2) FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) Penman-Monteith equation; (3) 80% guaranteed probability for agro-climatic indicators; and (4) the daily average temperature stably passing 0°C, which is the threshold temperature of climatic growth period for crops. Reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) and relative moisture index were further c...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 7, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Effects of adjusting cropping systems on utilization efficiency of climatic resources in Northeast China under future climate scenarios
Publication date: Available online 5 August 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Jianping Guo, Junfang Zhao, Yanhong Xu, Zheng Chu, Jia Mu, Qian Zhao Quantitatively evaluating the effects of adjusting cropping systems on the utilization efficiency of climatic resources under climate change is an important task for assessing food security in China. To understand these effects, we used daily climate variables obtained from the regional climate model RegCM3 from 1981 to 2100 under the A1B scenario and crop observations from 53 agro-meteorological experimental stations from 1981 to 201...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 7, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Shifts in vegetation growth in response to multiple factors on the Mongolian Plateau from 1982 to 2011
Publication date: Available online 5 August 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Lijuan Miao, Qiang Liu, Richard Fraser, Bin He, Xuefeng Cui The Mongolian Plateau (MP) steppe is one of the largest steppe environments in the world. To monitor the terrestrial vegetation dynamics on the MP and to ascertain what the driving forces, this study examined the vegetation dynamics in Republic of Mongolia (M) and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IM) of China from the period 1982 to 2011, based on the satellite-derived GIMMS NDVI3g (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data across three...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 7, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Evaluation of ecosystem services: a case study in the middle reach of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Hongji Li, Zhihui Li, Zhaohua Li, Jing Yu, Bing Liu Ecosystem services evaluation aims at understanding the status of ecosystem services on different spatial and temporal scale. In this paper, we selected the middle reach of the Heihe River Basin (HRB), which is the second largest inland river basin in China, as one of the typical area to estimate the ecosystem services values (ESVs) corresponding to the land use changes. Based on the land use data and ecosystem service value coefficients, the total eco...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 5, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Microwave remote sensing of flood inundation
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Guy J-P. Schumann, Delwyn K. Moller Flooding is one of the most costly natural disasters and thus mapping, modelling and forecasting flood events at various temporal and spatial scales is important for any flood risk mitigation plan, disaster relief services and the global (re-)insurance markets. Both computer models and observations (ground-based, airborne and Earth-orbiting) of flood processes and variables are of great value but the amount and quality of information available varies greatly with locatio...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 5, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Multiresolution wavelets and Natural time analysis before the January-February 2014 Cephalonia (Mw6.1 & 6.0) sequence of strong earthquake events
Publication date: Available online 30 July 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Filippos Vallianatos, Georgios Michas, George Hloupis On January 26 and February 3, 2014, Cephalonia Island(Ionian Sea, Greece) was struck by two strong, shallow earthquakes (moment magnitudes Mw6.1 and Mw6.0, respectively) that ruptured two sub-parallel, strike-slip faults, with right-lateral kinematics. The scope of the present work is to investigate the complex correlations of the earthquake activity that preceded the Mw6.1 event in the broader area of the Cephalonia Island and identify possible indicat...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 31, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Regionalisation of precipitation for the iberian peninsula and climate change
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): A.C. Parracho, P. Melo-Gonçalves, A. Rocha Temporal variability of precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) has high spatial gradients. Therefore, statistics of the temporal behaviour of precipitation and derived quantities over the IP must be estimated taking into account these spatial gradients. Some statistics can be displayed over a map. However there are statistics, such as Probability Density Functions at each location of the IP, that are impossible to display in a map. Because of this, i...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 26, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Temperature and heat wave trends in northwest mexico
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Polioptro F. Martínez-Austria, Erick R. Bandala, Carlos Patiño-Gómez Increase in temperature extremes is one of the main expected impacts of climate change, as well as one of the first signs of its occurrence. Nevertheless, results emerging from General Circulation Models, while sufficient for large scales, are not enough for forecasting local trends and, hence, the IPCC has called for local studies based on on-site data. Indeed, it is expected that climate extremes will be detected mu...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 26, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Estimation of Snow Density Using Full-Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Data
Publication date: Available online 16 July 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): M. Surendar, A. Bhattacharya, G. Singh, G. Venkataraman In this paper, a new snow density estimation methodology is proposed for full-polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The generalized four component polarimetric decomposition with unitary transformation (G4U) based generalized volume parameter is utilized to invert snowpack dielectric constant using the Fresnel transmission coefficients. The snow density is then estimated using an empirical relationship. Six Radarsat-2 fine resolution full...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 16, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Slope angle and aspect as influencing factors on the accuracy of the SRTM and the ASTER GDEM databases
Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Gergely Szabó , Sudhir Kumar Singh , Szilárd Szabó Presently, the application of digital elevation or surface models have increasing relevance in all areas of scientific research and in practical engineering applications. The ASTER GDEM and SRTM databases are the most widely used digital surface models, due to their free accessibility and global coverage. The SRTM model was produced using a radar-based technique and the ASTER GDEM was developed using optical stereo image-pairs. Therefore, ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 2, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Evaluation of SMOS soil moisture retrievals over the central United States for hydro-meteorological application
Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Lu Zhuo , Qiang Dai , Dawei Han Soil moisture has been widely recognized as a key variable in hydro-meteorological processes and plays an important role in hydrological modelling. Remote sensing techniques have improved the availability of soil moisture data, however, most previous studies have only focused on the evaluation of retrieved data against point-based observations using only one overpass (i.e., the ascending orbit). Recently, the global Level-3 soil moisture dataset generated from Soil Moisture and ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 2, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Physical and economic processes of water scarcity and water allocation for integrated river basin management
Publication date: 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volumes 79–82 Author(s): Xiangzheng Deng , R.B. Singh , Junguo Liu , Burak Güneralp (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 27, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Seasonal drought predictability in Portugal using statistical–dynamical techniques
This study estimates hybrid (statistical–dynamical) long-range forecasts of the regional drought index SPI (3-months) over homogeneous regions from mainland Portugal, based on forecasts from the UKMO operational forecasting system, with lead-times up to 6months. ERA-Interim reanalysis data is used for the purpose of building a set of SPI predictors integrating recent past information prior to the forecast launching. Then, the advantage of combining predictors with both dynamical and statistical background in the prediction of drought conditions at different lags is evaluated. A two-step hybridization procedure is per...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 27, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Socioeconomic impacts of hydropower development on the Yibin–Chongqing section, upper reaches of the Yangtze River
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Jing Ma , Yu Liu , Hao Wang , Deng Hua Yan , Ying Kang Lv , Zhaohui Yang The aim of this paper is to quantify the socioeconomic impacts of hydropower development to reflect its positive functions from multiple perspectives and dimensions. By applying the multi-regional Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to a case study of the Yibin–Chongqing section along the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, the analysis shows that hydropower development has outstanding benefits for the regional economy and li...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 27, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Recursive cross-entropy downscaling model for spatially explicit future land uses: A case study of the Heihe River Basin
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Xinxin Zhang , Tatiana Ermolieva , Juraj Balkovic , Aline Mosnier , Florian Kraxner , Junguo Liu Downscaling methods assist decision makers in coping with the uncertainty regarding sustainable local area developments. In particular, they allow investigating local heterogeneities regarding water, food, energy, and environment consistently with global, national, and sub-national drivers and trends. In this paper, we develop a conceptual framework that integrates a partial equilibrium Global Biosphere Management ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 27, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Long-term SMOS soil moisture products: A comprehensive evaluation across scales and methods in the Duero Basin (Spain)
Publication date: Available online 4 June 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Ángel González-Zamora , Nilda Sánchez , José Martínez-Fernández , Ángela Gumuzzio , María Piles , Estrella Olmedo The European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Level 2 soil moisture and the new L3 product from the Barcelona Expert Center (BEC) were validated from January 2010 to June 2014 using two in situ networks in Spain. The first network is the Soil Moisture Measurement Stations Network of the University of Salamanca (REME...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 27, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

The contribution of tropical cyclones to rainfall in Mexico
Publication date: Available online 4 June 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): J. Agustín Breña-Naranjo , Adrián Pedrozo-Acuña , Oscar Pozos-Estrada , Salma A. Jiménez-López , Marco R. López-López Investigating the contribution of tropical cyclones to the terrestrial water cycle can help quantify the benefits and hazards caused by the rainfall generated from this type of hydro-meteorological event. Rainfall induced by tropical cyclones can enhance both flood risk and groundwater recharge, and it is therefore important to characteris...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 27, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Aspects regarding the use of the INFREP network for identifying possible seismic precursors
Publication date: Available online 4 June 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Paul Dolea , Octavian Cristea , Paul Vladut Dascal , Iren-Adelina Moldovan , Pier Francesco Biagi In the last decades, one of the main research directions in identifying seismic precursors involved monitoring VLF (Very Low Frequency) and LF (Low Frequency) radio waves and analysing their propagation characteristics. Essentially this method consists of monitoring different available VLF and LF transmitters from long distance reception points. The received signal has two major components: the ground wave and the...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 27, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

An input–output table based analysis on the virtual water by sectors with the five northwest provinces in China
Publication date: Available online 10 April 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Chenchen Shi , Jinyan Zhan Virtual water refers to the volumes of water required to produce a commodity or service. It reflects human’s actual consumption of water resources and therefore has certain significance in water resources management. Over the years, the concept of virtual water has caught the attentions of water manager and decision maker. In order to utilize this concept, the accounting and estimation of virtual water is the foundation that lies in this issue. Till now, the accounting method...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 25, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Radar altimetry backscattering signatures at Ka, Ku, C, and S bands over West Africa
This study presents a comprehensive comparison of radar altimetry signatures at Ka-, Ku-, C-, and S-bands using SARAL, ENVISAT and Jason-2 data over the major bioclimatic zones, soil and vegetation types encountered in West-Africa, with an emphasis on the new information at Ka-band provided by the recently launched SARAL–Altika mission. Spatio-temporal variations of the radar altimetry responses were related to changes in surface roughness, land cover and soil wetness. Analysis of time series of backscattering coefficients along the West African bioclimatic gradient shows that radar echoes at nadir incidence are well...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 25, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Parametric exponentially correlated surface emission model for L-band passive microwave soil moisture retrieval
In this study, an L-band parametric emission model for exponentially correlated surfaces was developed and implemented in a soil moisture retrieval algorithm. The approach was based on the parameterization of an effective roughness parameter of Hp in relation with the geometric roughness variables (root mean square height s and correlation length l) and incidence angle. The parameterization was developed based on a large set of simulations using an analytical approach incorporated in the advanced integral equation model (AIEM) over a wide range of geophysical properties. It was found that the effective roughness parameter ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 25, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Various remote sensing approaches to understanding roughness in the marginal ice zone
Publication date: Available online 15 May 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Mukesh Gupta Multi-platform based measurement approaches to understanding complex marginal ice zone (MIZ) are suggested in this paper. Physical roughness measurements using ship- and helicopter-based laser systems combined with ship-based active microwave backscattering (C-band polarimetric coherences) and dual-polarized passive microwave emission (polarization ratio, PR and spectral gradient ratios, GR at 37 and 89GHz) are presented to study diverse sea ice types found in the MIZ. Autocorrelation functions ar...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 25, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Study on the Association of Green House Gas (Co2) with Monsoon Rainfall Using Airs and Trmm Satellite Observations
Publication date: Available online 16 May 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): R.B. Singh , M. Janmaijaya , S.K. Dhaka , V. Kumar (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 25, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Seasonal drought predictability in Portugal using statistical-dynamical techniques
This study estimates hybrid (statistical-dynamical) long-range forecasts of the regional drought index SPI (3-months) over homogeneous regions from mainland Portugal, based on forecasts from the UKMO operational forecasting system, with lead-times up to 6 months. ERA-Interim reanalysis data is used for the purpose of building a set of SPI predictors integrating recent past information prior to the forecast launching. Then, the advantage of combining predictors with both dynamical and statistical background in the prediction of drought conditions at different lags is evaluated. A two-step hybridization procedure is performe...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 25, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Socioeconomic impacts of hydropower development on the Yibin-Chongqing section, upper reaches of the Yangtze River
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Jing Ma , Yu Liu , Hao Wang , Deng Hua Yan , Ying Kang Lv , Zhaohui Yang The positive effect of hydropower in climate change adaption is well accepted by the international community and has been highlighted many times, while understanding of its impact on socioeconomic development stagnates at the stage of rough estimation and qualitative description. The aim of this paper is to quantify the socioeconomic impacts of hydropower development to reflect its positive functions from multiple perspectives and dimensi...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 25, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Geospace perturbations induced by the Earth: the state of the art and future trends
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): A. De Santis , G. De Franceschi , L. Spogli , L. Perrone , L. Alfonsi , E. Qamili , G. Cianchini , R. Di Giovambattista , S. Salvi , E. Filippi , F.J. Pavon-Carrasco , S. Monna , A. Piscini , R. Battiston , V. Vitale , P.G. Picozza , L. Conti , M. Parrot , J.-L. Pinçon , G. Balasis , M. Tavani , A. Argan , G. Piano , M.L. Rainone , W. Liu , D. Tao A systematic multi-parameter and multi-platform approach to study the slow process of earthquake preparation is fundamental to gain some insight on this compl...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 25, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

WRF-Chem Sensitivity to Vertical Resolution During a Saharan Dust Event
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): J.C. Teixeira , A.C. Carvalho , Paolo Tuccella , Gabriele Curci , A. Rocha The Saharan dust event that occurred between the 22 nd and 30 th of June 2012 influenced the atmospheric radiative properties over North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, the Western Mediterranean basin, extending its effects to France and Southern England. This event is well documented in satellite imagery, as well as on the air quality stations over the Iberian Peninsula and the AERONET NASA network. In order to assess the effec...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 9, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Time–frequency analysis of VLF for seismic-ionospheric precursor detection: Evaluation of Zhao-Atlas-Marks and Hilbert-Huang Transforms
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): C. Skeberis , Z.D. Zaharis , T.D. Xenos , S. Spatalas , D.N. Arabelos , M.E. Contadakis This work investigates the application of two post-processing methods of extracting spectra from VLF signals in order to detect disturbances that could be attributed to seismic-ionospheric precursory phenomena. Although precursory phenomena have been investigated in detail in past studies, a different application of time–frequency analysis methods may produce distinct patterns, which reveal disturbances in the VL...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 1, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Glacier changes and their impacts on the discharge in the past half-century in Tekes watershed, Central Asia
Publication date: Available online 31 March 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Baorong Xu , Zhixiang Lu , Shiyin Liu , Jing Li , Jiali Xie , Aihua Long , Zhenliang Yin , Songbing Zou The glacier is an important and stable water supply in Central Asia. Monitoring the change of glacier and understanding the impacts of glacier change on river discharge are critical to predict the downstream water availability change in future. Glacier changes were discussed and their impacts on river discharge were evaluated by hydrological modeling with a distributed hydrological model SWAT under two lan...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 1, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Evidence of non extensivity in the evolution of seismicity along the San Andreas Fault, California, USA: An approach based on Tsallis statistical physics
Publication date: Available online 7 April 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): A. Efstathiou , A. Tzanis , F. Vallianatos We examine the nature of the seismogenetic system along the San Andreas Fault (SAF), California, USA, by searching for evidence of complexity and non-extensivity in the earthquake record. We use accurate, complete and homogeneous earthquake catalogues in which aftershocks are included (raw catalogues), or have been removed by a stochastic declustering procedure (declustered catalogues). On the basis of Non-Extensive Statistical Physics (NESP), which generalizes the B...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 1, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research