An exploratory study of spatial annual maximum of monthly precipitation in the northern region of Portugal
Publication date: Available online 15 December 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): D.P. Gomes, M.M. Neves, E. Moreira Adequately analyzing and modeling the extreme rainfall events is of great importance because of the effects that their magnitude and frequency can have on human life, agricultural productivity and economic aspects, among others. A single extreme event may affect several locations, and their spatial dependence has to be appropriately taken into account. Classical geostatistics is a well-developed field for dealing with location referenced data, but it is largely based ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 16, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Water use efficiency and integrated water resource management for river basin
Publication date: 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volumes 89–90 Author(s): Xiangzheng Deng, R.B. Singh, Junguo Liu, Burak Güneralp (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 8, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

A dependence modelling study of extreme rainfall in Madeira Island
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Délia Gouveia-Reis, Luiz Guerreiro Lopes, Sandra Mendonça The dependence between variables plays a central role in multivariate extremes. In this paper, spatial dependence of Madeira Island’s rainfall data is addressed within an extreme value copula approach through an analysis of maximum annual data. The impact of altitude, slope orientation, distance between rain gauge stations and distance from the stations to the sea are investigated for two different periods of time. The results...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 4, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Identification of nitrate sources in groundwater and potential impact on drinking water reservoir (Goczałkowice reservoir, Poland)
Publication date: Available online 30 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Joanna Czekaj, Sabina Jakóbczyk – Karpierz, Hanna Rubin, Sławomir Sitek, Andrzej J. Witkowski Goczałkowice dammed reservoir (area - 26 km2) is a strategic object for flood control in the Upper Vistula River catchment and one of the most important source of drinking water in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (Southern Poland). Main aims of the investigation were identification of sources of nitrate and assessment of their significance in potential risk to groundwater quality. In the ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 1, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Water quality monitoring in the Paul do Boquilobo Biosphere Reserve
Publication date: Available online 30 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): C. Baptista, L. Santos The Paul do Boquilobo is an important wetland ecosystem classified by Unesco as a MAB Biosphere reserve also awarded Ramsar site status, representing one of the most important habitats for the resident nesting colony of Cattle Egret (Bulbucus ibis). Yet owing to its location, it suffers from human induced impacts which include industrial and domestic effluent discharges as well as agricultural land use which have negatively impacted water quality. The current study reports the res...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 30, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Timescale Differences between SC-PDSI and SPEI for Drought Monitoring in China
In this study, we selected monthly average air temperature and precipitation data from 589 meteorological stations of China's National Meteorological Information Center, to compare the effects of applying a self-calibrating PDSI (SC-PDSI) and SPEI to monitor drought events in the station regions, with a special focus on differences of event timescale. The results show the following. 1) Comparative analysis using SC-PDSI and SPEI for drought years and characters of three dry periods from 1961–2011 in the Beijing region showed that durations of SC-PDSI-based dry spells were longer than those of 3-month and 6-month SPEI...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 22, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of the effectiveness of combined adsorption and photocatalysis for removal of the herbicide isoproturon
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Martín M. Dávila-Jiménez, María P. Elizalde-González, Esmeralda García-Díaz, Alba M. Santes-Aquino The aim of this research was to decompose isoproturon and adsorb its photoproducts by developing a carbon material from a juice industry waste. Carbon-TiO2 hybrid materials were obtained by impregnating carbonized guava seeds with TiO2 gels prepared from TiOSO4⋅xH2O and NH4OH using glycerol as a binder and thermally treating the materials at 500°C...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 17, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

SPI drought class prediction using log-linear models applied to wet and dry seasons
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Elsa E. Moreira A log-linear modelling for 3-dimensional contingency tables was used with categorical time series of SPI drought class transitions for prediction of monthly drought severity. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) time series in 12- and 6-month time scales were computed for 10 precipitation time series relative to GPCC datasets with 2.5 degrees spatial resolution located over Portugal and with 112 years length (1902 to 2014). The aim was modelling two-month step class transitions for the ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 13, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Ground and surface water quality along a dambo transect in Chihota smallholder farming area, Marondera district, Zimbabwe
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): M. Wuta, G. Nyamadzawo, J. Mlambo, P. Nyamugafata In many smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa dambos are used for grazing and crop production especially horticultural crops. Increased use of dambos especially for crop production can result in ground and surface water pollution. Ground and surface water quality along a dambo transect in Chihota, Zimbabwe, was investigated between October 2013 and February 2014. The transect was divided into; upland (control), dambo gardens (mid-slope) and the river...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 13, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

A comparison of integrated river basin management strategies: a global perspective
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Chunhong Zhao, Pei Wang, Guanghong Zhang In order to achieve the integrated river basin management in the arid and rapid developing region, the Heihe River Basin (HRB) in Northwestern China, one of critical river basins were selected as a representative example, while the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia and the Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the USA were selected for comparative analysis in this paper. Firstly, the comparable characters and hydrological contexts of these three watersheds were in...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 13, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Cloning and expression of vgb gene in Bacillus cereus, improve phenol and p-nitrophenol biodegradation
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Angel Eduardo Vélez-Lee, Felipe Cordova-Lozano, Erick R. Bandala, Jose Luis Sanchez-Salas In this work, the vgb gene from Vitrocilla stercoraria was used to genetically modify a Bacillus cereus strain isolated from pulp and paper wastewater effluent. The gene was cloned in a multicopy plasmid (pUB110) or uni-copy gene using a chromosome integrative vector (pTrpBG1). B. cereus and its recombinant strains were used for phenol and p-nitrophenol biodegradation using aerobic or micro-aerobic conditi...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 11, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Joint Venture Schemes in Limpopo Province and their outcomes on smallholder farmers Livelihoods
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Everisto Mapedza, Barbara van Koppen, Pinimidzai Sithole, Magalie Bourblanc Joint Venture schemes based on the floppy irrigation technology are being promoted in the post-Apartheid South Africa’s Limpopo Province. Access to land and water resources in South Africa are largely viewed as a mechanism for re-dressing the Apartheid injustices. This research was part of a broader applied research to help inform irrigation practise in the Limpopo Province. The research used literature review, key infor...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 11, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Dry spells assessment with reference to the maize crop in the Luvuvhu River catchment of South Africa
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Teboho Elisa Masupha, Mokhele Edmond Moeletsi, Mitsuru Tsubo Agricultural productivity in South Africa is negatively affected by drought as a result of frequent periodic dry spells and increasing crop water demands resulting in poor crop development and low yields. Thus, we embarked on this study which aims at investigating dry spell occurrences in relation to growing season of maize in the Luvuvhu River Catchment. Daily rainfall data (1945-2014) from 12 stations which represent the catchment fairly we...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 11, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Oil refinery wastewater treatment using coupled electrocoagulation and fixed film biological processes
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Laura S. Pérez, Oscar M. Rodriguez, Silvia Reyna, José Luis Sánchez-Salas, J. Daniel Lozada, Marco A. Quiroz, Erick R. Bandala Oil refinery wastewater was treated using a coupled treatment process including electrocoagulation (EC) and a fixed film aerobic bioreactor. Different variables were tested to identify the best conditions using this procedure. After EC, the effluent was treated in an aerobic biofilter. EC was capable to remove over 88% of the overall chemical oxygen dem...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 11, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Anthropogenic pressures on productive soils in Corlu and Cerkezkoy
This study aims to identify the land use transformations by using Remote Sensing and GIS due to prior socio-economic return focused politics resulting in environmental degradations. Additionally, this paper presents an analysis of the transformation of fertile lands into industrial/urban zones with respect to Land Capability Classes. The study area is one of the most urbanized and industrialized zones in Turkey. The reason behind this transformation lies solely in the fact that the aforementioned area is quite appealing to industrialization due to its easy access to infrastructure and its compliance with the spatial requir...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Rural food insecurity and poverty mappings and their linkage with water resources in the Limpopo River Basin
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): M.S. Magombeyi, A.E. Taigbenu, J. Barron The mappings of poverty and food insecurity were carried out for the rural districts of the four riparian countries (Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe) of the Limpopo river basin using the results of national surveys that were conducted between 2003 and 2013. The analysis shows lower range of food insecure persons (0 – 40%) than poverty stricken persons (0 – 95%) that is attributable to enhanced government and non-government food safety...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Hydraulic design to optimize the treatment capacity of Multi-Stage filtration units
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): C.N. Mushila, G.M.M. Ochieng, F.A.O. Otieno, S.M. Shitote, C.W. Sitters Multi-Stage Filtration (MSF) can provide a robust treatment alternative for surface water sources of variable water quality in rural communities at low operation and maintenance costs. MSF is a combination of Slow Sand Filters (SSFs) and Pre-treatment systems. The general objective of this research was to optimize the treatment capacity of MSF. A pilot plant study was undertaken to meet this objective. The pilot plant was monitor...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Electrokinetic treatment of polluted soil at pilot level coupled to an advanced oxidation process of its wastewater
Publication date: Available online 6 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): B. Ochoa, L. Ramos, A. Garibay, M. Pérez - Corona, M.C. Cuevas, J. Cárdenas, M. Teutli, E. Bustos Soil contaminated with hydrocarbons is a current problem of great importance. These contaminants may be toxic, can retain water and block gas exchange with the atmosphere, which produces a poor-quality soil unsuitable for ecological health. Electroremediation is among the treatments for the removal of such contaminants. In this research, a pilot-level electroremediation test was applied u...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 7, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Comparative assessment of water treatment using polymeric and inorganic coagulants
Publication date: Available online 5 November 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): I.K.M. Manda, R.C.G. Chidya, J.D.K. Saka, T. Biswick Portable water plays a vital role in improving human life, particularly in controlling the spread of diseases. However, problems associated with lack of potable water are still common especially in developing countries including Malawi. Until now little information exists on the effectiveness of available commercial coagulants used by national water boards in Malawi. Therefore, this study was undertaken in Southern Region Water Board (SRWB) to invest...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 6, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Determination of the water quality index ratings of water in the Mpumalanga and North West Provinces, South Africa
This study reports on the water quality index (WQI) of wastewater and drinking water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces of South Africa. The WQI is one of the most effective tools available to water sustainability researchers, because it provides an easily intelligible ranking of water quality on a rating scale from 0 to 100, based on the ascription of different weightings to several different parameters. In this study the WQI index ratings of wastewater and drinking water samples were computed according to the levels of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), E.coli, temperature, turbidi...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 3, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on maize production in Uganda
This study quantified the impacts of climate change and variability in Uganda and how coping strategies can enhance crop production against climate change and/or variability. The study used statistical methods to establish various climate change and variability indicators across the country, and uses the FAO AquaCrop model to simulate yields under possible future climate scenarios with and without adaptation strategies. Maize, the most widely grown crop was used for the study. Meteorological, soil and crop data were collected for various districts representing the maize growing ecological zones in the country. Based on thi...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 31, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Superoleophillic electrospun POLYSTRENE/exofoliated graphite fibre for selective removal of crude oil from water
Publication date: Available online 30 October 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): S.Oluwagbemiga Alayande, Enock O. Dare, F.O. Grace Olorundare, D. Nkosi, Titus A.M. Msagati, B.B. Mamba During oil spills, the aquatic environment is greatly endangered because oil floats on water making the penetration of sunlight difficult therefore primary productivity is compromised, birds and aquatic organisms are totally eliminated within a short period. It is therefore essential to remove the oil from the water bodies after the spillage. This work reports on the fabrication of oil loving elect...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 31, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Determination of the health of Lunyangwa wetland using Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index
This study used the Escom’s Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index Field Guide to determine the overall characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland and to calculate its combined Wetland Index Score. Data on site information, field measurements (i.e EC, pH, temperature and DO) and physical characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland were collected from March, 2013 to February, 2014. Results indicate that Lunyangwa wetland is a largely open water zone which is dominated by free-floating plants on the water surface, beneath surface and emergent in substrate. Furthermore, the wetland can be classified as of a C ecological ca...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 31, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Impact of urbanization on the ecology of Mukuvisi River, Harare, Zimbabwe
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): N.A.G. Moyo, M.M. Rapatsa The main objective in this study was to compare the physico-chemical characteristics and biota of a river (Mukuvisi) passing through an urban area to that of a non-urbanised river (Gwebi). Five sites in the Mukuvisi River and five sites in the Gwebi River were sampled for water physico-chemical parameters (pH, conductivity, DO, BOD, TDS, ammonia, Cl, SO4 2-, PO4 2-, NO3 3-, F-, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cr) once every month between August, 2012 - August, 2013. Cluster analysis base...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 31, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

The Cone Penetration Test and 2D Imaging Resistivity as Tools to Simulate the Distribution of Hydrocarbons in Soil
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): M. Pérez-Corona, J.A. García, G. Taller, D. Polgár, E. Bustos, Z. Plank The purpose of geophysical electrical surveys is to determine the subsurface resistivity distribution by making measurements on the ground surface. From these measurements, the true resistivity of the subsurface can be estimated. The ground resistivity is related to various geological parameters, such as the mineral and fluid content, porosity and degree of water saturation in the rock. Electrical resistivity...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 31, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Regionalization of precipitation for the Iberian Peninsula and climate change
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): A.C. Parracho, P. Melo-Gonçalves, A. Rocha Temporal variability of precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) has high spatial gradients. Therefore, statistics of the temporal behaviour of precipitation and derived quantities over the IP must be estimated taking into account these spatial gradients. Some statistics can be displayed over a map. However there are statistics, such as Probability Density Functions at each location of the IP, that are impossible to display in a map. Because of this, i...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 28, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

ENSO–climate fluctuation–crop yield early warning system—A case study in Jilin and Liaoning Province in Northeast China
In this study, we structure an ENSO–climate fluctuation–crop yield early warning system to model the maize yield in Jilin and Liaoning Provinces in Northeast China. The system, which consists of a weather generator and a Model to capture the Crop Weather relationship over a Large Area (MCWLA), is not only capable of simulating the maize yield both at the provincial (regional) scale and the grid scale, but can also provide the exceedance probability of yield. Simulation results show maize yields in El Niño years to be higher on average than those in neutral years, while yields in La Niña years are ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 24, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

The LF radio anomaly observed before the Mw = 6.5 earthquake in Crete on October 12, 2013
Publication date: Available online 20 October 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Tommaso Maggipinto, Pier Francesco Biagi, Roberto Colella, Luigi Schiavulli, Teresa Ligonzo, Anita Ermini, Giovanni Martinelli, Iren Moldovan, Hugo Silva, Michael Contadakis, Christos Skeberis, Zaharias Zaharis, Emmanuel Scordilis, Konstantinos Katzis, Aydın Buyuksarac, Sebastiano D'Amico On October 12, 2013, an earthquake with Mw = 6.5 occurred in the southern Hellenic Arc, approximately 20 km off the west coast of Crete. The main shock, the focal depth of which is on the o...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 24, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

An Integrated Analysis of Agricultural Water-Use Efficiency: A Case Study in the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Guofeng Wang, Jiancheng Chen, Feng Wu, Zhihui Li The water-use efficiency has direct impacts on the water consumption of agriculture production and is vital to water conservation at both local and regional extent. The agricultural water-use efficiency is a critical indicator that reflects the effective water allocation and water productivity improvement among different agricultural sectors. Taking the Heihe River Basin as the case study area, this study explores the changing trajectories of agricultura...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 23, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Reviews on Land Use Change Induced Effects on Regional Hydrological Ecosystem Services for Integrated Water Resources Management
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Gui Jin, Pei Wang, Tao Zhao, Yuping Bai, Chunhong Zhao, Dongdong Chen This paper proposed to provide valuable information for integrated water resources management through evaluating the research on the interaction mechanism among land use changes, regional hydrological ecosystem services and human well-being. Firstly, the driving mechanism of land use and land cover changes was introduced in this paper. Secondly, the overview of the interaction mechanism among land use and land cover changes, region...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 23, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Effect of iron salt counter ion in dose–response curves for inactivation of Fusarium solani in water through solar driven Fenton-like processes
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Verónica Aurioles-López, M. Inmaculada Polo-López, Pilar Fernández-Ibáñez, Aurelio López-Malo, Erick R. Bandala The inactivation of Fusarium solani in water was assessed by solar driven Fenton-like processes using three different iron salts: ferric acetylacetonate (Fe(acac)3), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4). The experimental conditions tested were [Fe] ≈ 5 mg L−1, [H2O2] ≈ 10 mg&nb...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 20, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Geological Risk Assessment for the Rapid Development Area of the Erhai Basin
Publication date: Available online 19 October 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Liu Yang, Zhanqi Wang, Gui Jin, Dongdong Chen, Zhan Wang For low-slope hilly land development to have more new land space in a watershed, it is particularly important that to coordinate the sharply increasing conflicts between mountainous and urban land utilization in the city. However, development of low-slope hilly land easily induce potential risks of geologic hazards such as landslide and landslip. It may lead to further environmental losses in a watershed. Hence, it is necessary to study potentia...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 20, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

A LF radio anomaly observed before the Mw=6.5 earthquake occurred in Crete on October 12, 2013
Publication date: Available online 20 October 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Tommaso Maggipinto, Pier Francesco Biagi, Roberto Colella, Luigi Schiavulli, Teresa Ligonzo, Anita Ermini, Giovanni Martinelli, Iren Moldovan, Hugo Silva, Michael Contadakis, Christos Skeberis, Zaharias Zaharis, Emmanuel Scordilis, Konstantinos Katzis, Aydın Buyuksarac, Sebastiano D’Amico On October 12, 2013, an earthquake with Mw=6.5 occurred in the southern Hellenic Arc, approximately 20 km off the west coast of Crete. The main shock, the focal depth of which is on the order of 40 ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 20, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Implementing Integrated Catchment Management in the upper Limpopo River basin: A Situational Assessment
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): J. Mwenge Kahinda, R. Meissner, F.A. Engelbrecht A three-phase study was initiated as a way to promote Integrated Catchment Management approaches in the Limpopo River basin. This paper presents the situational assessment, which should enable De Beers to understand how their Venetia Mine operations are located within a broader and highly dynamic socio-economic and ecohydrological landscape as it pertains to water risks. The second phase, Risk assessment, aims to develop conservation interventions in the i...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Gender and power contestations over water use in irrigation schemes: Lessons from the lake Chilwa basin
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Bryson Nkhoma, Gift Kayira Over the past two decades, Malawi has been adversely hit by climatic variability and changes, and irrigation schemes which rely mostly on water from rivers have been negatively affected. In the face of dwindling quantities of water, distribution and sharing of water for irrigation has been a source of contestations and conflicts. Women who constitute a significant section of irrigation farmers in schemes have been major culprits. The study seeks to analyze gender contestations a...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Establishment and analysis of a high-resolution assimilation dataset of the water-energy cycle in China
This study could improve the land surface parameters by utilizing remote sensing data and could further improve atmospheric elements with a data assimilation system. This work provides an effective attempt at combining multi-source data with different spatial and temporal scales into numerical simulations, and the simulated results could be used in further research on the long-term climatic effects and characteristics of the water-energy cycle over China. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Daily Surface Water and Sediment Fluxes in Thukela River, South Africa
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Macdex Mutema, Graham Jewitt, Pauline Chivenge, Samuel Kusangaya, Vincent Chaplot The on- and off-site effects of soil erosion in many environments are well known, but there is still limited understanding of the fluxes in downstream direction due, among other factors, to scarce and poor quality data. A study four year to (i) evaluate water and sediment fluxes at different spatio-temporal scales and (ii) interpret the results in terms of processes involved and the controlling factors, was conducted in T...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Effect of iron salt counter ion in dose-response curves for inactivation of Fusarium solani in water through solar driven Fenton-like processes
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Verónica Aurioles-López, M. Inmaculada Polo-López, Pilar Fernández-Ibáñez, Aurelio López-Malo, Erick R. Bandala The inactivation of Fusarium solani in water was assessed by solar driven Fenton-like processes using three different iron salts: ferric acetylacetonate (Fe(acac)3), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4). The experimental conditions tested were [Fe] ≈ 5 mg L-1, [H2O2] ≈ 10 mg L-1 and [Fe] ≈10 mg L-1; [H2O2] &asym...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

A diagnosis of sub-surface water table dynamics in low hydraulic conductivity soils in the sugar cane fields of Pongola, South Africa
In this study, the extent and severity of problems as a consequence of shallow water tables and their possible causes were investigated at three sugarcane fields in Pongola, South Africa, having low hydraulic conductivity soils. Also investigated were soil salinity levels and the temporal variation in the salinity of the irrigation water. A water table map of a 32 ha sugarcane field was generated, using observed water table depth (WTD) data from 36 piezometers monitored from September 2011 to February 2012. Out of the total 32 ha under cultivation, 12% was found to be affected by shallow WTDs of less than the 1.0 m design ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Analysis on urban lake change during rapid urbanization using a synergistic approach: a case study of Wuhan, China
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Bohan Yang, Xinli Ke To grasp the evolution of urban lakes accurately is quite necessary for studying on the mechanism of city ecological development. The study about extraction with different types of water by remote sensing technology has developed for decades. Many water indexes as the main methods are used to extract water information. Each method has advantage and disadvantage in different situation. A synergistic approach in this study can reduce the uncertainty of urban lake extraction by using fou...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Prediction and Assessment of the Disturbances of the Coal Mining in Kailuan to Karst Groundwater System
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Wenjie Sun, Qiang Wu, Honglei Liu, Jian Jiao Coal resources and water resources play an essential and strategic role in the development of China’s social and economic development, being the priority for China’s medium and long technological development. As the mining of the coal extraction is increasingly deep, the mine water inrush of high-pressure confined karst water becomes much more a problem. This paper carried out research on the hundred-year old Kailuan coal mine's karst groundwater ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Superhydrophobic and superoleophillic surface of porous beaded electrospun polystrene and polysytrene-zeolite fiber for crude oil-water separation
In this study, expanded polystyrene (EPS) was electrospun to produce beaded fibers in which zeolite was introduced to the polymer matrix in order to impart rough surface to non-beaded fiber. Films of the EPS and EPS/Zeolite solutions were also made for comparative study. The electrospun fibers EPS, EPS/Zeolite and resultant films were characterized using SEM, BET, FTIR and optical contact angle. The fibers exhibited superhydrophobic and superoleophillic wetting properties with water (>150 0) and crude oil (0 0). The selective removal of crude oil presents new opportunity for the re-use of EPS as adsorbent in petrole...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

ENSO-Climate Fluctuation-Crop Yield Early Warning System—A Case Study in Jilin and Liaoning Province in Northeast China
In this study, we structure an ENSO–climate fluctuation–crop yield early warning system to model the maize yield in Jilin and Liaoning Provinces in Northeast China. The system, which consists of a weather generator and a Model to capture the Crop Weather relationship over a Large Area (MCWLA), is not only capable of simulating the maize yield both at the provincial (regional) scale and the grid scale, but can also provide the exceedance probability of yield. Simulation results show maize yields in El Niño years to be higher on average than those in neutral years, while yields in La Niña years are ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessing vegetation dynamics and their relationships with climatic variability in Northern China
In this study, the vegetation dynamics and their correlations with climate variability in northern China were evaluated based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and meteorological datasets from 1982 to 2006. The NDVI showed that vegetation cover had a tiny increasing trend for whole study area in the past 25 years. However, the interannual changes of NDVI were different in each season. The part of spring and autumn NDVI values increased significantly, while the summer NDVI increased no significantly. And the interannual variations of the NDVI showed obvious spatial differentiations. The annual max NDVI in...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

The relative roles of climate variations and human activities in vegetation change in North China
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Yanling Sun, Yanli Yang, Li Zhang, Zhongliang Wang Using SPOT-VEGETATION Normal Difference Vegetation Index (SPOT/NDVI) data from 1998 to 2011 and climate data obtained from 223 weather stations in or near North China, vegetation variation characteristics within North China were analyzed. Vegetation variation characteristics under the influence of climate variations and human activities were distinguished through a residual analysis. Based on the results of that analysis, the relative roles of climate v...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 10, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Is irrigation water price an effective leverage for water management? An empirical study in the Middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin
Publication date: Available online 2 October 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Qing Zhou, Feng Wu, Qian Zhang Serious water scarcity, low water-use efficiency, and over-exploitation of underground water have hindered socio-economic development and led to environmental degradation in the Heihe River basin, northwestern China. Price leveraging is an important tool in water demand management, and it is considered to be effective in promoting water conservation and improving water use efficiency on the premise that water demand is elastic. In the present study, we examine whether price...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 4, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Polarimetric scattering model for estimation of above ground biomass of multilayer vegetation using ALOS-PALSAR quad-pol data
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): P. Sai Bharadwaj, Shashi Kumar, S.P.S. Kushwaha, Wietske Bijker Forests are important biomes covering a major part of the vegetation on the Earth, and as such account for seventy percent of the carbon present in living beings. The value of a forest’s above ground biomass (AGB) is considered as an important parameter for the estimation of global carbon content. In the present study, the quad-pol ALOS - PALSAR data was used for the estimation of AGB for the Dudhwa National Park, India. For this p...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 25, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Impacts of sparing use of water on farmer income of China
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Zhan Wang, Xiangzheng Deng, Jiancheng Chen we examine relationships between nationwide sparing use of water and farmer income of China in this article. As increasing implementation of water projects and irrigation system, the cost of water use has increased and many regions. However, as local policy-oriented urban expansion and ecological restoration have carried out during the past decade, water demand has increased. The spatial distributions of water use and farmer income are uneven and their relati...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 25, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

New criteria to assess interbasin water transfers and a case for Nzoia-Suam/Turkwel in Kenya
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Joel Kibiiy, Julius Ndambuki Although an interbasin water transfer project (IWT) is subject to many issues ranging from socio-economic to ecological, the final decision on implementation is always a political one, made in the best interest of sitting administrations. Therefore a sound pragmatic assessment process for IWTs should be used to inform the final (political) decision. Unfortunately, there is no universally agreed set of criteria for assessment of IWTs. Existing criteria vary and tend to be presc...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 6, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Notable shifting in the responses of vegetation activity to climate change in China
This study contributes to ongoing investigations of the effects of climate change on vegetation activity. It is also of great importance for designing forest management strategies to cope with climate change. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 5, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research