Long time-series spatiotemporal variations of NPP and water use efficiency in the Lower Heihe River Basin with serious water scarcity
This study analyzed the long time-series variations of WUE in the Lower Heihe River Basin, a typical arid and semi-arid region in China. The net primary productivity (NPP) was first estimated with the C-fix model, then WUE during 2001-2010 was calculated with the NPP and evapotranspiration (ET) data, and the accumulative WUE was further calculated. The results showed that the annual NPP and WUE in the study area ranged from zero to 448.70 gC/(m2•a) and from zero to 2.20 gC kg−1 H2O, respectively, both of which showed an overall increasing trend during 2001-2010. Besides, the spatial pattern of WUE kept overall u...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 6, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Allocating agricultural production factors: a scenario-based modeling of wheat production in Shandong Province, China
In conclusion, wheat production at different operating modes could be improved so as to constitute more efficient and economic use of production factors. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 6, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Shear-tensile crack as a tool for reliable estimates of the non-double-couple mechanism: West Bohemia-Vogtland earthquake 1997 swarm
Publication date: Available online 29 June 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Jan Šílený, Josef Horálek Shear-tensile crack is a model for an earthquake mechanism that is more constrained than the moment tensor but that can still describe a non-shear focus. As such, the shear-tensile crack model is more robust than the moment tensor model and yields more reliable estimates for the earthquake mechanism. Such an advantage verifies the credibility of the non-double-couple component found for some events of the 1997 West Bohemia-Vogtland earthquake swarm. As expe...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 6, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

S-wave velocity measurement and the effect of basin geometry on site response, east San Francisco Bay area, California, USA
Publication date: Available online 22 July 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Koichi Hayashi, Mitchell Craig We measured S-wave velocity profiles at eleven sites in the east San Francisco Bay area using surface wave methods. Data acquisition included multichannel analysis of surface waves using an active source (MASW), a passive surface-wave method using a linear array of geophones (Linear-MAM), and a two-station spatial autocorrelation method (2ST-SPAC) using long-period accelerometers. Maximum distance between stations ranged from several hundred meters to several kilometers, dependin...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 6, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

The Sustainability of Drinking Water Supply in Rural China: Does the Provision of Drinking Water Investment Mismatch the Demand of Residents?
Publication date: Available online 27 July 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Ying Liu, Tang Yao, Yu Liu It is doubted that the top down nature of investment planning may lead to mismatches between drinking water investment and the demands of local residents in rural China. Statistical and econometric analysis based on data of 2020 rural households from five Chinese provinces from 1998 to 2011 are used to illustrate the linkage between demand for drinking water investment and construction of drinking water projects. Household’s demand significantly affects drinking water projects ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 6, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Analysis of the 2012 –2013 Torreperogil-Sabiote seismic swarm
This study analyses the temporal clustering, spatial clustering, and statistics of the 2012–2013 Torreperogil-Sabiote (southern Spain) seismic swarm. During the swarm, more than 2200 events were located, mostly at depths of 2–5 km, with magnitude event up to m bLg 3.9 (M w 3.7). On the basis of daily activity rate, three main temporal phases are identified and analysed. The analysis combines different seismological relationships to improve our understanding of the physical processes related to the swarm's occurrence. Each temporal phase is characterized by its cumulative seismic moment. Using several diffe...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 18, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Managing ground and surface water resources using innovative methods in rural and urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 93 Author(s): Benjamin Mapani, Lapologang Magole, Hodson Makurira, Dominic Mazvimavi, Maideyi Meck, Maloes Mul (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 13, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Water: The conveyor belt for sustainable livelihoods and economic development
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 92 Author(s): Benjamin Mapani, Maideyi Meck, Hodson Makurira, Lapologang Magole, Damas Mashauri, Dominic mazvimavi, Marloes Mul (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Robust inferences on climate change patterns of precipitation extremes in the Iberian Peninsula
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Paulo de Melo-Gonçalves, Alfredo Rocha, João Santos This work presents a methodology to make statistical significant and robust inferences on climate change from an ensemble of model simulations. This methodology is used to assess climate change projections of the Iberian daily-total precipitation for a near-future (2021 – 2050) and a distant-future (2069 – 2098) climates, relatively to a reference past climate (1961 – 1990). Climate changes of precipitation spatial patterns ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 2, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Regionalization of Europe based on a K-Means Cluster Analysis of the climate change of temperatures and precipitation
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): M.J. Carvalho, P. Melo-Gonçalves, J.C. Teixeira, A. Rocha In order to study climate change on a regional scale using Earth System Models, it is useful to partition the spatial domain into regions according to their climate changes. The aim of this work is to divide the European domain into regions of similar projected climate changes using a simulation of daily total precipitation, minimum and maximum temperatures for the recent-past (1986 – 2005) and long-term future (2081 – 2100) provi...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 24, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Ungauged runoff simulation in Upper Manyame Catchment, Zimbabwe: Applications of the HEC-HMS model
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Webster Gumindoga, Donald T. Rwasoka, Innocent Nhapi, Timothy Dube The Hydrologic Engineering Centre Hydrologic Modelling System model was applied to simulate runoff in the ten gauged and ungauged Upper Manyame micro-catchments in Zimbabwe. Remote sensing and Geographic Information System techniques were used to determine the geometric and hydrologic parameters required for estimating model parameters. The Snyder Unit Hydrograph method was used for ungauged catchment simulations based on parameter transfer...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 24, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Identification of blasting sources in the Dobrogea seismogenic region, Romania using seismo-acoustic signals
Publication date: Available online 20 May 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Daniela Ghica, Bogdan Grecu, Mihaela Popa, Mircea Radulian In order to discriminate between quarry blasts and earthquakes observed in the Dobrogea seismogenic region, a seismo-acoustic analysis was performed on 520 events listed in the updated Romanian seismic catalogue from January 2011 to December 2012. During this time interval, 104 seismo-acoustic events observed from a distance between 110 and 230 km and backazimuth interval of 110 to 160 degrees from the IPLOR infrasound array were identified as expl...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 20, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

A Ten Year Moment Tensor Database for Western Greece
Publication date: Available online 20 May 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Anna Serpetsidaki, Efthimios Sokos, G-Akis Tselentis Moment Tensors (MTs) provide important information for seismotectonic, stress distribution and source studies. It is also important as a real time or near real time information in shakemaps, tsunami warning, and stress transfer. Therefore a reliable and rapid MT computation is a routine task for modern seismic networks with broadband sensors and real-time digital telemetry. In this paper we present the database of Moment Tensor solutions computed during t...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - May 20, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Application of satellite products and hydrological modelling for flood early warning
In this study, we propose a satellite based flood index to identify the runoff source areas that largely contribute to extreme runoff production and floods in the basin. Satellite based products used for development of the flood index are CMORPH (Climate Prediction Center MORPHing technique: 0.25° by 0.25°, daily) product for calculation of the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) and a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) for calculation of the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI). Other satellite products used in this study are for rainfall-runoff modelling to represent rainfall, potenti...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 29, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Evaluation of groundwater quality in rural-areas of northern Malawi: Case of Zombwe Extension Planning Area in Mzimba
This study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical quality of water from boreholes (n = 20) in Zombwe Extension Planning Area (EPA), Mzimba in Northern Malawi to ascertain their safety. Desktop studies and participatory approaches were employed to assess the socio–economic activities and water supply regime in the study areas. The water samples were analysed forpH, conductivity (EC), turbidity, water temperature, nitrate ( NO 3 − ), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), fluoride (F−), and sulphate ( SO 4 2 − ). In-situ and laboratory analyses were carried out using portable m...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 28, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Appropriate technology and climate change adaptation
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 91 Author(s): Erick R. Bandala, Carlos Patiño-Gomez (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 24, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Anomalous behavior of ionospheric parameters above the Kamchatka peninsula before and during seismic activity
Publication date: Available online 24 April 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Vadim V. Bogdanov, Aleksandr V. Kaisin, Aleksey V. Pavlov, Anastasia L. Polyukhova, Claudia-Veronika Meister In the present work, searching for new methods of earthquake prediction, variations of ionospheric plasma parameters and ionospheric turbulence before and during seismic activity are studied applying complex radiophysical methods and a theoretical probabilistic approach. The analysis of radiophysical observations of some seismic events of February-March (28.02.–02.03.) 2013 shows, that K-la...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 24, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

The Typical Seismic Behavior in the Vicinity of a Large Earthquake
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): M.V. Rodkin, I.N. Tikhonov The Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalog (GCMT) was used to construct the spatio-temporal generalized vicinity of a large earthquake (GVLE) and to investigate the behavior of seismicity in GVLE. The vicinity is made of earthquakes falling into the zone of influence of a large number (100, 300, or 1,000) of largest earthquakes. The GVLE construction aims at enlarging the available statistics, diminishing a strong random component, and revealing typical features of pre- and post-s...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 23, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

A new approach for computing a flood vulnerability index using cluster analysis
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Paulo Fernandez, Sandra Mourato, Madalena Moreira, Luísa Pereira A Flood Vulnerability Index (FloodVI) was developed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a new aggregation method based on Cluster Analysis (CA). PCA simplifies a large number of variables into a few uncorrelated factors representing the social, economic, physical and environmental dimensions of vulnerability. CA groups areas that have the same characteristics in terms of vulnerability into vulnerability classes. The grouping...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 23, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessing the feasibility of integrating remote sensing and in-situ measurements in monitoring water quality status of Lake Chivero, Zimbabwe
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): S. Dlamini, I. Nhapi, W. Gumindoga, T. Nhiwatiwa, T. Dube This work investigates the likelihood of integrating the cheap and readily-available broadband multispectral MODIS data and in-situ measurements in quantifying and monitoring water quality status of an inland lake within Upper Manyame Catchment in Zimbabwe. Specifically we used MODIS images to quantify inland lake chlorophyll_a concentrations, as a proxy for predicting lake pollution levels. The findings of this study show a high chlorophyll_a co...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - April 23, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

On the spatial distribution of seismicity and the 3D tectonic stress field in western Greece
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Ioannis Kassaras, Vasilis Kapetanidis, Andreas Karakonstantis We analyzed a large number of focal mechanisms and relocated earthquake hypocenters to investigate the geodynamics of western Greece, the most seismically active part of the Aegean plate-boundary zone. This region was seismically activated multiple times during the last decade, providing a large amount of enhanced quality new information that was obtained by the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN). Relocated seismicity using a double-...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 23, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Critical Pollution levels in Umguza River, Zimbabwe
This study investigated the levels of pollution in Umguza River that would affect its self-purification capacity. This was achieved by characterising the spatial distribution of a selected range of water quality parameters as well as determining the self-purification capacity of a stretch of the river. Critical pollutant concentrations were determined for some of the parameters that showed high values along the stretch. The selected parameters of interest were dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, phosphates, nitrates, COD, turbidity, ammonia, pH, alkalinity and temperature. The study was carried out from January 2014 to Apr...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 22, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Determination of background concentrations of hydrochemical parameters and water quality assessment in the Akhuryan River Basin (Armenia)
This study highlights the usefulness of application of site-specific background concentrations for the evaluation, interpretation of surface water quality and for determination of pollution sources. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 22, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Evaluation of Borehole Water Quality in Rural-Areas Of Northern Malawi: Case of Zombwe in Mzimba
This study was conducted to evaluate quality of water from boreholes (n=20) in Zombwe Extension Planning Area (EPA), Mzimba in Northern Malawi to ascertain their safety. Desktop studies and participatory approaches were employed to assess the socio-economic activities and water supply regime in the study areas. Water samples were analyzed for selected physico-chemical parameters: pH, conductivity (EC), turbidity, water temperature, nitrate ( NO 3 − ), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), fluoride (F-), and sulphate ( SO 4 2 − ). In-situ and laboratory analyses were carried out using portable meters and ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 22, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

High resolution WRF climatic simulations for the Iberian Peninsula: Model validation
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Martinho Marta-Almeida, João C. Teixeira, Maria João Carvalho, Paulo Melo-Gonçalves, Alfredo M. Rocha A high resolution atmospheric modelling study was done for a 20-year recent historical period. The dynamic downscaling approach adopted used the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) to drive the WRF running in climate mode. Three online nested domains were used covering part of the North Atlantic and Europe, with a resolution 81 km, and reaching 9 km in the innermost do...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 22, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Climate Change induced by Southern Hemisphere Desertification
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Ye Wang, Xiaodong Yan Some 10 to 20% of global dry-lands are already degraded, and the ongoing desertification threatens the world’s poorest populations. Studies on desertification effects are essential for humans to adapt to the environmental challenges posed by desertification. Given the importance of the much larger southern ocean to the global climate and the Southern Hemisphere (SH) climate changes in phase with those in the north, the biogeophysical effects of the SH desertification on climate ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 21, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

The effect of roughness in simultaneously retrieval of land surface parameters
In this study, a model called Simultaneous Land Parameters Retrieval Model (SLPRM) that is an iterative least-squares minimization method is proposed. The algorithm estimates surface soil moisture, land surface temperature and canopy temperature simultaneously in vegetated areas using AMSR-E (Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS) brightness temperature data. The simultaneous estimations of the three parameters are based on a multi-parameter inversion algorithm which includes model construction, calibration and validation using observations carried out for the SMEX03 (Soil Moisture Experiment 2003) region in the South ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 21, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Application of satellite products and hydrological modeling for flood early warning
In this study, we propose a satellite based flood index to identify the runoff source areas that largely contribute to extreme runoff production and floods in the basin. Satellite based products used for development of the flood index are CMORPH (0.250 by 0.250, daily) product for calculation of the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) and a SRTM digital elevation model for calculation of the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI). Other satellite products used in this study are for rainfall-runoff modelling to represent rainfall, potential evapotranspiration, vegetation cover and topography. Results of the study show that assessme...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 20, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Micrometeorological Measurements and Vapour Pressure Deficit Relations under In-field Rainwater Harvesting
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Weldemichael A. Tesfuhuney, Sue Walker, Leon D. Van Rensburg, A. Stephan Steyn In a cropped field, microclimate and thermal stability conditions depend on the canopy structures and the prevailing weather. The main aim of the study therefore was to characterize the vertical profiles of weather variables within and above a maize (Zea mays L.) canopy and to describe the water vapour pressure deficit (VPD) under different atmospheric and soil surface conditions for both wide and narrow runoff strips with the...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

The hydrology of sand rivers in Zimbabwe and the use of remote sensing to assess their level of saturation
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): S.C. Mpala, A.S. Gagnon, M.G. Mansell, S.W. Hussey Sand rivers are ephemeral watercourses containing sand that are occasionally flooded with rainwater runoff during the rainy season. Although the riverbed appears dry for most of the year, there is perennial groundwater flow within the sand. This water flowing beneath the surface is a valuable resource for local communities; nonetheless our understanding of such river systems is limited. Hence, this paper aims to improve our understanding of the hydrology...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

How is water availability related to the land use and morphology of an inland valley wetland in Kenya?
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Beate Böhme, Mathias Becker, Bernd Diekkrüger, Gerd Förch Small inland valley wetlands contribute substantially to the livelihoods of rural communities in East Africa. Their conversion into farmland is driven by water availability. We quantified spatial-temporal dynamics of water availability in a headwater wetland in the humid zone of Kenya. Climatic conditions, soil moisture contents, groundwater levels and discharge data were monitored. A land-use map and a digital elevation model of th...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Land use/land cover change and implications for ecosystems services in the Likangala River Catchment, Malawi
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Deepa Pullanikkatil, Lobina G. Palamuleni, Tabukeli M. Ruhiiga Likangala River catchment in Zomba District of Southern Malawi is important for water resources, agriculture and provides many ecosystem services. Provisioning ecosystem services accrued by the populations within the catchment include water, fish, medicinal plants and timber among others. In spite of its importance, the River catchment is under threat from anthropogenic activities and land use change. This paper studies land uses and land cove...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Water supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in low-income areas of Lilongwe City, Malawi
This study explored supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in four LIAs of Lilongwe City in Malawi using qualitative and quantitative methods. Household-level surveys (n=120) and transect walks were employed to determine the socio-economic activities in the areas. One-on-one discussions were made with water source owners (SSIPs) (n=24). Data on policy and institutional frameworks was collected through desktop study and Key Informant Interviews (n=25). Quality of the water sources (shallow wells and boreholes) was determined by collecting grab samples (n=24) in triplicate using 500 mL bottles. Selected phy...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - March 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

From standard to fractional structural visco-elastodynamics: Application to seismic site response
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): C. Germoso, A. Fraile, E. Alarcon, J.V. Aguado, F. Chinesta This paper revisits viscoelastodynamics from its most standard formulation to some more advanced description involving frequency-dependent damping (or viscosity), analyzing the effects of considering fractional derivatives for representing such viscous contributions. We will prove that such a choice results in richer models that can accommodate different constraints related to the dissipated power, response amplitude and phase angle. Moreove...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 13, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Seismic Moment Tensor Inversion Using 3D Velocity Model and Its Application to the 2013 Lushan Earthquake Sequence
In this study, we developed a new inversion method called gCAP3D for determining general moment tensor of a seismic source using Green’s functions of 3D models. It inherits the advantageous features of the “Cut-and-Paste” (CAP) method to break a full seismogram into the Pnl and surface-wave segments and to allow time shift between observed and predicted waveforms. It uses grid search for 5 source parameters (relative strengths of the isotropic and compensated-linear-vector-dipole components and the strike, dip, and rake of the double-couple component) that minimize the waveform misfit. The scalar moment i...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 5, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

On the relationship between atmospheric water vapour transport and extra-tropical cyclones development
This study suggests that atmospheric rivers tend to favour the conditions for explosive extra-tropical storms’ development in the three case studies, as simulations performed without the existence of atmospheric rivers produce shallow mid-latitudes cyclones, that is, cyclones that are not so intense as those on the reference simulations. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 4, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Moment tensors, state of stress and their relation to faulting processes in Gujarat, Western India
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Sandeep Kumar Aggarwal, Prosanta Kumar Khan, Sarada Prasad Mohanty, Zafeiria Roumelioti Time domain moment tensor analysis of 145 earthquakes (Mw 3.2 to 5.1), occurring during the period 2006-2014 in Gujarat region, has been performed. The events are mainly confined in the Kachchh area demarcated by the Island belt and Kachchh Mainland faults to its north and south, and two transverse faults to its east and west. Libraries of Green’s functions were established using the 1D velocity model of Kachc...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 4, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Analysis of the 2012–2013 Torreperogil-Sabiote seismic swarm
This study analyses the temporal clustering, spatial clustering, and statistics of the 2012–2013 Torreperogil-Sabiote (southern Spain) seismic swarm. During the swarm, more than 2200 events were located, mostly at depths of 2–5 km, with magnitude event up to m bLg 3.9 (M w 3.7). On the basis of daily activity rate, three main temporal phases are identified and analysed. The analysis combines different seismological relationships to improve our understanding of the physical processes related to the swarm’s occurrence. Each temporal phase is characterized by its cumulative seismic moment. Using several diff...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - February 4, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Estimation of Groundwater Vulnerability to Pollution based on DRASTIC in the Niipele sub-Basin of the Cuvelai Etosha Basin, Namibia
This study explores vulnerability mapping as a basic tool for protecting groundwater resources from pollution. It estimates groundwater vulnerability to pollution in the upper Niipele sub-basin of the Cuvelai-Etosha in Northern Namibia using the DRASTIC index. The DRASTIC index uses GIS to estimate groundwater vulnerability by overlaying different spatially referenced hydrogeological parameters that affect groundwater contamination. The study assesses the discontinuous perched aquifer (KDP) and the Ohangwena multi-layered aquifer 1 (KOH-1). For perched aquifers, point data was regionalized by a hydrotope approach whereas f...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 24, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Degradation of organic matter from wastewater using advanced primary treatment by O3 and O3/UV in a pilot plant
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Yaneth Bustos-Terrones, Jesús Gabriel Rangel-Peraza, Antonio Sanhouse, Erick R. Bandala, Luis G. Torres The oxidation of organic matter from wastewater using ozone, ultraviolet radiation and ozone/UV oxidation was evaluated in a pilot plant, applying a continuous effluent arising from the Autonomous Metropolitan University wastewater treatment plant. The oxidation was measured as the efficiency to remove organic load, measured as chemical oxygen demand. The use of ozone and UV was evaluated sep...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 24, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Spatial scale impact on daily surface water and sediment fluxes in Thukela river, South Africa
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Macdex Mutema, Graham Jewitt, Pauline Chivenge, Samuel Kusangaya, Vincent Chaplot The on- and off-site effects of soil erosion in many environments are well known, but there is still limited understanding of the soil loss fluxes in downstream direction due, among other factors, to scarce and poor quality. A four year study to (i) evaluate water and sediment fluxes at different spatio-temporal scales and (ii) interpret the results in terms of processes involved and the controlling factors, was conducted...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 22, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Influence of deposition of fine plant debris in river floodplain shrubs on flood flow conditions – The Warta River case study
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Robert Mazur, Tomasz Kałuża, Joanna Chmist, Natalia Walczak, Ireneusz Laks, Paweł Strzeliński This paper presents problems caused by organic material transported by flowing water. This material is usually referred to as plant debris or organic debris. Its composition depends on the characteristic of the watercourse. For lowland rivers, the share of the so-called small organic matter in plant debris is considerable. This includes both various parts of water plants and floodplain vegetation (leave...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 12, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Land use mapping from CBERS-2 images with open source tools by applying different classification algorithms
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Antonio J. Sanhouse-Garcia, Jesús Gabriel Rangel-Peraza, Yaneth Bustos-Terrones, Alfonso García-Ferrer, Francisco J. Mesas-Carrascosa Land cover classification is often based on different characteristics between their classes, but with great homogeneity within each one of them. This cover is obtained through field work or by mean of processing satellite images. Field work involves high costs; therefore, digital image processing techniques have become an important alternative to perform ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Recent trends of extreme temperature indices for the Iberian Peninsula
In this study, we perform a high resolution downscaling simulation to evaluate recent trends of extreme temperature indices. The model used was Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) forced by MPI-ESM-LR, which has been shown to be one of the more robust models to simulate European climate. The domain used in the simulations includes the Iberian Peninsula and the simulation covers the 1986 − 2005 period (i.e. recent past). In order to study extreme temperature events, trends were computed using the Theil-Sen method for a set of temperature indexes defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCD...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

Knowledge and Practices regarding Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) among mothers of under-fives in Mawabeni rural area, Zimbabwe
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2016 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Tendai Demberere, Tayedza Chidziya, Tatenda Ncozana, Norman Manyeruke The research study sought to assess knowledge and practices of mothers of under-fives regarding WASH in Mawabeni communal area in Zimbabwe. Focus group discussions, interviews, questionnaires and observation checklists were used to collect data. Data was analysed by developing specific themes related to the objectives and then frequencies were computed in Microsoft Excel. The mean score on WASH knowledge for the mothers of under-fives...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 11, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: research

State of Tectonic Stress in Shillong Plateau of Northeast India
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Santanu Baruah, Saurabh Baruah, Sowrav Saikia, Mahesh N. Shrivastava, Antara Sharma, C.D. Reddy, J.R. Kayal Tectonic stress regime in the Shillong plateau, northeast region of India, is examined by stress tensor inversion. Some 97 reliable fault plane solutions are used for stress inversion by the Michael and Gauss methods. Although an overall NNW-SSE compressional stress is observed in the area, the stress regime varies from western part to eastern part of the plateau. The eastern part of the plat...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 23, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

QLg tomography in Gujarat, Western India
This study is the first attempt and can be utilized as pivotal criteria for scenario hazard assessment, as maximum hazard has been reported in highly attenuating tectonically active Kachchh region and in low attenuating Cambay, Narmada and Surendranagar regions. The site and source terms are also obtained along with the QLg inversion. The estimated site responses are comparable with observed local geological condition and agree with the previously reported site amplifications at the same sites. The source terms are comparable with local magnitude estimated from Network. The Mw (Lg) is nearly equivalent to ML (GSN) and the ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 23, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Influence of Deposition of Fine Plant Debris in River Floodplain Shrubs on Flood Flow Conditions - the Warta River Case Study
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): Robert Mazur, Tomasz Kałuża, Joanna Chmist, Natalia Walczak, Ireneusz Laks, Paweł Strzeliński This paper presents problems caused by organic material transported by flowing water. This material is usually referred to as plant debris or organic debris. Its composition depends on the characteristic of the watercourse. For lowland rivers, the share of the so-called small organic matter in plant debris is considerable. This includes both various parts of water plants and floodplain vegetation (leave...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 22, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

Nanosized iron based permeable reactive barriers for nitrate removal – Systematic review
This study’s outcomes show that the permeable reactive barriers are, indeed, a suitable technology for denitrification and with good performance record but the long-term impact of the use of nanosized zero valent iron in this remediation process, in both on the environment and on the human health, is far to be conveniently known. As a consequence, further work is required on this matter, so that nanosized iron based permeable reactive barriers for the removal of nitrate from drinking water can be genuinely considered an eco-efficient technology. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 16, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research

An exploratory study of spatial annual maximum of monthly precipitation in the northern region of Portugal
Publication date: Available online 15 December 2015 Source:Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C Author(s): D.P. Gomes, M.M. Neves, E. Moreira Adequately analyzing and modeling the extreme rainfall events is of great importance because of the effects that their magnitude and frequency can have on human life, agricultural productivity and economic aspects, among others. A single extreme event may affect several locations, and their spatial dependence has to be appropriately taken into account. Classical geostatistics is a well-developed field for dealing with location referenced data, but it is largely based ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 16, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: research