Procholecystokinin expression and processing in cardiac myocytes
Publication date: Available online 11 June 2018Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Jens P. Goetze, Jens F. RehfeldAbstractThe mammalian heart is by now an established endocrine organ whose myocytes in a regulated manner release atrial and ventricular natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP). But like other hormone-producing cells in classic endocrine organs, the cardiac myocytes also express genes of additional peptide hormones. One such hormone gene is that of the well-known pleiotropic gut-brain peptide system, cholecystokinin (CCK), which is expressed at mRNA and protein levels in both atrial and ventricular cardiac myocytes. The post...
Source: Peptides - July 6, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Oxytocin modulates the expression of norepinephrine transporter, β3-adrenoceptors and muscarinic M2 receptors in the hearts of socially isolated rats
In this study, we examined the influence of peripheral chronic oxytocin treatment on anxiety-related behavior, the morphology and content of epinephrine and norepinephrine, mRNA and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), norepinephrine transporter (NET) and receptors  3 (β3-AR) and muscarinic 2 (M2 MR) in the right and left cardiac atrium and ventricle of chronically socially isolated male rats. Our results show that oxytocin treatment exhibits an anxiolytic effect, decreases the heart/body weight ratio and prevents the hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes in the wall of the left ventricle of stressed rats. Epinephri...
Source: Peptides - July 6, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Bifunctional ligands of the bradykinin B2 and B1 receptors: An exercise in peptide hormone plasticity
Publication date: July 2018Source: Peptides, Volume 105Author(s): François Marceau, Marie-Thérèse Bawolak, Jean-Philippe Fortin, Guillaume Morissette, Caroline Roy, Hélène Bachelard, Lajos Gera, Xavier Charest-MorinAbstractKinins are the small and fragile hydrophilic peptides related to bradykinin (BK) and derived from circulating kininogens via the action of kallikreins. Kinins bind to the preformed and widely distributed B2 receptor (B2R) and to the inducible B1 receptor (B1R). B2Rs and B1Rs are related G protein coupled receptors that possess natural agonist ligands of nanomolar affini...
Source: Peptides - July 6, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: July 2018Source: Peptides, Volume 105Author(s): (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - July 6, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Potentiation of capsaicin-induced neurogenic inflammation by 5-HT7 receptors in the rat hind paw: Involvement of calcitonin gen-related peptide
Publication date: July 2018Source: Peptides, Volume 105Author(s): Luis D. Arreola-Peralta, Frida Altamirano-Reyna, Deni M. Galindo-González, Jessica G. Solis-Anguiano, Enza Lacivita, Marcello Leopoldo, José A. TerrónAbstractA decrease in the activation threshold of primary sensory neurons to transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) stimulation by serotonin 5-HT7 receptors has been reported but no confirmation if this might translate into facilitation of neurogenic inflammation has been provided. We analysed the modulation of capsaicin (CAP)-induced neurogenic inflammation in the rat hind paw by the sele...
Source: Peptides - July 6, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Liraglutide attenuates the migration of retinal pericytes induced by advanced glycation end products
In this study, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) significantly increased the migration of primary bovine retinal pericytes without influencing cell viability. AGEs also significantly enhanced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt activation, and changed the expressions of migration-related proteins, including phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and vinculin. PI3K inhibition significantly attenuated the AGEs-induced migration of retinal pericytes and reversed the overexpression of MMP-2. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (Glp1r) was expressed in retinal pericytes, and liragl...
Source: Peptides - July 6, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Effects of hypergravity on the gene expression of the hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides in mice via vestibular inputs
Publication date: July 2018Source: Peptides, Volume 105Author(s): Satomi Sonoda, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Chikara Abe, Hironobu Morita, Hiromichi Ueno, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Yoshiya Tanaka, Yoichi UetaAbstractThe effects of hypergravity on the gene expression of the hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides in sham-operated (Sham) and vestibular-lesioned (VL) mice were examined by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the paraventricular nucleus was increased significantly in Sham but not in VL mice after 3 days of exposure to a 2 g ...
Source: Peptides - July 6, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Kisspeptin modulates pain sensitivity of CFLP mice
Publication date: July 2018Source: Peptides, Volume 105Author(s): Krisztina Csabafi, Zsolt Bagosi, Éva Dobó, Júlia Szakács, Gyula Telegdy, Gyula SzabóAbstractKisspeptin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide, is a member of the RF-amide family, which have been known to modify pain sensitivity in rodents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of kisspeptin-13 (KP-13), an endogenous derivative of kisspeptin, on nociception in adult male and female CFLP mice and the possible interaction of KP-13 with morphine on nociception.Mice were injected with different doses of KP-13, 30, 60 ...
Source: Peptides - July 6, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Effects of amphipathic profile regularization on structural order and interaction with membrane models of two highly cationic branched peptides with β-sheet propensity
Publication date: July 2018Source: Peptides, Volume 105Author(s): Ilaria Serra, Mariano Casu, Matteo Ceccarelli, Paula Gameiro, Andrea C. Rinaldi, Mariano Andrea ScorciapinoAbstractAntimicrobial peptides attracted increasing interest in last decades due to the rising concern of multi-drug resistant pathogens. Dendrimeric peptides are branched molecules with multiple copies of one peptide functional unit bound to the central core. Compared to linear analogues, they usually show improved activity and lower susceptibility to proteases. Knowledge of structure-function relationship is fundamental to tailor their properties. Thi...
Source: Peptides - July 6, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

MiR-503 suppresses hypoxia-induced proliferation, migration and angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells by targeting Apelin
Publication date: July 2018Source: Peptides, Volume 105Author(s): Ya Wen, Rong Chen, Chunhua Zhu, Huimin Qiao, Ying Liu, Hui Ji, Jiangyong Miao, Linyu Chen, Xiaoxia Liu, Yi YangAbstractEndothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are of great importance in the process of endogenous blood vessel repair to maintain endothelial integrity and have been applied in a wide range of models of ischemic diseases. MicroRNAs represent a class of non-protein coding endogenous RNAs with 19–24 nucleotides in length and serve an important role in multiple physiological and pathological processes, including angiogenesis. It has been reported ...
Source: Peptides - July 6, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

In vitro and in vivo activity of cyclopeptide Dmt-c[d-Lys-Phe-Asp]NH2, a mu opioid receptor agonist biased toward β-arrestin
In this report we showed that replacement of the tyrosine residue in the mu-selective ligand Tyr-c[d-Lys-Phe-Asp]NH2 with 2′,6′-dimethyltyrosine (Dmt) produced a cyclopeptide Dmt-c[d-Lys-Phe-Asp]NH2 with mu/delta opioid receptor agonist profile. This analog showed improved antinociception in the hot-plate test, probably due to the simultaneous activation of mu and delta receptors but also significantly inhibited the gastrointestinal transit. Using the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assay it was shown that this analog was a mu receptor agonist biased toward β-arrestin. β-Arrestin-depe...
Source: Peptides - July 6, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Ghrelin stimulates intestinal adaptation following massive small bowel resection in parenterally fed rats
ConclusionsThe intravenous administration of ghrelin stimulated the morphological intestinal adaptation of the ileum to a greater degree than the jejunum due to the direct effect of ghrelin. (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - July 6, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Protective effect of exendin-4 treatment on erectile dysfunction induced by chronic methylglyoxal administration in rats
ConclusionExendin-4 treatment improves NO-mediated CC relaxations in MGO administered rats probably by inhibiting NADPH oxidase. (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - July 6, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer activities and structural bioinformatics analysis of six naturally occurring temporins
This study focuses on six temporins (four with no activity data and two as positive controls). Using synthetic peptides, we report antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities of temporins-CPa, CPb, 1Ga, 1Oc, 1Ola, and 1SPa. While temporin-1Ga and temporin-1OLa showed higher antifungal and anticancer activity, most of these peptides were active primarily against Gram-positive bacteria. Temporin-1OLa, with the highest cell selectivity index, could preferentially kill methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), consistent with a reduced hemolysis in the presence of bacteria. Mechanistically, temporin-1OLa rap...
Source: Peptides - July 6, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Glucose, some amino acids and a plant secondary metabolite, chlorogenic acid induce the secretion of a regulatory hormone, tachykinin-related peptide, from the silkworm midgut
This study provides evidence that the insect midgut senses a non-nutritious secondary metabolite in addition to nutrient metabolites to monitor luminal food status and secretes a feeding regulatory hormone, suggesting that a unique dietary sensory system modulates insect feeding via enteroendocrine control. (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - July 6, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Regulation of hemolymph trehalose titers by insulin signaling in the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
Publication date: August 2018Source: Peptides, Volume 106Author(s): Md. Abdullah Al Baki, Jin Kyo Jung, Yonggyun KimAbstractA disaccharide, trehalose, is a main hemolymph sugar of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata larvae, but its titers fluctuated with feeding activity. During diurnal feeding in the photophase, hemolymph trehalose remained at a relatively low level (69 mM) and increased (98 mM) during scotophase. Starvation significantly increased the hemolymph trehalose level, in which the elevation of trehalose titers was dependent on the non-feeding period. The down-regulation of the trehalose level during the ac...
Source: Peptides - July 6, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

A previously undescribed hexapeptide His-Arg-Phe-Leu-Arg-His-NH2 from amphibian skin secretion shows CO2 and metal biding affinities
Publication date: August 2018Source: Peptides, Volume 106Author(s): Diego A.T. Pires, Luisa M.R. Arake, Luciano P. Silva, Alejandro Lopez-Castillo, Maura V. Prates, Claudia J. Nascimento, Carlos BlochAbstractA previously undescribed six residues long peptide His-Arg-Phe-Leu-Arg-His was identified and purified from the skin secretion of the amphibian Phyllomedusa centralis. A synthetic analogue carboxyamidated HRFLRH-NH2 showed structural changes induced by CO2 and metal ions in aqueous solution when analyzed by NMR. The present work reports NMR structures for the carboxyamidated hexapeptide in the presence CO2, Zn2+ and Cd...
Source: Peptides - July 6, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

The phoenixins: From discovery of the hormone to identification of the receptor and potential physiologic actions
Publication date: August 2018Source: Peptides, Volume 106Author(s): Lauren M. Stein, Christopher J. Haddock, Willis K. Samson, Grant R. Kolar, Gina L.C. YostenAbstractUsing a series of classical protein purification techniques, coupled with more modern molecular approaches, a family of neuropeptides, the Phoenixins, was identified to be produced in brain and heart, and to bind selectively in pituitary gland, ovary and brain. These same binding sites were revealed, using a novel receptor identification strategy, to express the orphan G protein-coupled receptor, GPR173, the expression of which was required for the actions of...
Source: Peptides - July 6, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Insulin as a hormone regulator of the synthesis and release of leptin by white adipose tissue
Publication date: August 2018Source: Peptides, Volume 106Author(s): Gleuber Henrique Marques-Oliveira, Thaís Marques Silva, William Gustavo Lima, Helder Magno Silva Valadares, Valéria Ernestânia ChavesAbstractLeptin and its receptor are widely distributed in several tissues, mainly in white adipose tissue. The serum leptin is highly correlated with body mass index in rodents and humans, being documented that leptin levels reduces in the fasting state and increase during refeeding, similarly to insulin release by pancreatic islets. Insulin appears to increase leptin mRNA and protein expression and its re...
Source: Peptides - July 6, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Oxytocin modulates the expression of norepinephrine transporter, β3-adrenoceptors and muscarinic M2 receptors in the hearts of socially isolated rats
In this study, we examined the influence of peripheral chronic oxytocin treatment on anxiety-related behavior, the morphology and content of epinephrine and norepinephrine, mRNA and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), norepinephrine transporter (NET) and receptors <beta> 3 (β3-AR) and muscarinic 2 (M2 MR) in the right and left cardiac atrium and ventricle of chronically socially isolated male rats. Our results show that oxytocin treatment exhibits an anxiolytic effect, decreases the heart/body weight ratio and prevents the hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes in the wall of the left ventricle of stre...
Source: Peptides - July 4, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Oxytocin modulates the expression of norepinephrine transporter, β3-adrenoceptor and muscarinic M2 receptors in the hearts of socially isolated rats
In this study, we examined the influence of peripheral chronic oxytocin treatment on anxiety-related behavior, the morphology and content of epinephrine and norepinephrine, mRNA and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), norepinephrine transporter (NET) and receptors <beta> 3 (β3-AR) and muscarinic 2 (M2 MR) in the right and left cardiac atrium and ventricle of chronically socially isolated male rats. Our results show that oxytocin treatment exhibits an anxiolytic effect, decreases the heart/body weight ratio and prevents the hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes in the wall of the left ventricle of stre...
Source: Peptides - July 1, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Ghrelin Stimulates Intestinal Adaptation Following Massive Small Bowel Resection in Parenterally Fed Rats
Conclusions The intravenous administration of ghrelin stimulated the morphological intestinal adaptation of the ileum to a greater degree than the jejunum due to the direct effect of ghrelin. (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - June 30, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Insulin as a hormone regulator of the synthesis and release of leptin by white adipose tissue
Publication date: Available online 25 June 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): Gleuber Henrique Marques-Oliveira, Thaís Marques da Silva, William Gustavo Lima, Helder Magno Silva Valadares, Valéria Ernestânia Chaves Leptin and its receptor are widely distributed in several tissues, mainly in white adipose tissue. The plasma leptin is highly correlated with body mass index in rodents and humans, being documented that serum leptin levels reduces in the fasting state and increase during refeeding, similarly to insulin release by pancreatic islets. Insulin appears to increase leptin mRNA and protein expression...
Source: Peptides - June 26, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Regulation of hemolymph trehalose titers by insulin signaling in the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
Publication date: Available online 20 June 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): Md. Abdullah Al Baki, Jin Kyo Jung, Yonggyun Kim A disaccharide, trehalose, is a main hemolymph sugar of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata larvae, but its titers fluctuated with feeding activity. During diurnal feeding in the photophase, hemolymph trehalose remained at a relatively low level (69 mM) and increased (98 mM) during scotophase. Starvation significantly increased the hemolymph trehalose level, in which the elevation of trehalose titers was dependent on the non-feeding period. The down-regulation of the trehalose level during the a...
Source: Peptides - June 21, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

The Phoenixins: From Discovery of the Hormone to Identification of the Receptor and Potential Physiologic Actions
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): Lauren M. Stein, Christopher J. Haddock, Willis K. Samson, Grant R. Kolar, Gina L.C. Yosten Using a series of classical protein purification techniques, coupled with more modern molecular approaches, a family of neuropeptides, the Phoenixins, were identified to be produced in brain and heart, and to bind selectively in pituitary gland, ovary and brain. These same binding sites were revealed, using a novel receptor identification strategy, to express the orphan G protein-coupled receptor, GPR173, the expression of which was required for the actions ...
Source: Peptides - June 20, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Glucose, some amino acids and a plant secondary metabolite, chlorogenic acid induce the secretion of a regulatory hormone, tachykinin-related peptide, from the silkworm midgut
This study provides evidence that the insect midgut senses a non-nutritious secondary metabolite in addition to nutrient metabolites to monitor luminal food status and secretes a feeding regulatory hormone, suggesting that a unique dietary sensory system modulates insect feeding via enteroendocrine control. (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - June 20, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

A Previously Undescribed Hexapeptide His-Arg-Phe-Leu-Arg-His-NH2 From Amphibian Skin Secretion shows CO2 and Metal Biding Affinities
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): Diego A.T. Pires, Luisa M.R. Arake, Luciano P. Silva, Alejandro Lopez-Castillo, Maura V. Prates, Claudia J. Nascimento, Carlos Bloch A previously undescribed six residues long peptide His-Arg-Phe-Leu-Arg-His was identified and purified from the skin secretion of the amphibian Phyllomedusa centralis. A synthetic analogue carboxyamidated HRFLRH-NH2 showed structural changes induced by CO2 and metal ions in aqueous solution when analyzed by NMR. The present work reports NMR structures for the carboxyamidated hexapeptide in the presence CO2, Zn2+ and C...
Source: Peptides - June 20, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Procholecystokinin Expression And Processing in Cardiac Myocytes
Publication date: Available online 11 June 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): Jens P. Goetze, Jens F. Rehfeld The mammalian heart is by now an established endocrine organ whose myocytes in a regulated manner release atrial and ventricular natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP). But like other hormone-producing cells in classic endocrine organs, the cardiac myocytes also express genes of additional peptide hormones. One such hormone gene is that of the well-known pleiotropic gut-brain peptide system, cholecystokinin (CCK), which is expressed at mRNA and protein levels in both atrial and ventricular cardiac myocytes. The posttrans...
Source: Peptides - June 12, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides: hormones secreted from the heart
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): Yasuaki Nakagawa, Toshio Nishikimi, Koichiro Kuwahara The natriuretic peptide family consists of three biologically active peptides: atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain (B-type) natriuretic peptide (BNP), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). Among these, ANP and BNP are secreted by the heart and act as cardiac hormones. Both ANP and BNP preferentially bind to natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A or guanylyl cyslase-A) and exert similar effects through increases in intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) within target tissues. Expre...
Source: Peptides - June 1, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Antibacterial, Antifungal, Anticancer Activities and Structural Bioinformatics Analysis of Six Naturally Occurring Temporins
This study focuses on six temporins (four with no activity data and two as positive controls). Using synthetic peptides, we report antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities of temporins-CPa, CPb, 1Ga, 1Oc, 1Ola, and 1SPa. While temporin-1Ga and temporin-1OLa showed higher antifungal and anticancer activity, most of these peptides were active primarily against Gram-positive bacteria. Temporin-1OLa, with the highest cell selectivity index, could preferentially kill methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), consistent with a reduced hemolysis in the presence of bacteria. Mechanistically, temporin-1OLa rap...
Source: Peptides - May 27, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Effect of the peptides Relaxin, Neuregulin, Ghrelin and Glucagon-like peptide-1, on cardiomyocyte factors involved in the molecular mechanisms leading to diastolic dysfunction and/or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): Ian Warbrick, Simon W Rabkin Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) represents an important cardiac condition because of its increasing prevalence, resistance to treatment and high associated morbidity and mortality. Two of the major mechanisms responsible for HFpEF are impaired cardiomyocyte sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA2a) transports calcium reuptake into the SR and cardiac fibroblasts/myofibroblasts that produce collagen or myocardial fibrosis. Phospholamban (PLB), in the SR and endoplasmic reticulum, is the prima...
Source: Peptides - May 26, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Bifunctional ligands of the bradykinin B2 and B1 receptors: An exercise in peptide hormone plasticity
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): François Marceau, Marie-Thérèse Bawolak, Jean-Philippe Fortin, Guillaume Morissette, Caroline Roy, Hélène Bachelard, Lajos Gera, Xavier Charest-Morin Kinins are the small and fragile hydrophilic peptides related to bradykinin (BK) and derived from circulating kininogens via the action of kallikreins. Kinins bind to the preformed and widely distributed B2 receptor (B2R) and to the inducible B1 receptor (B1R). B2Rs and B1Rs are related G protein coupled receptors that possess natural agonist ligands of nanomolar affi...
Source: Peptides - May 24, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Effects of amphipathic profile regularization on structural order and interaction with membrane models of two highly cationic branched peptides with β-sheet propensity
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): Ilaria Serra, Mariano Casu, Matteo Ceccarelli, Paula Gameiro, Andrea C. Rinaldi, Mariano Andrea Scorciapino Antimicrobial peptides attracted increasing interest in last decades due to the rising concern of multi-drug resistant pathogens. Dendrimeric peptides are branched molecules with multiple copies of one peptide functional unit bound to the central core. Compared to linear analogues, they usually show improved activity and lower susceptibility to proteases. Knowledge of structure-function relationship is fundamental to tailor their properties. T...
Source: Peptides - May 23, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

MiR-503 suppresses hypoxia-induced proliferation, migration and angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells by targeting Apelin
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): Ya Wen, Rong Chen, Chunhua Zhu, Huimin Qiao, Ying Liu, Hui Ji, Jiangyong Miao, Linyu Chen, Xiaoxia Liu, Yi Yang Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are of great importance in the process of endogenous blood vessel repair to maintain endothelial integrity and have been applied in a wide range of models of ischemic diseases. MicroRNAs represent a class of non-protein coding endogenous RNAs with 19-24 nucleotides in length and serve an important role in multiple physiological and pathological processes, including angiogenesis. It has been reported that...
Source: Peptides - May 23, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Protective effect of exendin-4 treatment on erectile dysfunction induced by chronic methylglyoxal administration in rats
Conclusion Exendin-4 treatment improves NO-mediated CC relaxations in MGO administered rats probably by inhibiting NADPH oxidase. (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - May 22, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Ghrelin and the Heart
Publication date: Available online 20 May 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): Takeshi Tokudome, Kentaro Otani, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa Ghrelin, a growth hormone–releasing peptide that was first discovered in the stomach of rats in 1999, is an endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin exerts its potent growth hormone–releasing and orexigenic activities by binding to specific receptors in the brain. Subsequent studies showed that ghrelin participates in the regulation of diverse processes, including energy balance, body weight maintenance, and glucose and fat metabolism, and demonstra...
Source: Peptides - May 21, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Effects of hypergravity on the gene expression of the hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides in mice via vestibular inputs
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): Satomi Sonoda, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Chikara Abe, Hironobu Morita, Hiromichi Ueno, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Yoshiya Tanaka, Yoichi Ueta The effects of hypergravity on the gene expression of the hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides in sham-operated (Sham) and vestibular-lesioned (VL) mice were examined by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the paraventricular nucleus was increased significantly in Sham but not in VL mice after 3 days of exposure to a 2 g...
Source: Peptides - May 9, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Liraglutide attenuates the migration of retinal pericytes induced by advanced glycation end products
In this study, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) significantly increased the migration of primary bovine retinal pericytes without influencing cell viability. AGEs also significantly enhanced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt activation, and changed the expressions of migration-related proteins, including phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and vinculin. PI3K inhibition significantly attenuated the AGEs-induced migration of retinal pericytes and reversed the overexpression of MMP-2. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (Glp1r) was expressed in retinal pericytes, and liragl...
Source: Peptides - May 8, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

In vitro and in vivo activity of cyclopeptide Dmt-c[d-Lys-Phe-Asp]NH2, a mu opioid receptor agonist biased toward β-arrestin
In this report we showed that replacement of the tyrosine residue in the mu-selective ligand Tyr-c[d-Lys-Phe-Asp]NH2 with 2′,6′-dimethyltyrosine (Dmt) produced a cyclopeptide Dmt-c[d-Lys-Phe-Asp]NH2 with mu/delta opioid receptor agonist profile. This analog showed improved antinociception in the hot-plate test, probably due to the simultaneous activation of mu and delta receptors but also significantly inhibited the gastrointestinal transit. Using the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assay it was shown that this analog was a mu receptor agonist biased toward β-arrestin. β-Arrestin-depe...
Source: Peptides - May 5, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Potentiation of capsaicin-induced neurogenic inflammation by 5-HT7 receptors in the rat hind paw: involvement of calcitonin gen-related peptide
Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): Luis D. Arreola-Peralta, Frida Altamirano-Reyna, Deni M. Galindo-González, Jessica G. Solis-Anguiano, Enza Lacivita, Marcello Leopoldo, José A. Terrón A decrease in the activation threshold of primary sensory neurons to transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) stimulation by serotonin 5-HT7 receptors has been reported but no confirmation if this might translate into facilitation of neurogenic inflammation has been provided. We analysed the modulation of capsaicin (CAP)-induced neurogenic inflammation in the rat hind paw by the sel...
Source: Peptides - May 4, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Galanin and its N-terminal fragments reduce acute myocardial infarction in rats
This study was designed to assess the ability of the full-length galanin (GWTLNSAGYLLGPHAIDNHRSFSDKHGLT-NH2, G1), the natural fragments WTLNSAGYLL-NH2 (G2) and WTLNSAGYLLGPHA (G3), and their modified analogs WTLNAAGYLL (G4) and WTLNSAGYLLGPβAH (G5) to limit acute myocardial infarction in rats in vivo. The peptides G2-5 were synthesized by the automatic solid phase method using Fmoc technology, purified by preparative HPLC and identified by 1H-NMR spectroscopy and MALDI −TOF mass spectrometry. The peptides G1-5 were administered by i.v. bolus injection at the onset of reperfusion at doses of 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0 ...
Source: Peptides - May 4, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Short hybrid peptides incorporating β- and γ-amino acids as antimicrobial agents” [Peptides 97 (2017) 46–53]
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): Naiem Ahmad Wani, Gurpreet Singh, Sudha Shankar, Arushi Sharma, Meenu Katoch, Rajkishor Rai (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - May 1, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Oxyntomodulin Analogue Increases Energy Expenditure via the Glucagon Receptor
Publication date: Available online 20 April 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): R. Scott, J Minnion, T. Tan, S.R. Bloom The gut hormone oxyntomodulin (OXM) causes weight loss by reducing appetite and increasing energy expenditure. Several analogues are being developed to treat obesity. Exactly how oxyntomodulin works, however, remains controversial. OXM can activate both glucagon and GLP-1 receptors but no specific receptor has been identified. It is thought that the anorectic effect occurs predominantly through GLP-1 receptor activation but, to date, it has not been formally confirmed which receptor is responsible for the in...
Source: Peptides - May 1, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Hydrogen sulfide donor, NaHS, stimulates ANP secretion via the KATP channel and the NOS/sGC pathway in rat atria
Publication date: Available online 21 April 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): Lamei Yu, Byung Mun Park, Yong Jin Ahn, Gi-Ja Lee, Suhn Hee Kim Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is normally produced from l-cysteine in mammalian tissues and related to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of H2S donor on atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion and define its mechanism using normal and isoproterenol (ISP)-treated rats. Several H2S donors were perfused into isolated beating rat atria, and atrial pressure (AP) and ANP secretion were measured. NaHS augmented high stretch-induced A...
Source: Peptides - May 1, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Renal function, N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide, Propeptide Big-Endothelin and patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction
Publication date: Available online 21 April 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): Ingrid Gergei, Bernhard K. Krämer, Hubert Scharnagl, Tatjana Stojakovic, Winfried März Renal dysfunction may limit the clinical application of NT-proBNP in the diagnosis of heart failure. In general practice, where echocardiography is not readily available, a biomarker for the diagnosis of a heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) would be useful. Since cardiac diseases frequently coincide with renal disease, there is a high need of valid risk stratification methods in patients affected with both. We therefore examined NT-...
Source: Peptides - May 1, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Apelin and Elabela/Toddler; double ligands for APJ/Apelin receptor in heart development, physiology, and pathology
Publication date: Available online 21 April 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): Keiji Kuba, Teruki Sato, Yumiko Imai, Tomokazu Yamaguchi Apelin is an endogenous peptide ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor APJ/AGTRL1/APLNR and is widely expressed throughout human body. In adult hearts Apelin-APJ/Apelin receptor axis is potently inotropic, vasodilatory, and pro-angiogenic and thereby contributes to maintaining homeostasis in normal and pathological hearts. Apelin-APJ/Apelin receptor is also involved in heart development including endoderm differentiation, heart morphogenesis, and coronary vascular formation. APJ/Apelin re...
Source: Peptides - May 1, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

B-type natriuretic peptide attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress in H9c2 cardiomyocytes underwent hypoxia/reoxygenation injury under high glucose/high fat conditions
In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that BNP effectively protected cells against H/R injury under HG/HF conditions by inhibiting the ER stress via activation of the cGMP-PKG signaling pathway. (Source: Peptides)
Source: Peptides - May 1, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

In vitro and in vivo activity of opioid cyclopeptide with mu/delta agonist profile biased toward β-arrestin
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): Katarzyna Gach-Janczak, Justyna Piekielna-Ciesielska, Anna Adamska-Bartłomiejczyk, Karol Wtorek, Federica Ferrari, Girolamo Calo, Agata Szymaszkiewicz, Joanna Piasecka-Zelga, Anna Janecka Replacement of the tyrosine residue in the mu-selective opioid ligand Tyr-c[D-Lys-Phe-Asp]NH2 with 2',6'-dimethyltyrosine (Dmt) produced a cyclopeptide Dmt-c[D-Lys-Phe-Asp]NH2 with mu/delta opioid receptor agonist profile. This new analog showed improved antinociception in the hot-plate test as compared to the parent but also significantly inhibited the gastroin...
Source: Peptides - May 1, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Regulation of cardiovascular development and homeostasis by the adrenomedullin-RAMP system
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): Takayuki Shindo, Megumu Tanaka, Akiko Kamiyoshi, Yuka Ichikawa-Shindo, Hisaka Kawate, Akihiro Yamauchi, Takayuki Sakurai Adrenomedullin (AM), a member of the calcitonin peptide superfamily, is a peptide involved in both the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and circulatory homeostasis. Its receptor, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), associates with an accessory protein, receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP). Depending upon which the three RAMP isoforms (RAMP1-3) it interacts with, CLR functions as a receptor for AM or other calci...
Source: Peptides - May 1, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Kisspeptin modulates pain sensitivity of CFLP mice
Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018 Source:Peptides Author(s): Krisztina Csabafi, Zsolt Bagosi, Éva Dobó, Júlia Szakács, Gyula Telegdy, Gyula Szabó Kisspeptin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide, is a member of the RF-amide family, which have been known to modify pain sensitivity in rodents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of kisspeptin-13 (KP-13), an endogenous derivative of kisspeptin, on nociception in adult male and female CFLP mice and the possible interaction of KP-13 with morphine on nociception. Mice were injected with different doses of KP-13, 30...
Source: Peptides - May 1, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research