Novel Screening and Monitoring Techniques for Deformational Plagiocephaly: A Systematic Review
This article summarizes the current state of diagnostic modalities for infant craniofacial deformities and highlights capable diagnostic tools available currently to pediatricians. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - January 19, 2022 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Safely Reducing Hospitalizations for Anaphylaxis in Children Through an Evidence-Based Guideline
CONCLUSIONSWe reduced hospitalizations for anaphylaxis by 17.3% without concomitant increases in revisits, demonstrating that unnecessary hospitalizations can be safely avoided. The use of a local evidence-based guideline paired with close outcome monitoring and sustained messaging and feedback to clinicians can effectively improve anaphylaxis management. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - January 19, 2022 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Successful Elosulfase Alfa Desensitization Protocol in a Patient With Morquio A Syndrome
Patients with lysosomal storage diseases may require modifications to standard drug desensitization protocols; personalized medicine as well as development of new treatment options are needed. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - January 19, 2022 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

2021 Update on Pediatric Overuse
This update on pediatric medical overuse identifies and provides concise summaries of 10 impactful articles related to pediatric medical overuse from the years 2019 to 2020. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - January 19, 2022 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Pediatric Medication Noninitiation in Spain
OBJECTIVESTo estimate medication noninitiation prevalence in the pediatric population and identify the explanatory factors underlying this behavior.METHODSObservational study of patients (
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

The 2021 Joseph St Geme, Jr, Leadership Award Address: The Role of Structural Racism in Injuries to Children and Adolescents
The past two years have been marked in the United States by a national awakening to and intense focus on the pervasiveness of racism and its effects. An important part of this reckoning is to understand that the high rates of the most common cause of death for children and adolescents, intentional and unintentional injuries, is rooted in the history and consequences of structural racism in the nation. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Preventing Home Medication Administration Errors
Medication administration errors that take place in the home are common, especially when liquid preparations are used and complex medication schedules with multiple medications are involved; children with chronic conditions are disproportionately affected. Parents and other caregivers with low health literacy and/or limited English proficiency are at higher risk for making errors in administering medications to children in their care. Recommended strategies to reduce home medication errors relate to provider prescribing practices; health literacy –informed verbal counseling strategies (eg, teachback and showback) and...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

A Family and Hospital ’s Journey and Commitment to Improving Diagnostic Safety
(Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Safety Planning for Suicidality in Autism: Obstacles, Potential Solutions, and Future Directions
Suicide is the second leading cause of death among US adolescents; data from the Youth Behavior Risk Survey indicates nearly 19% of youth reported seriously considering suicide, and 9% reported a suicide attempt within the past year.1 To date, suicide research in adolescents has largely been focused on neurotypical youth. Autistic youth experience elevated risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors,2–4 with a recent cohort study finding autistic individuals were three times more likely to attempt and die by suicide.5 Screening for suicide is a critical first step in identifying youth at risk who may require immediate i...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Parent-Collected Oropharyngeal Swabs in Cystic Fibrosis
The validity of oropharyngeal swabs obtained by parents is described, and a case for parent-collection to be used as part of remote care is presented. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Surgical Interventions With an Interdisciplinary Approach at End of Life
Surgical care in critically ill children is an important component of the interdisciplinary approach to delivery of high-quality comprehensive care. Yet the traditional hospice model has often excluded surgical care because of perceived risk of suffering and questions of futility in the face of a terminal condition. Pediatric palliative care is distinct from its adult counterpart in its relatively low prevalence of death and longer length of hospice enrollment. Fewer than 45  000 children die in the United States each year, and the average length of pediatric palliative care involvement is>300 days, with only 30%...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Microaggressions: Privileged Observers ’ Duty to Act and What They Can Do
Racism and sexism that manifest as microaggressions are commonly experienced by members of minoritized groups. These actions and comments erode their subjects ’ vitality and sense of belonging. Individuals from minoritized groups are often left in a quandary, weighing the potential benefits and risks of addressing the comments. Placing the burden to interrupt bias on our marginalized colleagues is unjust. In part, it is inappropriate to expect them to d ismantle a system that they did not create. It is essential for individuals with privilege who observe microaggressions to address the speaker and support their colle...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Discrimination and the Role of the Clinician
Recognizing and confronting discrimination  is essential to eliminating health disparities. Healthy People 2030 highlights discrimination when addressing social determinants of health.1 In this issue ofPediatrics, Lei et  al2 contribute to the growing literature that discrimination adversely impacts mental health in young adults. The authors investigated the effect of discrimination (racism, sexism, ageism, physical appearance, other) over time on mental health, substance use, and well-being. Data analysis using the Transition to Adulthood Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics revealed that increased d...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Discrimination and Subsequent Mental Health, Substance Use, and Well-being in Young Adults
CONCLUSIONSIn this nationally representative longitudinal sample, current and past discrimination had pervasive adverse associations with mental health, substance use, and well-being in young adults. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Opioid Reduction Through Postoperative Pain Management in Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery
CONCLUSIONSThe creation of these guidelines has led to a significant reduction in the number of opioids prescribed while maintaining effective postoperative pain management. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Intranasal Surfactant for Acute Otitis Media: A Randomized Trial
CONCLUSIONSIn young children with AOM, intranasally administered surfactant (OP0201) did not improve clinical outcomes. Further research may be warranted among children with persistent middle-ear effusion. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

IQ in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study
CONCLUSIONOur data suggest that nearly half of individuals with ASD have average or higher IQ. Boys with ASD are more likely to have average or higher IQ than girls. Patients with ASD and higher IQ remain at risk for not being identified. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

The Childhood Vaccination Schedule and the Lack of Association With Type 1 Diabetes
CONCLUSIONSThe recommended schedule is not positively associated with the incidence of T1DM in children. These results support the safety of the recommended childhood immunization schedule. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Improving Hospital Infant Safe Sleep Compliance by Using Safety Prevention Bundle Methodology
CONCLUSIONSUsing an HAC bundle safety prevention model to improve adherence to infant safe sleep guidelines is a feasible and effective method to improve the sleep environment for infants in all areas of a children ’s hospital. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Improving Opioid Stewardship in Pediatric Emergency Medicine
OBJECTIVESPoor opioid stewardship contributes to opioid misuse and adverse health outcomes. We sought to decrease opioid prescriptions in children 0 to 18 years treated for pain after fractures and cutaneous abscess drainage from 13.5% to 8%. Our secondary aims were to reduce opioid prescriptions written for>3 days from 41% to 10%, eliminate codeine prescriptions, increase safe opioid storage and disposal discharge instructions from 0% to 70%, and enroll all emergency department (ED) physicians in the state prescription drug monitoring program.METHODSWe implemented an intervention bundle on the basis of 4 key drivers at...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Surgical Innovations to Restore Function in Pediatric Peripheral Nerve Conditions
Peripheral nerve injuries in children can result in devastating lifelong deficits. Because of the time-sensitive nature of muscle viability and the limited speed of nerve regeneration, early recognition and treatment of nerve injuries are essential to restore function. Innovative surgical techniques have been developed to combat the regenerative length and speed; these include nerve transfers. Nerve transfers involve transferring a healthy, expendable donor nerve to an injured nerve to restore movement and sensation. Nerve transfers are frequently used to treat children affected by conditions, including UE trauma, brachial...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Stridor Due to Cranial Nerve X Palsy Progressing to Polyneuropathy in a Teenager With COVID-19
The neurologic manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are wide-ranging, including various cranial neuropathies, beyond anosmia and dysgeusia, the exact neuropathological mechanism of which are yet unknown. Acute cranial nerve (CN) X neuritis with vocal cord paralysis has not been reported in COVID-19 and is a rare presentation of neuropathy in general. A girl aged 14 years was admitted with stridor. She was diagnosed with symptomatic COVID-19 8 days before. By presentation, fever had resolved, but she had developed stridor; sore throat with dysphagia; chest, shoulder, and back pain; and generalized weakness....
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Spontaneous Massive Pneumomediastinum in a Previously Well Infant With COVID-19
A 3-month-old boy presented with a 3-hour history of a neck lump and difficulty breathing after 5 days of fever and reduced feeding. Pneumomediastinum with subcutaneous emphysema were identified, and the child was intubated because of severe work of breathing, requiring significant levels of oxygen and ventilatory pressure. Computed tomography chest scan revealed massive pneumomediastinum and significant bilateral parenchymal disease. The child deteriorated cardiovascularly, so the mediastinum was dissected by cardiothoracic surgeons and 2 drains were placed. The patient clinically improved with resolution of air leak over...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization of Inflammatory Tumors Facilitates Initiation of Effective Therapy
We present a girl aged 11 years with aTFG-ROS1 fusion –positive tumor of the lung that was initially diagnosed as an immunoglobin G4–related inflammatory pseudotumor. She underwent complete left-sided pneumonectomy and later recurred with widely metastatic disease. We then report the case of a boy aged 9 years with widely metastaticTFG-ROS1 fusion –positive IMT with rapid molecular diagnosis. In both children, there was an excellent response to oral targeted therapy. These cases reveal that rapid molecular testing of inflammatory tumors is not only important for diagnosis but also reveals therapeutic oppo...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Central Venous Catheter Salvage in Ambulatory Central Line –Associated Bloodstream Infections
This study was a secondary analysis of 466 ambulatory CLABSIs in patients
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Single-Examination Risk Prediction of Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity
CONCLUSIONSUsing a single examination, this model identified all infants who developed TR-ROP, on average,>1 month before diagnosis with moderate to high specificity. This approach could lead to earlier identification of incident severe ROP, reducing late diagnosis and treatment while simultaneously reducing the number of ROP examinations and unnecessary physiologic stress for low-risk infants. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

An Internet Quiz Game Intervention for Adolescent Alcohol Drinking: A Clustered RCT
CONCLUSIONSThe Internet quiz game intervention reduced underage drinking by 21% at 1-month and 14% at 3-month follow-up compared with conventional health education. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Reticular Dysgenesis: A Rare Immunodeficiency in a Neonate With Cytopenias and Bacterial Sepsis
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) consists of a group of disorders defined by abnormal B and T cell development that typically results in death within the first year of life if undiagnosed or untreated. Reticular dysgenesis (RD) is a rare but especially severe form of SCID that is caused by adenylate kinase 2 deficiency and is characterized not only by lymphopenia but also by profound neutropenia. RD predisposes patients to viral and fungal infections typical of SCID as well as serious bacterial infections atypical in the neonatal period in other SCID types. RD is also associated with sensorineural hearing loss not t...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

STEPP IN: A Multicenter Quality Improvement Collaborative Standardizing Postoperative Handoffs
CONCLUSIONSTeam engagement within a quality improvement framework had a positive impact on the perioperative handoff process for high-risk surgical neonates. We improved care as demonstrated by a decrease in postoperative care failures while maintaining high provider satisfaction. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

AAP Publications Reaffirmed or Retired
This document is copyrighted and is property of the American Academy of Pediatrics and its Board of Directors. All authors have filed conflict of interest statements with the American Academy of Pediatrics. Any conflicts have been resolved through a process approved by the Board of Directors. The American Academy of Pediatrics has neither solicited nor accepted any commercial involvement in the development of the content of this publication. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

From King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon to Mumps Genotyping and Vaccination 26 Centuries Later
Jeryl Lynn Hilleman was diagnosed with mumps infection in 1963. Her father, Maurice Hilleman, a virologist at Merck, collected a throat swab from his 5-year-old daughter, isolated the mumps virus in his laboratory, passaged the virus several times to attenuate the virus, and subsequently produced the Jeryl Lynn strain of mumps vaccine virus.1 In this issue ofPediatrics, investigators from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, present an update on mumps infections in the United States in the 21st century.2 (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Outcomes of Cystic Fibrosis Screening –Positive Infants With Inconclusive Diagnosis at School Age
CONCLUSIONSChildren with CFSPID have good nutritional and pulmonary outcomes at school age, but rates of reclassifying the diagnosis are high. The initial sweat chloride test can be used as a biomarker to predict the risk for CF in CFSPID. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Parent Verbalizations and Toddler Responses With Touchscreen Tablet Nursery Rhyme Apps
We examined parent-toddler contingent interactions with tablet applications versus print books, as well as moderators of these associations.METHODSWe conducted a laboratory-based, within-subjects counterbalanced study of 72 parent-toddler dyads engaging with a nursery rhyme application (with enhanced + autonarration [E+A] and enhanced formats) and print book. We coded parent verbalizations (eg, dialogic, nondialogic) and proportions of child responses to these in 5-second epochs. Poisson regressions were used to analyze within-subjects variance by tablet or print format. We tested effect modification by child emotion regul...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Statement of Correction. Use of Probiotics in Preterm Infants
A correction was needed in the American Academy of Pediatrics Clinical Report “Use of Probiotics in Preterm Infants” (Pediatrics 2021;147[6]:2021051485; doi:10.1542/peds.2021-051485). Under the heading “Pros and Cons of Administration of Currently Available Probiotic Products,” the second paragraph should be removed and replaced with the following: “Some of the products currently available in the United States are categorized as dietary supplements or as foods for special dietary use (FSDU). ” (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Youth Resilience Education and 13-Year Motor Vehicle Crash Risk
DRIVE is a prospective cohort study of a large ( ≥20 000) nonrepresentative sample of newly licensed young drivers in New South Wales, Australia.1 Its objective is to identify risk and protective factors for motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) (or crashes) by observing subgroup differences over time. A previously observed protective factor was participation in the New South Wales Health Reduce Risk Increase Student Knowledge (RRISK) resilience program.2 RRISK brings together grade 11 students from diverse schools for a 1-day, whole-of-community seminar that is preceded and followed by multiple peer-led teacher and paren...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Predicting ROP Severity by Artificial Intelligence: Pragmatic Versus Knowledge-Based Approach
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) blindness is largely preventable, with many countries having already established programs for its timely identification. However, ∼93% of infants screened do not develop ROP severe enough to require treatment.1 As reported in this issue ofPediatrics by Coyner et al.2 artificial intelligence (AI) is innovative methodology to optimize the timing of ROP examinations. For example, it can predict whether an eye will not require treatment, reducing the number of examinations needed while also predicting which eyes need closer surveillance. This is an important development because it would mak...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Care of Congenital Melanocytic Nevi in Newborns and Infants: Review and Management Recommendations
A pediatric dermatology expert working group performed a narrative review to describe care related to congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) in neonates and infants. There are no published guidelines for most aspects of care, including routine skin care and visit intervals. Few guidelines exist for surgical management; newer recommendations favor conservative practice. Emerging evidence contributes to recommendations for screening MRI to evaluate for neural melanosis and related central nervous system complications, however, more research is needed. Risk for melanoma is generally low, but those with large, giant, or multiple CM...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Perinatal Mental Health Task Force: Integrating Care Across a Pediatric Hospital Setting
Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders (PMADs) are the most common complication of childbirth, with suicide a leading cause of postpartum deaths. PMADs are associated with poor maternal, infant, and family outcomes. Identification and early intervention are imperative for successful treatment. This case study describes the implementation and outcomes of a multidisciplinary Perinatal Mental Health Task Force ( “Task Force”) at one urban academic children’s hospital that was created to promote systems change and health care policy solutions for improved identification and treatment of PMADs. Using the social ...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Antibiotic Use in Term and Near-Term Newborns
OBJECTIVESWe aimed to study whether national and local antibiotic stewardship projects have reduced the antibiotic use in newborns and to monitor potential changes in adverse outcomes.METHODSIn a nationwide, population-based study from Norway, we included all hospital live births from 34 weeks' gestation (n = 282  046) during 2015 to 2019. The primary outcome was the proportion of newborns treated with antibiotics from 0 to 28 days after birth. The secondary outcomes were the overall duration of antibiotic treatment and by categories: culture-positive sepsis, clinical sepsis, and no sepsis.RESULTSA total of 7365 (2....
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Mumps in Vaccinated Children and Adolescents: 2007 –2019
We present the incidence and vaccination status of pediatric cases (age
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Rotavirus Vaccine Safety and Effectiveness in Infants With High-Risk Medical Conditions
CONCLUSIONSIn contrast to previous findings among healthy term infants, in routine use, HRV offered limited protection to vulnerable medical risk infants. HRV is generally well tolerated in this group in single administration, but when coadministered with routine vaccines, it is associated with higher risk of (mostly gastrointestinal) AE. Our study highlights the importance of studying vaccine performance in subgroups of medically vulnerable infants. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Gestational Age and Neonatal Electrocardiograms
OBJECTIVESInterpretation of the neonatal electrocardiogram (ECG) is challenging due to the profound changes of the cardiovascular system in this period. We aimed to investigate the impact of gestational age (GA) on the neonatal ECG and create GA-specific reference values.METHODSThe Copenhagen Baby Heart Study is a prospective general population study that offered cardiac evaluation of neonates. ECGs and echocardiograms were obtained and systematically analyzed. GA, weight, height, and other baseline variables were registered.RESULTSWe included 16 462 neonates (52% boys) with normal echocardiograms. The median postnatal age...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Promoting the Participation of Children and Adolescents With Disabilities in Sports, Recreation, and Physical Activity
The benefits of physical activity are likely universal for all children, including children and adolescents with disabilities (CWD). The participation of CWD in physical activity, including adaptive or therapeutic sports and recreation, promotes inclusion, minimizes deconditioning, optimizes physical functioning, improves mental health as well as academic achievement, and enhances overall well-being. Despite these benefits, CWD face barriers to participation and have lower levels of fitness, reduced rates of participation, and a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity compared with typically developing peers. Pediatric...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Tuberculosis Infection in Children and Adolescents: Testing and Treatment
Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important problem among children in the United States and throughout the world. There is no diagnostic reference standard for latent tuberculosis infection (also referred to as tuberculosis infection [TBI]). The tuberculin skin test (TST) has many limitations, including difficulty in administration and interpretation, the need for a return visit by the patient, and false-positive results caused by cross-reaction with Mycobacterium bovis –bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccines and many nontuberculous mycobacteria. Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are blood tests that use antigens specific...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

COVID-19 –Associated Orphanhood and Caregiver Death in the United States
CONCLUSIONSWe found substantial disparities in distributions of COVID-19 –associated death of parents and caregivers across racial and ethnic groups. Children losing caregivers to COVID-19 need care and safe, stable, and nurturing families with economic support, quality child care, and evidence-based parenting support programs. There is an urgent need to mount an evide nce-based comprehensive response focused on those children at greatest risk in the states most affected. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Parenthood, Parental Benefits, and Career Goals Among Pediatric Residents: 2008 and 2019
OBJECTIVESExamine reported availability of parental benefits for pediatric residents and impact of parenthood on reported importance of characteristics of post-training positions and career goals in 2008 and 2019.METHODSWe analyzed data from American Academy of Pediatrics surveys of graduating residents in 2008 and 2019 querying (1) parenthood, (2) benefits during residency, (3) importance of parental benefits and job characteristics in post-training position, and (4) subspecialty career goal. Logistic regression was used to estimate independent effects of gender, partner status, and parenthood via derived predicted values...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Maximizing Benefits and Minimizing Harms: Diagnostic Uncertainty Arising From Newborn Screening
Screening newborns for rare diseases for which effective treatments are available is a crucial public health practice. Indeed, the expansion of population-wide newborn screening (NBS) programs was named by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as 1 of the 10 great public health achievements in the first 10 years of the 21st century.1 Pivotal randomized controlled trials of NBS for cystic fibrosis (CF) revealed potential benefits,2,3 with evidence from the Wisconsin trial revealing that early ascertainment through screening could prevent severe malnutrition and improve long-term growth.2 NBS for CF is now widely im...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Child Care Center Hand Hygiene Programs ’ Cost-Effectiveness in Preventing Respiratory Infections
CONCLUSIONSHand hygiene programs that include hand sanitizer and educational measures for DCC staff, children, and parents are more effective and cost less than a program with soap and water and initial observation in children attending DCCs. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

IVIG Compared With IVIG Plus Infliximab in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children
OBJECTIVESTo compare initial treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) versus IVIG plus infliximab in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C).METHODSSingle-center retrospective cohort study of patients with MIS-C who met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria and received treatment from April 2020 to February 2021. Patients were included and compared on the basis of initial therapy of either IVIG alone or IVIG plus infliximab. The primary outcome was need for additional therapy 24 hours or more after treatment initiation.RESULTSSeventy-two children with MIS-C met inclusion criteria. Additi...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Adverse Childhood Experiences and Foster Care Placement Stability
OBJECTIVESTo examine the impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on a child ’s foster care placement stability in Kansas.METHODSSecondary data analysis was conducted by using a purposive cohort sample of 2998 children, from 6 to 18 years old, in Kansas ’s foster care system between October 2015 and July 2019. Multivariate hierarchical logistic regression models were used to examine the influence of cumulative ACEs on a child's placement stability. ACEs were measured at foster care intake and self-reported by the child. Placement stability variab les were obtained through the state administrati...
Source: PEDIATRICS - December 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research