Airwave oscillometry to measure lung function in children with Down syndrome
CONCLUSIONS: Measures of pulmonary function were successfully obtained using airwave oscillometry in children with Down syndrome, which supports its use in this high-risk population.IMPACT: Children with Down syndrome are at risk for significant pulmonary co-morbidities, but the gold standard metric of lung function, spirometry, may not be feasible in children with intellectual disabilities. This may limit the population's enrollment in clinical trials and in standardized clinical care. In this prospective study of lung function in children with Down syndrome, airwave oscillometry was successful in 76% of participants but ...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 30, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Monica L Vielkind Katharine L Hamlington Kristine Wolter-Warmerdam Maxene R Meier Andrew H Liu Francis J Hickey Mark A Brown Emily M DeBoer Source Type: research

Association between secondhand marijuana smoke and respiratory infections in children
CONCLUSIONS: Our cohort did not report any difference with ED/UC visits, otitis media episodes, or asthma exacerbations, regardless of smoke exposure. However, caregivers of children with secondhand marijuana smoke exposure reported increased VRIs compared to children with no smoke exposure.IMPACT: Approximately 10% of caregivers in our study were regular users of marijuana. Prior studies have shown that secondhand tobacco smoke exposure is associated with negative health outcomes in children, including increased ED utilization and respiratory illnesses. Prior studies have shown primary marijuana use is linked to negative ...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 29, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Adam B Johnson George S Wang Karen Wilson David M Cline Timothy E Craven Sarah Slaven Vidya Raghavan Rakesh D Mistry Source Type: research

Association between secondhand marijuana smoke and respiratory infections in children
CONCLUSIONS: Our cohort did not report any difference with ED/UC visits, otitis media episodes, or asthma exacerbations, regardless of smoke exposure. However, caregivers of children with secondhand marijuana smoke exposure reported increased VRIs compared to children with no smoke exposure.IMPACT: Approximately 10% of caregivers in our study were regular users of marijuana. Prior studies have shown that secondhand tobacco smoke exposure is associated with negative health outcomes in children, including increased ED utilization and respiratory illnesses. Prior studies have shown primary marijuana use is linked to negative ...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 29, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Adam B Johnson George S Wang Karen Wilson David M Cline Timothy E Craven Sarah Slaven Vidya Raghavan Rakesh D Mistry Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 acquisition and immune pathogenesis among school-aged learners in four diverse schools
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 24:1-8. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01660-x. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Understanding SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is necessary to reopen schools safely.METHODS: We measured SARS-CoV-2 infection in 320 learners [10.5 ± 2.1 (sd); 7-17 y.o.] at four diverse schools with either remote or on-site learning. Schools A and B served low-income Hispanic learners; school C served many special-needs learners, and all provided predominantly remote instruction. School D served middle- and upper-income learners, with predominantly on-site instruction. Testing occurred in the fall (2020), and 6...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 25, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Dan M Cooper Michael Z Zulu Allen Jankeel Izabela Coimbra Ibraim Jessica Ardo Kirsten Kasper Diana Stephens Andria Meyer Annamarie Stehli Curt Condon Mary E Londo ño Casey M Schreiber Nanette V Lopez Ricky L Camplain Michael Weiss Charles Golden Shlomit Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 acquisition and immune pathogenesis among school-aged learners in four diverse schools
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 24:1-8. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01660-x. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Understanding SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is necessary to reopen schools safely.METHODS: We measured SARS-CoV-2 infection in 320 learners [10.5 ± 2.1 (sd); 7-17 y.o.] at four diverse schools with either remote or on-site learning. Schools A and B served low-income Hispanic learners; school C served many special-needs learners, and all provided predominantly remote instruction. School D served middle- and upper-income learners, with predominantly on-site instruction. Testing occurred in the fall (2020), and 6...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 25, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Dan M Cooper Michael Z Zulu Allen Jankeel Izabela Coimbra Ibraim Jessica Ardo Kirsten Kasper Diana Stephens Andria Meyer Annamarie Stehli Curt Condon Mary E Londo ño Casey M Schreiber Nanette V Lopez Ricky L Camplain Michael Weiss Charles Golden Shlomit Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 acquisition and immune pathogenesis among school-aged learners in four diverse schools
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 24. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01660-x. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Understanding SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is necessary to reopen schools safely.METHODS: We measured SARS-CoV-2 infection in 320 learners [10.5 ± 2.1 (sd); 7-17 y.o.] at four diverse schools with either remote or on-site learning. Schools A and B served low-income Hispanic learners; school C served many special-needs learners, and all provided predominantly remote instruction. School D served middle- and upper-income learners, with predominantly on-site instruction. Testing occurred in the fall (2020), and 6-8 w...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 25, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Dan M Cooper Michael Z Zulu Allen Jankeel Izabela Coimbra Ibraim Jessica Ardo Kirsten Kasper Diana Stephens Andria Meyer Annamarie Stehli Curt Condon Mary E Londo ño Casey M Schreiber Nanette V Lopez Ricky L Camplain Michael Weiss Charles Golden Shlomit Source Type: research

Higher CPAP levels improve functional residual capacity at birth in preterm rabbits
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 22. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01647-8. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Preterm infants are commonly supported with 4-8 cm H2O continuous positive airway pressures (CPAP), although higher CPAP levels may improve functional residual capacity (FRC).METHODS: Preterm rabbits delivered at 29/32 days (~26-28 weeks human) gestation received 0, 5, 8, 12, 15 cm H2O of CPAP or variable CPAP of 15 to 5 or 15 to 8 cm H2O (decreasing ~2 cm H2O/min) for up to 10 min after birth.RESULTS: FRC was lower in the 0 (6.8 (1.0-11.2) mL/kg) and 5 (10.1 (1.1-16.8) mL/kg) compared to the 15 (18.8 (10.9-22.4) mL/kg) cm ...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tessa Martherus Michelle K Croughan Kelly J Crossley Megan J Wallace Erin V McGillick Marta Thio Charles C Roehr James T Pearson Katie Lee Gary Ruben Marcus J Kitchen Arjan B Te Pas Stuart B Hooper Source Type: research

Higher CPAP levels improve functional residual capacity at birth in preterm rabbits
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 22. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01647-8. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Preterm infants are commonly supported with 4-8 cm H2O continuous positive airway pressures (CPAP), although higher CPAP levels may improve functional residual capacity (FRC).METHODS: Preterm rabbits delivered at 29/32 days (~26-28 weeks human) gestation received 0, 5, 8, 12, 15 cm H2O of CPAP or variable CPAP of 15 to 5 or 15 to 8 cm H2O (decreasing ~2 cm H2O/min) for up to 10 min after birth.RESULTS: FRC was lower in the 0 (6.8 (1.0-11.2) mL/kg) and 5 (10.1 (1.1-16.8) mL/kg) compared to the 15 (18.8 (10.9-22.4) mL/kg) cm ...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tessa Martherus Michelle K Croughan Kelly J Crossley Megan J Wallace Erin V McGillick Marta Thio Charles C Roehr James T Pearson Katie Lee Gary Ruben Marcus J Kitchen Arjan B Te Pas Stuart B Hooper Source Type: research

Higher CPAP levels improve functional residual capacity at birth in preterm rabbits
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 22. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01647-8. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Preterm infants are commonly supported with 4-8 cm H2O continuous positive airway pressures (CPAP), although higher CPAP levels may improve functional residual capacity (FRC).METHODS: Preterm rabbits delivered at 29/32 days (~26-28 weeks human) gestation received 0, 5, 8, 12, 15 cm H2O of CPAP or variable CPAP of 15 to 5 or 15 to 8 cm H2O (decreasing ~2 cm H2O/min) for up to 10 min after birth.RESULTS: FRC was lower in the 0 (6.8 (1.0-11.2) mL/kg) and 5 (10.1 (1.1-16.8) mL/kg) compared to the 15 (18.8 (10.9-22.4) mL/kg) cm ...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 23, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tessa Martherus Michelle K Croughan Kelly J Crossley Megan J Wallace Erin V McGillick Marta Thio Charles C Roehr James T Pearson Katie Lee Gary Ruben Marcus J Kitchen Arjan B Te Pas Stuart B Hooper Source Type: research

Visual attention during pediatric resuscitation with feedback devices: a randomized simulation study
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 21. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01653-w. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of feedback devices on visual attention and the quality of pediatric resuscitation.METHODS: This was a randomized cross-over simulation study at the Medical University of Vienna. Participants were students and neonatal providers performing four resuscitation scenarios with the support of feedback devices randomized. The primary outcome was the quality of resuscitation. Secondary outcomes were total dwell time (=total duration of visit time) on areas of interest and the wor...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 22, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Michael Wagner Peter Gr öpel Felix Eibensteiner Lisa Kessler Katharina Bibl Isabel T Gross Angelika Berger Francesco S Cardona Source Type: research

Correction: Pediatric literature trends: high-level analysis using text-mining
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 21. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01644-x. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34290386 | DOI:10.1038/s41390-021-01644-x (Source: Pediatric Research)
Source: Pediatric Research - July 22, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sarina Levy-Mendelovich Yiftach Barbash Ivan Budnik Daniella Levy-Erez Raz Somech Shelly Soffer Susan Furth Eyal Klang Source Type: research

Visual attention during pediatric resuscitation with feedback devices: a randomized simulation study
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 21. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01653-w. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of feedback devices on visual attention and the quality of pediatric resuscitation.METHODS: This was a randomized cross-over simulation study at the Medical University of Vienna. Participants were students and neonatal providers performing four resuscitation scenarios with the support of feedback devices randomized. The primary outcome was the quality of resuscitation. Secondary outcomes were total dwell time (=total duration of visit time) on areas of interest and the wor...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 22, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Michael Wagner Peter Gr öpel Felix Eibensteiner Lisa Kessler Katharina Bibl Isabel T Gross Angelika Berger Francesco S Cardona Source Type: research

Correction: Pediatric literature trends: high-level analysis using text-mining
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 21. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01644-x. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34290386 | DOI:10.1038/s41390-021-01644-x (Source: Pediatric Research)
Source: Pediatric Research - July 22, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sarina Levy-Mendelovich Yiftach Barbash Ivan Budnik Daniella Levy-Erez Raz Somech Shelly Soffer Susan Furth Eyal Klang Source Type: research

Retinopathy of prematurity shows alterations in Vegfa < sub > 164 < /sub > isoform expression
CONCLUSIONS: Vegfa164a, Vegfa164b, and Vegfr1 were overexpressed in OIR mice, leading to abnormal signaling and angiogenesis. Furthers studies of mechanisms of Vegf dysregulation may lead to novel therapies for ROP and other proliferative retinopathies.IMPACT: Vegfa164 has two major isoforms, a proangiogenic, Vegfa164a, and an antiangiogenic, Vegfa164b, with opposing receptors, inhibitory Vegfr1, and stimulatory Vegfr2, but their role in OIR is unclear. In Phase 1 OIR, both isoforms and receptors are expressed similarly. In Phase 2 OIR, both isoforms are overexpressed, with an increased ratio of inhibitory Vegfr1. Modulati...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 21, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Olachi J Mezu-Ndubuisi Yong-Seok Song Erica Macke Hailey Johnson Ginika Nwaba Akihiro Ikeda Nader Sheibani Source Type: research

Elevated circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) in prepubertal children born preterm
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 20. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01655-8. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) act as early biomarkers of endothelial activation and damage. No studies have investigated EMPs in preterm-born individuals.METHODS: Sixty-three preterm-born children and 52 children born full-term (controls) were studied. Circulating CD62E(+), CD144(+), and CD31(+)/CD42b(-) EMPs were measured in preterm-born children compared to controls; possible associations with cardiovascular risk factors and endothelial function parameters were also assessed.RESULTS: Circulating CD62E(+), CD144(+), an...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 21, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Panagiota Markopoulou Eleni Papanikolaou Sofia Loukopoulou Paraskevi Galina Ioannis Papassotiriou Tania Siahanidou Source Type: research

Preterm birth etiological pathways: a Bayesian networks and mediation analysis approach
CONCLUSION: The identified pathways suggest PTB etiological lines related to social disparities and exposure to genitourinary tract infections.IMPACT: Few prenatal visits (
Source: Pediatric Research - July 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Dario Elias Hebe Campa ña Fernando A Poletta Silvina L Heisecke Juan A Gili Julia Ratowiecki Mariela Pawluk Maria R Santos Viviana Cosentino Rocio Uranga Cesar Saleme Monica Rittler Hugo B Krupitzki Jorge S Lopez Camelo Lucas G Gimenez Source Type: research

Remote ischemic postconditioning for neuroprotection after newborn hypoxia-ischemia: systematic review of preclinical studies
CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of evidence to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of RIPC in HIE. Additional studies should aim to standardize methodology and outcome acquisition focusing on clinically relevant outcomes. Future studies should address the optimal timing and duration of RIPC and the combination with therapeutic hypothermia.IMPACT: This systematic review summarizes five preclinical studies that reported inconsistent effects of RIPC as a neuroprotective intervention after hypoxia-ischemia. The heterogeneity of hypoxia-ischemia animal models employed, mode of postconditioning, and diverse outcomes assessed at var...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ted C K Andelius Tine B Henriksen Birgitte S Kousholt Kasper J Kyng Source Type: research

Preterm birth etiological pathways: a Bayesian networks and mediation analysis approach
CONCLUSION: The identified pathways suggest PTB etiological lines related to social disparities and exposure to genitourinary tract infections.IMPACT: Few prenatal visits (
Source: Pediatric Research - July 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Dario Elias Hebe Campa ña Fernando A Poletta Silvina L Heisecke Juan A Gili Julia Ratowiecki Mariela Pawluk Maria R Santos Viviana Cosentino Rocio Uranga Cesar Saleme Monica Rittler Hugo B Krupitzki Jorge S Lopez Camelo Lucas G Gimenez Source Type: research

Remote ischemic postconditioning for neuroprotection after newborn hypoxia-ischemia: systematic review of preclinical studies
CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of evidence to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of RIPC in HIE. Additional studies should aim to standardize methodology and outcome acquisition focusing on clinically relevant outcomes. Future studies should address the optimal timing and duration of RIPC and the combination with therapeutic hypothermia.IMPACT: This systematic review summarizes five preclinical studies that reported inconsistent effects of RIPC as a neuroprotective intervention after hypoxia-ischemia. The heterogeneity of hypoxia-ischemia animal models employed, mode of postconditioning, and diverse outcomes assessed at var...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ted C K Andelius Tine B Henriksen Birgitte S Kousholt Kasper J Kyng Source Type: research

Associations between neurofilament light-chain protein, brain structure, and chronic kidney disease
CONCLUSIONS: Children with CKD show accelerated age-related increases in NfL levels. NfL level is associated with lower kidney function and abnormal brain structure in CKD.IMPACT: NfL is a component of the neuronal cytoskeleton providing structural axonal support. Elevated NfL has been described in relation to gray and white matter brain volume loss. We have previously described the abnormal cerebellar gray matter in CKD. We explored the relationship between NfL, CKD, and brain volume. There is an accelerated, age-related increase in NfL level in CKD. Within the CKD sample, NfL level is associated with abnormal kidney func...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 18, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ellen van der Plas Olivia Lullmann Lauren Hopkins Jordan L Schultz Peggy C Nopoulos Lyndsay A Harshman Source Type: research

Assessment of catabolic state in infants with the use of urinary titin N-fragment
This study included 219 patients with 414 measurements. Urinary titin N-fragment exponentially declined with postmenstrual age. These values were 12.5 (7.1-19.6), 8.1 (5.1-13.0), 12.8 (6.0-21.3), 26.4 (16.4-52.0), and 81.9 (63.3-106.4) pmol/mg creatinine in full, late, moderate, very, and extremely preterm infants, respectively (p
Source: Pediatric Research - July 18, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sachiyo Fukushima Nobuto Nakanishi Kazumichi Fujioka Kenichi Suga Taku Shirakawa Kayo Osawa Kanako Hara Rie Tsutsumi Maki Urushihara Ryuji Nakagawa Hiroyuki Awano Jun Oto Hiroshi Sakaue Kazumoto Iijima Masafumi Matsuo Source Type: research

The lower threshold of hypothermic oxygen delivery to prevent neonatal acute kidney injury
CONCLUSIONS: The importance of hypothermic DO2i should be highlighted, even when SvO2 was satisfactory. A lower threshold of DO2i> 269 mL min-1 m-2 may help protect neonates from the risk of postoperative AKI.IMPACT: The key message of our article is that the lower threshold of DO2i> 269 mL min-1 m-2 may help protect neonates from the risk of AKI after on-pump hypothermic cardiovascular surgery. The critical DO2i value for neonates undergoing hypothermic CPB remains unclear, and our study may add new evidence for this matter based on the 6-year experience of our center. In this study, the lowest critical value of DO2...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 18, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Peiyao Zhang Yuanyuan Tong Jinping Liu Shengwen Guo Yu Jin Liting Bai Yixuan Li Zhengyi Feng Ju Zhao Source Type: research

Associations between neurofilament light-chain protein, brain structure, and chronic kidney disease
CONCLUSIONS: Children with CKD show accelerated age-related increases in NfL levels. NfL level is associated with lower kidney function and abnormal brain structure in CKD.IMPACT: NfL is a component of the neuronal cytoskeleton providing structural axonal support. Elevated NfL has been described in relation to gray and white matter brain volume loss. We have previously described the abnormal cerebellar gray matter in CKD. We explored the relationship between NfL, CKD, and brain volume. There is an accelerated, age-related increase in NfL level in CKD. Within the CKD sample, NfL level is associated with abnormal kidney func...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 18, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ellen van der Plas Olivia Lullmann Lauren Hopkins Jordan L Schultz Peggy C Nopoulos Lyndsay A Harshman Source Type: research

Assessment of catabolic state in infants with the use of urinary titin N-fragment
This study included 219 patients with 414 measurements. Urinary titin N-fragment exponentially declined with postmenstrual age. These values were 12.5 (7.1-19.6), 8.1 (5.1-13.0), 12.8 (6.0-21.3), 26.4 (16.4-52.0), and 81.9 (63.3-106.4) pmol/mg creatinine in full, late, moderate, very, and extremely preterm infants, respectively (p
Source: Pediatric Research - July 18, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sachiyo Fukushima Nobuto Nakanishi Kazumichi Fujioka Kenichi Suga Taku Shirakawa Kayo Osawa Kanako Hara Rie Tsutsumi Maki Urushihara Ryuji Nakagawa Hiroyuki Awano Jun Oto Hiroshi Sakaue Kazumoto Iijima Masafumi Matsuo Source Type: research

The lower threshold of hypothermic oxygen delivery to prevent neonatal acute kidney injury
CONCLUSIONS: The importance of hypothermic DO2i should be highlighted, even when SvO2 was satisfactory. A lower threshold of DO2i> 269 mL min-1 m-2 may help protect neonates from the risk of postoperative AKI.IMPACT: The key message of our article is that the lower threshold of DO2i> 269 mL min-1 m-2 may help protect neonates from the risk of AKI after on-pump hypothermic cardiovascular surgery. The critical DO2i value for neonates undergoing hypothermic CPB remains unclear, and our study may add new evidence for this matter based on the 6-year experience of our center. In this study, the lowest critical value of DO2...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 18, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Peiyao Zhang Yuanyuan Tong Jinping Liu Shengwen Guo Yu Jin Liting Bai Yixuan Li Zhengyi Feng Ju Zhao Source Type: research

Invitation for controversy
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 16. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01651-y. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34272491 | DOI:10.1038/s41390-021-01651-y (Source: Pediatric Research)
Source: Pediatric Research - July 17, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Brian K Stansfield Source Type: research

Targeting immune checkpoints in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: accumulating evidence
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 16. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01650-z. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34272492 | DOI:10.1038/s41390-021-01650-z (Source: Pediatric Research)
Source: Pediatric Research - July 17, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Alessio Mazzoni Rolando Cimaz Source Type: research

Invitation for controversy
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 16. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01651-y. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34272491 | DOI:10.1038/s41390-021-01651-y (Source: Pediatric Research)
Source: Pediatric Research - July 17, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Brian K Stansfield Source Type: research

Targeting immune checkpoints in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: accumulating evidence
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 16. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01650-z. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34272492 | DOI:10.1038/s41390-021-01650-z (Source: Pediatric Research)
Source: Pediatric Research - July 17, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Alessio Mazzoni Rolando Cimaz Source Type: research

Correction: Vital sign metrics of VLBW infants in three NICUs: implications for predictive algorithms
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 14. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01621-4. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34262133 | DOI:10.1038/s41390-021-01621-4 (Source: Pediatric Research)
Source: Pediatric Research - July 15, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Amanda M Zimmet Brynne A Sullivan Karen D Fairchild J Randall Moorman Joseph R Isler Aaron W Wallman-Stokes Rakesh Sahni Zachary A Vesoulis Sarah J Ratcliffe Douglas E Lake Source Type: research

Correction: Vital sign metrics of VLBW infants in three NICUs: implications for predictive algorithms
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 14. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01621-4. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34262133 | DOI:10.1038/s41390-021-01621-4 (Source: Pediatric Research)
Source: Pediatric Research - July 15, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Amanda M Zimmet Brynne A Sullivan Karen D Fairchild J Randall Moorman Joseph R Isler Aaron W Wallman-Stokes Rakesh Sahni Zachary A Vesoulis Sarah J Ratcliffe Douglas E Lake Source Type: research

The development of descending serotonergic modulation of the spinal nociceptive network: a life span perspective
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 13. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01638-9. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe nociceptive network, responsible for transmission of nociceptive signals that generate the pain experience, is not fully developed at birth. Descending serotonergic modulation of spinal nociception, an important part of the pain network, undergoes substantial postnatal maturation and is suggested to be involved in the altered pain response observed in human newborns. This review summarizes preclinical data of the development of descending serotonergic modulation of the spinal nociceptive network across the life span, providing a co...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 14, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Anne R de Kort Elbert A J Joosten Jacob Patijn Dick Tibboel Nynke J van den Hoogen Source Type: research

The development of descending serotonergic modulation of the spinal nociceptive network: a life span perspective
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 13. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01638-9. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe nociceptive network, responsible for transmission of nociceptive signals that generate the pain experience, is not fully developed at birth. Descending serotonergic modulation of spinal nociception, an important part of the pain network, undergoes substantial postnatal maturation and is suggested to be involved in the altered pain response observed in human newborns. This review summarizes preclinical data of the development of descending serotonergic modulation of the spinal nociceptive network across the life span, providing a co...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 14, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Anne R de Kort Elbert A J Joosten Jacob Patijn Dick Tibboel Nynke J van den Hoogen Source Type: research

COVID-19 vaccination for children: may be necessary for the full eradication of the disease
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 12:1-2. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01643-y. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34253861 | PMC:PMC8273368 | DOI:10.1038/s41390-021-01643-y (Source: Pediatric Research)
Source: Pediatric Research - July 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Andrea D Pratic ò Martino Ruggieri Source Type: research

COVID-19 vaccination for children: may be necessary for the full eradication of the disease
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 12. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01643-y. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34253861 | DOI:10.1038/s41390-021-01643-y (Source: Pediatric Research)
Source: Pediatric Research - July 13, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Andrea D Pratic ò Martino Ruggieri Source Type: research

Associations between KCNQ1 and ITIH4 gene polymorphisms and infant weight gain in early life
CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related loci rs2535633 and rs2237892 are associated with infant RWG in the first 3 months of infancy. The relationship between rs2237892 and infant RGW might be moderated by cesarean delivery.IMPACT: Genetic predisposition is an essential aspect to understand infant weight gain. Obesity-related SNPs, rs2535633 and rs2237892, are associated with RWG in very early years of life. The negative association between rs2237892 T allele and RWG is only observed in infants delivered vaginally instead of cesarean section.PMID:34247200 | DOI:10.1038/s41390-021-01601-8 (Source: Pediatric Research)
Source: Pediatric Research - July 11, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Yuanyuan Zhang Hong Mei Ke Xu Chunan Li Ruixia Chang Haiqin Qi Ya Zhang Jianduan Zhang Source Type: research

Associations between KCNQ1 and ITIH4 gene polymorphisms and infant weight gain in early life
CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related loci rs2535633 and rs2237892 are associated with infant RWG in the first 3 months of infancy. The relationship between rs2237892 and infant RGW might be moderated by cesarean delivery.IMPACT: Genetic predisposition is an essential aspect to understand infant weight gain. Obesity-related SNPs, rs2535633 and rs2237892, are associated with RWG in very early years of life. The negative association between rs2237892 T allele and RWG is only observed in infants delivered vaginally instead of cesarean section.PMID:34247200 | DOI:10.1038/s41390-021-01601-8 (Source: Pediatric Research)
Source: Pediatric Research - July 11, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Yuanyuan Zhang Hong Mei Ke Xu Chunan Li Ruixia Chang Haiqin Qi Ya Zhang Jianduan Zhang Source Type: research

Infantile neuroblastoma and maternal occupational exposure to medical agents
CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated, for the first time, a potential association between maternal occupational exposure and the occurrence of neuroblastoma in offspring. Further studies involving the large pediatric cancer registries are needed to confirm these preliminary results.IMPACT: Healthcare workers are often exposed to hazardous agents and are at risk for adverse health consequences that affect not only themselves but also their infants. This study examined the association between such occupational exposure and offspring's cancers that developed until the age of 1 year. Maternal exposure to ionizing radiat...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 10, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Yuhki Koga Masafumi Sanefuji Syunichiro Toya Utako Oba Kentaro Nakashima Hiroaki Ono Shunsuke Yamamoto Maya Suzuki Yuri Sonoda Masanobu Ogawa Hiroyuki Yamamoto Koichi Kusuhara Shouichi Ohga Japan Environment and Children ’s Study (JECS) Group Source Type: research

Infantile neuroblastoma and maternal occupational exposure to medical agents
CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated, for the first time, a potential association between maternal occupational exposure and the occurrence of neuroblastoma in offspring. Further studies involving the large pediatric cancer registries are needed to confirm these preliminary results.IMPACT: Healthcare workers are often exposed to hazardous agents and are at risk for adverse health consequences that affect not only themselves but also their infants. This study examined the association between such occupational exposure and offspring's cancers that developed until the age of 1 year. Maternal exposure to ionizing radiat...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 10, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Yuhki Koga Masafumi Sanefuji Syunichiro Toya Utako Oba Kentaro Nakashima Hiroaki Ono Shunsuke Yamamoto Maya Suzuki Yuri Sonoda Masanobu Ogawa Hiroyuki Yamamoto Koichi Kusuhara Shouichi Ohga Japan Environment and Children ’s Study (JECS) Group Source Type: research

Epigenetic regulation of pediatric and neonatal immune responses
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 8. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01630-3. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEpigenetic regulation of transcription is a collective term that refers to mechanisms known to regulate gene transcription without changing the underlying DNA sequence. These mechanisms include DNA methylation and histone tail modifications which influence chromatin accessibility, and microRNAs that act through post-transcriptional gene silencing. Epigenetics is known to regulate a variety of biological processes, and the role of epigtenetics in immunity and immune-mediated diseases is becoming increasingly recognized. While DNA methyla...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 9, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jennifer Bermick Matthew Schaller Source Type: research

Death review of children receiving medical care at home
CONCLUSIONS: Improvement of devices and correct guidance to caregivers may reduce the death rate in children receiving home medical care.IMPACT: Children receiving home medical care, such as tracheostomy care, mechanical ventilation, or tube feeding, need special attention to prevent unexpected death. In this population-based child death review, 6% of children received home medical care, and it was estimated that 1 of 100 children receiving home medical care died per year. One-quarter of the deaths could be preventable by caregiver education or development of devices.PMID:34239067 | PMC:PMC8265292 | DOI:10.1038/s41390-021-...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 9, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jun Natsume Atsushi Numaguchi Atsuko Ohno Mihoko Mizuno Yoshiyuki Takahashi Akihisa Okumura Tetsushi Yoshikawa Shinji Saitoh Kiyokuni Miura Masaharu Noda Source Type: research

Epigenetic regulation of pediatric and neonatal immune responses
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 8. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01630-3. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEpigenetic regulation of transcription is a collective term that refers to mechanisms known to regulate gene transcription without changing the underlying DNA sequence. These mechanisms include DNA methylation and histone tail modifications which influence chromatin accessibility, and microRNAs that act through post-transcriptional gene silencing. Epigenetics is known to regulate a variety of biological processes, and the role of epigtenetics in immunity and immune-mediated diseases is becoming increasingly recognized. While DNA methyla...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 9, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jennifer Bermick Matthew Schaller Source Type: research

Death review of children receiving medical care at home
CONCLUSIONS: Improvement of devices and correct guidance to caregivers may reduce the death rate in children receiving home medical care.IMPACT: Children receiving home medical care, such as tracheostomy care, mechanical ventilation, or tube feeding, need special attention to prevent unexpected death. In this population-based child death review, 6% of children received home medical care, and it was estimated that 1 of 100 children receiving home medical care died per year. One-quarter of the deaths could be preventable by caregiver education or development of devices.PMID:34239067 | DOI:10.1038/s41390-021-01606-3 (Source: Pediatric Research)
Source: Pediatric Research - July 9, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jun Natsume Atsushi Numaguchi Atsuko Ohno Mihoko Mizuno Yoshiyuki Takahashi Akihisa Okumura Tetsushi Yoshikawa Shinji Saitoh Kiyokuni Miura Masaharu Noda Source Type: research

Sleep-disordered breathing and sleep macro- and micro-architecture in children with Down syndrome
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that SDB has a greater impact on sleep quality in children with DS compared to TD children.IMPACT: SDB in children with DS exacerbates disruption of sleep quality, compared to TD children. The prevalence of SDB is very high in children with DS; however, studies on the effects of SDB on sleep quality are limited in this population. Our findings suggest that SDB has a greater impact on sleep quality in children with DS compared to TD children, and should be screened for and treated as soon as possible.PMID:34230620 | DOI:10.1038/s41390-021-01642-z (Source: Pediatric Research)
Source: Pediatric Research - July 7, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Christy R Sibarani Lisa M Walter Margot J Davey Gillian M Nixon Rosemary S C Horne Source Type: research

Carbon dioxide levels in neonates: what are safe parameters?
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 6. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01473-y. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThere is no consensus on the optimal pCO2 levels in the newborn. We reviewed the effects of hypercapnia and hypocapnia and existing carbon dioxide thresholds in neonates. A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement and MOOSE guidelines. Two hundred and ninety-nine studies were screened and 37 studies included. Covidence online software was employed to streamline relevant articles. Hypocapnia was associated with predominantly neurological side effects while hypercapnia was linked with neurological, respirato...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 7, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sie Kei Wong M Chim J Allen A Butler J Tyrrell T Hurley M McGovern M Omer N Lagan J Meehan E P Cummins E J Molloy Source Type: research

Sex-specific alterations in hepatic cholesterol metabolism in low birth weight adult guinea pigs
CONCLUSIONS: UPI environment is associated with a later life programed hepatic cholesterol accumulation via impaired cholesterol elimination in a sex-specific manner. These programmed alterations could underlie later life cholesterol-induced hepatic lipotoxicity in LBW male offspring.IMPACT: Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for increased hepatic cholesterol. Uteroplacental insufficiency (UPI) resulting in LBW increased hepatic cholesterol content, altered hepatic expression of cholesterol metabolism-related genes in young adult guinea pigs. UPI-induced LBW was also associated with markers of a compromised hepatic ch...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 7, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ousseynou Sarr Katherine E Mathers Christina Vanderboor Kristina Wiggers Aditya Devgan Daniel B Hardy Lin Zhao Timothy R H Regnault Source Type: research

Sleep-disordered breathing and sleep macro- and micro-architecture in children with Down syndrome
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that SDB has a greater impact on sleep quality in children with DS compared to TD children.IMPACT: SDB in children with DS exacerbates disruption of sleep quality, compared to TD children. The prevalence of SDB is very high in children with DS; however, studies on the effects of SDB on sleep quality are limited in this population. Our findings suggest that SDB has a greater impact on sleep quality in children with DS compared to TD children, and should be screened for and treated as soon as possible.PMID:34230620 | DOI:10.1038/s41390-021-01642-z (Source: Pediatric Research)
Source: Pediatric Research - July 7, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Christy R Sibarani Lisa M Walter Margot J Davey Gillian M Nixon Rosemary S C Horne Source Type: research

Carbon dioxide levels in neonates: what are safe parameters?
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 6. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01473-y. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThere is no consensus on the optimal pCO2 levels in the newborn. We reviewed the effects of hypercapnia and hypocapnia and existing carbon dioxide thresholds in neonates. A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement and MOOSE guidelines. Two hundred and ninety-nine studies were screened and 37 studies included. Covidence online software was employed to streamline relevant articles. Hypocapnia was associated with predominantly neurological side effects while hypercapnia was linked with neurological, respirato...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 7, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sie Kei Wong M Chim J Allen A Butler J Tyrrell T Hurley M McGovern M Omer N Lagan J Meehan E P Cummins E J Molloy Source Type: research

Sex-specific alterations in hepatic cholesterol metabolism in low birth weight adult guinea pigs
CONCLUSIONS: UPI environment is associated with a later life programed hepatic cholesterol accumulation via impaired cholesterol elimination in a sex-specific manner. These programmed alterations could underlie later life cholesterol-induced hepatic lipotoxicity in LBW male offspring.IMPACT: Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for increased hepatic cholesterol. Uteroplacental insufficiency (UPI) resulting in LBW increased hepatic cholesterol content, altered hepatic expression of cholesterol metabolism-related genes in young adult guinea pigs. UPI-induced LBW was also associated with markers of a compromised hepatic ch...
Source: Pediatric Research - July 7, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ousseynou Sarr Katherine E Mathers Christina Vanderboor Kristina Wiggers Aditya Devgan Daniel B Hardy Lin Zhao Timothy R H Regnault Source Type: research

Sudden infant death syndrome and the diaphragm: Is there a link?
Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 5. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01640-1. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34226676 | DOI:10.1038/s41390-021-01640-1 (Source: Pediatric Research)
Source: Pediatric Research - July 6, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pontus M Siren Source Type: research