Does a multimethod approach improve identification of medication nonadherence in adolescents with chronic kidney disease?
This study aimed to determine if using additional measures improves the accurate identification of nonadherence beyond provider assessment alone.MethodsEighty-seven adolescents and young adults (AYAs), age 11 –19 years, with chronic kidney disease (CKD) [stage 1–5/end-stage renal disease (ESRD)] and prescribed antihypertensive medication, their caregivers, and 17 medical providers participated in the multisite study. Five adherence measures were obtained: provider report, AYA report, caregiver repo rt, electronic medication monitoring (MEMS), and pharmacy refill data [medication possession ratio (MPR)...
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - November 14, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Pathophysiology and treatment of cardiovascular disease in pediatric chronic kidney disease
AbstractLife expectancy in patients with all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) falls far short of that in the general population. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in pediatric patients with CKD. In contrast to the intimal atherosclerotic lesions that characterize cardiovascular disease in the general population, vascular endothelial dysfunction, medial arterial calcification, and cardiac dysfunction contribute to cardiovascular pathological conditions in CKD. The pathogenesis of these lesions, the origins of which can be identified in the absence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, is i...
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - November 14, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

An open-label, single-dose study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of cinacalcet in pediatric subjects aged 28  days to & lt;  6 years with chronic kidney disease receiving dialysis
ConclusionsIn conclusion, a single 0.25  mg/kg dose of cinacalcet was evaluated to be a safe starting dose in these children aged
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - November 14, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Periodically repeated rituximab administrations in children with refractory nephrotic syndrome: 2-year multicenter observational study
ConclusionsOur protocol was useful and safe for refractory NS. However, RTX administration four times might have been excessive in patients who had no relapse by 1  year after the initial RTX administration. Further investigation of the most appropriate method of RTX administration is required. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - November 14, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Urine biomarkers of chronic kidney damage and renal functional decline in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus
AbstractObjectivesTo delineate urine biomarkers that reflect kidney structural damage and predict renal functional decline in pediatric lupus nephritis (LN).MethodsIn this prospective study, we evaluated kidney biopsies and urine samples of 89 patients with pediatric LN. Urinary levels of 10 biomarkers [adiponectin, ceruloplasmin, kidney injury molecule-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, osteopontin, transforming growth factor- ß (TGFß), vitamin-D binding protein, liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP), and transferrin] were measured. Regression analysis was used to...
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - November 14, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Clinical aspects of tacrolimus use in paediatric renal transplant recipients
AbstractThe calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus, cornerstone of most immunosuppressive regimens, is a drug with a narrow therapeutic window: underexposure can lead to allograft rejection and overexposure can result in an increased incidence of infections, toxicity and malignancies. Tacrolimus is metabolised in the liver and intestine by the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) isoforms CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. This review focusses on the clinical aspects of tacrolimus pharmacodynamics, such as efficacy and toxicity. Factors affecting tacrolimus pharmacokinetics, including pharmacogenetics and the rationale for routineCYP3A5*1/*3 genotyping i...
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - November 14, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Cinacalcet as rescue therapy for refractory hyperparathyroidism in young children with advanced chronic kidney disease
AbstractBackgroundStudies in the use of the calcimimetic, cinacalcet, in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) are few and limited to older children with secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT), a major morbid complication contributing to poor growth, bone deformities, and cardiovascular disease. Our objectives were to determine a safe and effective dosing regimen of cinacalcet in the treatment of infants and young children with sHPT that was refractory to standard care and to examine their growth during treatment.MethodsTen young pediatric patients with advanced CKD were studied retrospectively during 11 courses of treatmen...
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - November 14, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

B cell phenotype in pediatric idiopathic nephrotic syndrome
ConclusionsOur study indicates that memory B cells, more than other B cell subsets, are increased and appear to be pathogenically relevant in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome pediatric patients. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - November 14, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Persistent hypoglycemic attacks during hemodialysis sessions in an infant with congenital nephrotic syndrome: Questions
(Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - November 14, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Hemodynamic impact of the connection to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill children
ConclusionsHypotension after the connection to CRRT is very frequent in critically ill children. Re-priming the circuit with albumin could improve hemodynamics during connection. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - November 14, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Renal function and blood pressure are altered in adolescents born preterm
AbstractBackgroundPreterm birth increases the risk of hypertension and kidney disease. However, it is unclear when changes in blood pressure (BP) and renal function become apparent and what role obesity and sex play. We hypothesized adolescents born preterm have higher BP and worse kidney function compared to term in an obesity- and sex-dependent manner.MethodsCross-sectional analysis of 14-year-olds born preterm with very low birth weight (n = 96) compared to term (n = 43). We used generalized linear models to estimate the associations among preterm birth and BP, estimated glomerular filtration...
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - November 14, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Outcomes of infants receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis: an analysis of the USRDS registry
ConclusionsIn this large cohort of infants who received chronic peritoneal dialysis over more than two decades, the probability of survival after initiating CPD in the first year of life has significantly improved. There is no difference in the probability of death for neonates compared to older infants. However, the mortality rate remains substantial in association with multiple risk factors. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - November 14, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Persistent hypoglycemic attacks during hemodialysis sessions in an infant with congenital nephrotic syndrome: Answers
(Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - November 14, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury in neonatal encephalopathy: an evaluation of the AWAKEN database
ConclusionsIn this multi-national analysis, several important perinatal factors were associated with AKI and infants with both NE and AKI had longer length of stay than NE alone. Future research aimed at early AKI detection, renoprotective management strategies, and understanding the long-term renal consequences is warranted in this high-risk group of patients. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - November 14, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Transforming growth factor- β1 in children with diabetic nephropathy
AbstractBackgroundTransforming growth factor- β1 (TGF-β1) is a multifunctional cytokine that has numerous biological processes. Earlier research indicates that protein and mRNA production of TGF-β1 are enhanced in the renal tissues of patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Our aim was to evaluate the role of TGF-β1 in early prediction of DN in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).MethodsFifty patients with T1DM were enrolled in an observational study. Patients were eligible to participate if at least 3 years had passed since T1DM diagnosis. Patients were classified into two groups (A and B) a...
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - November 14, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Even gold standard methods of body water measurement are not always in perfect agreement
(Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - November 14, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Total body water measurement in childhood
(Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - November 14, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Long-term renal follow-up of children treated with cisplatin, carboplatin, or ifosfamide: a pilot study
AbstractBackgroundChildhood cancer survivors treated with cisplatin, ifosfamide, or carboplatin are at risk for late kidney and blood pressure (BP) abnormalities. Few studies have comprehensively evaluated kidney outcomes and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in this population. We aimed to describe chemotherapy-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) and late kidney outcomes using standardized definitions.MethodsThis was a single-center longitudinal pilot study of 23 children who participated in a previous study during cisplatin, carboplatin, or ifosfamide treatment. Medical charts were reviewed retrospectively. Available...
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 25, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Outcome of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and C3-glomerulopathy in children and adolescents
ConclusionsIC-MPGN and C3G are rare disorders in children. Most patients have signs of complement activation associated with risk polymorphisms or likely pathogenic variants in complement-regulating genes. Steroids and mycophenolate mofetil seem to be effective and for some patients, eculizumab might be a treatment option. Outcome is heterogeneous and precise differentiation between IC-MPGN and C3G is still pending. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 25, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Effect of atorvastatin on dyslipidemia and carotid intima-media thickness in children with refractory nephrotic syndrome: a randomized controlled trial
AbstractBackgroundDyslipidemia is an important cardiovascular risk factor in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). Efficacy of statins for treatment of hyperlipidemia in children with SRNS is unclear.MethodsThis prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial enrolled 30 patients with SRNS, aged 5 –18 years, with serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between 130 and 300 mg/dl, to receive a fixed dose of atorvastatin (n = 15, 10 mg/d) or placebo (n = 15) by block randomization in a 1:1 ratio. Primary outcome was c...
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 25, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia-coli-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome in Istanbul in 2015: outcome and experience with eculizumab
ConclusionsAn outbreak of EAEC occurred in a specific region of Istanbul. Livestock markets were suspected as the source. Evidence for beneficial effects of eculizumab on renal outcome was not clear in this cohort. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 25, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Should mycophenolate mofetil be administered prior to cyclosporine A as a steroid-sparing agent to children with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome?
(Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 25, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

CoQ10-related sustained remission of proteinuria in a child with COQ6 glomerulopathy —a case report
ConclusionsGenetic assessment of children with steroid-resistant nephrotic proteinuria enables therapy optimization. Proteinuria caused by a COQ6 gene defect can be successfully treated with CoQ10. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 25, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Reviews submitted from September 1st, 2017 to August 31st, 2018
(Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 25, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Does idiopathic hypercalciuria affect bone metabolism during childhood? A prospective case-control study
ConclusionsChildren with idiopathic hypercalciuria had biochemical markers compatible with normal bone formation but increased bone resorption. After a 3-month dietary intervention, the trend observed towards decrease in the serum β-Crosslaps may reflect a beneficial response. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 25, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Disruptive technological advances in vascular access for dialysis: an overview
AbstractEnd-stage kidney disease (ESKD), one of the most prevalent diseases in the world and with increasing incidence, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Current available modes of renal replacement therapy (RRT) include dialysis and renal transplantation. Though renal transplantation is the preferred and ideal mode of RRT, this modality may not be available to all patients with ESKD. Moreover, renal transplant recipients are constantly at risk of complications associated with immunosuppression and immunosuppressant use, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Dialysis may be the only availab...
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 25, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Pre-operative level of FGF23 predicts severe acute kidney injury after heart surgery in children
ConclusionsPre- and post-operative FGF23 levels are higher in children who develop sAKI after cardiac surgery. We suggest FGF23 may be able to detect sub-clinical kidney injury and can be used with demographic AKI risk factors to enhance post-operative sAKI risk prediction. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 25, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Treatment strategies for children with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome: in need of controlled studies
(Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 25, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Renal progression factors in young patients with tuberous sclerosis complex: a retrospective cohort study
AbstractBackgroundRenal pathology in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is characterized by the growth of angiomyolipoma and renal cysts, and in rare cases renal cell carcinoma. Other consequences of renal involvement in TSC, including hypertension, proteinuria, and hyperfiltration, are not well studied. We aimed to analyze the early manifestations of the renal TSC phenotype in a young TSC cohort and to explore common, modifiable risk factors.MethodsIn this retrospective cohort study, TSC patients attending the TSC clinics of two tertiary hospitals were included. Data on demographics, history, genotype, kidney function, hema...
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Influenza-associated thrombotic microangiopathies
AbstractThrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) refers to phenotypically similar disorders, including hemolytic uremic syndromes (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). This review explores the role of the influenza virus as trigger of HUS or TTP. We conducted a literature survey in PubMed and Google Scholar using HUS, TTP, TMA, and influenza as keywords, and extracted and analyzed reported epidemiological and clinical data. We identified 25 cases of influenza-associated TMA. Five additional cases were linked to influenza vaccination and analyzed separately. Influenza A was found in 83%, 10 out of 25 during the 2009 ...
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Leptin and ghrelin in chronic kidney disease: their associations with protein-energy wasting
This study aimed to evaluate plasma concentrations of leptin and total ghrelin in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and assess their roles in protein-energy wasting (PEW).MethodsThis study consisted of three different CKD populations [CKD group (20 patients with non-dialysis CKD), dialysis group (39 patients on dialysis), and kidney transplant (KTx) group (35 KTx recipients)] and control group (18 healthy children). Plasma leptin and total ghrelin levels were measured. Multi-frequency bioimpedance analysis was used for the assessment of fat and lean mass. PEW was defined using criteria including body mass, muscle ...
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Protocol biopsies in pediatric renal transplantation: a precious tool for clinical management
ConclusionsAlthough we do not have a control group, we may speculate that patients who received treatment returned to a “standard” condition possibly improving final outcome. Protocol biopsies are a powerful diagnostic tool for the management of pediatric renal transplant recipients. In view of the lack of evidence that biopsies taken 5 years after transplantation lead to any therapeutic change, their use should be reconsidered. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Initial prednisolone dosing for the first relapse of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome in Japanese children
(Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Nephrotic syndrome associated with severe hypertriglyceridemia in a pediatric patient: Answers
(Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Response to erythropoietin in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease: insights from an in vitro bioassay
ConclusionsOur findings support the presence of erythropoiesis inhibitory substances in uremic sera. EPO/EPO-R-dependent mechanisms may play a role in inhibiting erythropoiesis. The in vitro bioassay described herein may serve as an indicator of rHuEPO responsiveness which may encourage further investigation of underlying mechanisms of EPO resistance. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Vitamin D insufficiency, hemoglobin, and anemia in children with chronic kidney disease
AbstractBackground25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) deficiency is common in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It has been associated with an increased risk for anemia in both healthy US children and in adults with CKD. This association has not been explored in children with CKD.MethodsChildren aged 1 –16 enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) study with mild to moderate kidney dysfunction, and with 25OHD measured at baseline (n = 580), were included in the analysis. The cross-sectional associations between 25OHD and hemoglobin (g/dL) and anemia were assessed. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Utilization of the renal angina index in PICU of a developing country for prediction of subsequent severe acute kidney injury
AbstractBackgroundAcute kidney injury (AKI) is independently associated with worsened morbidity and increased mortality in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). AKI risk score, termed renal angina index (RAI) is used in developed countries to predict subsequent severe AKI. Very few studies have investigated application of RAI in the PICU of a developing country. This prospective observational study aimed to predict severe subsequent AKI in children admitted to PICU using RAI.MethodsOver 1  year, children admitted to PICU aged 1 month–18 years old, with no previous kidney disease, were included. RAI...
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Nephrological and urological complications of homozygous c.974G & gt;A (p.Arg325Gln) OSGEP mutations
ConclusionsIt is unclear if patients withOSGEP mutations with tubular symptoms rather than nephrotic syndrome should be considered a different entity. Nephrological and urological complications ofOSGEP mutations can be challenging and require a multidisciplinary approach. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Time-averaged hemoglobin values, not hemoglobin cycling, have an impact on outcomes in pediatric dialysis patients
ConclusionHb cycling is common among dialysis patients. Severity of anemia rather than its cycling has more significant impact on the prevalence of LVH and on inflammatory state. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Clinical parameters, LysoGb3, podocyturia, and kidney biopsy in children with Fabry disease: is a correlation possible?
ConclusionsNo difference in symptomatology was discernible between boys and girls. Podocyturia was detectable in children serving as a possible early marker of kidney injury. LysoGb3 was elevated in all cases, emphasizing the importance for diagnosis especially in female patients with normal αGal A activity. A possible association between lysoGb3 and symptom severity and histological involvement in kidney biopsy should be assessed in prospective studies with enough statistical power to determine if lysoGb3 can be used to predict nephropathy in children with Fabry disease. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Nephrotoxin exposure and acute kidney injury in critically ill children undergoing congenital cardiac surgery
ConclusionsNephrotoxin use is common following pediatric CHS. While we found no association between high nephrotoxin exposure and AKI, this may be related to the multifactorial nature of AKI in this population. For many common nephrotoxins, less injurious agents exist and nephrotoxin exposure may represent a modifiable risk factor for AKI. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Cry of a dying kidney: Answers
(Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Clinical experience with the use of ferric citrate as a phosphate binder in pediatric dialysis patients
ConclusionsIn pediatric dialysis patients, ferric citrate may be able to concurrently lower phosphate levels and treat iron deficiency. However, larger studies are needed to further evaluate safety and efficacy in the pediatric chronic kidney disease population. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Vitamin B6 blood concentrations in paediatric dialysis patients
ConclusionsWe report no children with vitamin B6 deficiency although>  50% had elevated vitamin B6 concentrations. We suggest if dietary assessment of vitamin B6 intake indicates insufficient intake, measurement of blood concentrations will help confirm if supplementation is required. Routine vitamin B6 supplementation and monitoring is currently not indicated in ch ildren on chronic dialysis. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Prevalence and predictors of blood transfusion after pediatric kidney transplantation
ConclusionsTransfusions are prevalent in the perioperative period after pediatric kidney transplantation. Lower pre-transplant hemoglobin increases the risk of transfusion. Graft function predicts hemoglobin levels at 3  months. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of ferric pyrophosphate citrate administered via dialysate and intravenously to pediatric patients on chronic hemodialysis
AbstractBackgroundIron deficiency is a common cause of anemia in pediatric patients with hemodialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD-5HD). Ferric pyrophosphate citrate (FPC, Triferic ®) donates iron directly to transferrin, bypassing the reticuloendothelial system and avoiding iron sequestration. Administration of FPC via dialysate or intravenously (IV) may provide a suitable therapeutic option to current IV iron preparations for these patients.MethodsThe pharmacokinetics and safety of FPC administered via dialysate and IV to patients aged
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Nephrotic syndrome associated with severe hypertriglyceridemia in a pediatric patient: Questions
(Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Cry of a dying kidney: Questions
(Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Renal progression factors in young patients with tuberous sclerosis complex: a retrospective cohort study
AbstractBackgroundRenal pathology in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is characterized by the growth of angiomyolipoma and renal cysts, and in rare cases renal cell carcinoma. Other consequences of renal involvement in TSC, including hypertension, proteinuria, and hyperfiltration, are not well studied. We aimed to analyze the early manifestations of the renal TSC phenotype in a young TSC cohort and to explore common, modifiable risk factors.MethodsIn this retrospective cohort study, TSC patients attending the TSC clinics of two tertiary hospitals were included. Data on demographics, history, genotype, kidney function, hema...
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - September 18, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Influenza-associated thrombotic microangiopathies
AbstractThrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) refers to phenotypically similar disorders, including hemolytic uremic syndromes (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). This review explores the role of the influenza virus as trigger of HUS or TTP. We conducted a literature survey in PubMed and Google Scholar using HUS, TTP, TMA, and influenza as keywords, and extracted and analyzed reported epidemiological and clinical data. We identified 25 cases of influenza-associated TMA. Five additional cases were linked to influenza vaccination and analyzed separately. Influenza A was found in 83%, 10 out of 25 during the 2009 ...
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - September 18, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research