Prevalence and Outcomes of Congenital Heart Disease in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: An Observational Study From the Brazilian Neonatal Network Database
Conclusions: The overall prevalence of congenital heart disease in this cohort of very low birth weight infants was higher and with higher mortality than in the general population of live births. The occurrence of a major congenital anomaly, gestational age ( 20) were significantly and independently associated with death, whereas the association of congenital heart disease and death was only evident when a major congenital anomaly was present. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Cardiac Intensive Care Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Preoperative Feeding Exposures and Postoperative Outcomes in Infants With Congenital Heart Disease
Objectives: To evaluate the association of preoperative risk factors and postoperative outcomes in infants with complex congenital heart disease. Design: Single-center retrospective cohort study. Setting: Neonatal ICU and cardiovascular ICU. Patients: Infants of all gestational ages, born at Texas Children’s Hospital between 2010 and 2016, with complex congenital heart disease requiring intervention prior to discharge. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 399 patients were enrolled in the study. Preoperative risk factors included feeding, type of feedin...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Cardiac Intensive Care Source Type: research

Rhinovirus Detection in the Nasopharynx of Children Undergoing Cardiac Surgery Is Not Associated With Longer PICU Length of Stay: Results of the Impact of Rhinovirus Infection After Cardiac Surgery in Kids (RISK) Study
Conclusions: Preoperative rhinovirus polymerase chain reaction positivity is not associated with prolonged PICU length of stay. Our findings do not support the use of routine polymerase chain reaction testing for respiratory viruses in asymptomatic children admitted for elective cardiac surgery. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Cardiac Intensive Care Source Type: research

Shock Index, Coronary Perfusion Pressure, and Rate Pressure Product As Predictors of Adverse Outcome After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery
Conclusions: Both shock index and coronary perfusion pressure may offer predictive value for adverse outcomes following cardiac surgery in children, although they are not superior to the primary hemodynamic variables. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Association of Acute Kidney Injury With Subsequent Sepsis in Critically Ill Children
Objectives: Acute kidney injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill children. A growing body of evidence has shown that acute kidney injury affects immune function, yet little is known about the association between acute kidney injury and subsequent infection in pediatric patients. Our objective was to examine the association of non-septic acute kidney injury with the development of subsequent sepsis in critically ill children. Design: A single-center retrospective cohort study. Setting: The pediatric and cardiac ICUs at a tertiary pediatric care center. Patients: All pati...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in a PICU of a Developing Economy: Clinical Profile, Intensive Care Needs, Outcome, and Predictors of Mortality
Conclusions: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in PICU is commonly secondary to tropical infections and associated with high mortality. Higher severity of illness; shock and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome; need for blood and blood products, mechanical ventilation, vasoactive drugs, and renal replacement therapy; higher Vasoactive-Inotropic Score; and prolonged mechanical ventilation predicted death. Treatment of underlying infection and a less intense immunosuppressive therapy (steroids ± IV immunoglobulin) are suggested options. A high index of suspicion for complicating hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Criticality: A New Concept of Severity of Illness for Hospitalized Children
Conclusions: The Criticality Index is a quantification of severity of illness for hospitalized children using physiology, therapy, and care intensity. This new conceptual model is applicable to clinical investigations and predicting future care needs. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Severity Trajectories of Pediatric Inpatients Using the Criticality Index
Objectives: To assess severity of illness trajectories described by the Criticality Index for survivors and deaths in five patient groups defined by the sequence of patient care in ICU and routine patient care locations. Design: The Criticality Index developed using a calibrated, deep neural network, measures severity of illness using physiology, therapies, and therapeutic intensity. Criticality Index values in sequential 6-hour time periods described severity trajectories. Setting: Hospitals with pediatric inpatient and ICU care. Patients: Pediatric patients never cared for in an ICU (n = 20,091),...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Serum Amylase and Lipase for the Prediction of Pancreatic Injury in Critically Ill Children Admitted to the PICU
Objectives: Pancreatic injury is multifactorial and potentially devastating for critically ill children. We aimed to evaluate whether serum amylase and lipase among critically ill children could serve as an independent biomarker to predict pancreatic injury. Design: Retrospective cohort. Setting: PICU of a tertiary, pediatric medical center. Patients: Seventy-nine autopsies. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: A group of 79 children who died of different causes were investigated by autopsy. They were divided into pancreatic injury group and pancreatic noninjury group a...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Central Venous Pressure Estimation by Ultrasound Measurement of Inferior Vena Cava and Aorta Diameters in Pediatric Critical Patients: An Observational Study
Conclusions: Inferior vena cava collapsibility index and ratio of maximal diameter of inferior vena cava/maximum diameter of the abdominal aorta correlate well with central venous pressure measurements in this PICU population, and specific inferior vena cava collapsibility index or ratio of maximal diameter of inferior vena cava/maximum diameter of the abdominal aorta thresholds appear to be able to differentiate children with high or low central venous pressure. However, the actual clinical application of these statistically significant results remains limited, especially by the intrinsic flaws of the procedure. (Sour...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest—Is International Agreement on Guidelines for Limits of Treatment Possible?*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Caring for Critically Ill Children With Coronavirus Disease 2019: Uncharted Territory and Fuzzy Maps*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Pediatric Sepsis Biomarker Risk Model With Outcome After PICU Discharge: A Strong Research Tool, but Let Us Not Forget Composite Prognostic Factors!*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Timing of Fluid Overload and Association With Patient Outcome
Conclusions: Our results show timing of fluid accumulation not just peak percentage accumulated is associated with patient outcome. Further exploration of the association between time and fluid accumulation is warranted. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Renal Critical Care Source Type: research

Timing and Cause of Death in Children Following Return of Circulation After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Single-Center Retrospective Cohort Study*
Objectives: To determine timing and cause of death in children admitted to the PICU following return of circulation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Design: Retrospective observational study. Setting: Single-center observational cohort study at the PICU of a tertiary-care hospital (Erasmus MC-Sophia, Rotterdam, The Netherlands) between 2012 and 2017. PATIENTS: Children younger than 18 years old with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and return of circulation admitted to the PICU. Measurements and Results: Data included general, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and postreturn of circulation ch...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Neurocritical Care Source Type: research

Early Use of Antiseizure Medication in Mechanically Ventilated Traumatic Brain Injury Cases: A Retrospective Pediatric Health Information System Database Study
Objectives: Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Post-traumatic seizures occur in 25% of children with severe traumatic brain injury and may worsen outcomes. Our objective was to use a retrospective cohort study to examine the association between the early seizure occurrence and the choice of early antiseizure medication in children with traumatic brain injury. Design: Retrospective cohort study using the Pediatric Health Information Systems database, 2010–2017. Setting: Fifty-one U.S. children’s hospitals. Patients: Children ( (Source: Pedia...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Neurocritical Care Source Type: research

Hemodynamic Response to Fluid Boluses for Hypotension in Children in a Cardiac ICU
Conclusions: In children with hypotension in a cardiac ICU, the median dose and duration of fluid boluses were 5 mL/kg and 8 minutes. Peak response occurred shortly following administration and commonly returned to baseline. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Neonatal Intensive Care Source Type: research

Prevalence of ICU Delirium in Postoperative Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Patients
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of ICU delirium in children less than 18 years old that underwent cardiac surgery within the last 30 days. The secondary aim of the study was to identify risk factors associated with ICU delirium in postoperative pediatric cardiac surgical patients. Design: A 1-day, multicenter point-prevalence study of delirium in pediatric postoperative cardiac surgery patients. Setting: Twenty-seven pediatric cardiac and general critical care units caring for postoperative pediatric cardiac surgery patients in North America. Patients: All children less than...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Cardiac Intensive Care Source Type: research

Caring for Critically Ill Children With Suspected or Proven Coronavirus Disease 2019 Infection: Recommendations by the Scientific Sections’ Collaborative of the European Society of Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care*
Conclusions: In this clinical guidance article, we review the current clinical knowledge of coronavirus disease 2019 disease in critically ill children and discuss some specific treatment concepts based mainly on expert opinion based on limited experience and the lack of any completed controlled trials in children at this time. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Feature Articles Source Type: research

Rapid Transition of a PICU Space and Staff to Adult Coronavirus Disease 2019 ICU Care
Conclusions: During the current and potentially in future pandemics, where critical care resources are limited, pediatric intensivists and staff can be readily utilized to meaningfully contribute to the care of critically ill adults. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Feature Articles Source Type: research

Functional Outcomes at 1 Year After PICU Discharge in Critically Ill Children With Severe Sepsis
Conclusions: Children with severe sepsis had significant “new onset” mild to moderate functional disability at PICU discharge, and most of these children recovered within 1 year after PICU discharge. Day 1 pediatric Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and patient receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation during the ICU stay were found to be the significant risk factors of “worse outcomes.” (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Feature Articles Source Type: research

Long-Term Outcome of PICU Patients Discharged With New, Functional Status Morbidity
Conclusions: A majority of PICU survivors discharged with significant new functional morbidity with follow-up after 6 or more months improved, many to normal status or only mild dysfunction, while 29% died or developed new morbidity. Of the long-term survivors, 70% had significant improvement after a median follow-up time of 4.0 years. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Feature Articles Source Type: research

Development and Validation of a Model to Predict Pediatric Septic Shock Using Data Known 2 Hours After Hospital Arrival
Conclusions: This model predicted risk of septic shock in children with suspected infection 2 hours after arrival, a critical timepoint for emergent treatment and transfer decisions. Varied cutpoints could be used to customize sensitivity to clinical context. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Feature Articles Source Type: research

Biomarkers for Estimating Risk of Hospital Mortality and Long-Term Quality-of-Life Morbidity After Surviving Pediatric Septic Shock: A Secondary Analysis of the Life After Pediatric Sepsis Evaluation Investigation*
Conclusions: Pediatric Sepsis Biomarker Risk Model had modest performance for estimating hospital mortality in an external cohort of children with community-acquired septic shock. The Pediatric Sepsis Biomarker Risk Model biomarkers appear to have utility for estimating the risk of persistent, serious deterioration of health-related quality of life up to 3 months after surviving septic shock. These findings suggest an opportunity to develop a clinical tool for early assignment of risk for long-term health-related quality-of-life morbidity among children who survive septic shock. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Feature Articles Source Type: research

Dr. Patrick Kochanek: A “Wild Ride” Olé!… 20 Years of Editorial Genius, Drive, and Vision
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Special Commendation Source Type: research

Editor’s Choice Articles for January
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editor’s Choice Source Type: research

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 2021: The Five Rs
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Online Abstract Translations
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Abstract Translations Source Type: research

Apnea Testing Using Continuous Positive Airway Pressure When Determining Death by Neurologic Criteria in Children: Retrospective Analysis of Potential Adverse Events*
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of adverse events during apnea testing for determination of death by neurologic criteria using continuous positive airway pressure in children. Design: Single-center retrospective descriptive study. Setting: Academic children’s hospital. Patients: Children evaluated for death by neurologic criteria in the PICU from 2013 to 2018. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: For each patient evaluated for death by neurologic criteria, we abstracted the number of apnea tests performed, vital signs and arterial blood gases during apnea ...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Brief Reports Source Type: research

Accuracy of Bedside Ultrasound Femoral Vein Diameter Measurement by PICU Providers*
Conclusions: PICU provider measurement of femoral vein diameter by bedside ultrasound is inaccurate when compared with expert reference measurement. Central venous catheter size selection based on age or PICU provider femoral vein diameter measurement can lead to a catheter-to-vein ratio greater than 0.5 and potentially increase the risk of catheter-associated venous thromboembolism. Structured bedside ultrasound training with assessment of accuracy is necessary prior to implementation of venous thromboembolism reduction efforts based on catheter-to-vein ratio recommendations. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Brief Reports Source Type: research

A Scoping Review of the Impact of Family Presence on Pediatric Resuscitation Team Members*
Conclusions: We propose that future research employ more rigorous research techniques, such as randomized control trials, place greater emphasis on healthcare provider behaviors and clinical outcomes during family presence during pediatric resuscitation, and increase exploration into the education and training needs of healthcare providers who already currently manage family presence during pediatric resuscitation. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Review Article Source Type: research

The Use of Clevidipine for Hypertension in Pediatric Patients Receiving Mechanical Circulatory Support
Conclusions: In this pediatric cardiac cohort, clevidipine infusions were effective at hypertension management and were not associated with hypotensive or code events. This report details the largest cohort and longest duration of clevidipine administration within a pediatric population and did not demonstrate hypotensive events, even among neonatal populations. Clevidipine may be a reasonable cost-effective alternative antihypertensive medication compared to traditional short-acting agents. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Cardiac Intensive Care Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Peri-Intubation Cardiac Arrest in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Patients: A Multicenter Study*
Conclusions: Our most significant finding was a peri-intubation cardiac arrest rate which was much higher than previously published rates for both cardiac and noncardiac children who underwent endotracheal intubation in ICUs. Peri-intubation mortality was also high in our cohort. Regarding risk factors for peri-intubation arrest, significant systolic dysfunction of the systemic ventricle was strongly associated with cardiac arrest in this cohort. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Cardiac Intensive Care Source Type: research

Extubation Failure and Major Adverse Events Secondary to Extubation Failure Following Neonatal Cardiac Surgery*
Conclusions: Around 10% of reintubated neonates suffered major adverse event within 72 hours of extubation. Neonates suffering major adverse event had high mortality. Major adverse event should be monitored and reported in future studies of extubation failure. Along with tracking of extubation failure rates, major adverse event secondary to extubation failure may also serve as a key performance indicator for ICUs and registries. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Cardiac Intensive Care Source Type: research

A Novel Tool for Teaching Cardiac Point-of-Care Ultrasound: An Exploratory Application of the Design-Based Research Approach*
Conclusions: An effective and innovative tool for teaching cardiac point-of-care ultrasound image interpretation was developed using the design-based research approach. Our results demonstrate the importance of individualized learning timelines for ultrasound image interpretation. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Cardiac Intensive Care Source Type: research

Characteristics of Patients With Congenital Heart Disease Requiring ICU Admission From Japanese Emergency Departments*
Conclusions: Classification of the reasons for emergency department admission by congenital heart disease type and surgical stage may guide clinicians in the selection of appropriate treatments in such settings. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Cardiac Intensive Care Source Type: research

School Performance After Pediatric Intensive Care—Association of Mental Well-Being, Chronic Illnesses, and Family Socioeconomic Status
Objectives: To describe school performance in pediatric intensive care survivors, as well as the influence of chronic diseases, psychological well-being, and family socioeconomic status on poor school performance. Design: Register-based observational descriptive follow-up study. Setting: A multicenter national study. Patients: All pediatric patients who were admitted to an ICU in Finland in 2009–2010. Children and adolescents of or beyond school age. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Questionnaires regarding the child’s coping in school classes, chronic i...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Use of a Servo-Controlled Cooling Gel Pad System to Regulate Body Temperature in Critically Ill Children
Conclusions: Despite the small sample size, the results of the study showed that target temperature management by the servo-controlled gel pad system in critically ill pediatric patients was effective in achieving satisfactory temperature control and it was well-tolerated. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Cytokine Panels and Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Translational Investigation*
Objectives: To identify and compare serum and lower respiratory tract fluid biomarkers of lung injury using well-characterized mouse models of lung injury. To explore the relationship between these preclinical biomarkers and clinical outcomes in a discovery cohort of pediatric patients with acute respiratory failure from pneumonia. Design: Prospective, observational cohort study. Setting: A basic science laboratory and the PICU of a tertiary-care children’s hospital. Patients: PICU patients intubated for respiratory failure from a suspected respiratory infection. Interventions: Prospec...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Impact of Infant Positioning on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Performance During Simulated Pediatric Cardiac Arrest: A Randomized Crossover Study
Objectives: The primary objective was to determine the impact of infant positioning on cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance during simulated pediatric cardiac arrest. Design: A single-center, prospective, randomized, unblinded manikin study. Setting: Medical university-affiliated simulation facility. Subjects: Fifty-two first-line professional rescuers (n = 52). Interventions: Performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was determined using an infant manikin model in three different positions (on a table [T], on the provider’s forearm with the manikin’s head close to the pr...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Progression of Respiratory Support Following Pediatric Extubation
Conclusions: High-flow nasal cannula is commonly used immediately after pediatric extubation and the development of postextubation stridor; however, its usage sharply declines over the following 72 hours. Larger multicenter trials are needed to identify high-risk patients for extubation failure that might benefit the most from prophylactic use of high-flow nasal cannula and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation after extubation. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Total Daily Production and Periodicity of Melatonin Metabolite in Critically Ill Children*
Conclusions: Total daily and diurnal variation of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion is heterogeneously maintained early in pediatric critical illness. However, this may not hold true for specific diagnostic categories. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Assessment of Procedural Distress in Sedated/Intubated Children Under 3 Years Old Using the Newborn Infant Parasympathetic Evaluation: A Diagnostic Accuracy Pilot Study*
The objective of this study was to assess the validity and performance of newborn infant parasympathetic evaluation as a distress indicator during procedural distress. Design: Monocentric, prospective, noninterventional pilot study of diagnostic accuracy between October 1, 2017, and April 30, 2019. Setting: PICU in a tertiary care university hospital. Patients: Sedated intubated children under 3 years old. Interventions: We continuously obtained mean newborn infant parasympathetic evaluation and instantaneous newborn infant parasympathetic evaluation scores and compared them to Comfort Behavior ...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

A Novel Framework Using Remote Telesimulation With Standardized Parents to Improve Research Staff Preparedness for Informed Consent in Pediatric Critical Care Research*
Conclusions: Remote telesimulation with standardized parents is feasible, acceptable, and associated with lower financial costs to prepare research staff to obtain informed consent from parents of critically ill children eligible for clinical research trials. Despite this novel approach, Heart And Lung Failure—Pediatric INsulin Titration study consent rates did not improve, suggesting that other factors influence parental consent and decision making in complex multicenter clinical research trials. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Factors that Contribute to Cost Differences Based on ICU of Admission in Neonates Undergoing Congenital Heart Surgery: A Novel Decomposition Analysis: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Energy Expenditure in Mechanically Ventilated Korean Children: Single-Center Evaluation of a New Estimation Equation: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Apnea Testing in the Setting of Pediatric Brain Death: Continuous Positive Airway Pressure May Be the Safer Option*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Ultrasound of Venous Diameters for Central Line Selection: Can We “Measure Up” to Expectations?*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Family Presence Is a Right: It Is Not About Us!*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Intubation in the Cardiac ICU: Highway to the Danger Zone?*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research