Online Reviewer Thank You
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Reviewer Thank You Source Type: research

Viral Respiratory Infections Diagnosed After PICU Admission
Objectives: Reduction of nosocomial infections represents an increasingly recognized aspect of PICU benchmarking. We investigated the prevalence and outcomes of viral respiratory infections acquired during admission to PICU. Design: Multicenter, statewide retrospective linkage study. Setting: Tertiary PICU. Patients: All children less than 16 years requiring PICU admission for greater than 48 hours from January 1, 2008, until December 31, 2013. Intervention: Testing was performed in symptomatic patients using an extended panel polymerase chain reaction capturing nine respiratory viruses. Duration of intubatio...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Brief Report Source Type: research

Accuracy of Reported Tidal Volume During Neonatal Ventilation With Airway Leak: A Lung Model Study
Conclusions: Reported tidal volume is affected by the presence of airway leak, but in many ventilators a leak compensation algorithm that includes estimation of tidal volume can correct for the discrepancy between actual and reported tidal volume. However, even in ventilators with leak compensation, choice of ventilator and lung mechanics in invasive ventilation modes have a significant effect on error of reported tidal volume. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Laboratory Investigation Source Type: research

A National Survey on Interhospital Transport of Children in Cardiac Arrest*
Conclusions: A minority of U.S. teams perform interhospital transport of children in cardiac arrest undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Eligibility criteria, transport logistics, and patient outcomes are heterogeneous. Importantly, there is a paucity of established safety protocols for the staff performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation in transport. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

The Latin American and Spanish Survey on Nutrition in Pediatric Intensive Care (ELAN-CIP2)*
Objective: To characterize the practices of nutritional support in Latin American and Spanish PICUs. Design: Survey with a questionnaire sent to Latin American Society of Pediatric Intensive Care members. Setting: PICUs of participant hospitals. Patients: Critically ill children between 1 month and 18 years old. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Forty-seven surveys from 17 countries were analyzed. Sixty-seven percent of PICUs were from university-affiliated hospitals, with a median of 380 admissions/yr. Sixty-eight percent and 48.9% had a nutritional support team and nutritional support p...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Derivation and Validation of an Objective Effort of Breathing Score in Critically Ill Children
Conclusions: A scoring system was derived and validated, performed acceptably to predict increased effort of breathing or need for advanced respiratory support and may function best when used by a team. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Children Admitted to the PICU for Diabetic Ketoacidosis. A Retrospective Study
Conclusions: In this study, acute kidney injury was not uncommon in children with diabetic ketoacidosis hospitalized in the PICU. However, it was usually mild and not associated with longer hospitalization or residual kidney injury. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Renal Replacement Therapy Modalities in Critically Ill Children*
The objective of this study is to describe the relative frequency of use of continuous renal replacement therapy, intermittent hemodialysis, and peritoneal dialysis and to analyze characteristics and outcomes of critically ill children receiving renal replacement therapies admitted to PICUs that participate in the Virtual PICU (VPS LLC, Los Angeles, CA) registry. Design: Retrospective, database analysis. Setting: PICUs that participate in the Virtual PICU (VPS LLC) registry. Patients: Critically ill children admitted to PICUs that participate in the Virtual PICU (VPS LLC) registry and received renal replacement th...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

The authors reply
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Widening Evidence-Base of Risk With Hyperoxia
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

The authors reply
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Pediatric Neurocritical Care: Off to a Good Start
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

The authors reply
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Fluid Accumulation and Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: What Do We Really Know?
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

The authors reply
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

The Best Choice
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

The authors reply
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Death and Dying in the PICU, a Change in Mentality Journey
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Taking the Show on the Road: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation During Interhospital Transport*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

If You Get Good Nutrition, You Will Become Happy; If You Get a Bad One, You Will Become an ICU Philosopher*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Pediatric Renal Replacement: From Deadly Rescue Therapy to Life-Saving Support*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Stop Wasting Time: Organize a Bedside Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter Placement Team for Your PICU*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Be Still My Beating Heart—Using Reduction in Heart Rate Variability As a Predictor of Brain Death*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Blue Is the Warmest Color: The Effect of Cyanosis and Heart Disease on Risk of Adverse Events During Tracheal Intubation*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Transporting Children on Noninvasive Ventilation: Doing No Harm or Doing Good?*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Tracheal Intubation in PICU: Making It Safe*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Development and Implementation of a Bedside Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Service in a PICU*
Objectives: To create a bedside peripherally inserted central catheter service to increase placement of bedside peripherally inserted central catheter in PICU patients. Design: Two-phase observational, pre-post design. Setting: Single-center quaternary noncardiac PICU. Patients: All patients admitted to the PICU. Interventions: From June 1, 2015, to May 31, 2017, a bedside peripherally inserted central catheter service team was created (phase I) and expanded (phase II) as part of a quality improvement initiative. A multidisciplinary team developed a PICU peripherally inserted central catheter evaluation tool ...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Quality and Safety Source Type: research

A Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis to Study the Effect of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation on Cefepime Disposition in Children
The objective was to describe cefepime disposition in children treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation using population pharmacokinetic modeling. Design: Multicenter, prospective observational study. Setting: The pediatric and cardiac ICUs of six sites of the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. Patients: Seventeen critically ill children (30 d to (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Extracorporeal Support Source Type: research

Pain and Sedation Management: 2018 Update for the: Rogers’ Textbook of Pediatric Intensive Care
Conclusions: Recent research into pediatric pain and sedation management has focused on optimizing the choice of sedative medications, in particular by increasing the use and understanding of nonopioid and nonbenzodiazepine options such as ketamine and alpha-2 agonists. Delirium has emerged as a significant morbidity in the critically ill pediatric patient, and recent articles have concentrated on the use of validated screening tools to determine the epidemiology and risk factors in specific populations, including patients with cardiac disease and those receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A consistent theme in...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Rogers’ Update Source Type: research

Protocol-Driven Management of Convulsive Status Epilepticus at a Tertiary Children’s Hospital: A Quality Improvement Initiative
Conclusions: A standardized treatment protocol for convulsive status epilepticus decreased time to administration of second-line therapy by 60%, but there was no statistically significant decrease in total seizure time. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Neurocritical Care Source Type: research

Early Heart Rate Variability and Electroencephalographic Abnormalities in Acutely Brain-Injured Children Who Progress to Brain Death*
Objectives: Heart rate variability is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. After brain death, this autonomic control stops, and heart rate variability is significantly decreased. However, it is unknown if early changes in heart rate variability are predictive of progression to brain death. We hypothesized that in brain-injured children, lower heart rate variability is an early indicator of autonomic system failure, and it predicts progression to brain death. We additionally explored the association between heart rate variability and markers of brain dysfunction such as electroencephalogram and neurologic examinati...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Neurocritical Care Source Type: research

Associations of Perioperative Renal Oximetry Via Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Urinary Biomarkers, and Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury in Infants After Congenital Heart Surgery: Should Creatinine Continue to Be the Gold Standard?
Conclusions: We observed modest differences in perioperative renal regional tissue oximetry and urinary biomarker levels compared between acute kidney injury groups classified by creatinine-dependent Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria, but there were significant correlations between renal regional tissue oximetry, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7, and postoperative neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels. Kidney injury after infant cardiac surgery may be undetectable by functional assessment (creatinine) alone, and continuous monitoring of re...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Cardiac Intensive Care Source Type: research

Hemodynamic Impact of Oxygen Desaturation During Tracheal Intubation Among Critically Ill Children With Cyanotic and Noncyanotic Heart Disease*
Objectives: To determine a level of oxygen desaturation from baseline that is associated with increased risk of tracheal intubation associated events in children with cyanotic and noncyanotic heart disease. Design: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children, an international multicenter quality improvement collaborative for airway management in critically ill children. Setting: Thirty-eight PICUs from July 2012 to December 2016. Patients: Children with cyanotic and noncyanotic heart disease who underwent tracheal intubation in a pediatric or ca...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Cardiac Intensive Care Source Type: research

Noninvasive Ventilation During Pediatric and Neonatal Critical Care Transport: A Systematic Review*
Conclusions: This review found observational study evidence of a rate of intubation or escalation of 0.4% during noninvasive ventilation transport of children 0–18 years old, with an in-transport adverse event rate of 1–4%. Further studies are required. If randomized trials are not possible, it is suggested that well-conducted observational studies are reported in a more standardized manner. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Feature Review Article Source Type: research

Tracheal Intubation Practice and Safety Across International PICUs: A Report From National Emergency Airway Registry for Children*
Objectives: It is unknown if variation in tracheal intubation practice and outcomes exist across PICUs in different geographical regions. We hypothesized there would be differences in the process of care and adverse outcomes for tracheal intubation across PICUs in six different geographical regions (New Zealand, Japan, Singapore, Germany, India, and North America). Design: Prospective multicenter pediatric tracheal intubation database (National Emergency Airway Registry for Children) Setting: Six non-North American (International) and 36 North American PICUs. Events: All PICU tracheal intubation encounters from ...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Feature Article Source Type: research

Online Abstract Translations
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Abstract Translations Source Type: research

Impact of Synchronous Telemedicine Models on Clinical Outcomes in Pediatric Acute Care Settings: A Systematic Review*
Conclusions: Despite the broad recommendations found for using telemedicine in pediatric acute care settings, high-quality evidence of its impacts is still lacking. Further robust studies are needed to better determine the clinical effectiveness and the associated impacts of telemedicine in pediatric acute care settings. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Review Article Source Type: research

Performance of the Pediatric Index of Mortality 3 Score in PICUs in Argentina: A Prospective, National Multicenter Study
Objective: To assess the performance of the Pediatric Index of Mortality 3 score in a population of children admitted to PICUs in Argentina. Design: Prospective, national, multicenter study. Setting: Forty-nine PICUs located in Argentina belonging to public and private institutions. Patients: All children between 1 month and 16 years old admitted to the participating PICUs between May 15, 2016, and February 15, 2017. Interventions: None. Measurement and Main Results: A total of 6,602 patients were enrolled in the study. The observed mortality was 8% (531/6,602), whereas mortality predicted by Pediatric Ind...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Variability in Pediatric Ideal Body Weight Calculation: Implications for Lung-Protective Mechanical Ventilation Strategies in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome*
Conclusions: There is substantial variation in calculated ideal body weight among four commonly used methods, particularly in adolescents. Since varying ideal body weight may lead to discrepancies in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome care, a standard approach to ideal body weight measurement is needed. We recommend the McLaren method to calculate ideal body weight in children with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome until a gold standard method is validated. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Safety of Tranexamic Acid During Pediatric Trauma: A Nationwide Database Study*
Conclusions: Tranexamic acid use is associated with a significantly increased risk of seizures. However, no difference exists among any other outcomes between the tranexamic acid and nontranexamic acid groups. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Pediatric Ventilator-Associated Events: Analysis of the Pediatric Ventilator-Associated Infection Data
Conclusions: The ventilator-associated event criteria appear to be insensitive to the clinical diagnosis of ventilator-associated infection. Differentiation between ventilator-associated condition and infection-related ventilator-associated complication was primarily determined by the clinician decision to treat with antibiotics rather than clinical signs and symptoms. The utility of the proposed pediatric ventilator-associated event criteria as a surrogate for ventilator-associated infection criteria is unclear. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

One More Chasm to Cross for Telemedicine in the ICU?*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Weighing in on Ventilator Strategies*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Tranexamic Acid and Seizures in Pediatric Trauma*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Dear Mommy and Daddy, I Wish to Go Home at the Right Date, Not Too Early But Not Too Late…*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

PICU Autopsies: Every One Is Important*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Why Is the Vasoactive-Inotrope Score Like an IV Pole?*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Evaluating the Impact of Delaying Parenteral Nutrition in Critically Ill Children*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

To PICC or Not to PICC, That Is the Question!*
No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Prevalence of Seizures in Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Patients as Measured by Continuous Electroencephalography
Conclusions: Seizures occur in a significant proportion of pediatric and neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients, frequently in the initial 24 hours after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulation. Because seizures are associated with significantly decreased survival, neuromonitoring early in the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation course is important and useful. Further studies are needed to correlate electroencephalography findings with neurologic outcome. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - December 1, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Neurocritical Care Source Type: research