Evaluating Chest Pain and Heart Murmurs in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients
This article examines the approach to pediatric chest pain including identification of key historical points, common causes of chest pain, and when to refer. The article also delineates our approach to auscultation, describes common benign murmurs, and offers suggestions on when to refer for further evaluation. (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - August 11, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Christopher A. Sumski, Benjamin H. Goot Source Type: research

Syncope and Palpitations
This article introduces syncope and palpitations, with emphasis on the differential diagnoses, initial presentation, diagnostic strategy, and various management strategies. (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - August 11, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Johannes C. von Alvensleben Source Type: research

Update on the Management of Kawasaki Disease
This article reviews the acute pharmacologic management of patients with KD, focusing on adjunctive primary therapy options and treatment of patients with IVIG resistance. (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - August 11, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kevin G. Friedman, Pei-Ni Jone Source Type: research

Update on Prevention and Management of Rheumatic Heart Disease
This article focuses on prevention and management of RHD. Pregnancy can unmask previously undiagnosed RHD and poses high risk for mother and fetus. Management of anticoagulation is important. Definitive catheter and surgical intervention are the only treatments that can improve outcomes of patients with moderate or severe RHD. Access to intervention remains very limited in RHD endemic regions. There are ongoing global efforts to increase awareness, public policy adoption, and greater access to treatment. (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - August 11, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Craig Sable Source Type: research

Update of Pediatric Heart Failure
Pediatric heart failure (PHF) affects 0.87 to 7.4 per 100,000 children. It has a 5-year mortality or heart transplant rate of 40%. Diagnosis often is delayed because initial symptoms are similar to common pediatric illnesses. Disease progression is tracked by symptoms, echocardiogram, and biomarkers. Treatment is extrapolated from mostly adult heart failure (HF) literature. Recent studies demonstrate differences between pediatric and adult HF pathophysiology. Increased collaboration among PHF programs is advancing the management of PHF. Unfortunately, there are patients who ultimately require heart transplantation, with in...
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - August 11, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kae Watanabe, Renata Shih Source Type: research

Update on Preventive Cardiology
This article reviews hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and smoking. It discusses the prevalence of each disease, diagnosis, treatment, and cardiovascular complications. (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - August 11, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sarah B. Clauss, Sarah D. de Ferranti Source Type: research

Common Left-to-Right Shunts
Left-to-right shunts represent a significant portion of congenital heart disease. Such lesions are common in isolation, but are frequently seen in conjunction with other, often more complex, congenital heart disease. This review covers basic anatomy, physiology, physical examination findings, diagnosis and management for atrial septal defects, ventricular septal defects, and patent ductus arteriosa. (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - August 11, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Dale A. Burkett Source Type: research

Innovations in Congenital Interventional Cardiology
This article aims to summarize some of the key advances in congenital interventional cardiology over the past few years, from novel imaging technologies, such as virtual reality, fusion imaging, and 3-dimensional printed models, to newly available devices and techniques to facilitate complex procedures including percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement and hybrid procedures. It is an exciting time for the field, with rapid development of techniques, devices, and imaging tools that allow a minimally invasive approach for many congenital cardiac defects with progressively less radiation and contrast doses. (Source: Pediatric...
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - August 10, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jenny E. Zablah, Gareth J. Morgan Source Type: research

Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of Myocarditis in Children
Myocarditis in the pediatric population can be a challenging diagnosis to make and often requires utilization of multiple diagnostic modalities. The cause is often due to a viral infection with activation of the innate and acquired immune response with either recovery or disease progression. Laboratory testing often includes inflammatory markers, cardiac troponin levels, and natriuretic peptides. Noninvasive testing should include electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and possibly an MRI. Treatment of myocarditis remains controversial with most providers using immune modulators with intravenous immunoglobulin and corticostero...
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - August 10, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Adam Putschoegl, Scott Auerbach Source Type: research

Generations of Dedicated Researchers Resulting in Generations of Constant Progress: Pediatric Cardiology
Each issue of Pediatric Clinics of North America addresses a different issue or set of related issues designed to continually update child health care providers as to the most current approaches to eliminate and/or mitigate the effects of illness on children and child health. Rarely, however, are readers given the opportunity to view developments across multiple domains within a specific field —in this case pediatric cardiology---from a historical perspective. The approach employed in this issue allows the reader to acquire the knowledge of the changes that are occurring and have occurred, the impact of the changes o...
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - August 10, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Bonita F. Stanton Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Pediatric Cardiology: From Basics to Innovation
We are honored to be the guest editors of this special issue of Pediatric Clinics of North America devoted to Pediatric Cardiology: From Basics to Innovation. This issue starts with the basic evaluation of heart murmur, chest pain, syncope, and palpitations and then progresses to the latest update on treatment of Kawasaki disease, myocarditis, and infective endocarditis. Tremendous progress has been made in pediatric heart failure and pediatric pulmonary hypertension with better survival in these patient populations. (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - August 10, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pei-Ni Jone, D. Dunbar Ivy, Stephen R. Daniels Tags: Preface Source Type: research

SPECIAL ARTICLE: Risk factors for severity in children with coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19): A comprehensive literature review
The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected hundreds of thousands of people, including infants and children. We carried out a comprehensive literature review to identify the underlying mechanisms and risk factors for severe COVID-19 in children, in comparison with the other two coronavirus outbreaks in the past, SARS and MERS. Search in the Pubmed and Scopus databases to identify publications between February 26, 2020 and June 10, 2020 identified 23 relevant papers in English. Children have so far accounted for 1.7-2% of the diagnosed cases of COVID-19. They often have milder disease than adults, ...
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - July 30, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sophia Tsabouri, Alexandros Makis, Chrysoula Kosmeri, Ekaterini Siomou Source Type: research

The Opportunities for Telehealth in Pediatric Practice and Public Health
Telehealth can be delivered asynchronously, synchronously, or through remote patient monitoring. The cost of telehealth, patient use, and effectiveness vary by the technology deployed and by specialty. Telehealth use requires patient and provider adaptability. The improvement of telehealth is restricted by state and federal policies as well as privacy and security concerns. Current telehealth literature provides more consistent evidence of benefits for communication and counseling, and from remote patient monitoring of chronic conditions. However, the benefits and costs of telehealth programs are highly dependent on the te...
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - July 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: C. Jason Wang, Jasmin Ma, Barry Zuckerman, Josip Car Source Type: research

Telehealth Opportunities and Challenges for Managing Pediatric Obesity
This article reviews the emerging field of telehealth for the treatment of pediatric obesity. The challenges of the current approach to pediatric obesity care are explored, and the potential benefits of incorporating and implementing telehealth in this field are presented. The care of pediatric patients with obesity is particularly well suited for telehealth. (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - July 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Victor Cueto, Lee M. Sanders Source Type: research

Connected Pediatric Primary Care for At-Risk Children
Age-specific recommendations contain extensive information that cannot be presented adequately in pediatric preventative care visits. Parental guidance is important, especially for children with social and/or medical risks, but existing evidence-based interventions tend to be resource intensive and difficult to scale. Because the use of mobile technology is now prevalent even among low-income families, the benefits of utilizing the Internet and mobile apps to improve parental guidance are active areas of research. Analyses of patient-generated data from mobile apps may help identify effective ways to use social influences,...
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - July 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Barry Zuckerman, Chun Y. Ng, Jillian Orr Daglilar, C. Jason Wang Source Type: research

Design, Adoption, Implementation, Scalability, and Sustainability of Telehealth Programs
Telehealth and telemedicine services can be a solution for improving accessibility and reducing the cost of health care. Challenges remain in designing, implementing, and sustainably scaling telehealth solutions. Research is lacking on the health impacts and cost-effectiveness of telehealth; more data are needed in the evaluation of telehealth programs, adjusting for potential participant bias and extending the time frame of evaluating impact. In addition, rethinking and addressing the economic incentives and payment for telehealth services, as well as the medical-legal framework for provider competition across geographic ...
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - July 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: C. Jason Wang, Tiffany T. Liu, Josip Car, Barry Zuckerman Source Type: research

Workforce Shortage for Retinopathy of Prematurity Care and Emerging Role of Telehealth and Artificial Intelligence
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is the leading cause of childhood blindness in very-low-birthweight and very preterm infants in the United States. With improved survival of smaller babies, more infants are at risk for ROP, yet there is an increasing shortage of providers to screen and treat ROP. Through a literature review of new and emerging technologies, screening criteria, and analysis of a national survey of pediatric ophthalmologists and retinal specialists, the authors found the shortage of ophthalmology workforce for ROP a serious and growing concern. When used appropriately, emerging technologies have the potentia...
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - July 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Alejandra Barrero-Castillero, Brian K. Corwin, Deborah K. VanderVeen, Jason C. Wang Source Type: research

Competency-Based Training for Entrustment in Telehealth Consultations
We describe competency-based training for telehealth piloted with medical residents. The use of competency-based training for telehealth operationalized as an entrustable professional activity will facilitate high-quality, safe, and effective telehealth consultations. (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - July 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Elaine Lum, Louise Sandra van Galen, Josip Car Source Type: research

Child Health and Telehealth in Global, Underresourced Settings
This article examines current uses of pediatric telehealth in a global setting and discusses key approaches to how telehealth may become successfully integrated and scaled in those settings. (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - July 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Julianna C. Hsing, C. Jason Wang, Paul H. Wise Source Type: research

CEM Accreditation Page
(Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - July 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Telehealth for Pediatricians
PEDIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - July 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: C. JASON WANG, JOSIP CAR, BARRY S. ZUCKERMAN Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - July 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Contributors
BONITA F. STANTON, MD (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - July 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Contents
Bonita F. Stanton (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - July 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Pediatric Clinics of North America
Pediatric Cardiology (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - July 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Creating a Learning Televillage and Automated Digital Child Health Ecosystem
This article explores the impact of digital technologies, including telehealth, teleconsultations, wireless devices, and chatbots, in pediatrics. Automated digital health with the Internet of things will allow better collection of real-world data for generation of real-world evidence to improve child health. Artificial intelligence with predictive analytics in turn will drive evidence-based decision-support systems and deliver personalized care to children. This technology creates building blocks for a learning child health and health care ecosystem. (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - June 19, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ng Kee Chong, Chew Chu Shan Elaine, Dirk Frans de Korne Source Type: research

Tele-Rounds and Case-Based Training
Lack of access to subspecialty care and persistent suboptimal outcomes for insulin-requiring patients with diabetes mandates development of innovative health care delivery models. The workforce shortage of endocrinologists in the United States results in primary care providers taking on the role of diabetes specialists despite lack of confidence and knowledge in complex diabetes management. The telementoring model Project ECHO amplifies and democratizes specialty knowledge to reduce disparities in care and improve health outcomes. Project ECHO can be applied to type 1 diabetes and other complex medical conditions to addres...
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - June 19, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Nicolas Cuttriss, Matthew F. Bouchonville, David M. Maahs, Ashby F. Walker Source Type: research

The Power of Telehealth Has Been Unleashed
Since the authors submitted their articles for this special issue of Pediatric Clinics of North America devoted to Telehealth for Pediatricians, the world has changed. The human race has been attacked by the most serious viral pandemic of our generation, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 posed an unprecedented challenge to health delivery systems everywhere. As face-to-face clinic visits are no longer desirable due to the risk of catching the virus, COVID-19 has inadvertently aided the adoption of telehealth. (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - June 19, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: C. Jason Wang, Josip Car, Barry S. Zuckerman Tags: Preface Source Type: research

The Era of Telehealth Has Arrived
In planning for the next few years of publications of Pediatric Clinics of North America, I typically approach a potential guest editor for a topic-specific issue approximately 24  months before its anticipated publication date. (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - June 19, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Bonita F. Stanton Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

The Role of Text Messaging and Telehealth Messaging Apps
This article focuses on the role of text messaging and messaging applications, discusses technical and legal issues, and reviews current examples of the application of text messaging in the clinical adult and pediatric practice. Reviews of current examples of text messaging in adult and pediatric practice show uptake has been increasing substantially in recent years. In pediatric care text messaging has been used for behavior intervention and outcomes tracking. Although applications are promising, the potential of nonsynchronic messaging in the formal delivery of care is still in the neonatal phase compared with its grown-...
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - June 11, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sashikumar Ganapathy, Dirk F. de Korne, Ng Kee Chong, Josip Car Source Type: research

Implementing Telehealth in Pediatric Asthma
Pediatric patients with uncontrolled asthma often live in underserved areas such as rural communities where few pediatric asthma specialists exist. There are significant costs associated with acute asthma exacerbations, which are increasingly prevalent in these high-risk populations. Telemedicine is a viable option when addressing barriers in access to care and cost-efficiency. Implementing telemedicine in schools and other local community settings, as well as implementing innovative technology such as smartphone applications, can reduce the burden of asthma; increase patient satisfaction; and, most importantly, improve pe...
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - June 11, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tamara T. Perry, Callie A. Margiotta Source Type: research

A Multimodal Telehealth Strategy to Improve Pediatric Epilepsy Care
A team of providers, researchers, patients, and families created a novel telehealth tool to improve communication across a variety of systems involved in pediatric epilepsy care. This tool facilitates in-home telemedicine appointments and saves costs for patients and hospital systems alike within the context of a population highly affected by health care disparities. (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - June 11, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Madeline H. Niemann, Manuel C. Alvarado, Cristina Camayd-Mu ñoz, Rinat R. Jonas, Jodi K. Wenger, Laurie M. Douglass Source Type: research

Telehealth in Pediatric Heart Transplant Patients
Telehealth is a promising new tool in medicine that has changed the landscape of medical care. The benefits of telehealth technology are immense, including improved access to care and potential savings in monetary and opportunity costs. Current challenges of incorporating telehealth services into regular clinical care include licensure and regulatory barriers, difficulty obtaining insurance reimbursements, and high costs of setting up successful telehealth infrastructures. These challenges threaten telehealth ’s future scalability and expansion to reach all patients in need. (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - June 11, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Angela C. Chen, Elif Seda Selamet Tierney Source Type: research

Building a Viable Telemedicine Presence in Pediatric Rheumatology
This article describes the present state of telemedicine in pediatric rheumatology. Specifically, it addresses the potential use of telemedicine to increase patient-provider access as well as its potential clinical limitations. The work also briefly describes the next steps with respect to telemedicine research as well as some new research findings specifically for pediatric rheumatology. (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - June 11, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Rajdeep Pooni, Christy Sandborg, Tzielan Lee Source Type: research

Remote Parent Participation in Intensive Care Unit Rounds
Although most pediatric intensive care units invite parents to participate in daily rounds, many families face barriers preventing them from being physically present on rounds. Telehealth for remote parent participation on daily rounds offers one solution to this problem. However, barriers threaten the implementation and sustainability of such programs. Highly reliable, user-friendly telehealth technologies coupled with adequate human resources to address logistical challenges and clinical champions to affect culture change are key. Further research is needed to better quantify the impact of such programs on patient and pa...
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - June 11, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Phoebe H. Yager Source Type: research

Implementing Telehealth in Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Management of type 1 diabetes mellitus for pediatric and young adult patients is well suited for telehealth. Diabetes management requires frequent communication with health care providers as well as the interpretation of many types of data that can be measured in the home and shared virtually to the provider by the patient. Telehealth technologies allow for a safe alternative and/or addition to in-person care for youth with diabetes. Telehealth increases access to health care, saves time and money, and results in improvements in rates of appointment adherence, patient satisfaction, and quality of life. (Source: Pediatric C...
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - June 11, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jennifer L. Fogel, Jennifer K. Raymond Source Type: research

Achieving a Quintuple Aim for Telehealth in Pediatrics
This article reviews the positive and negative implications of telehealth. In addition, to achieve optimal implementation of telehealth, it discusses 10 considerations to promote optimal care of children using these technologies. (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - June 11, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Eli M. Cahan, Vandna Mittal, Nirav R. Shah, Sonoo Thadaney-Israni Source Type: research

Pediatric Prevention
Applied behavior analysis has the most empirical support as intervention for pediatric feeding disorders, when a child does not eat or drink a sufficient quantity or variety of food to maintain proper nutrition. Interdisciplinary collaboration is crucial for diagnosis, referral, and management of pediatric feeding disorders because the etiology is complex and multifactorial. Thus, our aim is to provide information about how to recognize a feeding disorder, to delineate the environmental variables implicated in the etiology and maintenance of feeding disorders, and to provide recommendations for prevention and intervention ...
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - May 20, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Vivian F. Iba ñez, Kathryn M. Peterson, Jaime G. Crowley, Sarah D. Haney, Ashley S. Andersen, Cathleen C. Piazza Source Type: research

Pediatric Prevention
This article addresses the essential role of sleep in the medical, emotional, behavioral, and cognitive health of children. Sleep disorders common among children are defined along with the most common sleep concerns reported by caregivers. Prevention and intervention strategies are described. (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - May 20, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Patrick C. Friman, Connie J. Schnoes Source Type: research

Pediatric Prevention
Serious threats to child safety are infrequent and unpredictable but can lead to serious injury and death. To stay safe, children must identify and avoid contact with a safety threat, escape from it, and report it to an adult so the adult can remove the threat. Research shows that active learning approaches are effective for teaching children to engage in these safety skills. Passive learning approaches are not effective. Active learning approaches require children to practice the skills in the presence of simulated threats with feedback to reinforce correct responses and promote generalization of skills to the natural env...
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - May 20, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Raymond G. Miltenberger, Sindy Sanchez, Diego Valbuena Source Type: research

Pediatric Prevention
Prevention amounts to stopping a disease from occurring, either through avoidance of risk factors, or through prophylactic measures, such as vaccination, use of barrier methods during sexual encounters, and so forth. However, as one delves into the topic of prevention, it becomes apparent that there are multiple points for intervention into a disease, that the stage of disease matters as to what preventive actions are appropriate, the type of disease, and even the overlapping concepts of disease versus illness. (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - May 20, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Christopher P. Morley, Alicia C. Reyes Source Type: research

Behavior and Substance Addictions in Children
This article proposes a comprehensive model of addiction to inform research on the prevention and treatment of childhood addiction, emphasizing skills training, mindfulness training, and broader treatment strategies consistent with acceptance and commitment therapy. (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - May 20, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jordan Belisle, Mark R. Dixon Source Type: research

CME Accreditation Page
(Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - May 20, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Pediatric Prevention
PEDIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - May 20, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Henry S. Roane Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - May 20, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Contributors
BONITA F. STANTON, MD (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - May 20, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Contents
Bonita F. Stanton (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - May 20, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Pediatric Clinics of North America
Telehealth for Pediatricians (Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America)
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - May 20, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Enhancing the Lives of Foster Youth with Behavioral Interventions
As members of state-funded team to monitor psychotropic medication use and examine cost-effective methods for behavioral treatment in foster care, the authors review behavioral studies on interventions for foster youth who engage in challenging behavior. Four behavioral technologies —preference assessments, teaching procedures, functional behavioral assessment and intervention, and parent training—are discussed. Four case studies and behavioral data for foster youth treated using these technologies are provided. Finally, pediatric providers are encouraged to recommend a pra ctitioner with specialized training i...
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - May 4, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Odessa Luna, John T. Rapp, Jodi Coon Source Type: research

Pediatric Prevention
Many children in the United States are performing below basic standards in reading, mathematics, and writing. Children at risk for academic problems often have comorbid classroom behavior problems and/or are diagnosed with high-incidence disabilities. Early intervention to prevent academic problems is a key goal of school-wide response-to-intervention models. The goal of school-based instructional intervention is to increase children ’s strength of responding so basic academic skills can be combined to solve more complex tasks. Parents and caregivers can support intervention efforts at school by engaging in frequent ...
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - May 4, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Brian K. Martens, Emily L. Baxter Source Type: research