A psychometric evaluation of the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale
Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 4, Page 332-337, April 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 6, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Understanding cardiac shunts
Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 4, Page 316-325, April 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 6, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Pediatric Anesthesia, Ahead of Print. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 6, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Understanding cardiac shunts
Summary Most patients with congenital heart disease have a cardiac shunt whose direction and magnitude can have a major impact on cardiorespiratory physiology and function. The dynamics of the shunt can be significantly altered by anesthetic management and must be understood in order to provide optimal anesthetic care. Given that there are now more adults than children with congenital heart disease and that the majority of nonpediatric patients are cared for in centers without special expertise in congenital heart disease, it is imperative that all anesthesia providers have a general understanding of the subject. This educ...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 6, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Denise C. Joffe, Mark R. Shi, Carson C. Welker Tags: EDUCATIONAL REVIEW (COMMISSIONED) Source Type: research

Epidemiology of general anesthesia prior to age 3 in a population ‐based birth cohort
Summary BackgroundUtilization of general anesthesia in children has important policy, economic, and healthcare delivery implications, yet there is little information regarding the epidemiology of these procedures in the United States. AimsThe primary objective of this study was to describe in a geographically defined population the incidence of procedures requiring general anesthesia up to the child's third birthday, and the patient characteristics associated with receiving these procedures. A secondary objective was to determine the proportion of children in the population who meet the risk criteria promulgated by the Foo...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 1, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Yu Shi, Danqing Hu, Erin L. Rodgers, Slavica K. Katusic, Stephen J. Gleich, Andrew C. Hanson, Darrell R. Schroeder, Randall P. Flick, David O. Warner Tags: RESEARCH REPORT Source Type: research

Analysis of the impact of race on blood transfusion in pediatric scoliosis surgery
Summary IntroductionSurgical correction of pediatric scoliosis is associated with significant blood loss. Minimizing estimated blood loss and blood transfusion is beneficial as transfusions have been associated with increased morbidity, including risk of surgical site infections, longer hospitalizations, and increased cost. Although there is evidence that African‐American or Black adults are more likely to require intraoperative blood transfusion compared with Caucasian or White adults, the reasons for this difference are unclear. MethodsThe electronic records for all patients
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 1, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Keila M. Maher, Kwadwo Owusu ‐Akyaw, Jingzhu Zhou, Mary Cooter, Allison K. Ross, Robert K. Lark, Brad M. Taicher Tags: RESEARCH REPORT Source Type: research

A psychometric evaluation of the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale
Summary BackgroundEmergence delirium and emergence agitation have been a subject of interest since the early 1960s. This behavior has been associated with increased risk of injury in children and dissatisfaction with anesthesia care in their parents. The Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium Scale is a commonly used instrument for codifying and recording this behavior. AimsThe aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale, focusing on the factor structure, in a sample of children recovering from anesthesia after surgery or diagnostic procedures. The reliability of th...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 1, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Jenny Ringblom, Ingrid W åhlin, Marie Proczkowska Tags: RESEARCH REPORT Source Type: research

Anesthesia of thoracic surgery in children
Summary Providing anesthesia in children with thoracic disease is a challenging task. The effects of the underlying disease, the surgical interventions, and preexisting condition of the patient need to be considered when planning perioperative care. The perioperative care for children undergoing thoracic surgery requires specific techniques adapted to the pediatric physiology and anatomy. This review is focused on anesthetic strategies for thoracic surgery with an emphasis on perioperative analgesia including neuraxial techniques. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 27, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Axel Semmelmann, Heike Kaltofen, Torsten Loop Tags: EDUCATIONAL REVIEW Source Type: research

Distances from vocal cords to mid ‐trachea for optimizing endotracheal tubes depth markers according to gestational age
Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 4, Page 361-366, April 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 26, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Intentional tracheoesophageal fistula cannulation for gastric decompression in type C esophageal atresia
Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 4, Page 367-369, April 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 26, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Anesthesia of thoracic surgery in children
Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 4, Page 326-331, April 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 26, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Pediatric Anesthesia, Ahead of Print. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 26, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Distances from vocal cords to mid ‐trachea for optimizing endotracheal tubes depth markers according to gestational age
ConclusionThe linear relationship between laryngo‐tracheal size and gestational age offers the opportunity to revise endotracheal tube depth markers for the smallest patients. Trials comparing those suggested markers with those currently in use are needed before implementation. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 26, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Vincent Rigo, Pierre Fayoux Tags: RESEARCH REPORT Source Type: research

Intentional tracheoesophageal fistula cannulation for gastric decompression in type C esophageal atresia
We describe a nonsurgical technique for managing gastric distention in infants with type C esophageal atresia, involving intubating the trachea with an umbilical catheter and entering the stomach through the fistula as soon as a flexible bronchoscope found its wide‐open orifice. This technique might have a special role when gastric distention precedes other commonly used preventive measures. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 26, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Paola Papoff, Roberto Cicchetti, Francesco Montecchia, Fabio Midulla, Silvia Ceccanti, Denis Cozzi Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

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Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 3, Page 306-307, March 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 3, Page 305-306, March 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 3, Page 304-305, March 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 3, Page 301-302, March 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 3, Page 195-203, March 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 3, Page 193-194, March 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 3, Page 257-263, March 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 3, Page 302-303, March 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 3, Page 300-301, March 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 3, Page 307-308, March 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 3, Page 303-304, March 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 3, Page i-iii,189, March 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 3, Page 192-192, March 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 3, Page 191-191, March 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 3, Page 309-309, March 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 3, Page 210-217, March 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

The use of dipyrone (metamizol) as an analgesic in children: what is the evidence? A review
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Thomas G. Leeuw, Maaike Dirckx, Antonia Gonzalez Candel, Gail P. Scoones, Frank J. P. M. Huygen, Saskia N. Wildt Tags: CORRIGENDUM Source Type: research

Understanding primary outcomes, sample size calculation, and the perils of online calculators
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Colin S. Black Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

The use of flow ‐volume loops and an electronic continuous cuff pressure controller to ensure cuff inflation with the minimum occluding pressure for Microcuff endotracheal tubes
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Richard Craig, Alasdair Howie, Hannah Wrigley Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Reply to Ziesenitz, Victoria; Erb Thomas; Trachsel, Daniel; van den Anker Johannes, regarding their comment “Safety of dipryone (metamizole) in children—what's the risk of agranulocytosis?”
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Thomas G. Leeuw, Maaike Dirckx, Saskia N. Wildt Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Reply to Clark, Natasha; Morris, Stephen; Sargant, Nicholas, regarding their comment “Comment on Case Report ‘Anaphylactic reaction to tranexamic acid in an adolescent undergoing posterior spinal fusion’ by Chiem J, Ivanova I, Jimenez N et al. Paediatric Anaesthesia 2017;27: 774‐775.”
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Jennifer Chiem, Iskra Ivanova, Nathalia Jimenez Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Reply to comments on ‘The association between caudal anesthesia and increased risk of postoperative surgical complications in boys undergoing hypospadias repair’
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Brad M. Taicher, Jonathan C. Routh, John B. Eck, Sherry S. Ross, John S. Wiener, Allison K. Ross Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Reply to Anju Bhalotra regarding the comment “Breathing circuit compliance and displayed tidal volume during pressure‐controlled ventilation of infants”
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Todd A. Glenski, Robert H. Friesen Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Breathing circuit compliance and displayed tidal volume during pressure ‐controlled ventilation of infants
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Anju R. Bhalotra Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Ultrasound ‐guided blind nasal intubation in a patient with massive oral tumor
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Prakash K. Dubey, Akhileshwar Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Incidence and factors contributing to postdischarge nausea and vomiting in pediatric ambulatory surgical cases
Summary BackgroundLittle is known regarding the incidence and contributing factors of postdischarge nausea and vomiting in children. AimsThe aim of this study was to determine the incidence of postdischarge nausea and vomiting in day surgery patients and to identify demographic, intraoperative, and postoperative variables that influence the risk. MethodsIn this prospective observational study, a postdischarge questionnaire was administered to parents of ambulatory patients who received anesthesia and the electronic records were reviewed. ResultsOf 1041 ambulatory patients who received general anesthesia, 143 (14%) experien...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Proshad N. Efune, Abu Minhajuddin, Peter Szmuk Tags: RESEARCH REPORT Source Type: research

The incidence of postoperative respiratory complications: A retrospective analysis of cuffed vs uncuffed tracheal tubes in children 0 ‐7 years of age
ConclusionAfter adjustment for multiple confounders, the use of cuffed tubes was not associated with an increased incidence of acute respiratory complications in postanesthesia care unit. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Michel Wit, Linda M. Peelen, Leo Wolfswinkel, Jurgen C. Graaff Tags: RESEARCH REPORT Source Type: research

Caudal and intravenous dexamethasone as an adjuvant to pediatric caudal block: A systematic review and meta ‐analysis
Summary BackgroundDexamethasone has become a popular additive for regional anesthesia. The aim of this meta‐analysis was to assess the effectiveness of this additive on the duration of postoperative analgesia, postoperative vomiting, and possible adverse events in pediatrics. MethodsWe searched databases, conference records, and registered trials for randomized controlled trials. The databases included the Cochrane Library, JBI Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science‐Direct, and Embase. Odds ratio, weighted mean difference, and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated usi...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Change Zhu, Saiji Zhang, Zhiqing Gu, Yiru Tong, Rong Wei Tags: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW Source Type: research

Using cuffed tracheal tubes below recommended body weight: Compromising safety or exploring limits safely?
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Markus Weiss, Thomas Engelhardt Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

News from the pediatric anesthesia societies: SARNePI ‐SICP Guidelines for Pediatric Day Surgery
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Maria Sammartino, Simonetta Tesoro, Giorgio Conti, Fabio Sbaraglia Tags: NEWS FROM SOCIETIES Source Type: research

In this issue: March 2018
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andrew Davidson Tags: IN THIS ISSUE Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 12, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

An initial experience with an Extraluminal EZ ‐Blocker®: A new alternative for 1‐lung ventilation in pediatric patients
Pediatric Anesthesia,Volume 28, Issue 4, Page 347-351, April 2018. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 11, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research