In this issue May 2015
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 7, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andrew Davidson Tags: In this Issue Source Type: research

Quality of handover in a pediatric postanesthesia care unit
ConclusionsThe observed handovers to PACU staff were incomplete and missing important information. However, omission of essential information potentially compromises patient safety. A standardized universal mandatory handover protocol following pediatric anesthesia is required. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 2, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Florian Piekarski, Jost Kaufmann, Michael Laschat, Andreas Böhmer, Thomas Engelhardt, Frank Wappler Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Development of a nurse‐assisted preanesthesia evaluation program for pediatric outpatient anesthesia
ConclusionUsing quality improvement methods, we successfully improved the utilization of staff resources by adding an Anesthesia Nurse‐assisted preanesthesia evaluation program alongside our NPs to provide outstanding preanesthesia care at the lowest possible cost. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 1, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Eric Wittkugel, Anna Varughese Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Use of jet ventilation in thoracoscopic tracheo‐esophageal fistula repair—can both surgeons and anesthesiologists be happy?
We describe three cases in which jet ventilation provided not only superior ventilation with a return to normocapnea but also ideal operating conditions. In addition, jet ventilation utilizes lower mean airway pressures which typically results in improved cardiac output. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 30, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Melissa Ehlers, Chad Pezzano, Laura Leduc, John Brooks, Plinio Silva, Helena Oechsner, Anica Crnkovic, Igor Galay, Farzana Afroze Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Anesthesia and the developing brain: a way forward for clinical research
Summary It is now well established that many general anesthetics have a variety of effects on the developing brain in animal models. In contrast, human cohort studies show mixed evidence for any association between neurobehavioural outcome and anesthesia exposure in early childhood. In spite of large volumes of research, it remains very unclear if the animal studies have any clinical relevance; or indeed how, or if, clinical practice needs to be altered. Answering these questions is of great importance given the huge numbers of young children exposed to general anesthetics. A recent meeting in Genoa brought together resear...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 28, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andrew J. Davidson, Karin Becke, Jurgen Graaff, Gaia Giribaldi, Walid Habre, Tom Hansen, Rodney W. Hunt, Caleb Ing, Andreas Loepke, Mary Ellen McCann, Gillian D. Ormond, Alessio Pini Prato, Ida Salvo, Lena Sun, Laszlo Vutskits, Suellen Walker, Nicola Dism Tags: Special Interest Article Source Type: research

The impact of obesity on pediatric procedural sedation‐related outcomes: results from the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium
Summary ObjectivesTo evaluate the impact of obesity on adverse events and required interventions during pediatric procedural sedation. MethodsThe Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium database of prospectively collected procedural sedation encounters was queried to identify patients for whom body mass index (BMI) could be calculated. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥95th percentile for age and gender. Sedation‐related outcomes, adverse events, and therapeutic interventions were compared between obese and nonobese patients. ResultsFor analysis, 28 792 records were eligible. A total of 5 153 patients (17.9%) were ...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 27, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Patricia D. Scherrer, Michael M. Mallory, Joseph P. Cravero, Lia Lowrie, James H. Hertzog, John W. Berkenbosch, Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Nurse‐driven pediatric analgesia and sedation protocol reduces withdrawal symptoms in critically ill medical pediatric patients
ConclusionImplementation of a nurse‐driven pASP reduced the total dose of benzodiazepines and the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms significantly. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 25, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Felix Neunhoeffer, Matthias Kumpf, Hanna Renk, Malte Hanelt, Nicole Berneck, Axel Bosk, Ines Gerbig, Ellen Heimberg, Michael Hofbeck Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Plasma concentrations of levobupivacaine associated with two different intermittent wound infusion regimens following surgical ductus ligation in preterm infants
ConclusionsThe two studied intermittent infusion regimens were associated with plasma levels below potentially toxic levels and were both associated with adequate postoperative pain scores. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 10, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Marie Anell‐Olofsson, Per‐Arne Lönnqvist, Catarina Bitkover, Stefan Lundeberg, Björn A. Larsson, Staffan Eksborg, Marco Bartocci Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Changes in intracuff pressure of a cuffed endotracheal tube during surgery for congenital heart disease using cardiopulmonary bypass
Summary BackgroundWith the development of newer polyurethane cuffed endotracheal tubes (cETTs), there has been a shift in clinical practice among pediatric anesthesiologists. Despite improvements in design, excessive inflation of the cuff can still compromise tracheal mucosal perfusion. Several perioperative factors can affect the intracuff pressure (CP), and there is no consensus on safe CP in pediatric patients undergoing repair of congenital cardiac disease (CHD) utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In the current study, the CP was continuously monitored in pediatric patients undergoing surgery for CHD. MethodsAfter ...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 5, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Hiromi Kako, Omar Alkhatib, Senthil G. Krishna, Sarah Khan, Aymen Naguib, Joseph D. Tobias Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Pediatric endobronchial blockers in infants: a refinement in technique
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 5, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Vincent C. Hsieh, Douglas R. Thompson, Charles M. Haberkern Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

It's not about the endotracheal tube: reply to editorial on our paper “Endotracheal intubation in the pediatric emergency department”
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 5, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Elliot Long, Stefan Sabato, Franz E. Babl Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Effects of anesthesia on the developing brain: can the underlying disease be ignored?
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 5, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tom G. Hansen Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Effects of anesthesia and surgery on the developing brain: problem solved?
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 5, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: David O. Warner, Randall P. Flick Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Quick and safe intubation by visualized passage of the tube‐armed Bonfils fiberscope into the trachea
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 5, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Jost Kaufmann, Thomas Engelhardt Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Risks of fixed‐angle supraglottic airways in infants
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 5, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Amber Borucki, Pete Kovatsis, Christian Seefelder Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Cuffed or uncuffed endotracheal tubes in pediatric anesthesia: a survey of current practice in the United Kingdom and The Netherlands
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 5, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Saskia L. Boerboom, Sundar M. Muthukrishnan, Jurgen C. Graaff, Gersten Jonker Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Rare events can be fatal and must not be ignored; how much needs to happen before we act?
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 5, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Britta S. Ungern‐Sternberg Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

News from the pediatric anesthesia societies
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 5, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Francis Veyckemans, Christophe Dadure, Anne Laffargue, Frédéric Lacroix Tags: News Source Type: research

In this issue April 2015
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 5, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: In this Issue Source Type: research

Primary osteolysis syndromes: beware of difficult airway
ConclusionsAirway management may be challenging in patients with primary osteolysis syndromes. Because the osteolytic process advances with aging and craniofacial dysmorphism may progressively worsen, the airway should always be reassessed before surgery with an appropriate strategy for potentially difficult intubation. In all patients with primary osteolysis, a potential for pathologic fracture must be considered and careful intraoperative positioning is warranted. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 4, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: R. Scott Herd, Juraj Sprung, Toby N. Weingarten Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Dexmedetomidine–ketamine combination and caudal block for superficial lower abdominal and genital surgery in children
ConclusionsThese results suggest that adding ketamine 2 mg·kg−1 to dexmedetomidine 1 μg·kg−1 should produce an effective anesthetic level to perform a caudal block and the ensuing superficial lower abdominal or genital surgery in children. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 4, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Mauricio E. Ibacache, Hernán R. Muñoz, Ricardo Fuentes, Luis I. Cortínez Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Herbert Rackow and Ernest Salanitre: the emergence of pediatric anesthesia as a specialty in the United States
Summary Herbert Rackow and Ernest Salanitre were pediatric anesthesiologists at Babies Hospital at the Columbia‐Presbyterian Medical Center in New York whose work spanned three decades beginning in the early 1950s. Their pioneering research included studies of the uptake and elimination of inhalational anesthetics and of the risk of cardiac arrest in infants and children. They were actively involved in the development of pediatric anesthesia as a specialty, and their efforts contributed to inter‐disciplinary collaboration and to the formation of the Section on Anesthesiology of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Their...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 4, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Robert H. Friesen Tags: Special Interest Article Source Type: research

Gas induction for pyloromyotomy
ConclusionGas induction can be considered for children undergoing pyloromyotomy. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 23, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Gemma E. Scrimgeour, Nicholas W.F. Leather, Rachel S. Perry, John V. Pappachan, Andrew J. Baldock Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Anesthesia‐related critical incidents in the perioperative period in children; a proposal for an anesthesia‐related reporting system for critical incidents in children
Summary BackgroundThe incidence, type and severity of anesthesia‐related critical incidents during the perioperative phase has been investigated less in children than in adults. AimThe aim of the study was to identify and analyze anesthesia‐related critical incidents in children to identify areas to improve current clinical practice, and to propose a specialized anesthesia‐related critical incidence registration for children. MethodAll reported pediatric anesthesia‐related critical incidents reported on a voluntary reporting based on a 20‐item complication list of the Dutch Society of Anesthesiology between Janua...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 16, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Jurgen C. Graaff, Marie‐christine Sarfo, Leo Wolfswinkel, Désirée B. M. Werff, Antonius N. J. Schouten Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Development of a guideline for the management of the unanticipated difficult airway in pediatric practice
ConclusionsThis paper provides the background, available evidence base, and justification for each step in the resultant guidelines and gives a rationale for their use. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 16, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Ann E. Black, Paul E.R. Flynn, Helen L. Smith, Mark L. Thomas, Kathy A. Wilkinson Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Comparisons of recursive partitioning analysis and conventional methods for selection of uncuffed endotracheal tubes for pediatric patients
ConclusionsAnalysis of the tree model by recursive partitioning structure analysis accomplished a high correct and close prediction rate for selection of an appropriate ETT size. The intuitive and easy‐to‐interpret tree model would be a quick and helpful tool for selection of an ETT tube for pediatric patients. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 16, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Ah Reum Cho, Eun Soo Kim, Do Won Lee, Jung Min Hong, Jae Young Kwon, Hae Kyu Kim, Tae Kyun Kim Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Difficult airway consultation service for children: steps to implement and preliminary results
ConclusionIn developing the DAS, our goal was to provide a more comprehensive approach to caring for a child with a DAW that included their entire hospital stay and follow‐up care. We believe this approach has improved health care professional awareness as well as the safe management of routine and difficult pediatric airway. Additional studies are needed to determine whether measurable changes in morbidity and mortality are observed over time. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 13, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Sydney M. Nykiel‐Bailey, John D. McAllister, Charles R. Schrock, David W. Molter, Jennifer K. Marsh, David J. Murray Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Anesthetic techniques to facilitate lung lavage for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in children—new airway techniques and a review of the literature
Summary Pediatric patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis require whole lung lavage to clear the accumulation of lipoproteinaceous material within the alveoli, to maintain respiratory function. Anesthesia for this presents a challenge due to preexisting respiratory failure, and the small diameter and length of the pediatric airway, which is often unable to accommodate existing one‐lung isolation and ventilation equipment. Novel techniques to facilitate lung lavage on seven occasions are described and placed in the context of the existing literature to date. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 10, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Caroline A. Wilson, Sally L. Wilmshurst, Ann E. Black Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Acupuncture for posttonsillectomy pain in children: a randomized, controlled study
ConclusionsAcupuncture, in addition to conventional analgesic treatment, is an effective treatment for posttonsillectomy pain. Acupuncture is safe and well received by children and their parents. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 7, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Peter Gilbey, Shlomi Bretler, Yaniv Avraham, Adi Sharabi‐Nov, Sasha Ibrgimov, Anthony Luder Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Development and validation of a risk score to predict the probability of postoperative vomiting in pediatric patients: the VPOP score
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 27, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Response to Makkar and Singh's comment on our article ‘Determination of optimum time for intravenous cannulation after induction with sevoflurane and nitrous oxide in children premedicated with midazolam’
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 27, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Alper Kilicaslan, Funda Gök, Atilla Erol, Sermin Okesli, Gamze Sarkilar, Şeref Otelcioglu Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Caudal clonidine and apnea risk
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 27, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Bishr Haydar Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

News from the pediatric anesthesia societies
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 27, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Elsa Taylor Tags: News from the Pediatric Societies Source Type: research

In this issue March 2015
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 27, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andrew Davidson Tags: In this Issue Source Type: research

Migration of pediatric epidural catheters
Summary BackgroundPostoperative pain control in the pediatric population frequently involves epidural catheters placed intraoperatively. A retrospective review of epidural catheter tip position was conducted by evaluation of routine chest anterior–posterior (A‐P) X‐rays obtained by the surgical and ICU teams. MethodsOf the 174 pediatric epidural catheters placed during a 1‐year period at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, 59 pediatric patients with chest X‐rays demonstrating epidural catheter tip on at least 2 days were reviewed. The change in epidural catheter position was then calculated. The overall re...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 23, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Thomas Strandness, Marisa Wiktor, Jaya Varadarajan, Steven Weisman Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Should we abandon landmark‐based technique for caudal anesthesia in neonates and infants?
ConclusionThis study showed that the current landmark (equilateral triangle) for infant caudal anesthesia is unreliable. Importantly, the sacral hiatus is clinically identifiable only if the sacral cornua are palpable; otherwise, using ultrasound is essential. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 17, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Seyed Ali Mirjalili, Kiarash Taghavi, Geoff Frawley, Susan Craw Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Transition to propofol after sevoflurane anesthesia to prevent emergence agitation: a randomized controlled trial
Summary BackgroundEmergence agitation (EA) is a common behavioral disturbance after sevoflurane anesthesia in children. Propofol 1 mg·kg−1 bolus at the end of sevoflurane anesthesia has had mixed results in reducing the incidence of EA, whereas propofol infusion throughout anesthesia maintenance seems effective but is more complex to administer. If a simple, short transition to propofol anesthesia was found to be effective in reducing EA, this could enhance the recovery of children following sevoflurane anesthesia. We therefore aimed to determine whether transition to propofol over 3 min at the end o...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 15, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: David Costi, James Ellwood, Andrew Wallace, Samira Ahmed, Lynne Waring, Allan Cyna Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Evaluation of dynamic parameters of thrombus formation measured on whole blood using rotational thromboelastometry in children undergoing cardiac surgery: a descriptive study
ConclusionBased on this descriptive study, dynamic ROTEM® parameters of total thrombus formation could be used to estimate the amplification and the propagation phases of coagulation in children. These parameters might be used in further well‐designed study to predict the need for hemostatic products in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 13, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: David Faraoni, Christian Fenger‐Eriksen, Stephanie Gillard, Ariane Willems, Jerrold H. Levy, Philippe Van der Linden Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

An update on newer pediatric supraglottic airways with recommendations for clinical use
Summary Supraglottic airways are an established part of routine and emergency pediatric airway management, including use in difficult airways and neonatal resuscitation. With the introduction of newer supraglottic airways in children, efficacy can only be determined by comparing these devices with those that are already well established (laryngeal mask airway Classic and laryngeal mask airway ProSeal). This narrative review aims to present the current literature on these newer supraglottic airways and give recommendations for their use in various clinical scenarios based on the existing evidence. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 13, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Narasimhan Jagannathan, Melissa A. Ramsey, Michelle C. White, Lisa Sohn Tags: Special Interest Article Source Type: research

A single‐center strategy to minimize blood transfusion in neonates and children undergoing cardiac surgery
Summary BackgroundThe transfusion of blood products in the setting of uncontrolled bleeding is unquestionably lifesaving. However, in many instances, the decision to transfuse is based on physician gestalt rather than medical evidence. When indications for transfusion are unclear, the benefits of blood products must be balanced against their significant risks and associated costs. As our institution is a referral center for patients of Jehovah's Witness faith, this population has pushed our development of techniques to achieve the goal of bloodless surgery. Our practices in caring for this population have become our standa...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 12, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Aymen N. Naguib, Peter D. Winch, Joseph D. Tobias, Janet Simsic, Diane Hersey, Kathleen Nicol, Thomas Preston, Daniel Gomez, Patrick McConnell, Mark Galantowicz Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Effect of a neck collar on upper airway size in children sedated with propofol–midazolam combination during magnetic resonance imaging
ConclusionApplication of a soft neck collar in children aged 2–4 years may enhance the retropalatal and retroglossal airway dimensions during pediatric sedation in the supine position. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 12, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Moustafa A. Moustafa, Doaa M. Emara, Mohamed R. Nouh Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Selection of subspecialty fellows in anesthesia for pediatric anesthesia: a national survey of program directors in the United States
ConclusionA minority of pediatric fellowship program directors rated prior research experience as an important factor in the selection of prospective fellows. The lack of emphasis on research qualities for fellows is potentially concerning for the future of our specialty. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 12, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Hubert A. Benzon, Gildasio S. De Oliveira, Narasimhan Jagannathan, Santhanam Suresh Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

An audit of anesthesia safety in a pediatric cochlear implantation program
ConclusionAnesthesia for cochlear implants in children can be safely carried out in a district general hospital setting. Appropriate safeguards should be in place to refer complex cases which may require PICU to a tertiary pediatric center. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 11, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Chris Hawksworth, Shyam Ravury Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Efficacy of surgical transversus abdominis plane block for postoperative pain relief following abdominal surgery in pediatric patients
ConclusionsThere was no significant advantage of the sTAP block over local infiltration or no intervention for postoperative pain control in pediatric patients undergoing non‐laparoscopic major abdominal surgeries. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 9, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Saowaphak Lapmahapaisan, Niramol Tantemsapya, Naiyana Aroonpruksakul, Wiriya Maisat, Suwannee Suraseranivongse Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Optimal design in pediatric pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic clinical studies
Summary It is not trivial to conduct clinical trials with pediatric participants. Ethical, logistical, and financial considerations add to the complexity of pediatric studies. Optimal design theory allows investigators the opportunity to apply mathematical optimization algorithms to define how to structure their data collection to answer focused research questions. These techniques can be used to determine an optimal sample size, optimal sample times, and the number of samples required for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. The aim of this review is to demonstrate how to determine optimal sample size, optimal sam...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 9, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Jessica K. Roberts, Chris Stockmann, Alfred Balch, Tian Yu, Robert M. Ward, Michael G. Spigarelli, Catherine M. T. Sherwin Tags: Special Interest Article Source Type: research

Double‐lumen central venous catheter for pediatric airway management in laryngeal papillomatosis: an old technique reborn?
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 8, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Patrick Butler Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

We can't tell emergence agitation from pain, yet. Reply to: Stucke and Weisman ‘Can we tell emergence agitation from pain?’
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 8, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Pablo M. Ingelmo, Geoff Frawley, Luciano Bortone Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Response to Dr. Murphy and Dr. Ferguson regarding comment on our paper: retrospective evaluation of antimicrobial prophylaxis in prevention of surgical site infection in the pediatric population
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 8, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Goonjan S. Shah, Robert E. Christensen, Alan R. Tait Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Comparing intubation performance of Bonfils fiberscope and fiberoptic bronchoscope in difficult pediatric airways
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 8, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Gao Pu Liu, Rui Ping Li, Fu Shan Xue Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Cardiac output assessment in children: playing catch‐up
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - January 8, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Brian Schloss, Joseph D. Tobias Tags: Editorial Source Type: research