Issue Information
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - September 6, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Using a pulse oximeter to determine clinical depth of anesthesia —investigation of the utility of the perfusion index
Summary BackgroundPeripheral vasodilation is a well‐recognized side effect of general anesthesia, and induces changes in the amplitude of the pulse plethysmograph (PPG) waveform. This can be continuously quantitaed using the Perfusion Index (PI), a ratio of the pulsatile to nonpulsatile signal amplitude in the PPG waveform. We hypothesized that the perfusion index would rise with the induction of anesthesia in children, and fall with emergence, and performed a prospective, observational study to test this. AimOur primary aim was to test whether the different clinical stages of anesthesia were associated with changes in t...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 29, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Anirudh Krishnamohan, Viraj Siriwardana, Justin J. Skowno Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Measuring cardiac output in children undergoing cardiac catheterization: comparison between the Fick method and PRAM (pressure recording analytical method)
Summary BackgroundPressure recording analytical method (PRAM) is a novel, arterial pulse contour method for measuring cardiac output (CO). Validation studies of PRAM in children are few, and have shown contradictory results. The aim of the study was to compare the MostCare®‐PRAM vs the Fick method of cardiac output estimation (reference method). MethodsThis is a single‐center, prospective observational study in 52 pediatric patients who underwent diagnostic right and left heart catheterization. Cardiac index (CI) measurements with the MostCare®‐PRAM vs the Fick method were obtained under hemodynamically stabl...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 27, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Jos é M. Alonso‐Iñigo, Francisco J. Escribá, José I. Carrasco, María J. Fas, Pilar Argente, José M. Galvis, José E. Llopis Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

The influence of age on positions of the conus medullaris, Tuffier's line, dural sac, and sacrococcygeal membrane in infants, children, adolescents, and young adults
ConclusionsIn children, there is a distance of 1.5–4.75 vertebral body height between the conus medullaris and the Tuffier's line. However, these distances were narrower among younger populations. The distance between the dural sac and the upper limit of the SCM increased with age. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 26, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Ji ‐Yun Jung, Eun‐Hee Kim, In‐Kyung Song, Ji‐Hyun Lee, Hee‐Soo Kim, Jin‐Tae Kim Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Repeated nonanesthetic malignant hyperthermia reactions in a child
Summary A series of life‐threatening nonanesthetic‐related MH reactions in a child was the inspiration for a proactive, novel solution allowing for early prehospital, potentially lifesaving intravenous dantrolene administration. Multidisciplinary collaboration is essential and parent education must be comprehensive and ongoing. This case underlines the importance of considering nonanesthetic MH susceptibility in the child who has a history of unspecified myopathy and who presents with fever and total body stiffness. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 25, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Theresa Cummings, Tara Der, Cengiz Karsli Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Developing an objective method for analyzing vital signs changes in neonates during general anesthesia
ConclusionAn objective method of comparing cases has been created with a method to automatically identify neonatal vital sign deviations. With further validation the method has the potential to be a powerful tool to drive future quality improvement projects in neonatal anesthesia. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 25, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Matthias G örges, Nicholas C. West, Edda Karlsdóttir, J. Mark Ansermino, Myles Cassidy, Gillian R. Lauder Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Caudal analgesia and cardiothoracic surgery: a look at postoperative pain scores in a pediatric population
ConclusionAlthough regional anesthesia reduced intraoperative opioid usage, there was no difference in postoperative opioid usage or pain scores. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 23, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Khoa N. Nguyen, Heather S. Byrd, Jonathan M. Tan Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

An introduction to physiologically ‐based pharmacokinetic models
Summary Physiologically‐based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models represent drug kinetics in one or more ‘real’ organs (and hence require submodels of organs/tissues) and they describe ‘whole‐body’ kinetics by joining together submodels with drug transport by blood flow as dictated by anatomy. They attempt to reproduce ‘measureable’ physiological and/or pharmacokinetic processes rather than more abstract rate constants and volumes. PBPK models may be built using a ‘bottom‐up’ approach, where parameters are chosen from first principles, literature, or in vitro data as opposed ...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 22, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Richard N. Upton, David J.R. Foster, Ahmad Y. Abuhewla Tags: Educational Review Source Type: research

Gastric ultrasound as a preoperative bedside test for residual gastric contents volume in children
ConclusionCSA correlated with GCVw in healthy children over a wide range of gastric filling, with the RLD position clearly superior to the SUBE position, confirming a previously derived formula. Although direct calculation of GCVw is imprecise, this technique has the potential to become a diagnostic risk assessment test. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 20, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Achim Schmitz, Alexander R. Schmidt, Philipp K. Buehler, Thomas Schraner, Melanie Fr ühauf, Markus Weiss, Richard Klaghofer, Christian J. Kellenberger Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

The agreement between oscillometric and intra ‐arterial technique for blood pressure monitoring in the lower extremities for infants and toddlers undergoing aortic coarctation repair
ConclusionThere was a good agreement between oscillometric and invasive blood pressure measurements of lower extremities in infants with isolated CoA statistically. However, the oscillometry‐measured SBP showed a tendency to overestimate the intra‐arterial blood pressure reference, while oscillometry‐measured DBP underestimated its reference. MAP measurement provided the most accurate and reliable results in this study. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 19, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Zhe ‐Zhe Peng, Ma‐Zhong Zhang, Ying Sun, Jie Bai, Hong‐Bin Gu, Pei‐Pei Liu, Min Li, Mei‐Hua Cai Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Prediction of the midtracheal level based on external anatomical landmarks: implication of the optimal insertion depth of endotracheal tubes in pediatric patients
ConclusionThe midtracheal level, helpful in planning the insertion depth of an ETT, can be predicted by measuring the surface distance from the cricoid cartilage to suprasternal notch in pediatric patients. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 18, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: In ‐Kyung Song, Soo‐Hyun Kim, Jaehui Ryu, Eunju Lee, Hyung‐Min Oh, Eun‐Hee Kim, Ji‐Hyun Lee, Hee‐Soo Kim, Jin‐Tae Kim Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Intraoperative management and early postoperative outcomes of pediatric renal transplants
ConclusionDopamine use was common and was an independent risk factor for delayed time to creatinine nadir. Many different agents were used to enhance renal perfusion. The ‘supra‐physiological’ hemodynamics resulted in pulmonary edema in 33% of patients. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 18, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Katherine Taylor, Wooheon Thomas Kim, Malak Maharramova, Victor Figueroa, Smruthi Ramesh, Armando Lorenzo Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Blood pressure and heart rates in neonates and preschool children: an analysis from 10 years of electronic recording
ConclusionHeart rate while under anesthesia appears a poor indicator for blood pressure changes. Recorded blood pressures in this current study, measured immediately before induction, were consistent with those in the literature. A mean MAP decrease of 28.6% was typical in those infants 0–10 weeks of age. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 12, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Cedric E. Sottas, David Cumin, Brian J. Anderson Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

A review of anesthetic techniques and outcomes following minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum (Nuss procedure)
ConclusionAn epidural‐based analgesic regime is associated with low pain scores and few acute complications. The continuation of morphine analgesia after the first postoperative day is common but associated with an increased incidence of urinary retention and nausea and vomiting. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 11, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Geoff Frawley, Jacinta Frawley, Joe Crameri Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Multivariable predictors of substantial blood loss in children undergoing craniosynostosis repair: implications for risk stratification
Summary BackgroundOperative treatment of craniosynostosis is associated with substantial blood loss, often requiring transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBC) and coagulation products. AimsThe aim of this prospective study was to analyze thromboelastographic (TEG) parameters and platelet fibrinogen product to determine predictors of substantial blood loss, and the need for PRBC transfusion and coagulation products. MethodsWith IRB approval, we enrolled 120 children undergoing craniosynostosis repair with a standardized anesthetic, fluid management, and TEG measurements at predefined times. Outcomes of interest were intr...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 10, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Petra M. Meier, David Zurakowski, Susan M. Goobie, Mark R. Proctor, John G. Meara, Vanessa J. Young, Gary F. Rogers, James A. DiNardo Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis ‐associated acute subglottic stenosis in a 13‐year‐old boy: a case report
We present a case of a child with granulomatosis with polyangiitis, admitted with acute respiratory distress attributed to subglottic stenosis. The anesthetic management and potential complications are described. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 9, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Giuliana Geng ‐Ramos, Nina Nami, David J. Mener Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Perioperative complications and outcomes in children with cerebral palsy undergoing scoliosis surgery
ConclusionPresence of two or more comorbidities and thoracotomy are risk factors for perioperative complications in children with cerebral palsy undergoing surgery for scoliosis correction. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - August 7, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Anju A. Bendon, Khristine A. George, Davandra Patel Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Single ‐shot thoracic epidural: an aid to earlier discharge for pediatric laparoscopic cholecystectomy
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 26, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Lily B. Hsieh, Jonathan M. Tan, Michael Trostler, Richard Scriven, Thomas K. Lee, Peggy A. Seidman Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

An unusual airway obstruction caused by partial detachment of inner layer of reinforced endotracheal tube
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 26, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Hongyi Li, Qiaochu Fu, Chuangang Jin Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

The vanishing neck mass: how using a laryngeal mask airway during magnetic resonance imaging of a child can cause misdiagnosis
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 26, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Allan F. Simpao, Avrum N. Pollock, Stephanie E. McGinnis, Jorge A. G álvez Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Bispectral index under propofol anesthesia in children: a comparative randomized study between TIVA and TCI
ConclusionsPropofol administration using manual infusion guided by clinical signs was associated with higher risks of over‐ or underdosage when compared to BIS‐guided administrations. When propofol infusion was guided by the BIS, no major difference was found between TIVA and TCI (either with the Kataria or the Schnider model). This study highlights the need of a pharmacodynamic feedback during propofol anesthesia in children. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 26, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Nicolas Louvet, Agn ès Rigouzzo, Nada Sabourdin, Isabelle Constant Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Current practice of acute pain management in children —a national follow‐up survey in Germany
This study aimed to summarize the current standard practices for acute pain management in children in Germany and the implementation of these procedures. The last survey on acute pain management in children was performed in 1999, highlighting the need for an up to date review. MethodsA questionnaire was mailed to German departments of anesthesiology (n = 885), asking for structures and processes of acute pain management in children. Results were compared between hospitals with and without an acute pain service and with and without a pediatric department. ResultsOf the 407 responding hospitals (response rate of 46...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 26, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Miriam I. Emons, Frank Petzke, Ulrike M. Stamer, Winfried Mei ßner, Regina Koschwitz, Joachim Erlenwein Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

The translational value of chart reviews and the need for trials
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 26, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andrew Davidson, Susan M. Goobie Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

The big research question: who decides?
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 26, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Suellen M. Walker, Andrew Davidson Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

In this issue September 2016
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 26, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andrew Davidson Tags: In this Issue Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 26, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Perioperative management of pediatric en ‐bloc combined heart–liver transplants: a case series review
ConclusionCombined heart and liver transplantation in the pediatric population involves a complex group of patients with unique perioperative challenges. Successful management starts with thorough preoperative planning and communication and involves strategies to deal with massive intraoperative hemorrhage and coagulopathy in addition to protecting and supporting the transplanted heart and liver and meticulous surgical technique. An integrated multidisciplinary team approach is the cornerstone for successful outcomes. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 21, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Manchula Navaratnam, Ann Ng, Glyn D. Williams, Katsuhide Maeda, Julianne M. Mendoza, Waldo Concepcion, Seth A. Hollander, Chandra Ramamoorthy Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Perioperative management of pediatric en‐bloc combined heart–liver transplants: a case series review
ConclusionCombined heart and liver transplantation in the pediatric population involves a complex group of patients with unique perioperative challenges. Successful management starts with thorough preoperative planning and communication and involves strategies to deal with massive intraoperative hemorrhage and coagulopathy in addition to protecting and supporting the transplanted heart and liver and meticulous surgical technique. An integrated multidisciplinary team approach is the cornerstone for successful outcomes. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 12, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Manchula Navaratnam, Ann Ng, Glyn D. Williams, Katsuhide Maeda, Julianne M. Mendoza, Waldo Concepcion, Seth A. Hollander, Chandra Ramamoorthy Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Perioperative morbidity in children with elastin arteriopathy
Summary BackgroundChildren with elastin arteriopathy (EA), the majority of whom have Williams–Beuren syndrome, are at high risk for sudden death. Case reports suggest that the risk of perioperative cardiac arrest and death is high, but none have reported the frequency or risk factors for morbidity and mortality in an entire cohort of children with EA undergoing anesthesia. AimThe aim of this study was to present one institution's rate of morbidity and mortality in all children with EA undergoing anesthesia and to examine patient characteristics that pose the greatest risk. MethodsWe reviewed medical records of childr...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 11, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Gregory J. Latham, Faith J. Ross, Michael J. Eisses, Michael J. Richards, Jeremy M. Geiduschek, Denise C. Joffe Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Feasibility and pharmacokinetics of caudal blockade in children and adolescents with 30 –50 kg of body weight
ConclusionsBased on our pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic results, we suggest that the body weight of 50 kg it is feasible to perform effective and safe caudal blockade in children up to 50 kg body weight. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 10, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Maya Keplinger, Peter Marhofer, Wolfgang Klug, Birgit Reiter, Thomas Stimpfl, Stephan C. Kettner, Lena Korf, Markus Zeitlinger, Daniela Marhofer, Lydia Triffterer Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Pain after discharge following head and neck surgery in children
ConclusionAdenotonsillectomy patients represent the biggest challenge in postoperative pain management of the head and neck surgeries evaluated. The low rates of pain, nausea, and vomiting reported in the days following surgery for the other procedures suggests that children can be cared for at home with simple analgesia. Discharge information and analgesia prescribing on discharge should be tailored to the operation performed. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 10, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Caroline A. Wilson, David Sommerfield, Thomas F. E. Drake‐Brockman, Lita Bieberstein, Anoop Ramgolam, Britta S. Ungern‐Sternberg Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Early childhood exposure to short periods of sevoflurane is not associated with later, lasting cognitive deficits
ConclusionIt can be concluded that brief periods of anesthesia with single anesthetic sevoflurane may be safe for children under age 3. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 10, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Mahtab Poor Zamany Nejat Kermany, Fatemeh Roodneshin, Niloofar Ahmadi Dizgah, Ebrahim Gerami, Esmail Riahi Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Feasibility and pharmacokinetics of caudal blockade in children and adolescents with 30–50 kg of body weight
ConclusionsBased on our pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic results, we suggest that the body weight of 50 kg it is feasible to perform effective and safe caudal blockade in children up to 50 kg body weight. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 10, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Maya Keplinger, Peter Marhofer, Wolfgang Klug, Birgit Reiter, Thomas Stimpfl, Stephan C. Kettner, Lena Korf, Markus Zeitlinger, Daniela Marhofer, Lydia Triffterer Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Respiratory depression detected by capnography among children in the postanesthesia care unit: a cross‐sectional study
ConclusionsHypoventilation and apnea are common among children in the PACU; however, few interventions occur to address these events. Routine monitoring with capnography may improve recognition of respiratory depression and enhance patient safety in the PACU. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 9, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Melissa L. Langhan, Fang‐Yong Li, J. Lance Lichtor Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Occupational exposure to nitrous oxide during procedural pain control in children: a comparison of different inhalation techniques and scavenging systems
ConclusionsThe DFM system, with or without a DV, connected to a portable evacuation system during N2O administration to children for painful procedures kept N2O levels within the local environment below recommended limits. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 7, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andrea Messeri, Elena Amore, Stefano Dugheri, Alessandro Bonari, Ilenia Pompilio, Giulio Arcangeli, Giuliana Rizzo Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Does general anesthesia have a clinical impact on intraocular pressure in children?
Summary BackgroundReliable measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) is crucial in pediatric patients with suspected glaucoma. General anesthesia (GA) is usually needed in infants to allow a thorough examination. However, anesthesia itself may influence IOP, depending on the type used and the depth of sedation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the normal distribution of IOP during GA in healthy children and to analyze differences in IOP relative to the anesthetics used and the measurement time point. MethodsApproval for this observational study was received from the local institutional review boards and written in...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 5, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Julia Termühlen, Antje Gottschalk, Nicole Eter, Esther M. Hoffmann, Hugo Aken, Ulrike Grenzebach, Verena Prokosch Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

An audit of patient‐controlled analgesia after appendicectomy in children
Summary BackgroundPatient‐controlled analgesia (PCA) is commonly used after appendicectomy in children. AimThe aim of this study was to characterize the analgesic use of children prescribed PCA after appendicetomy, in order to rationalize future use of this modality. MethodsWe retrospectively audited all cases of acute appendicitis over a 4‐year period in a single pediatric hospital, recording demographics, surgical approach, pathology, analgesia use, pain scores, and duration of PCA. We preplanned subgroup analyses for surgical approach, pathology, and intraoperative nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drug (NSAID) admin...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 4, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Rowan Ousley, Laura L. Burgoyne, Nicola R. Crowley, Warwick J. Teague, David Costi Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

An audit of patient ‐controlled analgesia after appendicectomy in children
Summary BackgroundPatient‐controlled analgesia (PCA) is commonly used after appendicectomy in children. AimThe aim of this study was to characterize the analgesic use of children prescribed PCA after appendicetomy, in order to rationalize future use of this modality. MethodsWe retrospectively audited all cases of acute appendicitis over a 4‐year period in a single pediatric hospital, recording demographics, surgical approach, pathology, analgesia use, pain scores, and duration of PCA. We preplanned subgroup analyses for surgical approach, pathology, and intraoperative nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drug (NSAID) admin...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 3, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Rowan Ousley, Laura L. Burgoyne, Nicola R. Crowley, Warwick J. Teague, David Costi Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Reply to Snow et  al. regarding their comment ‘A call to solve the puzzle together by building an evidence base for perioperative management of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 1, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Neda Taghizadeh, Andrew Davidson, Katrina Williams, David Story Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply to Hooijmans, Carlijn; Wever, Kimberley; Ritskes ‐Hoitinga, Merel; Scheffer, Gert Jan, regarding their comment ‘The usefulness of systematic reviews of animal studies; shooting the messenger’
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 1, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andreas W. Loepke, Laszlo Vutskits Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Comment on ‘Utility of screening questionnaire, obesity, neck circumference, and sleep polysomnography to predict sleep‐disordered breathing in children and adolescents
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 1, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Alan R. Tait, Terri Voepel‐Lewis, Robert Christensen, Louise M. O'Brien Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, malignant hyperthermia, and inappropriate use of secondary references
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 1, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Kate E. Balbi, Brad M. Taicher, Ronald S. Litman Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Preemptive analgesia for acute postoperative pain management in children
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 1, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Mesut Sener Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply to Ekeoduru, Rhashedah; Matuszczak, Maria; Lin, Michael, regarding their comment ‘Correspondence’ regarding ‘The presumed central nervous system effects of rocuronium in a neonate and its reversal with sugammadex’ by Langley, McFadzean & McCormack
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 1, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Jon G. McCormack, Ross Langley, Jillian McFadzean Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply to Snow et al. regarding their comment ‘A call to solve the puzzle together by building an evidence base for perioperative management of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 1, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Neda Taghizadeh, Andrew Davidson, Katrina Williams, David Story Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply to Hooijmans, Carlijn; Wever, Kimberley; Ritskes‐Hoitinga, Merel; Scheffer, Gert Jan, regarding their comment ‘The usefulness of systematic reviews of animal studies; shooting the messenger’
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 1, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andreas W. Loepke, Laszlo Vutskits Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

The usefulness of systematic reviews of animal studies: shooting the messenger
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 1, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Carlijn R. Hooijmans, Kimberley E. Wever, Merel Ritskes‐Hoitinga, Gert‐Jan Scheffer Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Perioperative management in children with chronic pain
Summary Children with chronic pain often undergo surgery and effective perioperative management of their pain can be challenging. Identification of the pediatric chronic pain patient preoperatively and development of a perioperative pain plan may help ensure a safer and more comfortable perioperative course. Successful management usually requires multiple different classes of analgesics, regional anesthesia, and adjunctive nonpharmacological therapies. Neuropathic and oncological pain can be especially difficult to treat and usually requires an individualized approach. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 1, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Meredith R. Brooks, Brenda Golianu Tags: Systematic Review Source Type: research

Alternative therapies and postoperative vomiting
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 1, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Robin G. Cox Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

In this issue August 2016
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 1, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andrew Davidson Tags: In this issue Source Type: research