Comment on: Z ‐Z Peng ‘The agreement between oscillometric and intra‐arterial technique for blood pressure monitoring in the lower extremities of infants undergoing aortic coarctation repair’
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 6, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Davinia E. Withington Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

External cardiac massage in a fluid ‐overloaded infant: two‐finger/two‐thumb failure, one‐hand chest compression effective resuscitation
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 6, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Emanuele Rossetti, Roberto Bianchi, Sergio Picardo Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

News from the pediatric anesthesia societies: the German Scientific Working Group for Paediatric Anaesthesia (Wissenschaftlicher Arbeitskreis Kinderan ästhesie, WAKKA)
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 6, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Karin Becke, Christoph Bernhard Eich, Claudia H öhne Tags: News Source Type: research

In this issue: May 2017
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 6, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andrew Davidson Tags: In this issue Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 6, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Validation of Adapted Dartmouth Operative Conditions Scale for sedation during pediatric esophagogastroduodenoscopy
ConclusionThe Adapted Dartmouth Operating Conditions Scale detects nonoptimal sedation states during pediatric‐esophagogastroduodenoscopy. It shows good criterion validity, interrater reliability, and responsiveness. Poor intrarater reliability seen in our study could be due to item ambiguity arising from the mode of training of the raters in the Dartmouth Operating Conditions Scale. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 3, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Vanmathi Chandran, Barath Jagadisan, Barani Ganth Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Anatomical description of the sciatic nerve block at the subgluteal region in a neonatal cadaver population
ConclusionOur results provide anatomical evidence that the optimal needle insertion point is approximately halfway between the greater trochanter and the tip of the coccyx—a landmark readily palpable in neonates and infants. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - April 1, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Adrienne A. Acar, Adrian T B ösenberg, Albert‐Neels Schoor Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Outcomes of a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis for medication errors in pediatric anesthesia
Summary The Institute of Medicine has called for development of strategies to prevent medication errors, which are one important cause of preventable harm. Although the field of anesthesiology is considered a leader in patient safety, recent data suggest high medication error rates in anesthesia practice. Unfortunately, few error prevention strategies for anesthesia providers have been implemented. Using Toyota Production System quality improvement methodology, a multidisciplinary team observed 133 h of medication practice in the operating room at a tertiary care freestanding children's hospital. A failure mode and effects...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 28, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Lizabeth D. Martin, Eliot B. Grigg, Shilpa Verma, Gregory J. Latham, Sally E. Rampersad, Lynn D. Martin Tags: Special Interest Article Source Type: research

Red cell distribution width as a novel predictor of postoperative respiratory adverse events after adenotonsillectomy
ConclusionOur study showed that preoperative elevated red cell distribution width is associated with an increased risk of respiratory adverse events in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy for sleep‐disordered breathing. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 27, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Betul Kozanhan, Mehmet S. Iyisoy Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

The association between caudal anesthesia and increased risk of postoperative surgical complications in boys undergoing hypospadias repair
We examined our experience with caudal anesthesia in hypospadias repair to evaluate for increased risk of urethrocutaneous fistula or glanular dehiscence. MethodsAll hypospadias repairs performed by a single surgeon in 2001–2014 were reviewed. Staged or revision surgeries were excluded. Patient age, weight, hypospadias severity, surgery duration, month and year of surgery, caudal anesthesia use, and postoperative complications were recorded. Bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. ResultsWe identified 395 single‐stage primary hypospadias repairs. Mean age was 15.6 months; 326 patients had di...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 27, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Brad M. Taicher, Jonathan C. Routh, John B. Eck, Sherry S. Ross, John S. Wiener, Allison K. Ross Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Measuring the depth of the caudal epidural space to prevent dural sac puncture during caudal block in children
ConclusionThis simple formula can accurately calculate the safe depth of the caudal epidural space to prevent unintended dural puncture during caudal block in children. However, further clinical studies based on this formula are needed to substantiate its utility. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 23, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Hyun Jeong Lee, Ji Young Min, Hyun Il Kim, Hyo ‐Jin Byon Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Fifty years of the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Anesthesiology: a history of our specialty
Summary The American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine celebrated its 50th Anniversary in 2015. The Section was one of the first and only subspecialty organizations in anesthesiology at the time. This special article will focus on the contributions of the Section to the practice of pediatric anesthesiology in the areas of advocacy, education and member contributions. In 1986, the Section created the Robert M. Smith Award to honor those members who had made significant advances in the practice of pediatric anesthesiology. It is named after one of the Section founders, an influential educator,...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 23, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Rita Agarwal, Jennifer Riefe, Constance S. Houck Tags: Special Interest Article Source Type: research

Risk factors for perioperative mortality and transfusion in sacrococcygeal teratoma resections
ConclusionsPrematurity is associated with increased intraoperative and 30‐day mortality. Noncystic tumor morphology was the only significant factor associated with transfusion volume and all six patients who died had transfusion volumes of 240 ml·kg−1 or greater. In these patients at high risk of mortality due to blood loss, the anesthesia team should be prepared to manage massive transfusion and coagulopathy with blood components and pharmacologic measures. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 21, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Rebecca S. Isserman, Olivia Nelson, Kha M. Tran, Lingyu Cai, Marcia Polansky, Julia M. Rosenbloom, Theodora K. Goebel, Elaina E. Lin Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

A quality improvement initiative to optimize dosing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis
ConclusionThis comprehensive quality improvement project improved practitioner compliance with evidence‐based preoperative antimicrobial dosing recommendations to reduce the risk of surgical site infections. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 20, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Thomas J. Caruso, Ellen Wang, Hayden T. Schwenk, David Scheinker, Calida Yeverino, Mary Tweedy, Manjit Maheru, Paul J. Sharek Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Metatropic dysplasia —a skeletal dysplasia with challenging airway and other anesthetic concerns
ConclusionDifficult airway is the most common co‐morbid condition present in patients with metatropic dysplasia, especially if their cervical spine has been fused. Familiarity with the difficulties involving the airway and its management is critical in safe and successful management of anesthesia in this high‐risk population. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 20, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Mary C. Theroux, Martha Lopez, Patricia J. Olszewsky, Sabina DiCindio, Lynda Arai, Colleen Ditro, Michael B. Bober, Olubukola Opeyemi Olla, Tetsu Uejima, David W. West, William G. Mackenzie Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Anaphylactic reaction to tranexamic acid in an adolescent undergoing posterior spinal fusion
We report a case of a delayed anaphylactic reaction in a pediatric patient undergoing posterior spine fusion; and discuss the intraoperative management of the acute event, immunologic confirmation, and subsequent anesthetic approach. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 20, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Jennifer Chiem, Iskra Ivanova, Andrew Parker, Walter Krengel, Nathalia Jimenez Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Chloroprocaine for epidural anesthesia in infants and children
Summary Continuous epidural infusions are an effective and safe method of providing anesthesia and postoperative analgesia in infants and children with multiple advantages over systemic medications, including earlier tracheal extubation, decreased perioperative stress response, earlier return of bowel function, and decreased exposure to volatile anesthetic agents with uncertain long‐term neurocognitive effects. Despite these benefits, local anesthetic toxicity remains a concern in neonates and infants because of their decreased metabolic capacity for amide local anesthetics. Chloroprocaine, an ester local anesthetic agen...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 20, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Giorgio Veneziano, Joseph D. Tobias Tags: Educational Review (Non Commissioned) Source Type: research

Pediatric upper airway dimensions using three ‐dimensional computed tomography imaging
ConclusionThis study confirms recent studies demonstrating that the subglottic region not the cricoid is the narrowest part of the airway. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 17, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tariq M. Wani, Mahmood Rafiq, Salman Talpur, Lahbib Soualmi, Joseph D. Tobias Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Tracheal extubation practices following adenotonsillectomy in children: effects on operating room efficiency between two institutions
ConclusionTracheal extubation in the PACU is an efficient use of operating room time and resources. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 16, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Hiromi Kako, Marco Corridore, Sarah Seo, Charles Elmaraghy, Meredith Lind, Joseph D. Tobias Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Anesthesia ‐induced rhabdomyolysis or malignant hyperthermia: is defining the crisis important?
Summary Anesthesia‐induced rhabdomyolysis and malignant hyperthermia occur in response to the same agents and present with similar clinical features. Distinguishing between these diagnoses can be challenging in a clinical crisis yet making the distinction is critical as prompt appropriate management may be life‐saving, whereas delayed recognition and/or inappropriate management will almost certainly result in death. This focused review examines the differences between these conditions and focuses on the emergency management of anesthesia‐induced rhabdomyolysis. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 16, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Rebecca M. Gray Tags: Focused Review Source Type: research

Influence of caudal block on postoperative oliguria in infants undergoing bilateral ureteroneocystostomy: a retrospective analysis
ConclusionCaudal block may be associated with postoperative oliguria in infants undergoing ureteroneocystostomy. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 16, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Hyun Jeong Lee, Yong Seon Choi, Bon ‐Nyeo Koo, Sang Won Han, Young Eun Cho, Young Jae Im, Jae Hoon Lee Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

In Memoriam Professor Riku Aantaa: 1959 –2016
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 15, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Pertti Suominen, Per ‐Arne Lönnqvist, Tuula Manner Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Comment on: ‘Evaluation of I‐Gel™ size 2 airway in different degrees of neck flexion in anesthetized children—a prospective, self‐controlled trial’
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 15, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Lei Wang, Lingxin Wei Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

The role of the pediatric anesthesiologist in relieving suffering at the end of life: when is palliative sedation appropriate in pediatrics?
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 15, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Doralina L. Anghelescu, Esther Knapp, Liza ‐Marie Johnson, Justin N. Baker Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply to Li, Xing ‐Huan and Zuo, Yun‐Xia, regarding their comment ‘Correspondence letter to the editor regarding “early childhood exposure to short periods of sevoflurane is not associated with later, lasting cognitive deficits”’
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 15, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Mahtab Poor Zamani Nejat Kermany, Esmail Riahi Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Pilot randomized controlled trial on early and late remote ischemic preconditioning prior to complex cardiac surgery in young infants
ConclusionIn infants who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease, our pilot randomized controlled trial on early and late remote ischemic preconditioning proved to be feasible but did not find any significant difference in acute outcomes. A larger trial may be necessary. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 15, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Gonzalo Garcia Guerra, Ari R. Joffe, Rob Seal, Ernest Phillipos, Maggie Wong, Elham Khodayari Moez, Irina A. Dinu, Jonathan P. Duff, David Ross, Ivan Rebeyka, Charlene M.T. Robertson Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

The new FDA drug safety communication on the use of general anesthetics in young children: what should we make of it?
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 15, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andrew Davidson, Laszlo Vutskits Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Annual General Meetings (2017) of National Pediatric Anesthesia Groups
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 15, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Annual General Meeting Source Type: research

In this issue: April 2017
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 15, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andrew Davidson Tags: In this issue Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 15, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Upper airway in infants —a computed tomography‐based analysis
ConclusionThe present study demonstrates that the airway in neonates and infants between the subglottic area and the cricoid remains elliptical. The cricoid is not round as has been observed in older children. The airway is wider anteroposteriorly and narrows in the transverse dimension from the subglottis to the cricoid in infants. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - March 1, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tariq M. Wani, Mahmood Rafiq, Nahida Akhter, Faris Saeed AlGhamdi, Joseph D. Tobias Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Anterior rectus sheath blocks in children with abdominal wall pain due to anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome: a prospective case series of 85 children
Abstract BackgroundChronic abdominal pain in children may be caused by the anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome. Local nerve blocks are recommended as an initial treatment in adults. Evidence on effectiveness and safety of such a treatment in children is lacking. AimOur aim was to study outcome and adverse events of anterior rectus sheath blocks in childhood anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome. MethodsPatients
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 28, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Murid Siawash, Frederique Mol, Walther Tjon ‐A‐Ten, Christel Perquin, Percy Eerten, Ernst Heurn, Rudi Roumen, Marc Scheltinga Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Dexmedetomidine sedation combined with caudal anesthesia for lower abdominal and extremity surgery in ex ‐preterm and full‐term infants
ConclusionCaudal anesthesia combined with dexmedetomidine sedation is an effective anesthetic technique for lower abdominal and extremity surgery in ex‐preterm and full‐term infants with severe comorbidities. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 28, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Katrin Waurick, Cristina Sauerland, Christiane Goeters Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Implementation of NAP4 emergency airway management recommendations in a quaternary ‐level pediatric hospital
In conclusion, changes in the process of emergency airway management at a hospital level are feasible through collaboration. Their impact on patient‐based outcomes requires further study. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 28, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Elliot Long, Domenic Cincotta, Joanne Grindlay, Anastasia Pellicano, Michael Clifford, Stefan Sabato, Tags: Special Interest Article Source Type: research

Magnesium sulfate in pediatric anesthesia: the Super Adjuvant
Summary Magnesium is an essential chemical element in all organisms, intervening in most cellular enzymatic reactions; thus, its importance in homeostasis and as a therapeutic tool in highly challenging patients such as pediatrics. The primary purpose of this paper was to review the role of magnesium sulfate as an adjuvant drug in pediatric anesthesia. This compound already has the scientific backing in certain aspects such as analgesia or muscle relaxation, but only theoretical or empirical backing in others such as organ protection or inflammation, where it seems to be promising. The multitude of potential applications i...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 28, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Ram ón Eizaga Rebollar, María V. García Palacios, Javier Morales Guerrero, Luis M. Torres Tags: Educational Review Source Type: research

Perioperative considerations for the food ‐allergic pediatric patient
Summary Patients with a history of food allergy and food intolerance are common in the pediatric population and are encountered frequently in the perioperative setting by pediatric anesthesiologists. Perioperatively, food allergy can present on a spectrum ranging from minor acute urticaria to more severe hypovolemia and anaphylactic shock. Allergy to foods including fruits, fish, egg, soy, and peanut are most concerning for their potential to cross‐react with perioperative medications. There is little in the anesthesia literature that focuses on the perioperative management of children with food allergies. This education...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 27, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Patrick G. Fernandez, Marco Mikhael Tags: Educational Review (Non Commissioned) Source Type: research

Defining hypotension in anesthetized infants by individual awake blood pressure values: a prospective observational study
Summary BackgroundBlood pressure (BP) is the most commonly applied clinical surrogate parameter for tissue perfusion and cerebral autoregulation. Hypotension during anesthesia may contribute to unfavorable outcome in young children. Hypotension in anesthetized infants can be defined using BP values relative to individual awake baseline or absolute BP values. AimThe aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of the two definitions and to compare the incidences of hypotension. MethodThis was a prospective observational study in 151 infants
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 27, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Frank Weber, Laurens Koning, Gail P. Scoones Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

2p24.1p23.2 deletion and delayed recovery after a general anesthesia for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedure
Summary Interstitial 2p deletions are very rare and may include proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene (2p23.3). Our 10‐year‐old patient, known to carry this genetic anomaly, underwent an endoscopic interventional procedure under general anesthesia. After a sevoflurane induction, alfentanil (8.5 μg·kg−1) was given. The procedure lasted 22 min. There was an unexpected delayed recovery likely reflecting an unexpected delayed recovery likely due to opioid hypersensitivity. The deletion of POMC may cause a deficit in endorphin and may lead to an up‐regulation of opioid receptors. Exogenous opioids should be used...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Guillaume Dew é, Emmanuel Hermans, Patricia Lavand'homme Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Correspondence Letter to the Editor regarding ‘Early childhood exposure to short periods of sevoflurane is not associated with later, lasting cognitive deficits’
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 20, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Xing ‐Huan Li, Yun‐Xia Zuo Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Comment on Tait AR, Bickham R, O'Brien LM, Quinlan M, Voepel ‐Lewis T. The STBUR questionnaire for identifying children at risk for sleep‐disordered breathing and postoperative opioid‐related adverse events—potential confounders
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 20, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Dominic PD Nielsen, Anil Visram Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Airway management in a neonate with tracheoesophageal fistula and subglottic stenosis
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 20, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Ketan Kulkarni, Nandini Dave, Priyanka Karnik, Madhu Garasia Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply to Nielsen, Dominic; Visram, Anil, regarding their comment ‘Comment on Tait AR, Bickham R, O'Brien LM, Quinlan M, Voepel‐Lewis T. The STBUR questionnaire for identifying children at risk for sleep‐disordered breathing and postoperative opioid‐related adverse events – potential confounders’
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 20, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Alan R. Tait, Louise O'Brien, Terri Voepel ‐Lewis Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply to Greenstein, Alan; Morton, Neil; Patil, Vinodkumar, regarding their comment on “Optimized preoperative fasting times decrease ketone body concentration and stabilize mean arterial blood pressure during induction of anesthesia in children younger than 36 months: a prospective observational cohort study”
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 20, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Nils Dennhardt, Christiane Beck, Dirk Huber, Robert S ümpelmann Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Professionalism: in the eye of the beholder
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 20, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Lynn D. Martin Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Continuing stories with discontinuity
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 20, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Justin J Skowno, Andrew D Weatherall Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

In this issue: March 2017
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 20, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andrew Davidson Tags: In this issue Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 20, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

The effect of sevoflurane on electrocorticographic spike activity in pediatric patients with epilepsy
Summary BackgroundElectrocorticogram (ECoG) spike activity is enhanced under general anesthesia with 1.5 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) sevoflurane compared with lower concentrations in adult patients with epilepsy. However, the effect of concentration of sevoflurane on ECoG in children with epilepsy is less known. AimsThe primary endpoint was to investigate the effects of sevoflurane on ECoG spike activity in pediatric patients undergoing epilepsy surgery. The secondary endpoint was to examine its effects on baseline ECoG including burst suppression. MethodsChildren of age 3–18 years with medically intractable...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 16, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Shigekazu Tanaka, Yutaka Oda, Masayoshi Ryokai, Takehiro Uda, Noritsugu Kunihiro, Ichiro Kuki, Ryu Okutani Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Effect of age on the performance of bispectral and entropy indices during sevoflurane pediatric anesthesia: a pharmacometric study
ConclusionsPerformance of both monitors improves as age increases. Our results suggest a need for the development of new monitor algorithms or calibration to better account for the age‐specific EEG dynamics of younger patients. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 16, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Alberto Sciusco, Joseph F. Standing, Yucheng Sheng, Pasquale Raimondo, Gilda Cinnella, Michele Dambrosio Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Anesthesia for fetal surgery
Summary Fetal therapy is an exciting and growing field of medicine. Advances in prenatal imaging and continued innovations in surgical and anesthetic techniques have resulted in a wide range of fetal interventions including minimally invasive, open mid‐gestation, and ex‐utero intrapartum treatment procedures. The potential for maternal morbidity is significant and must be carefully weighed against claimed benefits to the fetus. Appropriate patient selection is critical, and a multidisciplinary team‐based approach is strongly recommended. The anesthetic management should focus on maintaining uteroplacental circulation...
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 16, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Monica A. Hoagland, Debnath Chatterjee Tags: Educational Review Source Type: research