Gastrointestinal effects of standardized Brazilian phytomedicine (Arthur de Carvalho Drops®) containing Matricaria recutita, Gentiana lutea and Foeniculum vulgare
Publication date: Available online 8 September 2019Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Elizama S. Silveira, Suzana B. Bezerra, Kalyane S. Ávila, Talita M. Rocha, Pedro Jorge Caldas Magalhães, Flávia Almeida Santos, Luzia Kalyne A.M. LealAbstractArthur de Carvalho Drops® (ACD) is a traditional Brazilian herbal medicine used to treat functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). ACD is a formulation of herbal extracts from Matricaria recutita (chamomile), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and Gentiana lutea L. (gentian). Considering the popular use for FGIDs, the aim of this work was to investigate the ACD ...
Source: Pathophysiology - September 10, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Vanillylmandelic acid protects against reperfusion injury in an experimental animal model of myocardial infarction
In conclusion, reperfusion injury was blunted through vanillylmandelic acid administration, which seems to be mediated by parasympathetic activation. (Source: Pathophysiology)
Source: Pathophysiology - September 7, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The protective effect of grape skin or purple carrot extracts against cadmium intoxication in kidney of rats
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Samuel Rangel Claudio, Flavia Andressa Pidone Ribeiro, Eliene Cezario De Lima, Aline Boveto Santamarina, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani, Camilo Seabra Dias Pereira, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama Oshima, Daniel Araki RibeiroAbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of grape skin or purple carrot extracts against cadmium-induced intoxication in rats’ kidneys. For this purpose, 30 male Wistar rats were distributed into six groups (n = 5), as follows: control group; cadmium group and groups treated with grape sk...
Source: Pathophysiology - August 13, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory efficacy of Methanolic extract of Muntingia calabura L. leaves in Carrageenan induced paw edema model
Publication date: Available online 10 August 2019Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Ninan Jisha, A. Vysakh, V. Vijeesh, M.S. LathaAbstractThe plant Muntingia calabura L. is a well-known herb which gained attention due to its pharmacological value. The necessity of this plant in human ailments is illustrious in old medical practices. Muntingia calabura L. leaves were therapeutically used for ulcer, fever, headache etc. The study was designed to assess the acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory potential of methanolic extract of Muntingia calabura L. (MEMC) in in vivo models. Two different doses (550, 2000 mg/kg body wei...
Source: Pathophysiology - August 11, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Quantity not composition of dietary fats represents the dominant contributor to experimental obesity: relevance to human pathophysiology
This study compared the obesogenic effects of plant and animal derived fatty diets in Wistar rats. Rats of each gender were divided into three dietary (standard chow (SC), high fat diet rich in animal fat (HFDaf) and a high fat diet rich in plant fat (HFDpf)) groups of ten each and fed for 17 weeks. Anthropometric, Adiposity and nutritive variables were assessed using standard methods. Comparing HFDpf to HFDaf: Abdominal circumference (AC),initial feed intaken (IFI), final feed intake(FFI), final body weight (FBW), white adipose tissue (WAT) were increased but brown adipose tissue (BAT) decreased in male rats fed with HFDp...
Source: Pathophysiology - August 10, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Experimental dapsone administration induces infertility in male Wistar rats: mechanisms and clinical implications
This study investigated the effect of the administration of dapsone on the reproductive activities of male rats using in vivo and in vitro techniques. In the in vivo study, dapsone was administered orally to male Wistar rats for 5 days or 6 weeks after which their body weight, relative reproductive organ weights, sperm parameters and reproductive hormones were determined while testicular and epididymal histology were also assessed. Data were compared using analysis of variance and Students-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test. For the in vitro study, Sertoli cells were cultured and treated with varying doses of dapsone at...
Source: Pathophysiology - August 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Camphor elicits up-regulation of hepatic and pulmonary pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines via activation of NF-kB in rats
Publication date: Available online 29 July 2019Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Oluwatobi T. Somade, Babajide O. Ajayi, Nurudeen O. Tajudeen, Eniola M. Atunlute, Adewale S. James, Samuel A. KehindeAbstractConsumption of camphor infusions is widely used as an aphrodisiac in preparation for sexual intercourse, to boost performance. There is dearth of information associating or relating its consumption to liver or lung inflammation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of various doses of camphor in an acute study, on hepatic and pulmonary levels of some pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in male wistar rats. Followi...
Source: Pathophysiology - July 31, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Aqueous garlic extract supresses experimental gentamicin induced renal pathophysiology mediated by oxidative stress, inflammation and Kim-1
ConclusionAGE normalizes Gent-induced renal dysfunction. Their co-administration is a plausible advice, although the therapeutic efficiency of Gent was not investigated. (Source: Pathophysiology)
Source: Pathophysiology - July 31, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Effects of experimental intracerebral ventricular injection of amyloid beta peptide (1-42) aggregates on daily rhythms of Aβ-degrading enzymes in the hippocampus: Relevance to Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology
Publication date: Available online 29 July 2019Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Andrea Castro, Cinthia Coria-Lucero, Ana Anzulovich, Lorena Navigatore-FonzoAbstractOne of the main pathological features in the Alzheimer disease (AD) is the presence of senile plaques, primarily composed of Aβ peptide aggregates, in cortex and hippocampus. AD late onset, which constitutes 90% of cases, could be mainly attributable to deficiencies in the clearance of the Aß peptide. Here we show that expression of Aβ-degrading enzymes varies on a daily basis in the hippocampus. Interestingly, an intracerebroventricular injecti...
Source: Pathophysiology - July 31, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Dynamic Gut Microbiome Changes Following Regional Intestinal Lymphatic Obstruction in Primates
Publication date: Available online 28 June 2019Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): F. Becker, F.N.E. Gavins, J. Fontenot, P. Jordan, J.Y. Yun, R. Scott, P.R. Polk, R.E. Friday, M. Boktor, M. Musso, E. Romero, S. Boudreaux, J. Simmons, D.L. Hasselschwert, J.E. Goetzmann, J. Vanchiere, U. Cvek, M. Trutschl, P. Kilgore, J.S. AlexanderAbstractThe pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been linked with lymphostasis, but whether and how lymphatic obstruction might disturb the intestinal microbiome in the setting of Crohn’s Disease (CD) is currently unknown. We employed a new model of CD in African Green monkeys...
Source: Pathophysiology - June 29, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Induction of Acute Graft vs. Host Disease in Lymphopenic Mice
The objective of this study was to quantify and compare the onset and severity of aGVHD induced by the adoptive transfer of allogeneic T cells into untreated lymphopenic mice. Four million allogeneic or syngeneic CD4+CD62L+CD25- T cells were transferred (i.p.) into NK cell-depleted RAG1-/- mice or RAG2-/-IL2rγ-/- double knock-out (DKO) mice and assessed daily for signs of aGVHD. We found that adoptive transfer of allogeneic but not syngeneic T cells into NK cell-depleted RAG1-/- or DKO mice induced many of the clinical and histological features of aGVHD including weight loss, inflammatory cytokine production and tiss...
Source: Pathophysiology - June 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms and signaling by comenic acid in nociceptive neurons influence the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2019Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Valentina A. Penniyaynen, Vera B. Plakhova, Ilya V. Rogachevsky, Stanislav G. Terekhin, Svetlana A. Podzorova, Boris V. KrylovAbstractComenic acid (CA), a specific agonist of opioid-like receptors, effectively and safely relieves neuropathic pain by decreasing the NaV1.8 channel voltage sensitivity in the primary sensory neuron membrane. CA triggers downstream signaling cascades, in which the Na,K-ATPase/Src complex plays a key role. After leaving the complex, the signal diverges ‘tangentially’ and ‘radially’. It is dir...
Source: Pathophysiology - June 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: June 2019Source: Pathophysiology, Volume 26, Issue 2Author(s): (Source: Pathophysiology)
Source: Pathophysiology - June 13, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Drospirenone-containing contraceptive exerts positive effects on cardiac uric acid and PAI-1 but not GSK-3: Improved safety profiles in contraception?
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2019Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Oluwaseun A. Adeyanju, Olaniyi A. Soetan, Lawrence A. OlatunjiAbstractThe use of combined oral contraceptives (COC) have been associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events and elevated cardiac and circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) have been implicated in these events. Contraceptives containing drospirenone, a progestin with anti-androgenic actions may have a positive or neutral effect on cardiac PAI-1 and GSK-3 levels. Studies on the favorable effects of oral contracep...
Source: Pathophysiology - June 6, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Cholesterol Enriched Diet Suppresses ATF6 and PERK and Upregulates the IRE1 Pathways of the Unfolded Protein Response in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Relevance to Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis in the Setting of Hypertension
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Lesya V. Tumanovska, R. James Swanson, Zoya O. Serebrovska, Georgii V. Portnichenko, Sergii V. Goncharov, Bohdan A. Kysilov, Olexandr O. Moibenko, Victor E. DosenkoAbstractMany studies have been dedicated to hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, as they are the primary conditions that influence the unfolded protein response (UPR). However, the concurrent effects of these two factors are unknown. Our research used spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) fed a cholesterol enriched diet (CED) as model of atherosclerosis formation to discover what e...
Source: Pathophysiology - May 31, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The pathophysiology of complications after laparoscopic colorectal surgery: role of baroreflex and chemoreflex impairment
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Nikita Trembach, Igor ZabolotskikhAbstractIntroductionThe aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) during laparoscopic colorectal surgery in patients with different chemoreflex sensitivity assessed with breath-holding test.MethodsThe study included 80 patients (mean age, 68 ± 7 years) who underwent routine laparoscopic colorectal surgery under general/epidural anaesthesia. Patients were retrospectively divided into two groups: with normal (breath-holding duration ≥38 s, group N ...
Source: Pathophysiology - May 25, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Scleroderma: An insight into causes, pathogenesis and treatment strategies
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2019Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Deependra Singh, Arun KS Parihar, Satish Patel, Shikha Srivastava, Prakriti Diwan, Manju R SinghAbstractScleroderma is an autoimmune disorder, characterized by morphological changes in skin followed by visceral organs. The pathogenesis of scleroderma involves immune imbalance and generation of auto antibodies. The major causes of scleroderma include multitude of factors such as immune imbalance, oxidative stress, genetics and environment factors. A constant effort has been made to treat scleroderma through different approaches and necessitates ...
Source: Pathophysiology - May 20, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

AT1R antagonism improves metabolic and vascular changes of obesity-induced gestational diabetes mellitus
Publication date: Available online 13 May 2019Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Damián A. Madrigal Aguilar, Cecilia Tufiño, Eduardo Fernandez-Martinez, Ismael Bracho-Valdés, Rosa A. Bobadilla LugoAbstractObesity can overload glucose homeostasis and physiological insulin resistance during gestation which increases the risk of complications like diabetes mellitus or preeclampsia. Angiotensin II /AT1 receptors are involved in the pathogenesis of vascular effects of obesity/insulin resistance but its role during gestation is not as clear. We sought to determine angiotensin II- AT1R participation on a diet-...
Source: Pathophysiology - May 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone levels and BRAFV600E Mutation Contribute to Pathophysiology of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Relation to outcomes?
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2019Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Oksana Sulaieva, Olena Chernenko, Yelisaveta Chereshneva, Dibahan Tsomartova, Oleksandr LarinAbstractAimsThe aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between the level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and progression of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with or without BRAFV600E mutation.MethodsThe medical records and laboratory data of 547 patients with PTC and 94 patients with follicular adenoma (FA) were collected. The relationship between hormones levels and such end-points as extrathyroid extension (ETE), lymphovascular invasion (...
Source: Pathophysiology - May 10, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Pathophysiology of Acute Fibrinous and Organizing Pneumonia – Clinical and Morphological Spectra
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Cláudia Santos, Rui Caetano Oliveira, Paula Serra, João Pedro Baptista, Eduardo Sousa, Paula Casanova, Jorge Pimentel, Lina CarvalhoAbstractAcute Fibrinous and Organizing Pneumonitis (AFOP) is a disease with histopathological pattern characterized by the presence of intra-alveolar fibrin in the form of fibrin “balls” and organizing pneumonia represented by inflammatory myofibroblastic polyps. Symptoms of this rare interstitial pulmonary disease can be either acute or sub-acute and it can rapidly progress to death. Diagn...
Source: Pathophysiology - May 3, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Blackberry juice anthocyanidins limit cisplatin-induced renal pathophysiology in mice
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Marcelo Gomes de Gomes, Lucian Del Fabbro, André Tiago Rossito Goes, Leandro Cattelan Souza, Franciele Donato, Silvana Peterini Boeira, Marina Prigol, Cristiano Ricardo JesseAbstractSome studies have showed that intake of blackberry juice (BBJ) can prevent urinary tract infections. However, there is a lack of studies that evaluate the mechanisms by which BBJ has protective effect. Thus, the aim of current study was to evaluate the effects of BBJ supplementation on cisplatin-induced renal pathophysiology in mice. Mice were supplemented ...
Source: Pathophysiology - April 20, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

EGFR and CXCR1 expression in thyroid carcinoma in Qassim Region-Saudi Arabia: Correlation with Clinicopathological Parameters
ConclusionsThe results of the present study demonstrated, a statistically positive correlation of EGFR and CXCR1 expression in PTC compared to normal thyroid tissues and nodular hyperplasia in Qassim Region- Saudi Arabia. Concomitant high expression of both receptors were strongly correlated with LNM, DM, TNM stage and tumor relapse than did each alone. These findings suggest that EGFR and CXCR1 play crucial roles in PTC and serve as predictors of poor prognosis, biomarkers of tumor diagnosis, and potential targets of cancer therapeutics. (Source: Pathophysiology)
Source: Pathophysiology - April 20, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Venous Thromboembolism in IBD: Increased Risk for Women in CD?
Publication date: Available online 15 April 2019Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): K. Morgan, M. Boktor, C. Ford, L. Pham, J.D. Morris, P.A. Jordan, U. Cvek, M. Trutschl, J.S. AlexanderABSTRACTAlthough coagulation disturbances have been described in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), it remains unclear how common venous thromboembolism (VTE) is in IBD, and what factors influence VTE frequency. We evaluated VTE in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) at LSUHSC-S, a southern US medical center with an approximately equal White: African-American (AA) (1.12:1) patient base. This retrospective study evaluated VTE as a ...
Source: Pathophysiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Curcuma longa extracts suppress pathophysiology of experimental hepatic parenchymal cell necrosis
In conclusion, the protective actions of EECLOR against potassium bromate liver toxicity in rats, appears to be due to its ability to reduce lipid peroxidation. (Source: Pathophysiology)
Source: Pathophysiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Metabolic-hypoxic modulation of cytokine induction of intestinal endothelial adhesion molecules: Relevance to ischemic injury mediated necrotizing enterocolitis?
ConclusionEnergy metabolism influences inflammation induced injury through mobilization of intestinal ECAMs, and may represent an important mechanism in NEC pathology. (Source: Pathophysiology)
Source: Pathophysiology - April 15, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Pathophysiology of iron overload-induced renal injury and dysfunction: Roles of renal oxidative stress and systemic inflammatory mediators
This study investigated renal function and some systemic inflammatory indices in iron-overloaded male Wistar rats.Thirty animals were equally distributed into 3groups and treated daily i.p. with either normal saline (0.2 ml; control), iron (as ferrous sulphate) (15 mg/kg) or iron (30 mg/kg) for 21days respectively. Post-treatment, blood samples were obtained from each animal by cardiac puncture after light anaesthesia into plain sample bottles. Iron, ferritin, transferrin, creatinine, urea, albumin, total protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandins-E2 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) w...
Source: Pathophysiology - March 19, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Mobile phone electromagnetic radiation affects Amyloid Precursor Protein and α-synuclein metabolism in SH-SY5Y cells
In this study, the effects of low-level, GSM emitted ElectroMagnetic Field (EMF) on Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) and alpha-synuclein (α-syn) in human neuroblastoma cells was investigated. Our data indicated alterations on APP processing and cellular topology, following EMF exposure (ℇ = 10.51 V/m, SAR = 0.23 W/kg, exposure time: 3 times, for 10 minutes, for 2 days). Furthermore, changes in monomeric α-syn accumulation and multimerization, as well as induction of oxidative stress and cell death, were documented. The results presented here require further inve...
Source: Pathophysiology - March 4, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Insulin-induced oxidative stress in the brain is nitric oxide-dependent
This study aimed to examine the role of NO in the insulin-NO-oxidative stress axis in the brain. Mice were grouped into four (n = 5) and treated for seven days with 0.2 ml deionized water (control); 10 I.U./kg insulin; 10 I.U./kg insulin + 50 mg/kg L-NAME; and 50 mg/kg L-NAME. The mice were anaesthesized using ketamine + xylazine and sacrificed at the end of the study. Forebrain was immediately harvested from which brain homogenates were prepared in order to determine NO and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as well as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity u...
Source: Pathophysiology - February 19, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

L-arginine supplementation lowers blood pressure, protein excretion and plasma lipid profile in experimental salt-induced hypertension in pregnancy: Relevance to preeclampsia
This study aimed to investigate the effects of L-arginine supplementation on blood pressure, protein excretion, lipid profile in salt-induced hypertensive pregnant rats.Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Control Preg (normal rat chow). Control Preg + L-ARG (normal rat chow and daily oral L-Arginine from 16th – 20th week). Salt Preg (high salt diet, 8%). Salt Preg + L-ARG (high salt diet, 8% and daily oral L-Arginine from 16th – 20th week. Non-invasive BP was recorded using a tail-cuff machine at 1 st and 2nd trimesters. On day 19 of pregnancy, invasive BP w...
Source: Pathophysiology - February 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Histological difference of Soleus Muscle fibers due to Sciatic Nerve Transection in Rats
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Obidallah Aljaghthmi, Isam Abu Zeid, Hassan Heba, Sherif HassanABSTRACTThe structural integrity and activity of the skeletal muscle fibers is dependent on their sound innervations. Degeneration and atrophy of skeletal muscle fibers occurs after denervation. The present study aimed to investigate and assess the structural changes of soleus muscle fibers after severance of sciatic nerve at different periods of time. 25 rats were used and allocated into three groups: control (N = 5), sham operation (N = 5) and the sc...
Source: Pathophysiology - February 12, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: March 2019Source: Pathophysiology, Volume 26, Issue 1Author(s): (Source: Pathophysiology)
Source: Pathophysiology - February 12, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Experimental Obesity and Diabetes Reduce Male Fertility: Potential Involvement of Hypothalamic Kiss-1, Pituitary Nitric Oxide, and Serum Vaspin and Visfatin
In conclusion, obesity and diabetes, alone or combined, had a negative impact on male rat fertility. Moreover, obesity and diabetes combined had more harmful effects on male fertility when compared with obesity alone. Hypothalamic Kiss-1, pituitary NO, and serum vaspin and visfatin may play a role in the pathophysiology of male infertility-associated with obesity and diabetes. (Source: Pathophysiology)
Source: Pathophysiology - February 6, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Dietary macronutrients modulate hypertrophy and contractility of the detrusor in an experimental model of bladder obstruction
ConclusionThe results of the study reveal that diets with varying macronutrient compositions have variable effects on the bladder with and without obstruction. High-fat diets especially, affect detrusor morphology and function in both obstructed and unobstructed bladders. (Source: Pathophysiology)
Source: Pathophysiology - December 29, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

No association between the abdominal aorta diameter and cervicocephalic atherosclerosis—Potential non-atherosclerotic origins of abdominal aorta aneurysms?
Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Oscar H. Del Brutto, Robertino M. Mera, Aldo F. Costa, Gautam Matcha, Pablo R. CastilloAbstractThe atherosclerotic origin of abdominal aorta (AA) aneurysms is controversial. Using the Atahualpa Project Cohort, we aimed to assess the relationship between the AA diameter and two surrogates of cervicocephalic atherosclerosis, including the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and the presence of carotid siphon calcifications (CSC). Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years undergoing ultrasound examinations of the abdominal aorta and the carotid...
Source: Pathophysiology - December 7, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Aphrodisiac effect of Hunteria umbellata seed extract: modulation of nitric oxide level and arginase activity in vivo
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Ganiyu Oboh, Adeniyi A. Adebayo, Ayokunle O. Ademosun, Oluwaseun A. AbegundeAbstractHunteria umbellata has been reported useful in managing the male sexual related disorder, but there is a dearth of information on its possible mechanism of action. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the effect of H. umbellata on some sexual behavior parameters in male rats, in order to ascertain its acclaimed aphrodisiac property. Twenty-four male rats were divided into four groups (n = 6). The extract (50 and 100 mg/kg body w...
Source: Pathophysiology - December 6, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Βeta-sitosterol enhances motor coordination, attenuates memory loss and demyelination in a vanadium-induced model of experimental neurotoxicity
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Olamide Elizabeth Adebiyi, Funsho Olakitike Olayemi, James Olukayode Olopade, Ning-Hua TanABSTRACTEnvironmental discharge of vanadium causes cognitive and behavioral impairments in humans and animals via production of reactive oxygen species leading to lipid peroxidation and alteration in antioxidant defence system. The current study was carried out to investigate the cognitive-enhancing ability of β-sitosterol in vanadium-induced neurotoxicity.Forty eight mice were randomly assigned into 4 groups (A-D) with the following treatments: g...
Source: Pathophysiology - December 6, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Short- and long-term roles of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate PIP2 on Cav3.1- and Cav3.2-T-type calcium channel current
Publication date: Available online 1 December 2018Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Yangong Liu, Tomohiro Iwano, Fangfang Ma, Pu Wang, Yan Wang, Mingqi Zheng, Gang Liu, Katsushige OnoAbstractT-type calcium (Ca2+) channels play important physiological functions in excitable cells including cardiomyocyte. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) has recently been reported to modulate various ion channels’ function. However the actions of PIP2 on the T-type Ca2+ channel remain unclear. To elucidate possible effects of PIP2 on the T-type Ca2+ channel, we applied patch clamp method to investigate recombinant CaV3.1- a...
Source: Pathophysiology - December 2, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Role of oxidative stress, angiogenesis and chemo-attractant cytokines in the pathogenesis of ischaemic protection induced by remote ischaemic conditioning: study of a human model of ischaemia-reperfusion induced vascular injury
Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Ken Dewitte, Marc Claeys, Emeline Van Craenenbroeck, Koen Monsieurs, Hein Heidbuchel, Vicky Hoymans, Tibor StoopABSTRACTAimsWe explored the effect of remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) on endothelial function and on circulating mediators.Methods and resultsIn 20 healthy male volunteers (mean age 31 ± 10 years), flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured before and after 20 minutes of arm ischaemia, followed by reperfusion. Remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) was performed by applying 3 cycles of 5 minutes...
Source: Pathophysiology - December 1, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

No association between the abdominal aorta diameter and cervicocephalic atherosclerosis. Potential non-atherosclerotic origins of abdominal aorta aneurysms?
Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Oscar H. Del Brutto, Robertino M. Mera, Aldo F. Costa, Gautam Matcha, Pablo R. CastilloAbstractThe atherosclerotic origin of abdominal aorta (AA) aneurysms is controversial. Using the Atahualpa Project Cohort, we aimed to assess the relationship between the AA diameter and two surrogates of cervicocephalic atherosclerosis, including the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and the presence of carotid siphon calcifications (CSC). Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years undergoing ultrasound examinations of the abdominal aorta and the carotid...
Source: Pathophysiology - December 1, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: December 2018Source: Pathophysiology, Volume 25, Issue 4Author(s): (Source: Pathophysiology)
Source: Pathophysiology - November 18, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Potential use of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) derived compounds as antidiabetics: In silico and in vivo studies
This study suggests that the mechanism underlying the action of these compounds is through activation of TGR5 and GLP-1 receptor with concurrent inhibition of DPP4. This study confirmed the use of this plant in diabetes management and the possible bioactive compounds responsible for its antidiabetic property are charantin, cucurbitacin and momordicoside D and all belong to the class of saponins. (Source: Pathophysiology)
Source: Pathophysiology - November 18, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor is reduced in stroke survivors with cognitive impairment
This study evaluated cognitive impairment in stroke survivors and examined its relationship with peripheral blood levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). It is hypothesized that serum BDNF levels significantly correlate with cognitive impairment. Cognition was assessed in 47 stroke survivors and 35 normal subjects using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Serum BDNF concentrations were determined using BDNF ELISA kits. Data were expressed as median (10th–90th percentiles) and analysed using non-parametric tests on SPSS statistics. The stroke survivors and controls were middle aged (in their fifties)...
Source: Pathophysiology - November 18, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The relationship between the neck circumference and the carotid intima-media thickness in Amerindians. Potential links to health risks?
This study assessed the relationship between NC and cIMT in Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years who had sonographic examination of carotid arteries (n = 590). We also discussed on potential pathogenetic mechanisms underlying this association. Participants belonged to the Native Ecuadorian (Amerindians) ethnic group. Non-parametric regression models were used to assess the aforementioned relationship, after adjusting for relevant confounders. The mean age of participants was 60.9 ± 12.7 years (58% women). The mean value of the cIMT was 0.85 ± 0.19 mm. The mean...
Source: Pathophysiology - November 18, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Hydrogen Sulfide: Therapeutic or Injurious in Ischemic Stroke?
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2018Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): P.K. Prasai, B. Shrestha, A.M. Kaskas, J. Green, J.S. Alexander, C.B. PattilloAbstractHydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as a vasodilatory, neuromodulatory, and anti-inflammatory gasotransmitter with antioxidant properties. Studies focused in cardiac tissue suggest H2S functions as a protective agent; however in the central nervous system (CNS) the effects of H2S during states of stress or injury, such as stroke, remain controversial. Currently, the application of H2S donors and modulators in stroke depends on the type of H2S donor...
Source: Pathophysiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Hepatotoxic effects of Euphol-rich fractions from Euphorbia bivonae—Relevance to cytotoxic and anti-tumor activities
Publication date: Available online 1 November 2018Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Khaled Athmouni, Abdelfattah El Feki, Habib AyadiAbstractThese studies were designed to evaluate the preliminary oral toxicity profile of the crude ethanolic aerial part extract of E. bivonae in the Male albino Wistar rats and its active chemical constituents. The 24-h LD50 was determined using probit analysis method. The single dose LD50was found to be 2568.64 mg/kg bw when administrated orally in mice. Additionally, the Wistar rats were used to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of E. bivonae ethanolic extract. The serum biomarkers, ...
Source: Pathophysiology - November 2, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Tetracarpidium conophorum Müll. Arg modulates sexual behaviour and biochemical parameters relevant to sexual function in male Wistar rats
Publication date: Available online 28 October 2018Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Ayodeji Augustine Olabiyi, Ganiyu Oboh, Azeez Olakunle Ishola, Philip Adeyemi Adeniyi, Aline Augusti BoligonAbstractWalnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum Müll. Arg) has been reported to be an essential ingredient in folklore medicine for sexual enhancement with little scientific validation. Hence, this study investigated the effects of walnut supplemented diet on sexual behaviour and biochemical parameters relevant to erection in male Wistar rats. Forty animals used in this study were divided into five groups (n = 8); Group 1- no...
Source: Pathophysiology - October 29, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Jobelyn® ameliorates neurological deficits in rats with ischemic stroke through inhibition of release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-κB signaling pathway
Publication date: Available online 28 October 2018Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Solomon Umukoro, Ejiroghene E. Oghwere, Benneth Ben-Azu, Olatunde Owoeye, Abayomi M. Ajayi, Osarume Omorogbe, Olajuwon OkubenaAbstractThe effects of Jobelyn® (JB) on neurological deficits and biochemical alterations associated with ischemic stroke induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in rats were investigated in this study. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 8): group 1 served as Sham control; group 2, which served as negative control received normal saline while groups 3-5 were giv...
Source: Pathophysiology - October 29, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Interventricular vessel of the heart and myocardial infarction-induced heart failure
Publication date: Available online 22 September 2018Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Pekka J. Kuusela (Source: Pathophysiology)
Source: Pathophysiology - October 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Coconut oil protects against light-induced retina degeneration in male Wistar rats
Publication date: Available online 5 October 2018Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Owoyele Victor Bamidele, Ayilara Gideon OpeyemiAbstractThe retinoprotective effect of Cocos nucifera oil (CNO) was investigated. Twenty male Wistar rats weighing 140 g and 180 g were randomly divided into four groups comprising of five animals each. The control group received distilled water. Retinal degeneration was induced in the remaining three groups by exposing the animals to 5,000 lux of bright white light for two hours. Prior to the light exposure, the light model group (LMG) received distilled water for 14 days, ...
Source: Pathophysiology - October 5, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Does loss of hormonal receptors influence the pathophysiological characteristics of the HER-2 breast cancer phenotype?
Publication date: Available online 16 September 2018Source: PathophysiologyAuthor(s): Rabab Ahmed Ahmed Mohammed, Moustafa EzEldien M. Radwan, Bashayer Marzoog Alrufayi, Linah Abdulsamad Qari AbdulazizAbstractBackgroundSome breast carcinomas (BC) of the HER-2 type respond poorly to endocrine therapy, indicating that hormonal receptor (HR) status possibly impacts the biological criteria of this tumor class. The aim of this study was to compare the clinicopathological characteristics of HR-positive and HR-negative tumors occurring in HER-2 and non-HER-2 BC.MethodsTissue microarray sections from 336 primary invasive BC specim...
Source: Pathophysiology - September 18, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research