Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Errata Source Type: research

Reply
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Critical comments on Williams and Craig's recent proposal for revising the definition of pain
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Using placebos as an opioid-sparing method of pain management
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Long-lasting antinociceptive effects of green light in acute and chronic pain in rats
Abstract: Treatments for chronic pain are inadequate, and new options are needed. Nonpharmaceutical approaches are especially attractive with many potential advantages including safety. Light therapy has been suggested to be beneficial in certain medical conditions such as depression, but this approach remains to be explored for modulation of pain. We investigated the effects of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), in the visible spectrum, on acute sensory thresholds in naive rats as well as in experimental neuropathic pain. Rats receiving green LED light (wavelength 525 nm, 8 h/d) showed significantly increased paw withdrawal la...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Growth hormone regulates the sensitization of developing peripheral nociceptors during cutaneous inflammation
Abstract: Cutaneous inflammation alters the function of primary afferents and gene expression in the affected dorsal root ganglia (DRG). However, specific mechanisms of injury-induced peripheral afferent sensitization and behavioral hypersensitivity during development are not fully understood. Recent studies in children suggest a potential role for growth hormone (GH) in pain modulation. Growth hormone modulates homeostasis and tissue repair after injury, but how GH affects nociception in neonates is not known. To determine whether GH played a role in modulating sensory neuron function and hyperresponsiveness during skin i...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Facilitated temporal summation of pain correlates with clinical pain intensity after hip arthroplasty
This study characterized the preoperative somatosensory profiles and provided possible interpretation of underlying pain mechanisms that might influence the development of postoperative pain. Forty hip OA patients with unilateral pain were assessed before and 6 weeks post-THA and compared with 40 asymptomatic control subjects. Hip pain intensity at rest and while walking was assessed on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Bilateral cuff algometry from the thighs was used to assess the cuff pressure pain thresholds, pressure values at VAS scores equal with 6 cm (PVAS6), cuff pressure tolerance, and temporal summation of pain (TS...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Sociodemographic disparities in chronic pain, based on 12-year longitudinal data
This study uses 7 biennial waves of national data from the Health and Retirement Study (1998-2010; n = 19,776) to describe long-term pain disparities among older (age 51+) American adults. It also investigates whether pain severity, reporting heterogeneity, survey nonresponse, and/or mortality selection might bias estimates of social disparities in pain. In the process, the article clarifies whether 2 unexpected patterns observed cross-sectionally—plateauing of pain above age 60, and lower pain among racial/ethnic minorities—are genuine or artefactual. Findings show high prevalence of chronic pain: 27.3% at bas...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

New-onset depression following stable, slow, and rapid rate of prescription opioid dose escalation
Abstract: Recent studies suggest that longer durations of opioid use, independent of maximum morphine equivalent dose (MED) achieved, is associated with increased risk of new-onset depression (NOD). Conversely, other studies, not accounting for duration, found that higher MED increased probability of depressive symptoms. To determine whether rate of MED increase is associated with NOD, a retrospective cohort analysis of Veterans Health Administration data (2000-2012) was conducted. Eligible patients were new, chronic (>90 days) opioid users, aged 18 to 80, and without depression diagnoses for 2 years before start of fol...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Amygdala-mediated mechanisms regulate visceral hypersensitivity in adult females following early life stress: importance of the glucocorticoid receptor and corticotropin-releasing factor
This study highlights a shift in GR and CRF regulation within the CeA after ELS that underlies the development of visceral hypersensitivity in adulthood. (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Persistent pain after motor vehicle collision: comparative effectiveness of opioids vs nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs prescribed from the emergency department—a propensity matched analysis
Abstract: Each year millions of Americans present to the emergency department (ED) for care after a motor vehicle collision (MVC); the majority (>90%) are discharged to home after evaluation. Acute musculoskeletal pain is the norm in this population, and such patients are typically discharged to home with prescriptions for oral opioid analgesics or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The influence of acute pain management on subsequent pain outcomes in this common ED population is unknown. We evaluated the effect of opioid analgesics vs NSAIDs initiated from the ED on the presence of moderate to severe musculo...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Does brief chronic pain management education change opioid prescribing rates? A pragmatic trial in Australian early-career general practitioners
Abstract: We aimed to evaluate the effect of pain education on opioid prescribing by early-career general practitioners. A brief training workshop was delivered to general practice registrars of a single regional training provider. The workshop significantly reduced “hypothetical” opioid prescribing (in response to paper-based vignettes) in an earlier evaluation. The effect of the training on “actual” prescribing was evaluated using a nonequivalent control group design nested within the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT) cohort study: 4 other regional training providers were controls...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Dietary intake mediates the relationship of body fat to pain
This study evaluated the degree to which dietary intake of foods with anti-inflammatory effects mediates the relationship of body fat to body pain. Ninety-eight community-residing healthy adults (60% women; mean age = 43.2 ± 15.3 years; range: 20-78 years) participated in a home-based study of home environment, food-related behaviors, health, and adiposity. During a 3-hour home visit evaluation, 3 measures of body fat were collected, including height and weight for calculation of body mass index (BMI). Participants also completed a 24-hour food recall interview and self-report measures of bodily pain (BP; BP subscal...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Peripheral neuropathic pain: a mechanism-related organizing principle based on sensory profiles
We present a new approach of subgrouping patients with peripheral neuropathic pain of different etiologies according to intrinsic sensory profiles. These 3 profiles may be related to pathophysiological mechanisms and may be useful in clinical trial design to enrich the study population for treatment responders. (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Long-term use of opioids for nonmalignant pain among community-dwelling persons with and without Alzheimer disease in Finland: a nationwide register-based study
Abstract: Persons with Alzheimer disease (AD) commonly present with chronic nonmalignant pain, but long-term use of opioids among this population has not been studied previously. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of long-term (≥180 days) use of opioids for nonmalignant pain and associated factors among community-dwelling persons with AD and to compare the prevalence with a matched cohort without AD. The Medication use and Alzheimer's disease (MEDALZ) cohort was used for this study, comprising all community-dwelling persons diagnosed with AD in Finland during 2005 to 2011 and their matched comparison persons with...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Ex vivo nonviral gene delivery of μ-opioid receptor to attenuate cancer-induced pain
Abstract: Virus-mediated gene delivery shows promise for the treatment of chronic pain. However, viral vectors have cytotoxicity. To avoid toxicities and limitations of virus-mediated gene delivery, we developed a novel nonviral hybrid vector: HIV-1 Tat peptide sequence modified with histidine and cysteine residues combined with a cationic lipid. The vector has high transfection efficiency with little cytotoxicity in cancer cell lines including HSC-3 (human tongue squamous cell carcinoma) and exhibits differential expression in HSC-3 (∼45-fold) relative to HGF-1 (human gingival fibroblasts) cells. We used the nonviral ...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Genetic variant rs3750625 in the 3′UTR of ADRA2A affects stress-dependent acute pain severity after trauma and alters a microRNA-34a regulatory site
In this study, we tested whether a genetic variant in the 3′UTR of ADRA2A, rs3750625, is associated with acute musculoskeletal pain (MSP) severity following motor vehicle collision (MVC, n = 948) and sexual assault (n = 84), and whether this influence was affected by stress severity. We evaluated rs3750625 because it is located in the seed binding region of miR-34a, a microRNA (miRNA) known to regulate pain and stress responses. In both cohorts, the minor allele at rs3750625 was associated with increased musculoskeletal pain in distressed individuals (stress*rs3750625 P = 0.043 for MVC cohort and P = 0.007 for sexual...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Protective determinants of sickness absence among employees with multisite pain—a 7-year follow-up
In conclusion, several modifiable factors related to work and lifestyle were found as predictive of lower rates of longer SA among occupationally active subjects with MSP. (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Brain substrates of reward processing and the μ-opioid receptor: a pathway into pain?
Abstract: The processing of reward and reinforcement learning seems to be important determinants of pain chronicity. However, reward processing is already altered early in life and if this is related to the development of pain symptoms later on is not known. The aim of this study was first to examine whether behavioural and brain-related indicators of reward processing at the age of 14 to 15 years are significant predictors of pain complaints 2 years later, at 16 to 17 years. Second, we investigated the contribution of genetic variations in the opioidergic system, which is linked to the processing of both, reward and pain,...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Racial and ethnic differences in experimental pain sensitivity: systematic review and meta-analysis
Abstract: Our objective was to describe the racial and ethnic differences in experimental pain sensitivity. Four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and PsycINFO) were searched for studies examining racial/ethnic differences in experimental pain sensitivity. Thermal–heat, cold–pressor, pressure, ischemic, mechanical cutaneous, electrical, and chemical experimental pain modalities were assessed. Risk of bias was assessed using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality guideline. Meta-analysis was used to calculate standardized mean differences (SMDs) by pain sensit...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Comprehensive Review Source Type: research

Translating e-pain research into patient care
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Topical Review Source Type: research

Phenotypes and treatment response: it's difficult to make predictions, especially about the future
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Opioidergic tone and pain susceptibility: interactions between reward systems and opioid receptors
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Reply
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Clinical assessment of new antineuropathic strategies for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: pain should not be the principal endpoint
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

We do not need a third mechanistic descriptor for chronic pain states! Not yet
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Chronic pain patients' perceptions of their future: a verbal fluency task
This study investigated the content of cognitions about the future, which are postulated to be a key mechanism in the development of clinical depression, but have not been studied in groups with chronic pain. This study used the future thinking task to investigate general future thinking and health-related future thinking in 4 groups of participants: those with pain and concurrent depression, those with pain without depression, those with depression without pain, and healthy control participants. One hundred seventy-two participants generated positive and negative future events, and rated the valence and likelihood of thes...
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Manipulating the extracellular matrix: an animal model of the bladder pain syndrome
Abstract: Bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is associated with breakdown of the protective uroepithelial barrier of the urinary bladder allowing urinary constituents access to bladder sensory neurons. Although there are several animal models of cystitis, none specifically relates to BPS. Here, we aimed to create such a model using enzymatic digestion of the barrier proteoglycans (PGs) in the rat. Twenty female Wistar rats were anaesthetized and transurethrally catheterized. Ten animals were treated with 0.25IU of intravesical chondroitinase ABC and heparanase III to digest chondroitin sulphate and heparin sulphate PGs, respectiv...
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Agomelatine: a new opportunity to reduce neuropathic pain—preclinical evidence
Abstract: Antidepressants are first-line treatments of neuropathic pain but not all these drugs are really effective. Agomelatine is an antidepressant with a novel mode of action, acting as an MT1/MT2 melatonergic receptor agonist and a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist that involves indirect norepinephrine release. Melatonin, serotonin, and norepinephrine have been involved in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. Yet, no study has been conducted to determine agomelatine effects on neuropathic pain in animal models. Using 3 rat models of neuropathic pain of toxic (oxaliplatin/OXA), metabolic (streptozocin/STZ), and traumatic ...
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Incident and long-term opioid therapy among patients with psychiatric conditions and medications: a national study of commercial health care claims
This study examined health insurance claims among 10,311,961 patients who filled prescriptions for opioids. Specifically, we evaluated how opioid receipt differed among patients with and without a wide range of preexisting psychiatric and behavioral conditions (ie, opioid and nonopioid SUDs, suicide attempts or other self-injury, motor vehicle crashes, and depressive, anxiety, and sleep disorders) and psychoactive medications (ie, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and medications used for SUD, tobacco cessation, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). Relative to those wi...
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

SIRT1 attenuates neuropathic pain by epigenetic regulation of mGluR1/5 expressions in type 2 diabetic rats
In this study, we found that spinal SIRT1 expression and activity were downregulated significantly in high-fat-fed/low-dose streptozotocin-induced neuropathic pain rats. SIRT1 localized in spinal neurons but not in astrocytes or microglia. Furthermore, the expressions of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) and mGluR5, which play a key role in central sensitization and neuropathic pain, and H3 acetylation levels at Grm1/5 (encoding mGluR1/5) promoter regions were increased in diabetic neuropathic pain rats. SIRT1 activator SRT1720 reversed thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia and spinal neuronal activation in ...
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Temporal change in headache and its contribution to the risk of developing first-onset temporomandibular disorder in the Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) study
Abstract: While cross-sectional studies have demonstrated an association between headache and temporomandibular disorder (TMD), whether headache can predict the onset of TMD is unknown. The aims of this study were to evaluate the contribution of headache to the risk of developing TMD and describe patterns of change in headache types over time. An initially TMD-free cohort of 2410 persons with low frequency of headache completed quarterly questionnaires assessing TMD and headache symptoms over a median 3.0-year follow-up period. First-onset TMD was confirmed by clinical examination in 199 participants. Baseline reports of m...
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Identifying patients with chronic widespread pain in primary care
Abstract: Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is common in the general population. It is unclear how people reporting this problem present in primary care; they may regularly consult for regional pains without being recognized as having a generalized condition. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of people consulting in primary care for musculoskeletal conditions in different body regions on different occasions (recurrent regional pain consultation), the proportion with diagnosed generalized pain and survey-reported widespread pain, and if they have features characteristic of CWP. Phase 1 used electronic records from...
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Laser acupuncture reduces pain in pediatric kidney biopsies: a randomized controlled trial
Abstract: Evaluate laser acupuncture (LA) as an adjuvant therapy in pain management during percutaneous kidney biopsy procedure in children and adolescents. This prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial enrolled patients aged 7 to 26 years admitted to a children's hospital for percutaneous kidney biopsy. Patients received LA to treatment points (acupuncture group) or sham points (control group) before the procedure. The laser delivered a dose of 42 J/cm2 over 10 acupoints. Patients and parents rated the pain during and after the biopsy, and change in pain scores were calculated for each patient. Anxiety, vi...
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Investigating generalizability of results from a randomized controlled trial of the management of chronic widespread pain: the MUSICIAN study
Abstract: The generalisability of randomised controlled trials will be compromised if markers of treatment outcome also affect trial recruitment. In a large trial of chronic widespread pain, we aimed to determine the extent to which randomised participants represented eligible patients, and whether factors predicting randomisation also influenced trial outcome. Adults from 8 UK general practices were surveyed to determine eligibility for a trial of 2 interventions (exercise and cognitive behavioural therapy [CBT]). Amongst those eligible, logistic regression identified factors associated with reaching the randomisation ste...
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Long-term outcomes from training in self-management of chronic pain in an elderly population: a randomized controlled trial
This study compares the outcomes, from pretreatment to 1-year follow-up, of an outpatient, CBT-based pain self-management program (PSM) that included exercises, pain education, and pain coping strategies, with a control condition (exercise-attention control, EAC) that included exercises and a control for the attention of the treatment team. We previously reported short-term results (to 1-month follow-up) from the same study. This new paper considers the important issue of maintenance of treatment-related gains. The participants (n = 141) were a heterogeneous sample of ambulant, community-dwelling older adult patients with ...
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

A rodent model of HIV protease inhibitor indinavir induced peripheral neuropathy
Abstract: HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is the most frequent manifestation of HIV disease. It often presents with significant neuropathic pain and is associated with previous exposure to neurotoxic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. However, HIV-SN prevalence remains high even in resource-rich settings where these drugs are no longer used. Previous evidence suggests that exposure to indinavir, a protease inhibitor commonly used in antiretroviral therapy, may link to elevated HIV-SN risk. Here, we investigated whether indinavir treatment was associated with the development of a “dying back&rdquo...
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Differential expression of systemic inflammatory mediators in amputees with chronic residual limb pain
Abstract: Chronic postsurgical pain impacts most amputees, with more than half experiencing neuralgic residual limb pain. The transition from normal acute postamputation pain to chronic residual limb pain likely involves both peripheral and central inflammatory mechanisms. As part of the Veterans Integrated Pain Evaluation Research study, we investigated links between systemic inflammatory mediator levels and chronic residual limb pain. Subjects included 36 recent active duty military traumatic amputees with chronic residual limb pain and 40 without clinically significant pain. Blood samples were obtained and plasma concen...
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Reduced excitability and impaired nociception in peripheral unmyelinated fibers from Nav1.9-null mice
In conclusion, NaV1.9 presumably contributes to acute thermal and mechanical nociception in mice, most likely through increasing the excitability but probably also by amplifying receptor potentials irrespective of the stimulus modality. (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Negative mood influences default mode network functional connectivity in patients with chronic low back pain: implications for functional neuroimaging biomarkers
This study measured whether positive and negative moods altered DMN FC patterns in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP), specifically focusing on negative mood because of its clinical relevance. Thirty-three participants (CLBP = 17) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning before and after sad and happy mood inductions, and rated levels of mood and pain intensity at the time of scanning. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variances were conducted on resting-state functional connectivity data. Significant group (CLBP> healthy controls) × condition (sadness> baseline) intera...
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Towards a neurophysiological signature for fibromyalgia
Abstract: Patients with fibromyalgia (FM) show characteristically enhanced unpleasantness to painful and nonpainful sensations accompanied by altered neural responses. The diagnostic potential of such neural alterations, including their sensitivity and specificity to FM (vs healthy controls) is unknown. We identify a brain signature that characterizes FM central pathophysiology at the neural systems level. We included 37 patients with FM and 35 matched healthy controls, and analyzed functional magnetic resonance imaging responses to (1) painful pressure and (2) nonpainful multisensory (visual–auditory–tactile) ...
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: lack of treatment efficacy or the wrong clinical trial methodology?
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Topical Review Source Type: research

Animal models for central poststroke pain: a critical comprehensive review
Abstract: Central poststroke pain (CPSP) is a severe type of neuropathic pain that can develop after stroke and is difficult to treat. Research into its underlying mechanisms and treatment options could benefit from a valid CPSP animal model. Nine different CPSP animal models have been published, but there are relatively few reports on successful reproductions of these models and so far only little advances in the understanding or the management of CPSP have been made relying on these models. In general, the construct validity (similarity in underlying mechanisms) of these CPSP animal models is relatively high, although th...
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Comprehensive Review Source Type: research

Comprehensive systematic review of long-term opioids in women with chronic noncancer pain and associated reproductive dysfunction (hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis disruption)
Abstract: A comprehensive systematic literature review of reproductive side effects in women aged 18 to 55 years treated with opioids for 1 month or longer for chronic noncancer pain. A search of 7 databases including EMBASE and Medline was undertaken (October 2014 and a limited rerun April 2016). The search contained key words for opioids (generic and specific drug names) and side effects (generic and specific reproductive). Titles were screened using predefined criteria by a single reviewer and abstracts and full texts by 2 independent reviewers. A total of 10,684 articles were identified and 12 full texts (cohort [n = 1...
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Comprehensive Review Source Type: research

Psychiatric disorders as predictors of long-term opioid therapy and the need for treating chronic pain correctly in patients with prior opioid substance use disorder: a commentary
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Disentangling mood and pain: a commentary on 2 manuscripts
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Endocrinopathies in women during opioid therapy cause loss of androgens, fatigue, listlessness, loss of libido and quality of life: stop prescribing opioids or follow the 2016 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines?
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Commentary Source Type: research