C-reactive protein and cold-pressor tolerance in the general population: the Tromsø Study
Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine whether increases in severity of subclinical inflammation, measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), increased experimental pain sensitivity, measured by cold-pressor tolerance, and to test whether this relationship is independent of chronic pain. A large population-based study from 2007 to 2008, the sixth Tromsø Study, provided data from 12,981 participants. For the present analysis, complete data for 10,274 participants (age: median 58 years) were available. The main outcome measure was cold-pressor tolerance, tested by placing the dominant hand in cir...
Source: Pain - June 22, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Temporal summation and motor function modulation during repeated jaw movements in patients with temporomandibular disorder pain and healthy controls
This study evaluated changes in pain and movement patterns during repeated jaw movements in patients with painful temporomandibular joints (TMJ) compared with healthy controls. Twenty patients with TMD with TMJ pain, and an anterior disk displacement without reduction and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were included. Participants performed 20 trials (4 × 5 sessions) of standardized and repeated mandibular movements, and scored the movement-associated pain intensity on 0 to 10 numeric rating scale in addition to measurements of jaw movements. Patients with TMJ pain reported higher baseline pain compared...
Source: Pain - June 22, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Midazolam as an active placebo in 3 fentanyl-validated nociceptive pain models
Abstract: The use of inactive placebos in early translational trials of potentially analgesic compounds is discouraged because of the side-effect profiles of centrally acting analgesics. Therefore, benzodiazepines are used, although their use has not been validated in this context. Whether benzodiazepines confound the results of acute pain tests is unknown. Midazolam (0.06 mg/kg) as an active placebo was investigated in 3 nociceptive models that included contact heat, electrical pain, and pressure pain thresholds in 24 healthy volunteers. Fentanyl (1 μg/kg) served as an internal validator in this randomized, placebo (sa...
Source: Pain - June 22, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Biomarker of extracellular matrix remodelling C1M and proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 are related to synovitis and pain in end-stage knee osteoarthritis patients
Abstract: Little is known about local and systemic biomarkers in relation to synovitis and pain in end-stage osteoarthritis (OA) patients. We investigated the associations between the novel extracellular matrix biomarker, C1M, and local and systemic interleukin 6 (IL-6) with synovitis and pain. Serum C1M, plasma, and synovial fluid IL-6 (p-IL-6, sf-IL-6) were measured in 104 end-stage knee OA patients. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was used to semiquantitatively assess an 11-point synovitis score; pain was assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and the Neuropat...
Source: Pain - June 22, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Neuropathic pain-induced enhancement of spontaneous and pain-evoked neuronal activity in the periaqueductal gray that is attenuated by gabapentin
Abstract: Neuropathic pain is a debilitating pathological condition that is poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that abnormal central processing occurs during the development of neuropathic pain induced by the cancer chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel. Yet, it is unclear what role neurons in supraspinal pain network sites, such as the periaqueductal gray, play in altered behavioral sensitivity seen during chronic pain conditions. To elucidate these mechanisms, we studied the spontaneous and thermally evoked firing patterns of ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) neurons in awake-behaving rats treated with pacl...
Source: Pain - June 22, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Parkinson disease and musculoskeletal pain: an 8-year population-based cohort study
This study showed that the PD may significantly increase the risk of developing MSP. The risk of developing MSP seems to be greatest for middle-aged male patients with PD. Clinicians should be more alert for MSP in patients with PD, and early intervention should be considered. (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - June 22, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Predictors and social consequences of daily pain expectancy among adults with chronic pain
Abstract: Previous research suggests that for people living with chronic pain, pain expectancy can undermine access to adaptive resources and functioning. We tested and replicated the unique effect of pain expectancy on subsequent pain through 2 daily diary studies. We also extended previous findings by examining cognitive and affective antecedents of pain expectancy and the consequences of pain expectancy for daily social enjoyment and stress. In study 1, 231 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis completed 30 end-of-day diaries. Results of multilevel structural equation model showed that controlling for today's pain, pain...
Source: Pain - June 22, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

The long-term reliability of static and dynamic quantitative sensory testing in healthy individuals
Abstract: Quantitative sensory tests (QSTs) have been increasingly used to investigate alterations in somatosensory function in a wide range of painful conditions. The interpretation of these findings is based on the assumption that the measures are stable and reproducible. To date, reliability of QST has been investigated for short test-retest intervals. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term reliability of a multimodal QST assessment in healthy people, with testing conducted on 3 occasions over 4 months. Forty-two healthy people were enrolled in the study. Static and dynamic tests were performed, includin...
Source: Pain - June 22, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Hyperalgesic priming (type II) induced by repeated opioid exposure: maintenance mechanisms
In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of type II priming. Opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, induced hyperalgesia in DAMGO-primed paws. When repeatedly injected, naloxone-induced hyperalgesia, and hyperalgesic priming, supporting the suggestion that maintenance of priming involves changes in MOR signaling. However, the knockdown of MOR with oligodeoxynucleotide antisense did not reverse priming. Mitogen-activated protein kinase and focal adhesion kinase, which are involved in the Src signaling pathway, previously implicated in type II priming, also inhibited the expression, but not maint...
Source: Pain - June 22, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Gene-to-gene interactions regulate endogenous pain modulation in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls—antagonistic effects between opioid and serotonin-related genes
In this study, we assessed the effects of 3 functional genetic polymorphisms on EIH in 130 patients with FM and 132 healthy controls. Subjects were genotyped regarding the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene (rs1799971), the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene (5-HTTLPR/rs25531), and the serotonin-1a receptor (5-HT1a) gene (rs6296). The patients with FM had increased pain sensitivity and reduced EIH compared with healthy controls. None of the polymorphisms had an effect on EIH on their own. We found significant gene-to-gene interactions between OPRM1 x 5-HTT and OPRM1 x 5-HT1a regarding activation of EIH, with no statistically ...
Source: Pain - June 22, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Using magnetic resonance imaging to visualize the brain in chronic pain
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - June 22, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: PAIN Pictured Source Type: research

Pain and cancer survival: a cognitive-affective model of symptom appraisal and the uncertain threat of disease recurrence
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - June 22, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Topical Review Source Type: research

Changing pain expectations: the role of social context and communication
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - June 22, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

In memoriam Donald D. Price: 1942 to 2016
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - June 22, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Obituary Source Type: research

Neuropathic pain phenotyping by international consensus (NeuroPPIC) for genetic studies: a NeuPSIG systematic review, Delphi survey, and expert panel recommendations: Erratum.
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Growth hormone regulates the sensitization of developing peripheral nociceptors during cutaneous inflammation: Erratum.
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Reply
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

The effect of nothing? Time to abandon the concept of placebo
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

A conceptual framework for “updating the definition of pain”
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Widespread effects of clinically unilateral focal nerve injuries
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Evaluating the impact of trigeminal neuralgia
Patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) were categorised into 3 subtypes (n = 225). Group 1 (n = 155, 68.9%) had TN without concomitant pain, group 2 (n = 32, 14.2%) had TN with intermittent concomitant pain, and group 3 (n = 39, 16.9%) had TN with autonomic symptoms. We tested 2 hypotheses: (1) that different pain profiles would be associated with the different groups; (2) that the severe pain associated with TN would impact negatively on activities of daily living and thereby result in disability as defined by the World Health Organisation. A different pain profile was found across the groups. We obtained uneq...
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Clinical Note Source Type: research

Nerve injury–induced epigenetic silencing of opioid receptors controlled by DNMT3a in primary afferent neurons
Abstract: Opioids are the gold standard for pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain, but their analgesic effects are unsatisfactory in part due to nerve injury–induced downregulation of opioid receptors in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. How nerve injury drives such downregulation remains elusive. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)-triggered DNA methylation represses gene expression. We show here that blocking the nerve injury–induced increase in DRG DNMT3a (a de novo DNMT) rescued the expression of Oprm1 and Oprk1 mRNAs and their respective encoding mu-opioid receptor (MOR) and kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) p...
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Use of analgesics in young adults as a predictor of health care utilization and pain prevalence: Israel defense forces experience
In this study, we evaluated analgesics consumption patterns of regular Israel Defense Force soldiers. We have performed a historical cohort study of 665,137 young adults during active duty in 2002 to 2012. Analgesics were prescribed to 518,242 (78%) soldiers, mostly for musculoskeletal pain (69.3%), abdominal pain (12.7%), and headache (12.1%). Acute (1-14 days), subacute (15-90), and chronic (>90 days) analgesic use episodes were experienced by 396,987 (59.7%), 74,591 (11.2%), and 46,664 (7%) of the population. In a multivariate model, predictors for chronic analgesics use were as follows: low intelligence, service in ...
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Polysubstance use and misuse or abuse of prescription opioid analgesics: a multi-level analysis of international data
Abstract: Increasing mortality and morbidity associated with opioid analgesics has led to concerns about their misuse and abuse, even when obtained through a prescription. These concerns have been most pronounced in the United States, but limited data make it difficult to determine whether it is a problem in other countries. We investigated opioid analgesic misuse and abuse in participants from the Global Drug Survey 2015 resident in the United States (N = 1334), United Kingdom (N = 1199), France (N = 1258), Germany (N = 866), and Australia (N = 1013) who had used at least 1 prescription opioid analgesic medication in the ...
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

HDAC6 inhibition effectively reverses chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy
Abstract: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common dose-limiting side effects of cancer treatment. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration–approved treatment available. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a microtubule-associated deacetylase whose function includes regulation of α-tubulin–dependent intracellular mitochondrial transport. Here, we examined the effect of HDAC6 inhibition on established cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. We used a novel HDAC6 inhibitor ACY-1083, which shows 260-fold selectivity towards HDAC6 vs other HDACs. Our results show that HDAC...
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Prevalence and incidence of chronic pain with or without neuropathic characteristics in patients with cancer
Abstract: This prospective national multicenter study was carried out to estimate the prevalence and incidence of chronic pain with or without neuropathic characteristics in patients with cancer in France. All consecutive outpatients (n = 1885) seen over 2 weeks for cancer treatment in 12 oncology units were invited to participate in the study, and 1805 were included. Patients underwent a clinical examination during visit 1, and a questionnaire was completed to detect chronic pain (defined as daily pain for at least 3 months), and to characterize its intensity, location, and neuropathic characteristics (ie, DN4 score ≥4...
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Allodynia in cluster headache
Abstract: Cutaneous allodynia is an established marker for central sensitization in migraine. There is debate whether cutaneous allodynia may also occur in cluster headache, another episodic headache disorder. Here, we examined the presence and severity of allodynia in a large well-defined nationwide population of people with cluster headache. Using validated questionnaires we assessed, cross-sectionally, ictal allodynia and comorbid depression and migraine in the nationwide “Leiden University Cluster headache neuro-Analysis” (LUCA) study. Participants with cluster headache were diagnosed according to the Inter...
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Determination of mild, moderate, and severe pain interference in patients with cancer
Abstract: Effective assessment and management of pain in patients with cancer is strengthened by the patient's report of how much pain interferes with daily functioning. This requires a clear delineation of different levels of pain interference. We derived optimal cutpoints for differentiating between mild, moderate, and severe pain interference assessed by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and describe the prevalence and characteristics of pain-induced functional impairment in patients with cancer. Data were pooled across 3 Phase III pivotal trials. Patient-completed questionnaires included the EuroQol 5 dimensions questionn...
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of laser-evoked potentials in diabetic neuropathy
Abstract: Although the most widely agreed neurophysiological tool for investigating small fiber damage is laser-evoked potential (LEP) recording, no study has documented its diagnostic accuracy. In this clinical, neurophysiological, and skin biopsy study, we collected age-corrected LEP normative ranges, verified the association of LEPs with pinprick sensory disturbances in the typical diabetic mixed fiber polyneuropathy, and assessed the sensitivity and specificity of LEPs in diabetic small fiber neuropathy. From 288 LEP recordings from the face, hand, and foot in 73 healthy subjects, we collected age-corrected normative r...
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Pain and pharmacologic pain management in long-stay nursing home residents
This study aimed to provide estimates after the important initiatives of (1) prevalence and correlates of persistent pain; and (2) prevalence and correlates of untreated or undertreated persistent pain. We identified 1,387,405 long-stay residents in U.S. NHs between 2011 and 2012 with 2 Minimum Data Set assessments 90 days apart. Pain was categorized as persistent (pain on both assessments), intermittent (pain on either assessment), or none. Pharmacologic pain management was classified as untreated pain (no scheduled or as needed medications received) or potentially undertreated (no scheduled received). Modified Poisson mo...
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Recommendations for a first Core Outcome Measurement set for complex regional PAin syndrome Clinical sTudies (COMPACT)
Abstract: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a persistent pain condition that remains incompletely understood and challenging to treat. Historically, a wide range of different outcome measures have been used to capture the multidimensional nature of CRPS. This has been a significant limiting factor in the advancement of our understanding of the mechanisms and management of CRPS. In 2013, an international consortium of patients, clinicians, researchers, and industry representatives was established, to develop and agree on a minimum core set of standardised outcome measures for use in future CRPS clinical research, inc...
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Resting-state functional connectivity predicts longitudinal pain symptom change in urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a MAPP network study
In this study, we investigated whether brain functional connectivity measures obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline can predict longitudinal symptom change (3, 6, and 12 months after scan) in urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome. We studied 52 individuals with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (34 women, 18 men) who had baseline neuroimaging followed by symptom tracking every 2 weeks for 1 year as part of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network study. We found that brain functional connectivity can make a significant prediction ...
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Pain interference and physical function demonstrate poor longitudinal association in people living with pain: a PROMIS investigation
Abstract: A primary goal in managing pain is to reduce pain and increase physical function (PF). This goal is also tied to continuing payment for treatment services in many practice guidelines. Pain interference (PI) is often used as a proxy for measurement and reporting of PF in these guidelines. A common assumption is that reductions in PI will translate into improvement in PF over time. This assumption needs to be tested in a clinical environment. Consequently, we used the patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) to describe the topology of the longitudinal relationship between PI in relation to...
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Genome-wide methylation analysis of a large population sample shows neurological pathways involvement in chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain
Abstract: Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP), has a considerable heritable component, which remains to be explained. Epigenetic factors may contribute to and account for some of the heritability estimate. We analysed epigenome-wide methylation using MeDIPseq in whole blood DNA from 1708 monozygotic and dizygotic Caucasian twins having CWP prevalence of 19.9%. Longitudinally stable methylation bins (lsBINs), were established by testing repeated measurements conducted ≥3 years apart, n = 292. DNA methylation variation at lsBINs was tested for association with CWP in a discovery set of 50 monozygotic twin pairs ...
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Lateral inhibition during nociceptive processing
Abstract: Spatial summation of pain (SSP) is the increase of perceived intensity that occurs as the stimulated area increases. Spatial summation of pain is subadditive in that increasing the stimulus area produces a disproportionately small increase in the perceived intensity of pain. A possible explanation for subadditive summation may be that convergent excitatory information is modulated by lateral inhibition. To test the hypothesis that lateral inhibition may limit SSP, we delivered different patterns of noxious thermal stimuli to the abdomens of 15 subjects using a computer-controlled CO2 laser. Lines (5 mm wide) of v...
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Pharmacoepidemiologic analyses of opioid use among OEF/OIF/OND veterans
Abstract: There is a great deal of concern about opioid use in veterans, particularly those who served in Afghanistan (OEF) and Iraq (OIF and OND). The current study provides a detailed pharmacoepidemiologic analysis of opioid use among OEF/OIF/OND veterans from FY09 to FY12. Data from 3 data repositories from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) were used to describe demographic, clinical, and medication characteristics associated with opioid use among OEF/OIF/OND veterans and among those with TBI. Logistic regression models were used to identify risks associated with chronic opioid use in FY12. Approximately 23% of a...
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Psychophysical and psychological predictors of acute pain after breast surgery differ in patients with and without pre-existing chronic pain
Abstract: The prediction of acute postoperative pain would be of great clinical advantage, but results of studies investigating possible predictors are inconsistent. Here, we studied the role of a wide variety of previously suggested predictors in 74 patients undergoing breast surgery. Preoperatively, patients filled out the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) and a set of psychological questionnaires (the Beck Depression Inventory [BDI], State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI], and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS]) and participated in an experimental pain testing session, including assessment of conditioned pain modulation ...
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

A common pronociceptive pain modulation profile typifying subgroups of chronic pelvic pain syndromes is interrelated with enhanced clinical pain
Abstract: Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) and painful bladder syndrome (PBS), subgroups of chronic pelvic pain syndromes (CPPS), are considered to share common biophysiological peripheral mechanisms. In addition, indications of a pronociceptive pain profile coexisting with psychological vulnerability suggest common dysfunctional pain processing and pain modulation in these 2 subgroups of CPPS. We therefore aimed at comparing the pain profile and psychological traits of patients with PVD and PBS to see whether the pain profile contributes to intersubject variability of clinical pain symptoms. Patients with PVD (n = 18) and PB...
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Side effects can enhance treatment response through expectancy effects: an experimental analgesic randomized controlled trial
Abstract: In randomized controlled trials, medication side effects may lead to beliefs that one is receiving the active intervention and enhance active treatment responses, thereby increasing drug–placebo differences. We tested these hypotheses with an experimental double-blind randomized controlled trial of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with and without the addition of atropine to induce side effects. One hundred healthy volunteers were told they would be randomized to either combined analgesics that might produce dry mouth or inert placebos. In reality, they were randomized double blind, double-dummy to 1 o...
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Mechanisms of distraction in acute pain perception and modulation
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: PAIN Pictured Source Type: research

Embodied pain—negotiating the boundaries of possible action
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Topical Review Source Type: research

Pain and respiration: a systematic review
Abstract: Breathing techniques are commonly used to alleviate pain. Despite their frequent use, surprisingly little is known about their efficacy as well as their underlying physiological mechanisms. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize and critically appraise the results of existing studies on the association between respiration and pain, and to highlight a potential physiological mechanism underlying the respiration–pain connection. A total of 31 publications from between 1984 and 2015 were retrieved and analyzed. These articles were classified into 4 groups: experimental and clinical studies of th...
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Comprehensive Review Source Type: research

Embodied pain: grasping a thorny problem?
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - May 24, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Reply
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - April 21, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Supporting the updated definition of pain. But what about labour pain?
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - April 21, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - April 21, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Small fiber neuropathy or small fiber pathology?
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - April 21, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

An updated view on the reliability of different protocols for the assessment of conditioned pain modulation
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - April 21, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research